WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemistry technology exchange

  1. Microscale chemistry technology exchange at Argonne National Laboratory - east.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausma, R.

    1998-06-04

    The Division of Educational Programs (DEP) at Argonne National Laboratory-East interacts with the education community at all levels to improve science and mathematics education and to provide resources to instructors of science and mathematics. DEP conducts a wide range of educational programs and has established an enormous audience of teachers, both in the Chicago area and nationally. DEP has brought microscale chemistry to the attention of this huge audience. This effort has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Environmental Management Operations organization within Argonne. Microscale chemistry is a teaching methodology wherein laboratory chemistry training is provided to students while utilizing very small amounts of reagents and correspondingly small apparatus. The techniques enable a school to reduce significantly the cost of reagents, the cost of waste disposal and the dangers associated with the manipulation of chemicals. The cost reductions are achieved while still providing the students with the hands-on laboratory experience that is vital to students who might choose to pursue careers in the sciences. Many universities and colleges have already begun to switch from macroscale to microscale chemistry in their educational laboratories. The introduction of these techniques at the secondary education level will lead to freshman being better prepared for the type of experimentation that they will encounter in college.

  2. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  3. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  4. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  5. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) Model - Part 2: Application to BEARPEX-2007 observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. M. Wolfe; J. A. Thornton; N. C. Bouvier-Brown; A. H. Goldstein; J.-H. Park; M. McKay; D. M. Matross; J. Mao; W. H. Brune; B. W. LaFranchi; E. C. Browne; K.-E. Min; P. J. Wooldridge; R. C. Cohen; J. D. Crounse; I. C. Faloona; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; J. A. de Gouw; A. Huisman; F. N. Keutsch

    2011-01-01

    In a companion paper, we introduced the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange...

  6. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John

    2017-01-01

    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  7. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The report is the collection of short communications being the review of the scientific activity of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology - Warsaw in 1997. The papers are gathered in several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics; radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general; radiobiology; nuclear technologies and methods. The annual report of INCT-1997 contains also the general information about INCT as well as the full list of scientific papers being published by the staff in 1997

  8. 78 FR 13142 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... determined that the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries...

  9. 77 FR 43131 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... determined that the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries...

  10. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report is a collection of short communications being a review of scientific activity of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT), Warsaw, in 1995. The papers are gathered in several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics (15); radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general (23); radiobiology (7); nuclear technologies and methods (21); nucleonic control systems (5). The Annual Report of INCT - 1995 contains also a general information about the staff and organization of the Institute, the full list of scientific publications and patents, conferences organized by INCT, thesis and list of projects granted by Polish and international organizations.

  11. Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory Hodnik Debra National Ground Intelligence Center Hudson Irwin US Army Research Laboratory Jentsch Florian University of Central Florida...ARL-CR-0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting...0814 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA): Technical Exchange Meeting (TEM) 2015 by

  12. Chemistry of nuclear resources, technology, and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, O.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Chemistry is being called on today to obtain useful results in areas that have been found very difficult for it in the past, but new instrumentation and new theories are allowing much progress. The area of hydrolytic phenomena and colloid chemistry, as exemplified by the plutonium polymer problem, is clearly entering a new phase in which it can be studied in a much more controlled and understandable manner. The same is true of the little studied interfacial regions, where so much important chemistry occurs in solvent extraction and other systems. The studies of the adsorption phenomena on clays are an illustration of the new and useful modeling of geochemical phenomena that is now possible. And finally, the chemist is called upon to participate in the developement and evaluation of models for nuclear waste isolation requiring extrapolations of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years into the future. It is shown that chemistry may be useful in keeping the extrapolations in the shorter time spans, and also in selecting the best materials for containment. 36 figures.

  13. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  14. Platinum metals-solution chemistry and separation methods (ion-exchange and solvent extraction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bazi, S.J.; Chow, A. (Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1984-10-01

    The effects of knowledge of the solution chemistry of the platinum metals on their separation by solvent extraction and ion-exchange methods are reviewed, for the period 1950 to 1983. The review concentrates on the chloro-complexes of these metals and indicates those areas which need more investigation or interpretation to provide adequate separational methods.

  15. Annual report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The report is a collection of short communications being a review of the scientific activities of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw in 1996. The papers are gathered in several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics (17); Radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods,chemistry in general (20); radiobiology (9); nuclear technologies and methods (28).The last and biggest chapter has been divided in four smaller groups; process engineering; material engineering,structural studies,diagnostics; radiation technologies; nucleonic control systems. The annual report of INCT-1996 contains also a general information of Institute, the full list of scientific publications and patents, conferences organized by INCT, Ph.D. and D.Sc. thesis, a list of projects granted by Polish Committee of Scientific Research and other organizations.

  16. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to Facilitate Higher-Level Learning in Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments, and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model...

  17. Handbook of green chemistry and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.; MacQuarrie, D. (eds.)

    2002-05-15

    Sustainable development is now accepted as a necessary goal for achieving societal, economic and environmental objectives. Within this chemistry has a vital role to play. The chemical industry is successful but traditionally success has come at a heavy cost to the environment. The challenge for chemists and others is to develop new products, processes and services that achieve societal, economic and environmental benefits. This requires an approach that reduces the materials and energy intensity of chemical processes and products; minimises the dispersion of harmful chemicals in the environment; maximises the use of renewable resources and extends the durability and recyclability of products in a way that increases industrial competitiveness as well as improve its tarnished image. (author)

  18. Brayton-cycle heat exchanger technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, J. J.; Coombs, M. G.; Graves, R. F.; Morse, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The following five tasks designed to advance this development of heat exchanger systems for close loop Brayton cycle power systems are presented: (1) heat transfer and pressure drop data for a finned tubular heat transfer matrix. The tubes are arranged in a triangular array with copper stainless steel laminate strips helically wound on the tubes to form a disk fin geometry; (2) the development of a modularized waste heat exchanger. Means to provide verified double containment are described; (3) the design, fabrication, and test of compact plate fin heat exchangers representative of full scale Brayton cycle recuperators; (4) the analysis and design of bellows suitable for operation at 1600 F and 200 psia for 1,000 cycles and 50,000 hours creep life; and (5) screening tests used to select a low cost braze alloy with the desirable attributes of a gold base alloy. A total of 22 different alloys were investigated; the final selection was Nicrobraz 30.

  19. Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This annual report is a collection of short communications being a review of scientific activity of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, Poland in 1994. The papers are gathered into several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics (16 papers); radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general (17 papers); radiobiology (6 papers); nuclear technologies and methods (30 papers). The annual report of INCT-1994 contains also a general information about the Institute, the full list of papers published in 1994, information about Nukleonika - the International Journal of Nuclear Research being edited in INCT, the list of patent granted and patent applications in 1994, information about conferences organized by the Institute, the list of Ph.D. and D.Sc. finished in 1994 as well as the list of research projects and contracts being realized in INCT during 1994.

  20. Implications of WWW technologies for exchanging medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Dixon

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some of the implications for medical record exchange of very recent developments in technology and tools that support the World Wide Web. It argues that XML (Extensible Mark-up Language is a very good enabling technology for medical record exchange. XML provides a much cheaper way of executing the exchange of medical information that circumvents the need for proprietary software. Use of XML can also simplify solutions to the problems associated with coping with the evolution of medical systems in time. However XML on its own does not resolve all the semantic heterogeneities.

  1. Reaction chemistry and ligand exchange at cadmium selenide nanocrystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan; Park, Jungwon; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-12-02

    Chemical modification of nanocrystal surfaces is fundamentally important to their assembly, their implementation in biology and medicine, and greatly impacts their electrical and optical properties. However, it remains a major challenge owing to a lack of analytical tools to directly determine nanoparticle surface structure. Early nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (1) and tri-n-octylphosphine (2), suggested these coordinating solvents are datively bound to the particle surface. However, assigning the broad NMR resonances of surface-bound ligands is complicated by significant concentrations of phosphorus-containing impurities in commercial sources of 1, and XPS provides only limited information about the nature of the phosphorus containing molecules in the sample. More recent reports have shown the surface ligands of CdSe nanocrystals prepared in technical grade 1, and in the presence of alkylphosphonic acids, include phosphonic and phosphinic acids. These studies do not, however, distinguish whether these ligands are bound datively, as neutral, L-type ligands, or by X-type interaction of an anionic phosphonate/phosphinate moiety with a surface Cd{sup 2+} ion. Answering this question would help clarify why ligand exchange with such particles does not proceed generally as expected based on a L-type ligand model. By using reagents with reactive silicon-chalcogen and silicon-chlorine bonds to cleave the ligands from the nanocrystal surface, we show that our CdSe and CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystal surfaces are likely terminated by X-type binding of alkylphosphonate ligands to a layer of Cd{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} ions, rather than by dative interactions. Further, we provide spectroscopic evidence that 1 and 2 are not coordinated to our purified nanocrystals.

  2. Anticipating Technological Change: Combinatorial Chemistry and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to speculate, or suggest, how combinatorial chemistry may influence the environment and environmental policy...Technological change is frequently identified as a primary determinant of how human activities affect the environment and human health. Yet policy makers often

  3. The Technology Roadmapping Method and Its Usage in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marta Vasconcelos Loureiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology roadmapping is a widely used technique in the industry for the development of long term planning strategies, making it possible to align market, product and technology over time. This article offers a brief review of this tool, covering the definitions of the terms technology roadmap and technology roadmapping, the types and formats of roadmaps, the structure of roadmaps, the processes of operation/adaptation of roadmapping, challenges and the key successful factors in implementing the roadmapping and its usage. Finally, an overview of public domain roadmaps is given, with special highlight to the ones related to Chemistry.

  4. Site selective syntheses of [(3)H]omeprazole using hydrogen isotope exchange chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Scott R; Schenk, David J

    2015-01-01

    Omeprazole (Prilosec®) is a selective and irreversible proton pump inhibitor used to treat various medical conditions related to the production of excess stomach acids. It functions by suppressing secretion of those acids. Radiolabeled compounds are commonly employed in the drug discovery and development process to support efforts including library screening, target identification, receptor binding, assay development and validation and safety assessment. Herein, we describe synthetic approaches to the controlled and selective labeling of omeprazole with tritium via hydrogen isotope exchange chemistry. The chemistry may also be used to prepare tritium labeled esomeprazole (Nexium®), the active pure (S)-enantiomer of omeprazole. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Citrus fruits--varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part 2 of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, oraganic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals, and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma have been reviewed. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and

  6. Progress in the medicinal chemistry of silicon: C/Si exchange and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    Application of silyl functionalities is one of the most promising strategies among various 'elements chemistry' approaches for the development of novel and distinctive drug candidates. Replacement of one or more carbon atoms of various biologically active compounds with silicon (so-called sila-substitution) has been intensively studied for decades, and is often effective for alteration of activity profile and improvement of metabolic profile. In addition to simple C/Si exchange, several novel approaches for utilizing silicon in medicinal chemistry have been suggested in recent years, focusing on the intrinsic differences between silicon and carbon. Sila-substitution offers great potential for enlarging the chemical space of medicinal chemistry, and provides many options for structural development of drug candidates.

  7. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. CAFE utilizes the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and is the first model of its kind to incorporate a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.

  8. Non-aqueous electrolyte solutions in chemistry and modern technology

    OpenAIRE

    Barthel, Josef; Gores, H.-J.; Schmeer, Georg; Wachter, R.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a brief survey is given of the properties of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions and their applications in chemistry and technology without going into the details of theory. Specific solvent-solute interactions and the role of the solvent beyond its function as a homogenous isotropic medium are stressed. Taking into account Parker's statement1) ldquoScientists nowadays are under increasing pressure to consider the relevance of their research, and rightly sordquo we have included e...

  9. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Flavio; Parisi, Giovanna; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  10. Contribution of microreactor technology and flow chemistry to the development of green and sustainable synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fanelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microreactor technology and flow chemistry could play an important role in the development of green and sustainable synthetic processes. In this review, some recent relevant examples in the field of flash chemistry, catalysis, hazardous chemistry and continuous flow processing are described. Selected examples highlight the role that flow chemistry could play in the near future for a sustainable development.

  11. Technology transfer personnel exchange at the Boeing Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of the exchange was to transfer Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) technology and expertise in advanced ceramic fabric composites (ACFC) to the Boeing Defense Space Group (Boeing Aerospace). Boeing Aerospace was especially interested in applying PNL-developed ACFC technology to its current and future spacecraft and space missions. Boeing has on-going independent research and development (R D) programs on advanced radiators and heat pipes, therefore, PNL research in ceramic fabric heat pipes was of particular interest to Boeing. Thus, this exchange assisted in the transfer of PNL's ACFC heat pipe technology and other, related research capabilities to private industrial application. The project was proposed as an initial step in building a long-term collaborative relationship between Boeing and PNL that may result in future Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) and/or other types of collaborative efforts.

  12. Technology transfer personnel exchange at the Boeing Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of the exchange was to transfer Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) technology and expertise in advanced ceramic fabric composites (ACFC) to the Boeing Defense & Space Group (Boeing Aerospace). Boeing Aerospace was especially interested in applying PNL-developed ACFC technology to its current and future spacecraft and space missions. Boeing has on-going independent research and development (R&D) programs on advanced radiators and heat pipes, therefore, PNL research in ceramic fabric heat pipes was of particular interest to Boeing. Thus, this exchange assisted in the transfer of PNL`s ACFC heat pipe technology and other, related research capabilities to private industrial application. The project was proposed as an initial step in building a long-term collaborative relationship between Boeing and PNL that may result in future Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) and/or other types of collaborative efforts.

  13. Technology management information exchange (TEMINEX). Applied technology assessment for HMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K; Reinhard, J; Koller, C F; Curtin, K; Marine, E J

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to obtain timely, comprehensive and valid information, The HMO Group medical directors have pooled resources to facilitate decision-making on the appropriate use of new or unfamiliar technologies. The HMO Group has responded to over 175 requests for information on topics such as organ transplants, testing and screening procedures, drugs and devices.

  14. Plasma enhanced C1 chemistry for green technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    Plasma catalysis is one of the innovative next generation green technologies that meet the needs for energy and materials conservation as well as environmental protection. Non-thermal plasma uniquely generates reactive species independently of reaction temperature, and these species are used to initiate chemical reactions at unexpectedly lower temperatures than normal thermochemical reactions. Non-thermal plasma thus broadens the operation window of existing chemical conversion processes, and ultimately allows modification of the process parameters to minimize energy and material consumption. We have been specifically focusing on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as one of the viable non-thermal plasma sources for practical fuel reforming. In the presentation, room temperature one-step conversion of methane to methanol and hydrogen using a miniaturized DBD reactor (microplasma reactor) is highlighted. The practical impact of plasma technology on existing C1-chemistry is introduced, and then unique characteristics of plasma fuel reforming such as non-equilibrium product distribution is discussed.

  15. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL, LEGAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karasev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses organizational and legal aspects of electronic health information exchange in developed countries, particularly, introduction of electronic medical records in the United States and Europe, as well as topical issues related to standardization of information technologies in health care. We briefly describe the most popular standards used in e-medicine, such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, openEHR and HL7. The questions of syntactic and semantic interoperability in the exchange of electronic medical records and some aspects of the digital signature use are also considered. We suggest mechanisms for implementation of electronic document management and sharing of digital medical information, as one of the most important directions of information technologies in health care. It is noted that today, the main limiting factor in providing the digital exchange of health information in Russian Federation is unresolved legal issues, i.e. the absence of a legal framework of electronic medical records share. At the same time, the level of IT development in our country is quite sufficient to meet current challenges. It is stated that, despite the unresolved number of problems (for example, completeness of medical data on a patient, given to relatives in critical situations, the adoption of a single electronic card is able to bring medical care to a new level, especially in emergency and urgent medicine.

  17. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  18. A Green's-Function Approach to Exchange Spin Coupling As a New Tool for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Torben; Tasche, Jos; Lichtenstein, Alexander I; Herrmann, Carmen

    2015-12-08

    Exchange spin coupling is usually evaluated in quantum chemistry from the energy difference between a high-spin determinant and a Broken-Symmetry (BS) determinant in combination with Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), based on the work of Noodleman. As an alternative, an efficient approximate approach relying on Green's functions has been developed by one of the authors. This approach stems from solid-state physics and has never been systematically tested for molecular systems. We rederive a version of the Green's-function approach originally suggested by Han, Ozaki, and Yu. This new derivation employs local projection operators as common in quantum chemistry for defining local properties such as partial charges, rather than using a dual basis as in the Han-Ozaki-Yu approach. The result is a simple postprocessing procedure for KS-DFT calculations, which in contrast to the BS energy-difference approach requires the electronic structure of only one spin state. We show for several representative small molecules, diradicals, and dinuclear transition metal complexes that this method gives qualitatively consistent results with the BS energy-difference approach as long as it is applied to high-spin determinants and as long as structural relaxation effects in different spin states do not play an important role.

  19. Click Chemistry Finds Its Way in Constructing an Ionic Highway in Anion-Exchange Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Ran, Jin; Miao, Jibin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2015-12-30

    To find the way to construct an ionic highway in anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), a series of side-chain-type alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) polymer backbones were synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting triazole groups and quaternary ammonium (QA) groups facilitate the formation of a continuous hydrogen bond network, which will lead to high hydroxide conductivity according to Grotthuss-type mechanism. Microphase separation induced by long alkyl side chains contributes at the same time to further improving the hydroxide conductivity of the resultant AEMs. Hydroxide conductivity as high as 52.8 mS/cm is obtained for membrane TA-14C-1.21 (IEC = 1.21 mmol/g) with the longest pendant chain at 30 °C, and the conductivity can be increased to 140 mS/cm when the temperature was increased to 80 °C. Moreover, the corresponding water uptake is only 8.6 wt % at 30 °C. In the meantime, the membrane properties can be tuned by precisely regulating the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio in the cationic head groups. Compared with AEMs containing triazole and quaternized trimethylammonium head groups, enhanced dimensional stability and mechanical properties are obtained by tuning side-chain chemistry. However, the alkaline stability of the membrane is not as stable as anticipated, probably because of the existence of the triazole ring. Further study will be focused on increasing the alkali stability of the membrane. We envisage that the side-chain-type APEs meditated by click chemistry bearing long hydrophobic side chains pendant to the cationic head groups hold promise as a novel AEMs material.

  20. The surface chemistry of rutile in technologically relevant environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anqi

    The surface science of titanium dioxide, TiO2, has attracted great amount of attention due to its high profile applications. This dissertation shows the development of well-controlled rutile (110) surfaces that provide a platform for studying the chemical and photochemical reactivity of rutile in technologically relevant environments, including air and solutions. Near-perfect rutile (110) surfaces characterized by atomically flat terraces and straight steps were produced using basic peroxide solutions. The reaction produced straight steps with a different orientation, different structure, and different reactivity from those prepared in ultrahigh vacuum. The morphology was explained by a site-specific model of rutile (110) etching based on metal oxo coordination chemistry. This work shows that one of the important roles of peroxo ligands in etching and growth reactions is to destabilize neighboring bonds and increase their lability. The peroxo ligands add a degree of reversibility to the growth reaction, leading to the formation of well-ordered crystals. In addition, this near-perfect rutile (110) surface is an ideal starting point for studying surface chemistry of rutile in technologically relevant environments. Under ambient conditions atmospheric CO2 reacted with adsorbed H2O and produced a self-assembled monolayer of HCO 3 on rutile (110) surfaces. The monolayer was formed on the near-perfect rutile surfaces prepared by basic peroxide etching, indicating that surface defects, such as Ti interstitials and O vacancies, were not required. DFT calculations suggested that the nanoscale water film adsorbed on the surface solvated the adsorbates and changed the reaction energetics. The HCO 3 monolayer was very stable, even in vacuum, which was a result of the strong bidentate bonding of HCO3. The formation of the strongly bound bicarbonate monolayer suggests that HCO3, instead of CO 2, plays a key role in the photoreduction of CO2. A high-quality, self

  1. The Effects of Combinatorial Chemistry and Technologies on Drug Discovery and Biotechnology – a Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneci Pierfausto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The review will focus on the aspects of combinatorial chemistry and technologies that are more relevant in the modern pharmaceutical process. An historical, critical introduction is followed by three chapters, dealing with the use of combinatorial chemistry/high throughput synthesis in medicinal chemistry; the rational design of combinatorial libraries using computer-assisted combinatorial drug design; and the use of combinatorial technologies in biotechnology. The impact of “combinatorial thinking” in drug discovery in general, and in the examples reported in details, is critically discussed. Finally, an expert opinion on current and future trends in combinatorial chemistry and combinatorial technologies is provided.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  3. Investigation of Condensing Ice Heat Exchangers for MTSA Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian; Powers, Aaron; Ball, Tyler; Lacomini, Christie; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal, carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). Metabolically-produced CO2 present in the ventilation gas of a PLSS is collected using a CO2-selective adsorbent via temperature swing adsorption. The temperature swing is initiated through cooling to well below metabolic temperatures. Cooling is achieved with a sublimation heat exchanger using water or liquid carbon dioxide (L CO2) expanded below sublimation temperature when exposed to low pressure or vacuum. Subsequent super heated vapor, as well as additional coolant, is used to further cool the astronaut. The temperature swing on the adsorbent is then completed by warming the adsorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. The water condensation from the ventilation gas represents a significant source of potential energy for the warming of the adsorbent bed as it represents as much as half of the energy potential in the moist ventilation gas. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the adsorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210K to 280K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously.

  4. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  5. People's Republic of China in the International Technology Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Igorevich Salitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the current state of the S&T in China in the context of its historical development and national policy in the sphere. The evaluation of the Chinese scientific and technological potential is based on some indicators of foreign trade as well as patent activity - in international comparisons. The trends in Chinese S&T sector and its role in the international technology transfers are viewed in the context of internationalization of the global economy. Today’s globally recognized achievements of China in trade in technology-intensive goods and services are based on a long history of rational state policy in acquisition and diffusion of foreign technology and expertise. This policy have resulted in the build-up of S&T system - which is already remarkably productive and keeps growing. One important and specific feature of China’s role in international exchange of high-tech goods and knowledge-intensive services is a growing self-capacity, and a lowering dependence on foreign sources (in relative terms.

  6. Information Retrieval and Text Mining Technologies for Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Lourenço, Anália; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2017-06-28

    Efficient access to chemical information contained in scientific literature, patents, technical reports, or the web is a pressing need shared by researchers and patent attorneys from different chemical disciplines. Retrieval of important chemical information in most cases starts with finding relevant documents for a particular chemical compound or family. Targeted retrieval of chemical documents is closely connected to the automatic recognition of chemical entities in the text, which commonly involves the extraction of the entire list of chemicals mentioned in a document, including any associated information. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth description of fundamental concepts, technical implementations, and current technologies for meeting these information demands. A strong focus is placed on community challenges addressing systems performance, more particularly CHEMDNER and CHEMDNER patents tasks of BioCreative IV and V, respectively. Considering the growing interest in the construction of automatically annotated chemical knowledge bases that integrate chemical information and biological data, cheminformatics approaches for mapping the extracted chemical names into chemical structures and their subsequent annotation together with text mining applications for linking chemistry with biological information are also presented. Finally, future trends and current challenges are highlighted as a roadmap proposal for research in this emerging field.

  7. Effects of `Environmental Chemistry' Elective Course Via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of `environmental chemistry' elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) levels. Within one group pre-test-post-test design, the study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68 females and 49 males—aged 21-23 years) enrolled in an `environmental chemistry' elective course in the spring semester of 2011-2012 academic-years. Instruments for data collection comprised of Environmental Chemistry Conceptual Understanding Questionnaire, TPACK survey, and Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire. Significant increases in the SSSTs' conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and TPACK levels are attributed to the SSSTs learning how to use the innovative technologies in the contexts of the `environmental chemistry' elective course and teaching practicum. The study implies that the TESI model may serve a useful purpose in experimental science courses that use the innovative technologies. However, to generalize feasibility of the TESI model, it should be evaluated with SSSTs in diverse learning contexts.

  8. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  9. On Study of Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry Course in Applied Chemical Industry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-11-01

    with the implementation of new curriculum reform, the education sees great changes in teaching methods. Teaching reform is profound in organic chemistry course in applied chemical industry technology. However, many problems which have never been noticed before occur when reform programs are implemented which harm students’ ability for learning and enthusiasm in side face. This paper proposes reform measures like combining theory and practice, improving professional quality, supplementing professional needs and integrating teaching into life after analyzing organic chemistry course teaching in applied chemical industry technology currently, hoping to play a role of reference for organic chemistry course teaching reform in applied chemical industry technology.

  10. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  11. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H.; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic), and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS) with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance. PMID:28773978

  12. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  13. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 2: Application to BEARPEX-2007 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In a companion paper, we introduced the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. Here, we apply CAFE to noontime observations from the 2007 Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX-2007. In this work we evaluate the CAFE modeling approach, demonstrate the significance of in-canopy chemistry for forest-atmosphere exchange and identify key shortcomings in the current understanding of intra-canopy processes.

    CAFE generally reproduces BEARPEX-2007 observations but requires an enhanced radical recycling mechanism to overcome a factor of 6 underestimate of hydroxyl (OH concentrations observed during a warm (~29 °C period. Modeled fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (APN are quite sensitive to gradients in chemical production and loss, demonstrating that chemistry may perturb forest-atmosphere exchange even when the chemical timescale is long relative to the canopy mixing timescale. The model underestimates peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN fluxes by 50% and the exchange velocity by nearly a factor of three under warmer conditions, suggesting that near-surface APN sinks are underestimated relative to the sources. Nitric acid typically dominates gross dry N deposition at this site, though other reactive nitrogen (NOy species can comprise up to 28% of the N deposition budget under cooler conditions. Upward NO2 fluxes cause the net above-canopy NOy flux to be ~30% lower than the gross depositional flux. CAFE under-predicts ozone fluxes and exchange velocities by ~20%. Large uncertainty in the parameterization of cuticular and ground deposition precludes conclusive attribution of non-stomatal fluxes to chemistry or surface uptake. Model-measurement comparisons of vertical concentration gradients for several emitted species suggests that the lower canopy airspace may be

  14. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of "greenness" i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market.

  15. Development of Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Boz, Yezdan; Sonmez, Demet Yildiran; Celep, Nilgun Demirci

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a mixed-method design was employed to investigate pre-service chemistry teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) development. For effective technology integration in instruction, knowledge about technology is not enough; teachers should have different knowledge types which are content, pedagogical, and…

  16. Effects of '"Environmental Chemistry" Elective Course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of "environmental chemistry" elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  17. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

  18. Learning How to Teach Chemistry with Technology: Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences with Integrating Technology into Their Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Government initiative, Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF), was a targeted response to improve the preparation of future teachers with integrating technology into their practice. This paper reports on TTF research involving 28 preservice teachers undertaking a chemistry curriculum studies unit that adopted a technological focus.…

  19. Staff exchange with Spokane Intercollegiate Research and Technology Institute (SIRTI), final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    Staff exchanges, such as the one described in this report, are intended to facilitate communication and collaboration among scientists and engineers at Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, in U.S. industry, and academia. Funding support for these exchanges is provided by the DOE, Office of Energy Research, Laboratory Technology Transfer Program. Funding levels for each exchange typically range from $20,000 to $40,000. The exchanges offer the opportunity for the laboratories to transfer technology and expertise to industry, gain a perspective on industry`s problems, and develop the basis for further cooperative efforts through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAS) or other mechanisms.

  20. Incorporating Service-Learning, Technology, and Research Supportive Teaching Techniques into the University Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, E. K. H.; Bowdon, M. A.; Geiger, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Technology was integrated into service-learning activities to create an interactive teaching method for undergraduate students at a large research institution. Chemistry students at the University of Central Florida partnered with high school students at Crooms Academy of Information Technology in interactive service learning projects. The…

  1. Chemistry of Stable Carbenes and «Green» Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh, N.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brief analysis of fundamental research in the chemistry of stable carbenes and applications in the field of «green» chemistry on their basis carried out at the L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic & Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine over the last decade is given. Carbene versions of ester Claisen condensation to form zwitterionic compounds, the Leuckart-Wallach reaction with the autoreduction of carbenoid azolium salts, Hofmann cleavage of aminocarbene insertion products, an induced tandem autotransformation of 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidenes into 5-amidino-1,2,4-triazoles were found. New carbene reactions of ad dition, deesterification, oxidation and complexation were revealed. Effective methods of obtaining stable carbenes and carbenoids were suggested. New types of carbenes, namely benzimidazolylidenes, superstable conjugated biscarbenes and new types of carbenoids were synthesized. The existence of hypernucleophilic carbenes was theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. The prospects of the use of carbenes and their derivatives, in particular, carbene complexes of transition metals in catalysis of organic reactions and the search of biologically active compounds were shown.

  2. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  3. Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest expression. It provides structures endowed with properties and develops processes for the synthesis of structures. It plays a primordial role in our understanding of material phe- nomena, in our capability to act upon them, to modify them, to.

  4. Ginger--chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1982-01-01

    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns, and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physico-chemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-fingerprints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, and correlation of instrumental and sensory data, are discussed and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research are needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of the components stimulating flavor; and structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  5. Ginger-chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1982-01-01

    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement, and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show the prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physicochemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards, can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-finger prints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, correlation of instrumental and sensory data are discussed, and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research is needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of components stimulating flavor; structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  6. United States-Israel Exchange Teachers, Technologies to Benefit Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Don

    1988-01-01

    Describes an exchange program through which Israeli children learned a peer-tutoring system that improved reading, spelling, and math skills of children in Kansas City, Kansas, while a therapist in the Kansas City area learned a new behavior management technique from an Israeli professor. (BB)

  7. NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY IN STUDY OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dadyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of neural network analysis of the effect of significant factors on the quotation of the exchange rate on the example of the formation of the dollar in terms of «the turbulence of the economy» in Russia.

  8. International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu sokushin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-11

    The International Symposium for the Promotion of APEC Environmental Technology Exchange was held under the theme `The function and role expected of the APEC Virtual Center,` with the objectives of clarifying the need for future intra-regional environmental technological exchange, defining the types of information and personnel exchange, and promoting the use of interactive character of the APEC Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange by encouraging access to and participation in the Virtual Center project. It was held in the period of 11th and 12th, November in 1996, at the venue of Rinku International Convention Center in Osaka. The symposium was attended by 477 persons from nine countries, i.e., Australia, Canada, China, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Thailand, the US, and Japan, comprising staff members of intra-regional environment-related organizations. After the keynote speech, `Current status and tasks of environmental technology exchange`, and `Expected roles of the Virtual Center for Environmental Technology Exchange` were discussed. During the plenary session, the chairman summarized the symposium. This summary was carried on the Virtual Center homepage of the Internet

  9. Using Technology for Accessible Chemistry Homework for High School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Sears, Margaret E.; Evmenova, Anya S.; Johnson, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    High school students with and without learning disabilities in two chemistry classes accessed technologically-enhanced worksheets, called Pencasts, when completing homework assignments. In this action research study, feedback from students was gathered via questionnaires and interviews. Students most frequently used Pencasts to figure out how to…

  10. Enabling Chemistry Technologies and Parallel Synthesis-Accelerators of Drug Discovery Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, A; Bogdan, A R; Koolman, H F; Wang, Y; Djuric, S W

    There is a pressing need to improve overall productivity in the pharmaceutical industry. Judicious investments in chemistry technologies can have a significant impact on cycle times, cost of goods and probability of technical success. This perspective describes some of these technologies developed and implemented at AbbVie, and their applications to the synthesis of novel scaffolds and to parallel synthesis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  12. Description of emission control using fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, G.J.; Grogan, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    Environmental effects of fluidized-bed, waste-heat recovery technology are identified. The report focuses on a particular configuration of fluidized-bed, heat-exchange technology for a hypothetical industrial application. The application is a lead smelter where a fluidized-bed, waste-heat boiler (FBWHB) is used to control environmental pollutants and to produce steam for process use. Basic thermodynamic and kinetic information for the major sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and NO/sub x/ removal processes is presented and their application to fluidized-bed, waste heat recovery technology is discussed. Particulate control in fluidized-bed heat exchangers is also discussed.

  13. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  14. Use of communication technologies in document exchange for the management of construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesároš Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies represent a set of people, processes, technical and software tools providing collection, transport, storage and processing of data for distribution and presentation of information. Particularly communication systems are the main tool for information exchange. Of the other part, these technologies have a broad focus and use. One of them is the exchange of documents in the management of construction projects. Paper discusses the issue of exploitation level of communication technologies in construction project management. The main objective of this paper is to analyze exploitation level of communication technologies. Another aim of the paper is to compare exploitation level or rate of document exchange by electronic communication devices and face-to-face communication.

  15. Usage and applications of Semantic Web techniques and technologies to support chemistry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkum, Mark I; Frey, Jeremy G

    2014-01-01

    The drug discovery process is now highly dependent on the management, curation and integration of large amounts of potentially useful data. Semantics are necessary in order to interpret the information and derive knowledge. Advances in recent years have mitigated concerns that the lack of robust, usable tools has inhibited the adoption of methodologies based on semantics. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THREE EXAMPLES OF HOW SEMANTIC WEB TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT CHEMISTRY RESEARCH: a controlled vocabulary for quantities, units and symbols in physical chemistry; a controlled vocabulary for the classification and labelling of chemical substances and mixtures; and, a database of chemical identifiers. This paper also presents a Web-based service that uses the datasets in order to assist with the completion of risk assessment forms, along with a discussion of the legal implications and value-proposition for the use of such a service. We have introduced the Semantic Web concepts, technologies, and methodologies that can be used to support chemistry research, and have demonstrated the application of those techniques in three areas very relevant to modern chemistry research, generating three new datasets that we offer as exemplars of an extensible portfolio of advanced data integration facilities. We have thereby established the importance of Semantic Web techniques and technologies for meeting Wild's fourth "grand challenge".

  16. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols.

  17. Experiments probing the influence of air exchange rates on secondary organic aerosols derived from indoor chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Shields, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    of their particle size distributions. The experiments were performed in a manipulated office setting containing a constant source of d-limonene and an ozone generator that was remotely turned "on" or "off" at 6h intervals. The particle number concentrations were monitored using an optical particle counter...... in these studies, at an air exchange rate of 1.6h $+-1$/ particle number concentration in the 0.1-0.2$mu@m size-range peaked 1.2h after the ozone generator was switched on. In the ensuing 4.8h particle counts increased in successive size-ranges up to the 0.5-0.7$mu@m diameter range. At higher air exchange rates......Reactions between ozone and terpenes have been shown to increase the concentrations of submicron particles in indoor settings. The present study was designed to examine the influence of air exchange rates on the concentrations of these secondary organic aerosols as well as on the evolution...

  18. Inkjet printing for biosensor fabrication: combining chemistry and technology for advanced manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Rossignol, Fabrice; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-06-21

    Inkjet printing is emerging at the forefront of biosensor fabrication technologies. Parallel advances in both ink chemistry and printers have led to a biosensor manufacturing approach that is simple, rapid, flexible, high resolution, low cost, efficient for mass production, and extends the capabilities of devices beyond other manufacturing technologies. Here we review for the first time the factors behind successful inkjet biosensor fabrication, including printers, inks, patterning methods, and matrix types. We discuss technical considerations that are important when moving beyond theoretical knowledge to practical implementation. We also highlight significant advances in biosensor functionality that have been realised through inkjet printing. Finally, we consider future possibilities for biosensors enabled by this novel combination of chemistry and technology.

  19. History of establishment of scientific technology law focused on exchanges of Korea, China and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeong Hui

    1990-10-15

    This book introduces science and technology promotion related law, industrial technology related law, resources and energy related law, nuclear energy related law, information and communication related law, intellectual property right related law, and environment related law. It explains process of development of 7 laws in threes countries and relations of three countries exchanges. It also covers special law for science and technology innovation, electric utility law, petroleum enterprise law, telecommunication related law, law of settlement of digital divide, and information-oriented law.

  20. A distributed framework for health information exchange using smartphone technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnabi, Mohamed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil

    2017-05-01

    Nationwide health information exchange (NHIE) continues to be a persistent concern for government agencies, despite the many efforts and the conceived benefits of sharing patient data among healthcare providers. Difficulties in ensuring global connectivity, interoperability, and concerns on security have always hampered the government from successfully deploying NHIE. By looking at NHIE from a fresh perspective and bearing in mind the pervasiveness and power of modern mobile platforms, this paper proposes a new approach to NHIE that builds on the notion of consumer-mediated HIE, albeit without the focus on central health record banks. With the growing acceptance of smartphones as reliable, indispensable, and most personal devices, we suggest to leverage the concept of mobile personal health records (PHRs installed on smartphones) to the next level. We envision mPHRs that take the form of distributed storage units for health information, under the full control and direct possession of patients, who can have ready access to their personal data whenever needed. However, for the actual exchange of data with health information systems managed by healthcare providers, the latter have to be interoperable with patient-carried mPHRs. Computer industry has long ago solved a similar problem of interoperability between peripheral devices and operating systems. We borrow from that solution the idea of providing special interfaces between mPHRs and provider systems. This interface enables the two entities to communicate with no change to either end. The design and operation of the proposed approach is explained. Additional pointers on potential implementations are provided, and issues that pertain to any solution to implement NHIE are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the Technological Parameters of the Heat Exchanger in the Heating Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knyazev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the selecting of technological parameters for the heat exchanger to improve the heat transfer and reduce the noise during operation in the heating pipe, which is used in the different systems of the planes and helicopters. In result of this study, the best technical parameters are found, considering different variations of deformation cutting heat exchanger pipes.

  2. Physics and chemistry of antimicrobial behavior of ion-exchanged silver in glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, N F; Senaratne, W; Wei, Y; Petzold, O

    2015-02-04

    The results of a comprehensive study involving the antimicrobial activity in a silver ion-exchanged glass are presented. The study includes the glass composition, the method of incorporating silver into the glass, the effective concentration of the silver available at the glass surface, and the effect of the ambient environment. A quantitative kinetic model that includes the above factors in predicting the antimicrobial activity is proposed. Finally, experimental data demonstrating antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with correlation to the predicted model is shown.

  3. Reach-scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    McMurdo dry valleys of Antarctica represent the largest of the ice-free areas on the Antarctic continent, containing glaciers, meltwater streams, and closed basin lakes. Previous geochemical studies of dry valley streams and lakes have addressed chemical weathering reactions of hyporheic substrate and geochemical evolution of dry valley surface waters. We examine cation transport and exchange reactions during a stream tracer experiment in a dry valley glacial meltwater stream. The injection solution was composed of dissolved Li+, Na+, K+, and Cl-. Chloride behaved conservatively in this stream, but Li+, Na+, and K+ were reactive to varying degrees. Mass balance analysis indicates that relative to Cl-, Li+ and K+ were taken up in downstream transport and Na+ was released. Simulations of conservative and reactive (first-order uptake or generation) solute transport were made with the OTIS (one-dimensional solute transport with inflow and storage) model. Among the four experimental reaches of Green Creek, solute transport simulations reveal that Li+ was removed from stream water in all four reaches, K+ was released in two reaches, taken up in one reach, and Na+ was released in all four reaches. Hyporheic sediments appear to be variable with uptake of Li+ in two reaches, uptake of K+ in one reach, release of K+ in two reaches, and uptake of Na+ in one reach. Mass balances of the conservative and reactive simulations show that from 1.05 to 2.19 moles of Li+ was adsorbed per reach, but less than 0.3 moles of K+ and less than 0.9 moles of Na+ were released per reach. This suggests that either (1) exchange of another ion which was not analyzed in this experiment or (2) that both ion exchange and sorption control inorganic solute transport. The elevated cation concentrations introduced during the experiment are typical of initial flows in each flow season, which flush accumulated dry salts from the streambed. We propose that the bed sediments (which compose the hyporheic

  4. Identity Orientation, Social Exchange, and Information Technology Use in Interorganizational Collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Lyytinen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information technologies (IT) are creating unprecedented opportunities for interorganizational collaboration, particularly in large-scale distributed projects. The use of advanced IT in such projects can foster new forms of social exchange among organizations and change the way...... organizations view themselves in the context of their relationships. Despite a wealth of research on IT use, social exchange, and organizational identity, little is known about how new IT and the enactment of related IT affordances within interorganizational contexts enable social exchanges and organizational...... identity orientations. To address this gap, we conduct multiple case studies that describe the changing use of two-dimensional computer-aided design technology and new three-dimensional modeling technologies by a leading metal fabrication company in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry...

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  6. Simulacra, Symbolic Exchange and Technology in Michel Tournier's La Goutte d'Or

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Price

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available In La Goutte d'Or , Michel Tournier offers a critique of Western culture by constructing a novel that reflects both Jean Baudrillard's theories of simulacra and the political economy of the sign and Martin Heidegger's meditations on technology. Tournier's novel explores the relationship between Heidegger's explanation of technology as an act of Enframing ( Ge-stell and Baudrillard's description of an economy based upon exchange-sign value. Thus, through La Goutte d 'Or , Michel Tournier depicts the violent confrontation between a symbolic exchange economy based on poietic acts and late capitalist economies of autonomized signs.

  7. Incorporating Service-Learning, Technology, and Research Supportive Teaching Techniques into the University Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, E. K. H.; Bowdon, M. A.; Geiger, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Technology was integrated into service-learning activities to create an interactive teaching method for undergraduate students at a large research institution. Chemistry students at the University of Central Florida partnered with high school students at Crooms Academy of Information Technology in interactive service learning projects. The projects allowed UCF students to teach newly acquired content knowledge and build upon course lecture and lab exercises. Activities utilized the web-conferencing tool Adobe Connect Pro to enable interaction with high school students, many of whom have limited access to supplemental educational opportunities due to low socioeconomic status. Seventy chemistry I students created lessons to clarify high school students' misconceptions through the use of refutational texts. In addition, 21 UCF students enrolled in the chemistry II laboratory course acted as virtual lab partners with Crooms students in an interactive guided inquiry experiment focused on chemical kinetics. An overview of project's design, implementation, and assessments are detailed in the case study and serve as a model for future community partnerships. Emerging technologies are emphasized as well as a suggested set of best practices for future projects.

  8. CO2 conversion by plasma technology: insights from modeling the plasma chemistry and plasma reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, A.; Berthelot, A.; Heijkers, S.; Kolev, St.; Snoeckx, R.; Sun, S.; Trenchev, G.; Van Laer, K.; Wang, W.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of plasma technology for CO2 conversion. To improve this application, a good insight into the underlying mechanisms is of great importance. This can be obtained from modeling the detailed plasma chemistry in order to understand the chemical reaction pathways leading to CO2 conversion (either in pure form or mixed with another gas). Moreover, in practice, several plasma reactor types are being investigated for CO2 conversion, so in addition it is essential to be able to model these reactor geometries so that their design can be improved, and the most energy efficient CO2 conversion can be achieved. Modeling the detailed plasma chemistry of CO2 conversion in complex reactors is, however, very time-consuming. This problem can be overcome by using a combination of two different types of model: 0D chemical reaction kinetics models are very suitable for describing the detailed plasma chemistry, while the characteristic features of different reactor geometries can be studied by 2D or 3D fluid models. In the first instance the latter can be developed in argon or helium with a simple chemistry to limit the calculation time; however, the ultimate aim is to implement the more complex CO2 chemistry in these models. In the present paper, examples will be given of both the 0D plasma chemistry models and the 2D and 3D fluid models for the most common plasma reactors used for CO2 conversion in order to emphasize the complementarity of both approaches. Furthermore, based on the modeling insights, the paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of plasma-based CO2 conversion in different types of plasma reactors, as well as what is needed to make further progress in this field.

  9. Using digital technologies to enhance chemistry students' understanding and representational skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette

    representations to make explanations on the molecular level. Student interviews and classroom video-recordings suggested that using digital resources to create multimodal texts promoted knowledge transformation and hence deeper reflection on the meaning of data and representations. The study has implications...... and reported on two laboratory based inquiry tasks using digital technologies. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests, student texts and interviews and classroom video-recording. Content analysis of student texts indicated that students were able to generate new knowledge and use multiple...... for inquiry learning and using digital technologies to enhance students’ understanding of chemistry on multiple levels....

  10. Aeronautical Satellite-Assisted Process for Information Exchange Through Network Technologies (Aero-SAPIENT) Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernic, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Broadband satellite communications for aeronautics marries communication and network technologies to address NASA's goals in information technology base research and development, thereby serving the safety and capacity needs of the National Airspace System. This marriage of technology increases the interactivity between airborne vehicles and ground systems. It improves decision-making and efficiency, reduces operation costs, and improves the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System. To this end, a collaborative project called the Aeronautical Satellite Assisted Process for Information Exchange through Network Technologies, or Aero-SAPIENT, was conducted out of Tinker AFB, Oklahoma, during November and December 2000.

  11. Advanced Heat/Mass Exchanger Technology for Geothermal and Solar Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Childress, Amy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hiibel, Sage [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Kim, Kwang [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Park, Chanwoo [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Wirtz, Richard [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Northern Nevada has abundant geothermal and solar energy resources, and these renewable energy sources provide an ample opportunity to produce economically viable power. Heat/mass exchangers are essential components to any energy conversion system. Improvements in the heat/mass exchange process will lead to smaller, less costly (more efficient) systems. There is an emerging heat transfer technology, based on micro/nano/molecular-scale surface science that can be applied to heat/mass exchanger design. The objective is to develop and characterize unique coating materials, surface configurations and membranes capable of accommodating a 10-fold increase in heat/mass exchanger performance via phase change processes (boiling, condensation, etc.) and single phase convective heat/mass transfer.

  12. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  13. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Lin Lai; Li-Chih Chang; Tai-Hwa Liu; Yi-Chun Sung; Cheng-Lun Yin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs) of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs), coupling cable lines (CCLs), and small radiation patches (SRPs). The RFID sensing system ...

  14. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part III. Chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    The spice capsicum, the fruits of the genus Capsicum (Family Solanaceae), is a very popular food additive in many parts of the world, valued for the important sensory attributes of color, pungency, and aroma. A large number of varieties are widely cultivated and traded. The characteristic carotenoids of the bright red paprika and cayenne-type chillies, the high character impact aroma stimuli, the methoxy pyrazine of green bell capsicum, the esters of ripe tabasco and the highly potent pungency stimuli, and the capsaicinoids of African and other Asian varieties of chillies, have been of great interest to chemists and biochemists. Research workers in other disciplines such as genetics and breeding, agriculture, and technology have been interested in this spice to develop new varieties with combinations of different optimal levels of the stimuli for the sensory attributes and to maximize production of storable products for specific end uses. Physiologists have been intensely studying the action of the highly potent pungency stimuli and social psychologists the curious aspect of growing acceptance and preference for the initially unacceptable pungency sensation. In the sequential review of all these aspects of the fruit spice Capsicum, the earlier two parts covered history, botany, cultivation and primary processing, and processed products, standards, world production, and trade. In Part III, the chemistry, the compositional variations, synthesis and biosynthesis of the functional components, the carotenoids, the volatiles, and the capsaicinoids are comprehensively reviewed.

  15. Frameworks and technologies for exchanging and sharing product life cycle knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, B.; Gielingh, W.; Dankwort, W.; Anderl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Frameworks and technologies for exchanging and sharing product life cycle knowledge (PLK) are discussed. A life cycle-centric knowledge management approach with stakeholders-in-the-loop allows for a life-long evaluation of the instantaneous performance and the consequential decision making about the

  16. U.S. EPA honors San Francisco Bay Area firm Hybrid Coating Technologies with Green Chemistry Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Hybrid Coating Technologies of Daly City, Calif. with a Presidential Green Chemistry Award for developing a safer, plant-based polyurethane for use on floors, furniture and in

  17. The impact of technological improvements on developing financial markets: The case of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet F. Dicle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Can a significant technological improvement make an economically justifiable contribution to a financial market's development? The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE incorporated the SETS system from the London Stock Exchange in 2002. It is certain that SETS is a technologically efficient trading system, and it would undoubtedly improve trading in the JSE. We test whether SETS represents a structural break by examining whether there was an increase in the JSE's liquidity, market efficiency and international integration after the introduction of SETS. While SETS is certainly a technological improvement with increased liquidity, it is not a sufficient factor to render it efficient. After the incorporation of SETS, the JSE has become more independent and it now offers better diversification opportunities for international investors.

  18. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei

    2015-02-01

    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  19. Textbook on food chemistry and food technology. Vol. 2. Taschenbuch fuer Lebensmittelchemiker und -technologen. Bd. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osteroth, D. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany) Fachhochschule Lippe, Lemgo (Germany)) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The textbook presents the basic material and knowledge required in the food industry, relating to food technology and food chemistry, and to the legal aspects of food processing. Apart from information on specific analytical methods, which are discussed in detail, information is given other means and approaches for a comprehensive evaluation of food quality, as e.g. sensory evaluation, statistics, microbiology, dietetics, toxicology. There is one chapter dealing with the available methods of food preservation by physical treatment, as e.g. by food irradiation. (VT) With 159 figs.

  20. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  1. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS: model description and application to a temperate deciduous forest canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Saylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopies are primary emission sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and have the potential to significantly influence the formation and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA mass. Biogenically-derived SOA formed as a result of emissions from the widespread forests across the globe may affect air quality in populated areas, degrade atmospheric visibility, and affect climate through direct and indirect forcings. In an effort to better understand the formation of SOA mass from forest emissions, a 1-D column model of the multiphase physical and chemical processes occurring within and just above a vegetative canopy is being developed. An initial, gas-phase-only version of this model, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS, includes processes accounting for the emission of BVOCs from the canopy, turbulent vertical transport within and above the canopy and throughout the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL, near-explicit representation of chemical transformations, mixing with the background atmosphere and bi-directional exchange between the atmosphere and canopy and the atmosphere and forest floor. The model formulation of ACCESS is described in detail and results are presented for an initial application of the modeling system to Walker Branch Watershed, an isoprene-emission-dominated forest canopy in the southeastern United States which has been the focal point for previous chemical and micrometeorological studies. Model results of isoprene profiles and fluxes are found to be consistent with previous measurements made at the simulated site and with other measurements made in and above mixed deciduous forests in the southeastern United States. Sensitivity experiments are presented which explore how canopy concentrations and fluxes of gas-phase precursors of SOA are affected by background anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx. Results from these experiments suggest that the

  2. Nanoinformatics: an emerging area of information technology at the intersection of bioinformatics, computational chemistry and nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Nilo, Fernando; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; Guínez-Molinos, Sergio; Geraldo, Daniela A; Sandoval, Claudia; Yévenes, Alejandro; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe; Mendoza, Hegaly; Cachau, Raúl E

    2011-01-01

    After the progress made during the genomics era, bioinformatics was tasked with supporting the flow of information generated by nanobiotechnology efforts. This challenge requires adapting classical bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools to store, standardize, analyze, and visualize nanobiotechnological information. Thus, old and new bioinformatic and computational chemistry tools have been merged into a new sub-discipline: nanoinformatics. This review takes a second look at the development of this new and exciting area as seen from the perspective of the evolution of nanobiotechnology applied to the life sciences. The knowledge obtained at the nano-scale level implies answers to new questions and the development of new concepts in different fields. The rapid convergence of technologies around nanobiotechnologies has spun off collaborative networks and web platforms created for sharing and discussing the knowledge generated in nanobiotechnology. The implementation of new database schemes suitable for storage, processing and integrating physical, chemical, and biological properties of nanoparticles will be a key element in achieving the promises in this convergent field. In this work, we will review some applications of nanobiotechnology to life sciences in generating new requirements for diverse scientific fields, such as bioinformatics and computational chemistry.

  3. Synthetic biology and biomimetic chemistry as converging technologies fostering a new generation of smart biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya D; Litescu, Simona C; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-12-15

    Biosensors are powerful tunable systems able to switch between an ON/OFF status in response to an external stimulus. This extraordinary property could be engineered by adopting synthetic biology or biomimetic chemistry to obtain tailor-made biosensors having the desired requirements of robustness, sensitivity and detection range. Recent advances in both disciplines, in fact, allow to re-design the configuration of the sensing elements - either by modifying toggle switches and gene networks, or by producing synthetic entities mimicking key properties of natural molecules. The present review considered the role of synthetic biology in sustaining biosensor technology, reporting examples from the literature and reflecting on the features that make it a useful tool for designing and constructing engineered biological systems for sensing application. Besides, a section dedicated to bioinspired synthetic molecules as powerful tools to enhance biosensor potential is reported, and treated as an extension of the concept of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules. Thus, the design of synthetic molecules, such as aptamers, biomimetics, molecular imprinting polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and ribozymes were encompassed as "products" of biomimetic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Water-Chemistry Evolution and Modeling of Radionuclide Sorption and Cation Exchange during Inundation of Frenchman Flat Playa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald; Cablk, Mary; LeFebre, Karen; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Decker, David

    2013-08-01

    dioxide and calcite; dissolution of sodium chloride, gypsum, and composite volcanic glass; and precipitation of composite clay and quartz represented changes in water as it disappeared from the playa. This modeling provided an understanding of the water-soil geochemical environment, which was then used to evaluate the potential mobility of residual radionuclides into the playa soils by water. Because there is no information on the chemical forms of anthropogenic radionuclides in Frenchman Flat playa soil, it was assumed that soil radionuclides go into solution when the playa is inundated. In mobility modeling, a select group of radionuclides were allowed to sorb onto, or exchange with, playa soil minerals to evaluate the likelihood that the radionuclides would be removed from water during playa inundation. Radionuclide mobility modeling suggested that there would be minimal sorption or exchange of several important radionuclides (uranium, cesium, and technetium) with playa minerals such that they may be mobile in water when the playa is inundated and could infiltrate into the subsurface. Mobility modeling also showed that plutonium may be much less mobile because of sorption onto calcite, but the amount of reactive surface area of playa soil calcite is highly uncertain. Plutonium is also known to sorb onto colloidal particles suspended in water, suspended colloidal particles will move with the water, providing a mechanism to redistribute plutonium when Frenchman Flat playa is inundated. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, and geochemical modeling showed that residual radionuclides in Frenchman Flat playa soils could be mobilized in water when the playa is inundated with precipitation. Also, there is potential for these radionuclides to infiltrate into the subsurface with water. As a result of the information obtained both during this study and the conclusions drawn from it, additional data collection, investigation, and modeling are recommended. Specifically: sampling the

  5. Sharing the Dragon’s Teeth: Terrorist Groups and the Exchange of New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Israel. Chapter Five assesses the 2001 arrest of three PIRA militants in southwest Colom - bia and the exchange of technology and knowledge, especially...nature, scope, and attendant threat potential of regional Muslim extremism. It is in this context that Joseph Mussomeli, the U.S. Embassy chargé...wanted to successfully implement urban terrorism against the Colom - bian government.41 One can assume from its decision to look outside the

  6. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  7. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  8. Joint research and development and exchange of technology on toxic material emergency response between LLNL and ENEA. 1985 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Caracciolo, R.

    1986-01-31

    For the past six years, the US Department of Energy, LLNL, and the ENEA, Rome, Italy, have participated in cooperative studies for improving a systems approach to an emergency response following nuclear accidents. Technology exchange between LLNL and the ENEA was initially confined to the development, application, and evaluation of atmospheric transport and diffusion models. With the emergence of compatible hardware configurations between LLNL and ENEA, exchanges of technology and ideas for improving the development and implementation of systems are beginning to emerge. This report describes cooperative work that has occurred during the past three years, the present state of each system, and recommendations for future exchanges of technology.

  9. A pedagogical shift from direct instruction: Technology-assisted inquiry learning (TAIL) in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Rena Zhihong

    The purpose of this study was to develop a student-centered Technology-Assisted Inquiry Learning (TAIL) pedagogical approach and compare it with the traditional, teacher-centered, direct instruction approach in a chemistry classroom. The study investigated how the TAIL approach affected community college chemistry students' (n = 21) learning gains and perceptions during a 1.5-hour intervention when compared with the direct instruction approach. A mixed methodology was used that included both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Results led to the following three key findings for novice learners: (a) TAIL had a statistically significant effect on students' procedural application skills improvement when compared with direct instruction; (b) The magnitude of the between-group difference (Cohen's d = 1.41) indicated that TAIL had a cumulative effect on students' learning gains due to its ability to incorporate multiple components including Inquiry, Guidance, Technology, and Collaboration; (c) When combining measures of students' performance and perceived mental effort, TAIL demonstrated high-instructional efficiency with a significant difference in teaching factual knowledge and procedural applications when compared with direct instruction. In summary, the outcome of this study demonstrated both the effectiveness and efficiency of the TAIL approach as a student-centered pedagogy in teaching a basic scientific topic. This study provided a practical demonstration of the pedagogical shift in teaching science from teacher-centered direct instruction to student-centered learning by using computer software as a pedagogical agent. The results of the study contribute to the literature in the fields of guided inquiry learning pedagogy and technology-assisted science teaching.

  10. An Experience of the Transfer of Appropriate Technology from Fiji to Kenya; The 1987 ISIS-WICCE Exchange Programme on Women and Appropriate Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolabola, Cema

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the 1987 exchange program "Women and Appropriate Technology." The program concentrated on appropriate technology in relation to rural women. She also describes a pilot appropriate technology project carried out in Kenya that involved the construction of three community buildings (a laundry and two bathrooms). (CH)

  11. Development and analysis of educational technologies for a blended organic chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael James

    Blended courses incorporate elements of both face-to-face and online instruction. The extent to which blended courses are conducted online, and the proper role of the online components of blended courses, have been debated and may vary. What can be said in general, however, is that online tools for blended courses are typically culled together from a variety of sources, are often very large scale, and may present distractions for students that decrease their utility as teaching tools. Furthermore, large-scale educational technologies may not be amenable to rigorous, detailed study, limiting evaluation of their effectiveness. Small-scale educational technologies run from the instructor's own server have the potential to mitigate many of these issues. Such tools give the instructor or researcher direct access to all available data, facilitating detailed analysis of student use. Code modification is simple and rapid if errors arise, since code is stored where the instructor can easily access it. Finally, the design of a small-scale tool can target a very specific application. With these ideas in mind, this work describes several projects aimed at exploring the use of small-scale, web-based software in a blended organic chemistry course. A number of activities were developed and evaluated using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains survey, and data from the activities were analyzed using quantitative methods of statistics and social network analysis methods. Findings from this work suggest that small-scale educational technologies provide significant learning benefits for students of organic chemistry---with the important caveat that instructors must offer appropriate levels of technical and pedagogical support for students. Most notably, students reported significant learning gains from activities that included collaborative learning supported by novel online tools. For the particular context of organic chemistry, which has a unique semantic language (Lewis

  12. Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts: Innovations, Advantages, and Future Potential in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Robert; Thomas, John Meurig

    The advantages that flow from the availability of single-site heterogeneous catalysts are many. They facilitate the determination of the kinetics and mechanism of catalytic turnover and render accessible the energetics of various intermediates. More importantly, it is possible to prepare soluble molecular fragments that circumscribe the single site, thus enabling a direct comparison to be made between the catalytic performance of the same active site when functioning as a heterogeneous or a homogeneous catalyst. Our approach adopts the principles and practices of solid-state chemistry, augmented by lessons derived from enzymology, as well as computational chemistry. We have succeeded in designing a range of new catalysts to effect, inter alia, shape-selective, regioselective, bifunctional, and enantioselective catalytic conversions. In particular, large fractions of these catalysts are ideally suited for the era of clean technology in which single-step and/or solvent-free processes abound, and in which benign oxidants such as air or oxygen and inexpensive nanoporous materials are employed.

  13. Green Chemistry Technology and Product Development. Final Report for Intermediary Biochemicals, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J. Gregory [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics

    2010-08-28

    The DOE funds in this award were applied to developing systems to cost effectively produce intermediate (1 dollar$-$1,000 dollars per kg) and fine ($1,000 per kg) chemicals from renewable feedstocks using environmentally responsible processes via collaboration with academic research laboratories to provide targeted technology and early product development. Specifically, development of a thermostable alkaline phosphatase overexpression system to provide supplies and reagents for improved biological test kits, creation of a microbial strain for the efficient production of aspartate from glucose (replacing oil-derived fumarate in aspartate production), and early development research for an electrochemical bioreactor for the conversion of glucose to mannitol were targeted by this research. Also, establishing this positive academic/industrial collaboration with Michigan State University Laboratories and fostering greater inter-laboratory collaboration would also support the strategy of efficiently transitioning academic green chemistry research into the commercial sector and open an avenue to low cost early product development coupled with scientific training.

  14. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  15. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  16. The nature of science and technology for pre-service chemistry teacher: A case of techno-chemistry experiment "From Stannum Metalicum to conductive glass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, A.; Widhiyanti, T.; Hernani, Arifin, M.; Lestari, A. N.; Jauhariansyah, S.

    2017-08-01

    The study was conducted to address the problems related to low Indonesian students' scientific literacy as revealed in the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) since 2000-2015. Science teachers (e.g. chemistry teacher) must recognize the nature of science (NOS) to assist their students in preparing an explanation of a phenomenon scientifically correctly. Teachers also need to understand critically about nature of technology (NOT) and it relationship with science as well as society. To integrate those two kinds of knowledge (NOS and NOT), we can conduct a techno-science activity, which integrate the technology to science course in pre-service teacher education program, so that they can improve their knowledge about nature of science and technology (NOST) and pedagogical content knowledge related to NOST. The purpose of this study was to construct an inquiry based laboratory activity worksheet for making conductive glass so that the pre-service teacher could explain how the structure of the semiconductor Fluor doped Tin Oxide (SnO2.F) affect their performance. This study we conducted, described how to design a pre-service chemistry teacher education course that can improve recognizing view of NOST by using a framework called model of educational reconstruction (MER). The scientific activities in the course were guided inquiry based techno-chemistry experiments involving "From Stannum Metallicum to Conductive Glass". Conductive glasses are interesting subject research for several reason. The application of this technology could be found on solar cell, OLED, and display panel. The doped Tin dioxide has been deposited on glass substrate using the spray pyrolysis technique at 400-550°C substrate temperature, 4-5 times, 20 cm gap between glass and sprayer and 450 angle to form a thin film which will act as electrical contact. The resistivity is about 0.5 - 15Ω. The product resulted on this study was rated by several expert to find if the worksheet could

  17. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  18. Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in Chemistry at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Suleman, Qaiser; ud Din, M. Naseer; Shafique, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigated the effects of information and communication technology on the students' academic achievement and retention in chemistry. Fifty students of 9th grade were selected randomly from Kohsar Public School and College Latamber Karak. The students were grouped into equivalent groups based on pretest score. In order to…

  19. The Effects of a Chemistry Course with Integrated Information Communication Technologies on University Students' Learning and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, King-Dow

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the instructional effects of using animations, static figures, PowerPoint bulletins, and e-plus software as chemistry texts with the aid of computer-based technology. This study analyzed the characteristics of students involved in three multimedia courses and their achievement and attitude toward chemistry…

  20. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  1. The use of conferencing technologies to support drug policy group knowledge exchange processes: an action case approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Kushniruk, Andre; Maclure, Malcolm; Carleton, Bruce; Cloutier-Fisher, Denise

    2011-04-01

    To describe experiences, lessons and the implications related to the use of conferencing technology to support three drug policy research groups within a three-year period, using the action case research method. An action case research field study was executed. Three different drug policy groups participated: research, educator, and decision-maker task groups. There were a total of 61 participants in the study. The study was conducted between 2004 and 2007. Each group used audio-teleconferencing, web-conferencing or both to support their knowledge exchange activities. Data were collected over three years and consisted of observation notes, interviews, and meeting transcripts. Content analysis was used to analyze the data using NIVIO qualitative data analysis software. The study found six key lessons regarding the impact of conferencing technologies on knowledge exchange within drug policy groups. We found that 1) groups adapt to technology to facilitate group communication, 2) web-conferencing communication is optimal under certain conditions, 3) audio conferencing is convenient, 4) web-conferencing forces group interactions to be "within text", 5) facilitation contributes to successful knowledge exchange, and 6) technology impacts information sharing. This study highlights lessons related to the use of conferencing technologies to support distant knowledge exchange within drug policy groups. Key lessons from this study can be used by drug policy groups to support successful knowledge exchange activities using conferencing technologies. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Candidates for Air-to-Air and Air-to-Ground Data Exchange is a two-year research effort to visualize the U. S. aviation industry at a point 50 years in the future, and to define potential communication solutions to meet those future data exchange needs. The research team, led by XCELAR, was tasked with identifying future National Airspace System (NAS) scenarios, determining requirements and functions (including gaps), investigating technical and business issues for air, ground, & air-to-ground interactions, and reporting on the results. The project was conducted under technical direction from NASA and in collaboration with XCELAR's partner, National Institute of Aerospace, and NASA technical representatives. Parallel efforts were initiated to define the information exchange functional needs of the future NAS, and specific communication link technologies to potentially serve those needs. Those efforts converged with the mapping of each identified future NAS function to potential enabling communication solutions; those solutions were then compared with, and ranked relative to, each other on a technical basis in a structured analysis process. The technical solutions emerging from that process were then assessed from a business case perspective to determine their viability from a real-world adoption and deployment standpoint. The results of that analysis produced a proposed set of future solutions and most promising candidate technologies. Gap analyses were conducted at two points in the process, the first examining technical factors, and the second as part of the business case analysis. In each case, no gaps or unmet needs were identified in applying the solutions evaluated to the requirements identified. The future communication solutions identified in the research comprise both specific link technologies and two enabling technologies that apply to most or all specific links. As a result, the research resulted in a new analysis approach, viewing the

  3. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The effects of a technology-driven science application on postsecondary chemistry student achievement and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Darrell Scott

    The purpose of this study was to establish if distinction exists in both student achievement and self-efficacy through the application of technology-based instructional approach in the laboratory environment of undergraduate chemistry courses. The achievement of 52 college students in the southeastern region of the United States was measured through one posttest assessment. Following this assessment, students were examined through a self-efficacy scale to determine preexisting thoughts of working in an undergraduate chemistry laboratory environment, as well as peer interaction. Accordingly, three separate college chemistry I courses were used to generate data via a nonequivalent control group design. From the three courses, one class was labeled as the treatment group, while the two remaining classes were collectively labeled as the control group. The treatment group was made up of 22 participants, while the control group was comprised of 30 participants. Students in both the control and treatment groups completed the same laboratory experiments; however, the control group used traditional methods for conducting the laboratory experiments while the treatment group implemented a technology-based approach. To measure achievement, data was gathered through the administration of the Conceptual Problems Gases Test (CPGT). Self-efficacy was measured through the College Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CCSS). Results from both instruments were shown through independent samples t-tests; furthermore, as reflected by p values, the technology-driven application did not have a statistically significant difference on student achievement.

  5. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2018-02-28

    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Iodine catalysis: A green alternative to transition metals in organic chemistry and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekhman S. Yusubov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine and compounds of iodine in higher oxidation states have emerged as versatile and environmentally benign reagents for organic chemistry. One of the most impressive recent achievements in this area has been the discovery of catalytic activity of iodine in numerous oxidative transformations leading to the formation of new CO, CN, and CC bonds in organic compounds. These catalytic transformations in many cases are very similar to the transition metal-catalyzed reactions, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. Iodine is an environmentally friendly and a relatively inexpensive element, which is currently underutilized in industrial applications. One of the main goals of this review is presenting to industrial researchers the benefits of using catalytic iodine in chemical technology as an environmentally sustainable alternative to transition metals. The present review summarizes catalytic applications of iodine and compounds of iodine in organic synthesis. The material is organized according to the nature of active catalytic species (hypoiodite, trivalent, or pentavalent hypervalent iodine species generated in these reactions from appropriate pre-catalysts. Numerous synthetic procedures based on iodine(III or iodine(V catalytic species in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Oxone, peroxyacids or other stoichiometric oxidants are summarized. A detailed discussion of catalytic cycles involving hypervalent iodine, hypoiodites, and other active intermediates is presented.

  7. Application of Radiation Chemistry to Some Selected Technological Issues Related to the Development of Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Skotnicki, Konrad; Szreder, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields. The knowledge of these parameters is essential since they serve as input data to the models of water radiolysis in the primary loop of light water reactors and super critical water reactors. Selected features of water radiolysis in heterogeneous systems, such as aqueous nanoparticle suspensions and slurries, ceramic oxides surfaces, nanoporous, and cement-based materials, are discussed. They are of particular concern in the primary cooling loops in nuclear reactors and long-term storage of nuclear waste in geological repositories. This also includes radiation-induced processes related to corrosion of cladding materials and copper-coated iron canisters, dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, and changes of bentonite clays properties. Radiation-induced processes affecting stability of solvents and solvent extraction ligands as well oxidation states of actinide metal ions during recycling of the spent nuclear fuel are also briefly summarized.

  8. Capsicum production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part 1: History, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1985-01-01

    The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) was known to ancient cultures and was more recently historically associated with the discovery of the New World. This genus provides many species and varieties used in flavoring foods popular in the cuisines of many parts of the world. From the pungent chilli to the colorful paprika and the bell pepper, with its remarkable aroma, the genus is of great interest for its chemistry, sensory attributes, and physiological action. The Capsicums, among the spices, are second only to black pepper in trade both in volume and value. The production of the different pungency forms, the processed seasonings, and the concentrated oleoresins, through technologically advanced processes and in specified standard grades, are critically reviewed. The pungency of Capsicum fruits, its evaluation, chemical structure relationship, its increasing acceptance and preference by a variety of populations are of great research interest. The wide traditional use in the growing regions and its intense physiological effects have attracted the attention of researchers of many different disciplines. These aspects are reviewed in four sequential parts. Part I deals with history, botany, cultivation, and primary processing.

  9. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  10. The strategic use of standardized information exchange technology in a university health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lai, Feipei; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2010-04-01

    This article illustrates a Web-based health information system that is comprised of specific information exchange standards related to health information for healthcare services in National Taiwan University Health System. Through multidisciplinary teamwork, medical and informatics experts collaborated and studied on system scope definition, standard selection challenges, system implementation barriers, system management outcomes, and further expandability of other systems. After user requirement analysis and prototyping, from 2005 to 2008, an online clinical decision support system with multiple functions of reminding and information push was implemented. It was to replace its original legacy systems and serve among the main hospital and three branches of 180-200 clinics and 7,500-8,000 patient visits per day. To evaluate the effectiveness of this system, user surveys were performed, which revealed that the average score of user satisfaction increased from 2.80 to 3.18 on a 4-point scale. Among the items, especially e-learning for training service, courtesy communications for system requests, and courtesy communications for system operations showed statistically significant improvement. From this study, the authors concluded that standardized information exchange technologies can be used to create a brand new enterprise value and steadily obtain more competitive advantages for a prestige healthcare system.

  11. Knowledge exchange in the CREATE project - Colour Research for European Advanced Technology Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The presentation will review a four-year European funded project CREATE (Colour Research for European Advanced Technology Employment), which was established in 2006. The group came together to promote and exchange research and knowledge through a series of conferences and training courses to researchers working in Europe who were in the early stages of their career. The long-term objective was to address a broad range of themes in colour and to develop with artists, designers, technologists and scientists a cross disciplinary approach to improving colour communication and education and to provide a forum for dialogue between different fields. Now at the end of the funding programme, this paper will highlight some of the key milestones of the project. Moreover, having completed a supplementary workshop event in October 2010, researchers considered new themes for the future.

  12. Values exchange: using online technology to raise awareness of values and ethics in radiography education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Inerney, John; Lees, Amanda

    2018-02-01

    Ethics and values are increasingly significant aspects of patient-centred healthcare. While it is widely agreed that ethics and values are essential for healthcare delivery, there is also an acknowledgement that these are areas that are challenging to teach. The purpose of this study is to report a small-scale evaluative research project of a web-based technology with the educational potential to facilitate learning in relation to ethics, values, self-reflection and peer-based learning. Five diagnostic radiography students took part in a semi-structured focus group with the aim of exploring their experiences of using Values Exchange, an online ethical decision-making framework, to examine practice-based ethical issues. Transcripts were interrogated for key themes. From the thematic analysis three major themes emerged, understanding and appreciating others, addressing the theory-practice gap and delivering a safe and effective learning environment. Perceived limitations of the platform included students' fear of misinterpreted responses and possibility of poor group dynamics. There are varied approaches to how ethics and values are taught and assessed within health-related environments. Values Exchange is one such teaching tool and has been investigated and described positively by radiography students in this study. Online teaching tools can have a positive effect in helping students identify their own values but require skilled implementation to reap positive rewards. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  13. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Study on possibility of research exchanges; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo seika hokokusho. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the study on possibility of research exchanges, conducted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in FY 2000. For development of thin-film catalysts, HTE, a venture developing combinatorial chemistry application to catalysts, is a potential partner for the exchanges. One of the technical problems involved in underground sequestration of CO2 relates to evaluation of the reactions between CO2 injected under pressure and the surrounding rocks. It is a less site-specific theme, and preferably pursued through international networks. The RITE delegates have visited the British Geological Survey, Canada's Alberta Research Council, and US's Pennsylvania State University, Rice University and Chevron Petroleum, finding research exchange possibilities in all of these organizations for broad technical themes related to underground sequestration of CO2. For energy conversion technologies using biomass resources as the source materials, the potential partners for the research exchanges include Swedish Royal Institute of Technology, Belgium's Catholic University of Louvain and Spain's University of Zaragona which leads researches in production of gases from wastes and biomass. (NEDO)

  14. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  16. Recent progress in exchange membranes. ; Present status of ion-exchange membrane technology. Ion kokanmaku no aratana tenkai. ; Ion kokanmaku no atarashii tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seno, M. (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology)

    1993-11-20

    A discrimination function of ion charge, the ion-exchange membrane shows, originates in the high fixed charge density, the ion-exchange membrane has. A progress of the membrane manufacturing technology is remarkable and therefore, while the membrane in an initial stage of development had in an order of a thickness of 0.25mm, and a resistance of 5-10S[sup -1]cm[sup 2] (25[degree]C, in 0.5M NaCl), the membrane currently with a thickness of 0.11-0.15mm, and a resistance of 1.2-2.0S[sup -1]cm[sup 2] occupies a main current. However, when it is thought that a proportion, the support part of membrane Vp occupies, reaches to 70%, and the liquid phase part Vs is less than 30%, and moreover in a degree of 30% of it is non effective part located outside the donnan membrane, a further progress from now on is still expected. The ion-exchange membranes are mainly used as a diaphragm for the electrodialysis and electrolytic process. An appearance of the chemically extremely stable perfluorocarbon system membrane makes the various new technological development possible in the salt electrolysis, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis, piezodialysis through charge mosaic membrane, water splitting through bipolar membrane and so forth. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Analysis and Structuring of the Causes Impeding the Introduction of Advanced Technologies for Exchange Grain Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnychenko Olena V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main causes impeding the development and introduction of advanced technologies for grain trading on commodity exchanges in Ukraine have been identified and structured. The generalization of existing shortcomings in operation of the domestic commodity exchanges has served the basis for the model, within which there were built: a directed graph of correlations between the above mentioned shortcomings in the operation of exchanges, the matrix of dependency and reachability. The causes have been identified and structured, the main ones being determined, which, in turn, makes it possible to carry out the correct sequence of actions and emphasize the primary issues requiring priority solutions at making management decisions in order to promote the grain exchange market. The suggested approach clearly shows the correlation between the existing causes and sequence of their elimination.

  18. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  19. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unertl, Kim M; Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient-provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed.

  20. Newly available technologies present expanding opportunities for scientific and technical information exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolzman, Jean M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration points to a future where workstations with audio and video monitors and screen-sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors all over the world will produce data streams that will be brought together and analyzed to produce new findings, which in turn can be distributed electronically. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to electronically and interactively exchange information in a wide range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve-perhaps a truly worldwide 'invisible college'.

  1. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  2. Perceptions of the effects of clicker technology on student learning and engagement: a study of freshmen Chemistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenepher Lennox Terrion

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While technology – in the form of laptops and cellphones – may be the cause of much of the distraction in university and college classrooms, some, including the personal or classroom response system (PRS/CRS or clicker, also present pedagogical opportunities to enhance student engagement. The current study explored the reactions of students to clicker implementation in a large, introductory chemistry class. During the final class of the semester, 200 students in an introductory chemistry class responded to an attitudinal and informational student survey using both Likert-type and non-Likert type questions to evaluate their perception of the implementation of the clickers and their impact on student learning and engagement. The results demonstrated that, when implemented effectively, clickers contribute to greater student engagement and, ultimately, an opportunity for professors to enact best practices in higher education pedagogy. This study points to the importance of effective pedagogy in making clickers worthwhile.

  3. The impact of technology on chemistry students' construction of meaning from a laboratory investigation of Boyle's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigeman, Sally Ann

    2000-10-01

    In the rush to implement technology in the science classroom, rarely does the classroom teacher have time to question whether a new methodology is better than the one it replaces. The purpose of this experimental study (N = 187) was to determine the effect that substituting a data-collecting sensor in a chemistry investigation had on students' construction of meaning about the relationship between the pressure and volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature and ambient conditions (Boyle's law). A pretest was administered to students before the beginning of the Chemistry I course at a large urban high school. The twelve chemistry sections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. In one group, students generated and collected Boyle's law data using a glass syringe and lead weights. In the two experimental groups, students generated and collected Boyle's law data using one of two different technology systems---the Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) system by Texas Instruments or the Scientific Workshop system by PASCO. Each system used similar pressure sensors but different display devices. Posttest I was administered one week after the experiment to measure changes in student knowledge resulting from the Boyle's law laboratory. Posttest II was administered three weeks later to measure retention and any changes in knowledge resulting from a formal gas laws lecture. A multiple regression analysis of student scores on the test instruments and their grade-equivalent scores from the Iowa Tests of Educational Development (TTED) Science, Quantitative Thinking, and Reading-Vocabulary subtests showed consistent correlation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that no significant differences existed between the Traditional and Technology groups in their representation of the pressure-volume relationship from their laboratory experience, F (2, 184) = .44, p < .05. Time, however, was a factor in student performance on the Posttest I instrument

  4. Film/chemistry selection for the earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ ground data handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the methods of choose the duplication film and chemistry currently used in the NASA-ERTS Ground Data Handling System. The major ERTS photographic duplication goals are given as background information to justify the specifications for the desirable film/chemistry combination. Once these specifications were defined, a quantitative evaluation program was designed and implemented to determine if any recommended combinations could meet the ERTS laboratory specifications. The specifications include tone reproduction, granularity, MTF and cosmetic effects. A complete description of the techniques used to measure the test response variables is given. It is anticipated that similar quantitative techniques could be used on other programs to determine the optimum film/chemistry consistent with the engineering goals of the program.

  5. Dissolution of beidellite in acidic solutions: Ion exchange reactions and effect of crystal chemistry on smectite reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Valentin; Tertre, Emmanuel; Regnault, Olivier; Descostes, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dissolution rate of beidellite, a dioctahedral smectite with tetrahedral charge that is a common swelling clay mineral in surface and subsurface natural environments, was studied in acidic solutions at 25 °C under far from equilibrium conditions. A rates with stirred and non-stirred particles. The aqueous Al/Si ratio measured at the outlet of the reactor was followed as a function of time and compared to solid stoichiometry values to assess the mechanisms occurring at the solid/solution interface. The reversible adsorption of Al3+ in the smectite interlayer space was evidenced for pH > 1.1, and the presence of an amorphous Si-enriched layer can be reasonably assumed in some cases from the interpretation of the aqueous concentrations and the characterization of the solid phase (X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy). Beidellite dissolution rates normalized to the sample mass (mol g-1 s-1) were obtained from Si and Al concentrations under steady state dissolution conditions. Calculated rates were compared with those previously reported for montmorillonite in several publications. The beidellite dissolution rates are, on average, ten times lower than those of montmorillonite. This implies that the smectite crystal chemistry (i.e., amount of Al3+ versus Mg2+ or Fe3+ substitution in the structure) has a strong effect on its stability and should be considered in reactive transport models in which the dissolution properties of smectites are taken into account.

  6. Exploring 3-D Virtual Reality Technology for Spatial Ability and Chemistry Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Z.; Goetz, E. T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, W.; Cifuentes, L.; Kwok, O.; Davis, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential of Second Life® (SL), a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual world, to enhance undergraduate students' learning of a vital chemistry concept. A quasi-experimental pre-posttest control group design was used to conduct the study. A total of 387 participants completed three assignment activities either in SL or using…

  7. Efficient process intensification of fine chemical production: a new classification tool for flow chemistry technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Graaff, M.P. de; Bassett, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industry needs to innovate to beat international competition and resolve environmental issues. Process intensification by flow chemistry is the most promising route for this change, as it can reduce raw material and energy consumption, waste production, lead

  8. Nuclear chemistry and geochemistry research. Carnegie Institute of Technology and Carnegie--Mellon University. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohman, T.P.

    1976-05-28

    A summary is presented of the activities and results of research in nuclear chemistry, nuclear geochemistry, nuclear cosmochemistry, and other minor areas from 1950 to 1976. A complete listing is given of publications, doctoral dissertations, and reports resulting from the research. A chronological list provides an overview of the activities at any particular time. (JSR)

  9. Lanthanide Chemistry: From Coordination in Chemical Complexes Shaping Our Technology to Coordination in Enzymes Shaping Bacterial Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, Norma Cecilia; Vu, Huong N; Skovran, Elizabeth

    2016-10-17

    Lanthanide chemistry has only been extensively studied for the last 2 decades, when it was recognized that these elements have unusual chemical characteristics including fluorescent and potent magnetic properties because of their unique 4f electrons.1,2 Chemists are rapidly and efficiently integrating lanthanides into numerous compounds and materials for sophisticated applications. In fact, lanthanides are often referred to as "the seeds of technology" because they are essential for many technological devices including smartphones, computers, solar cells, batteries, wind turbines, lasers, and optical glasses.3-6 However, the effect of lanthanides on biological systems has been understudied. Although displacement of Ca 2+ by lanthanides in tissues and enzymes has long been observed,7 only a few recent studies suggest a biological role for lanthanides based on their stimulatory properties toward some plants and bacteria.8,9 Also, it was not until 2011 that the first biochemical evidence for lanthanides as inherent metals in bacterial enzymes was published.10 This forum provides an overview of the classical and current aspects of lanthanide coordination chemistry employed in the development of technology along with the biological role of lanthanides in alcohol oxidation. The construction of lanthanide-organic frameworks will be described. Examples of how the luminescence field is rapidly evolving as more information about lanthanide-metal emissions is obtained will be highlighted, including biological imaging and telecommunications.11 Recent breakthroughs and observations from different exciting areas linked to the coordination chemistry of lanthanides that will be mentioned in this forum include the synthesis of (i) macrocyclic ligands, (ii) antenna molecules, (iii) coordination polymers, particularly nanoparticles, (iv) hybrid materials, and (v) lanthanide fuel cells. Further, the role of lanthanides in bacterial metabolism will be discussed, highlighting the

  10. Production technology readiness assessment of surfactant in the research center for Chemistry-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny

    2017-11-01

    The common problem faced by the institution working on research, innovation and technology development is lack of quantitative measures to determine the technology readiness of research. No common communication language between R & D Institutions and industry about the level of preparedness of a research resulting a barrier to technology diffusion interaction. This lack of connection between R & D institutes with industry may lead to "sluggishness" occurs in innovating. For such circumstance, assessing technology readiness of research is very important. One of wide spread methods for the assessment is Technology Readiness Level (TRL, also known as Technometer), which is introduced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). TRL is a general guide that provides an overview of maturity level of a technology. This study aims to identify and demonstrate the implementation of TRL to assess a number of surfactant researches in the Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. According to the assessment, it has been obtained the surfactant recommended for further development towards commercialization of R & D results, i.e. Glycerol Mono Stearate (GMS), which has reached the level of TRL 7.

  11. Coordination Chemistry inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Metal Migration and Cross-Exchange in Amphiphilic Core-Shell Polymer Latexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-defined amphiphilic core-shell polymer functionalized with bis(p-methoxy-phenylphosphinophenylphosphine (BMOPPP in the nanogel (NG core has been obtained by a convergent RAFT polymerization in emulsion. This BMOPPP@NG and the previously-reported TPP@NG (TPP = triphenylphosphine and core cross-linked micelles (L@CCM; L = TPP, BMOPPP having a slightly different architecture were loaded with [Rh(acac(CO2] or [RhCl(COD]2 to yield [Rh(acac(CO(L@Pol] or [RhCl(COD(L@Pol] (Pol = CCM, NG. The interparticle metal migration from [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@NG] to TPP@NG is fast at natural pH and much slower at high pH, the rate not depending significantly on the polymer architecture (CCM vs. NG. The cross-exchange using [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] (Pol = CCM or NG as reagents at natural pH is also rapid (ca. 1 h, although slower than the equivalent homogeneous reaction on the molecular species (<5 min. On the other hand, the subsequent rearrangement of [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] within the TPP@Pol core and of [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(BMOPPP@Pol] within the BMOPPP@Pol core, leading respectively to [RhCl(CO(TPP@Pol2] and [RhCl(CO(BMOPPP@Pol2], is much more rapid (<30 min than on the corresponding homogeneous process with the molecular species (>24 h.

  12. Spectroscopic Studies on Physicochemical Natures of Ion Exchangers and Highly Functional Polymers and Their Application to Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    The absorption spectra or NMR spectra of chemical species adsorbed on ion exchangers and highly functional polymers such as crosslinked dextran could be directly measured by the corresponding solution methods. Spectrophotometric measurements of a target species in the solid phase have been extended to solid phase spectrometry (SPS), based on the direct measurement of light-absorption by the solid phase, which has adsorbed the target analyte. SPS has employed two different procedures; i.e., batch and flow methods. The Lambert-Beer law could be applicable to the solid particle layer system. The sensitivity was proportional to the volume ratio of the solid and sample solution, giving more than 100 times the sensitivity obtainable with the combination of a 0.1 cm3 solid and a 10-100 cm3 sample for the batch method. An online measurement of the light attenuation by the adsorbed species in the flow-through cell made it possible to both significantly reduce the sample solution volume and to simplify the respective procedures for the derivatization of the analyte and packing the solid particles into the cell. Because the cross-linked dextran and similar glucopyranoside-based gels have polyol moieties in their gel matrix, they could be used as oxo acid-selective adsorbents without introducing any special functional groups. Especially, in the case of boric acid, 11B NMR spectroscopy was one of the best tools for elucidating the nature of the interaction between boric acid/borate and polyols. Its combination with other methods enabled basic understanding of the chemical reactions. Reaction paths for 1:1 complexation are in general divided into two groups, i.e., neutral polyols that directly react with tetrahedral borate, and acidic polyols that react with trigonal boric acid in a 1:1 complexation. Both of the reactions produce tetrahedral anionic complexes, followed by a condensation reaction between the 1:1 monochelate complex and the undissociated diols to yield the 1

  13. Workshop on APEC virtual center for environmental technology exchange; APEC kankyo gijutsu koryu virtual center workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    At the 'policy maker workshop of the virtual center of APEC technology exchange' held in November 1997 in Osaka, Japan, it was agreed to organize study groups to discuss the scope of information provided by the virtual center, and to make common the classification systems and retrieval functions. In addition, the necessity was confirmed on international cooperation to promote establishment of virtual centers in different countries and territories. On the first day, Professor Ueda at the Kyoto University gave the basic lecture entitled 'global environment preservation and environmental technology transfer: problems and prospects'. Mr. Dan, the workshop manager gave the basic proposal entitled 'the future directionality of environmental technology exchange inside the APEC territories by using Internet'. Based on the basic proposal made on the first day, reports and discussions were given in the following sessions, where confirmation was made on the future directions. S1: establishment of the virtual centers in other countries and territories; S2: assurance of interchangeability of classification systems and retrieval functions in providing information, and S3: presentation of examples of inter-territorial exchange and the future directionality. (NEDO)

  14. Gold-catalyzed formation of heterocycles - an enabling new technology for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong C; Graham, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed transformations allow efficient access to a wide scope of heterocyclic structures that serve as building blocks and pharmacophores in medicinal chemistry. Compared with other transition metal and Lewis acid catalysis, gold catalysis presents mechanistic divergence, excellent functional group tolerance and/or operational advantages. Emergent applications of gold catalysis have played a key role in the synthesis of biologically active molecules including a drug candidate.

  15. Iodine catalysis: A green alternative to transition metals in organic chemistry and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mekhman S. Yusubov; Viktor V. Zhdankin

    2015-01-01

    Iodine and compounds of iodine in higher oxidation states have emerged as versatile and environmentally benign reagents for organic chemistry. One of the most impressive recent achievements in this area has been the discovery of catalytic activity of iodine in numerous oxidative transformations leading to the formation of new CO, CN, and CC bonds in organic compounds. These catalytic transformations in many cases are very similar to the transition metal-catalyzed reactions, but have the ad...

  16. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Overseas workshop; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The international exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998, the 'Overseas workshop' has performed exchange in technologies with Australian coal mine engineers. The project refers to the Australian technological levels and needs in coal production, safety control and environment, as well as transfer of the Japanese coal mine technologies. This report summarizes the result of a survey on the engineer exchange project in the coal mine technology area and the possibility of joint researches. The 'overseas workshop' was held in November 1998 for two days in Brisbane City in QLD Province as the 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop'. The 'Japan-Australia coal technology workshop' gave lectures in five sessions (the basic lecture, Japan-Australia high-speed excavation project, coal mine gas control project, exploration and resources, and development and experience of Japan). It also discussed two themes (mine safety management and rules, and greenhouse effect gases and coal mining). Two coal mines were visited thereafter to deepen the exchange with the Australian coal mine engineers. (NEDO)

  17. Expectations and realities in the nuclear technology exchanges with the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A nontechnical, subjective account is given of some of the experiences and personal encounters in the US-USSR technical exchange visit programs. Some notes are given on the growth of nuclear power in the two countries. (DLC)

  18. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  19. The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji-Saeid, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: M.Haji-Saeid@iaea.org; Sampa, M.H.; Ramamoorthy, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Gueven, O. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Chmielewski, A.G. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-12-15

    The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States to realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. The IAEA extends cooperation to well-known international conferences dealing with radiation technology to facilitate participation of talented scientists from developing MS and building collaborations. The IAEA published technical documents, covering the findings of thematic technical meetings (TM) and coordinated research projects have been an important source of valuable practical information.

  20. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  1. An overview of the fundamentals of the chemistry of silica with relevance to biosilicification and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, David J; Deschaume, Olivier; Perry, Carole C

    2012-05-01

    Biomineral formation is widespread in nature, and occurs in bacteria, single-celled protists, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Minerals formed in the biological environment often show unusual physical properties (e.g. strength, degree of hydration) and often have structures that exhibit order on many length scales. Biosilica, found in single-celled organisms through to higher plants and primitive animals (sponges), is formed from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silicon, and under conditions of approximately neutral pH and relatively low temperatures of 4-40 °C compared to those used industrially. Formation of the mineral may occur intracellularly or extracellularly, and specific biochemical locations for mineral deposition that include lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are known. In most cases, the formation of the mineral phase is linked to cellular processes, an understanding of which could lead to the design of new materials for biomedical, optical and other applications. In this contribution, we describe the aqueous chemistry of silica, from uncondensed monomers through to colloidal particles and 3D structures, that is relevant to the environment from which the biomineral forms. We then describe the chemistry of silica formation from alkoxides such as tetraethoxysilane, as this and other silanes have been used to study the chemistry of silica formation using silicatein, and such precursors are often used in the preparation of silicas for technological applications. The focus of this article is on the methods, experimental and computational, by which the process of silica formation can be studied, with an emphasis on speciation. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  2. Engineer exchanging project on coal mine technology field in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (the overseas workshop in Vietnam); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Vietnam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Technical information exchange was performed with Vietnamese engineers related to coal mine technologies through the overseas workshop and the technical tour. At the same time, investigations were executed on the production technology levels and needs in Vietnam, and on possibilities of transfer of Japanese technologies. The 'Overseas workshop (Vietnam)' was held on September 28, 1999 with the 'trends and problems in coal production technologies' as the main theme. Lectures were given in the session related to coal production technologies by Vietnamese coal technology experts, each from VINACOAL and IMSAT, and by two Japanese coal technology experts. A comprehensive discussion was also executed, and items of technical information were exchanged on the coal production technologies. The number of persons actually participated in the workshop counted 58, with the proceedings presented by them distributed. The Mao Khe and Duong Huy coal mines in Quang Ninh Province were visited as the technical tour, whereas the coal mine sites were inspected and opinions were exchanged with the site engineers. Gas analysis was performed in the Mao Khe mine from the viewpoint of a gas control technology, and site investigation was carried out on lock bolts in the Duong Huy mine from the viewpoint of a roof control technology. (NEDO)

  3. From Chemistry for the People to the Wonders of Technology: The Popularization of Chemistry in the Netherlands during the Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst Homburg

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes phases in the production of popular Dutch chemistry books in terms of their audiences and the character of the texts. While the first popular chemistry books (1809-1815), which were directed to women, youngsters, and common people, contained moralistic and physico-theological contemplations, these were absent in books that between 1830 and 1844 diffused 'useful knowledge' among the working classes. The next period (1845-1864) was a hey-day, which also marked the end of t...

  4. A Study of Learners' Perceptions of Online Intercultural Exchange through Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lina; Markey, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a Spanish-American telecollaborative project through which students used "Twitter," blogs and podcasts for intercultural exchange over the course of one semester. The paper outlines the methodology for the project including pedagogical objectives, task design, selection of web tools and implementation. Using…

  5. Chemistry, technology, and nutraceutical functions of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B

    2013-01-01

    Cumin is a seed spice belonging to the family umbelliferae. Cumin and value added products from cumin are used in food flavoring and perfumery. Cumin contains volatile oil (3-4%), cuminaldehyde, the major active principle, which is present to an extent of 45-50%. Cumin and value added products from cumin, viz., cumin oil and oleoresin are exported. Cumin powder forms the main component of many spice mixes and curry powders. Cuminaldehyde is an important phytochemical and possesses many health benefits. Alcohol and water extract of cumin are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties like antiallergic, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, and hypoglycemic. Cumin and value added products from cumin can be a good source of nutraceuticals with many biological activities. Incorporation of cumin into food products will have the benefits of a flavorant and nutraceutical at the same time. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of cumin and its components are discussed.

  6. Incorporating spectroscopy and measurement technology into the high school chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Emily Ann

    Science and technology are becoming increasingly important in maintaining a healthy economy at home and a competitive edge on the world stage, though that is just one facet affected by inadequate science education in the United States. Engaging students in the pursuit of knowledge and giving them the skills to think critically are paramount. One small way to assist in achieving these goals is to increase the quality and variety of technology-rich activities conducted in high school classrooms. Incorporating more laboratory measurement technology into high schools may incite more student interest in the processes and practices of science and may allow students to learn to think more critically about their data and what it represents. The first objective of the work described herein was to determine what measurement technology is being used in schools and to what extent, as well as to determine other teacher needs and preferences. Second, the objective was to develop a new program to provide incoming freshmen (or rising seniors) with measurement technology training they did not receive in high school, and expose them to new research and career opportunities in science. The final objective was to create a technology-rich classroom laboratory activity for use in high schools.

  7. Development of coal gasification and gas cleanup technologies in ICC, CAS[Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yang; Zhang Jianmin; Huang Jiejie; Xu Yifeng; Chen Hanshi; Yang Jinquan; Cao Yan

    2000-07-01

    Coal is major energy resource in China. In 1997, about 75% of industrial and steam fuel, 65% of chemical feedstock raw material and 65% of the domestic fuel requirements came from coal. And according to the predictions, coal will continue to be the major energy source for the next 30{approximately}50 years. However, coal utilization has caused serious environmental problems, especially where the coal is directly burned. It was indicated from national statistics that in 1998, 70% of the total dust suspension, 80% of the SOx and 75% of the NOx in the air were originated from coal combustion. Today there is a need for China to consider how to meet its needs for increased coal utilization in the way that is cost effective, highly efficient and environmentally friendly. Coal gasification is one of the most efficient and clean coal technologies; it provides syngas for China's chemicals production, industrial fuel gas and town gas. However, the technologies used in China are rather out-of-date, although several units of modern entrained gasifiers are in operation for ammonia synthesis. Based on this situation and the process analysis, the Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted the research and development of fluidized bed coal gasification technologies. And in order to meet the requirement of advanced power generation system, hot gas cleaning is also studied. This paper presents the status and further studies the planning.

  8. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing, E-mail: shisq@nwu.edu.cn; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Biomimetic surface modification of PP was successfully conducted by integrating mussel-inspired technology, thiol chemistry and cell outer membranes-like structures. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibits good interface and surface stability. • The obvious suppression of protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is also achieved. • The residue thoil groups on the surface could be further functionalized. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH{sub 2}) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such

  9. Project to promote exchange of international information on environmental technologies; Kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Mutual information exchange at international levels is important for practical application of global environment preservation technologies, whereas the APEC Virtual Center was established in fiscal 1997. Fiscal 1998 has discussed the future functions of the Virtual Center, and carried out the following matters to improve the functions and achieve its stable operation. Discussions were given on common use with the centers of other countries and regions of the specifications of classification systems for information areas and provided information that are provided by the Virtual Center. Visits were made to sub-managing countries and regions for smooth operation of the study groups, and opinions were exchanged. Visits were made to coordinators and contact points established in each country and region when the Center was founded in fiscal 1997. A visit was made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to exchange opinions on coordination measures with the Cleaner Production Strategy of the U.S.A. being a project similar to the subject project. In order to strengthen the Japan's Center, attempts were made to expand the linking information to wider scope. Special pages publishing concentratedly the items of information that the users are interested were prepared as part of the information provision. (NEDO)

  10. NDEx - the Network Data Exchange, A Network Commons for Biologists | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Network models of biology, whether curated or derived from large-scale data analysis, are critical tools in the understanding of cancer mechanisms and in the design and personalization of therapies. The NDEx Project (Network Data Exchange) will create, deploy, and maintain an open-source, web-based software platform and public website to enable scientists, organizations, and software applications to share, store, manipulate, and publish biological networks.

  11. Aspects of the physics, chemistry, and technology of high intensity heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Particular emphasis is placed on the technology of plasma discharge ion sources which utilize solid elemental or molecular compounds to produce vapor for the ionization process. A brief discussion is made of the elementary concepts underlying the formation and extraction of ion beams from plasma discharge sources. A limited review of low charge state positive ion sources suitable for accelerator use is also given.

  12. The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcotullio, G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation deals with biorefinery technology development, i.e. with the development of sustainable industrial methods aimed at the production of chemicals, fuels, heat and power from lignocellulosic biomass. This work is particularly focused on the production of furfural from

  13. Examining the Validity of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Framework for Preservice Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; So, Hyo-Jeong; Qian, Yangyi; Chen, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    While various quantitative measures for assessing teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) have developed rapidly, few studies to date have comprehensively validated the structure of TPACK through various criteria of validity especially for content specific areas. In this paper, we examined how the TPACK survey measure is…

  14. Thirty-seventh ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology: Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts only are given for papers presented during the following topical sessions: Opportunities for collaboration: Industry, academic, national laboratories; Developments in sensor technology; Analysis in containment facilities; Improving the quality of environmental data; Process analysis; Field analysis; Radiological separations; Interactive analytical seminars; Measurements and chemical industry initiatives; and Isotopic measurements and mass spectroscopy.

  15. A Competency-Based Clinical Chemistry Course for the Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technician Graduate in a Medical Technology Baccalaureate Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccelli, Pamela

    Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…

  16. Immunoglobulin domain interface exchange as a platform technology for the generation of Fc heterodimers and bispecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegro, Darko; Stutz, Cian; Ollier, Romain; Svensson, Emelie; Wassmann, Paul; Bourquin, Florence; Monney, Thierry; Gn, Sunitha; Blein, Stanislas

    2017-06-09

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are of significant importance to the development of novel antibody-based therapies, and heavy chain (Hc) heterodimers represent a major class of bispecific drug candidates. Current technologies for the generation of Hc heterodimers are suboptimal and often suffer from contamination by homodimers posing purification challenges. Here, we introduce a new technology based on biomimicry wherein the protein-protein interfaces of two different immunoglobulin (Ig) constant domain pairs are exchanged in part or fully to design new heterodimeric domains. The method can be applied across Igs to design Fc heterodimers and bsAbs. We investigated interfaces from human IgA CH3, IgD CH3, IgG1 CH3, IgM CH4, T-cell receptor (TCR) α/β, and TCR γ/δ constant domain pairs, and we found that they successfully drive human IgG1 CH3 or IgM CH4 heterodimerization to levels similar to or above those of reference methods. A comprehensive interface exchange between the TCR α/β constant domain pair and the IgG1 CH3 homodimer was evidenced by X-ray crystallography and used to engineer examples of bsAbs for cancer therapy. Parental antibody pairs were rapidly reformatted into scalable bsAbs that were free of homodimer traces by combining interface exchange, asymmetric Protein A binding, and the scFv × Fab format. In summary, we successfully built several new CH3- or CH4-based heterodimers that may prove useful for designing new bsAb-based therapeutics, and we anticipate that our approach could be broadly implemented across the Ig constant domain family. To our knowledge, CH4-based heterodimers have not been previously reported. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Immunoglobulin domain interface exchange as a platform technology for the generation of Fc heterodimers and bispecific antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegro, Darko; Stutz, Cian; Ollier, Romain; Svensson, Emelie; Wassmann, Paul; Bourquin, Florence; Monney, Thierry; Gn, Sunitha; Blein, Stanislas

    2017-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are of significant importance to the development of novel antibody-based therapies, and heavy chain (Hc) heterodimers represent a major class of bispecific drug candidates. Current technologies for the generation of Hc heterodimers are suboptimal and often suffer from contamination by homodimers posing purification challenges. Here, we introduce a new technology based on biomimicry wherein the protein-protein interfaces of two different immunoglobulin (Ig) constant domain pairs are exchanged in part or fully to design new heterodimeric domains. The method can be applied across Igs to design Fc heterodimers and bsAbs. We investigated interfaces from human IgA CH3, IgD CH3, IgG1 CH3, IgM CH4, T-cell receptor (TCR) α/β, and TCR γ/δ constant domain pairs, and we found that they successfully drive human IgG1 CH3 or IgM CH4 heterodimerization to levels similar to or above those of reference methods. A comprehensive interface exchange between the TCR α/β constant domain pair and the IgG1 CH3 homodimer was evidenced by X-ray crystallography and used to engineer examples of bsAbs for cancer therapy. Parental antibody pairs were rapidly reformatted into scalable bsAbs that were free of homodimer traces by combining interface exchange, asymmetric Protein A binding, and the scFv × Fab format. In summary, we successfully built several new CH3- or CH4-based heterodimers that may prove useful for designing new bsAb-based therapeutics, and we anticipate that our approach could be broadly implemented across the Ig constant domain family. To our knowledge, CH4-based heterodimers have not been previously reported. PMID:28450393

  18. Aeronautical-Satellite-Assisted Process Being Developed for Information Exchange Through Network Technologies (Aero-SAPIENT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernic, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Communications technologies are being developed to address safety issues during aviation travel. Some of these technologies enable the aircraft to be in constant bidirectional communications with necessary systems, people, and other aircraft that are not currently in place today. Networking technologies, wireless datalinks, and advanced avionics techniques are areas of particular importance that the NASA Glenn Research Center has contributed. Glenn, in conjunction with the NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and NASA Langley Research Center, is investigating methods and applications that would utilize these communications technologies. In mid-June 2000, the flight readiness of the network and communications technologies were demonstrated via a simulated aircraft. A van simulating an aircraft was equipped with advanced phased-array antennas (Advanced Communications/Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project) that used commercial Ku-band satellite communications to connect Glenn, Dryden, and Ames in a combined system ground test. This test simulated air-ground bidirectional transport of real-time digital audio, text, and video data via a hybrid network configuration that demonstrated the flight readiness of the network and communications technologies. Specifically, a Controller Pilot Data Link Communications application was used with other applications to demonstrate a multiprotocol capability via Internet-protocol encapsulated ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) data packets. The significance of this combined ground test is its contribution to the Aero Information Technology Base Program Level I milestone (Software Technology investment area) of a real-time data link for the National Airspace System. The objective of this milestone was to address multiprotocol technology applicable for real-time data links between aircraft, a satellite, and the ground as well as the ability to

  19. Computational Chemistry Data Management Platform Based on the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Dobosh, Paul A; Chalk, Stuart; Sopek, Mirek; Ostlund, Neil S

    2017-01-12

    This paper presents a formal data publishing platform for computational chemistry using semantic web technologies. This platform encapsulates computational chemistry data from a variety of packages in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) file called CSX (Common Standard for eXchange). On the basis of a Gainesville Core (GC) ontology for computational chemistry, a CSX XML file is converted into the JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD) format using an XML Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) file. Ultimately the JSON-LD file is converted to subject-predicate-object triples in a Turtle (TTL) file and published on the web portal. By leveraging semantic web technologies, we are able to place computational chemistry data onto web portals as a component of a Giant Global Graph (GGG) such that computer agents, as well as individual chemists, can access the data.

  20. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie; Broyan, James; Pickering, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The urine processor assembly (UPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) recovers water from urine via a vacuum distillation process. The distillation occurs in a rotating distillation assembly (DA) where the urine is heated and subjected to sub-ambient pressure. As water is removed, the original organics, salts, and minerals in the urine become more concentrated and result in urine brine. Eventually, water removal will concentrate the urine brine to super saturation of individual constituents, and precipitation occurs. Under typical UPA DA operating conditions, calcium sulfate or gypsum is the first chemical to precipitate in substantial quantity. During preflight testing with ground urine, the UPA achieved 85% water recovery without precipitation. However, on ISS, it is possible that crewmember urine can be significantly more concentrated relative to urine from ground donors. As a result, gypsum precipitated in the DA when operating at water recovery rates at or near 85%, causing the failure and subsequent re14 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 placement of the DA. Later investigations have demonstrated that an excess of calcium and sulfate will cause precipitation at water recovery rates greater than 70%. The source of the excess calcium is likely physiological in nature, via crewmembers' bone loss, while the excess sulfate is primarily due to the sulfuric acid component of the urine pretreatment. To prevent gypsum precipitation in the UPA, the Precipitation Prevention Project (PPP) team has focused on removing the calcium ion from pretreated urine, using ion exchange resins as calcium removal agents. The selectivity and effectiveness of ion exchange resins are determined by such factors as the mobility of the liquid phase through the polymer matrix, the density of functional groups, type of functional groups bound to the matrix, and the chemical characteristics of the liquid phase (pH, oxidation potential, and ionic strength). Previous experience with ion

  1. WikiHyperGlossary (WHG): an information literacy technology for chemistry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael A; Berleant, Daniel; Cornell, Andrew P; Belford, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    The WikiHyperGlossary is an information literacy technology that was created to enhance reading comprehension of documents by connecting them to socially generated multimedia definitions as well as semantically relevant data. The WikiHyperGlossary enhances reading comprehension by using the lexicon of a discipline to generate dynamic links in a document to external resources that can provide implicit information the document did not explicitly provide. Currently, the most common method to acquire additional information when reading a document is to access a search engine and browse the web. This may lead to skimming of multiple documents with the novice actually never returning to the original document of interest. The WikiHyperGlossary automatically brings information to the user within the current document they are reading, enhancing the potential for deeper document understanding. The WikiHyperGlossary allows users to submit a web URL or text to be processed against a chosen lexicon, returning the document with tagged terms. The selection of a tagged term results in the appearance of the WikiHyperGlossary Portlet containing a definition, and depending on the type of word, tabs to additional information and resources. Current types of content include multimedia enhanced definitions, ChemSpider query results, 3D molecular structures, and 2D editable structures connected to ChemSpider queries. Existing glossaries can be bulk uploaded, locked for editing and associated with multiple social generated definitions. The WikiHyperGlossary leverages both social and semantic web technologies to bring relevant information to a document. This can not only aid reading comprehension, but increases the users' ability to obtain additional information within the document. We have demonstrated a molecular editor enabled knowledge framework that can result in a semantic web inductive reasoning process, and integration of the WikiHyperGlossary into other software technologies, like

  2. Fiscal 1999 engineer exchange project (field of coal mining technology), international exchange project. Domestic workshop; 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kokunai workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The domestic workshop invites Japanese engineers and engineers from coal producing countries for the exchange of coal mining technologies and aims to substantiate and facilitate the dispatching and receiving of engineers under training programs. The main subject of the Asia-Pacific coal technology workshop was 'Coal for the 21st century - resources and technology,' and there were two sessions held on September 8, titled 'Trends and tasks of coal resources exploitation' and 'Coal resources and production technology.' Lectures were delivered by five overseas and five Japanese coal engineering experts. On September 9, nine essays were presented concerning 'Coal resources and security problems' and 'Coal resources and environmental problems.' In addition, a panel discussion was held, titled 'Coal resources assessment and technology.' Importance was emphasized of the correct assessment of the magnitude of resources, development of probing technologies to collect more detailed information, improvement of digging speeds applicable to faces for large and high-efficiency mining, development of coal mining technologies for increased recovery, etc. Information was exchanged on various occasions and partnership was enhanced between the participants to the advantage of engineer exchanging projects in the future. (NEDO)

  3. Information technology in chemistry research and education: Part I. Ab initio studies on the hydrolysis of aromatic diazonium ions. Part II. Theoretical study and molecular modeling of non-covalent interactions. Part III. Applying information technology in chemistry education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengyu

    Part I of this dissertation studies the bonding in chemical reactions, while Part II studies the bonding related to inter- and intra-molecular interactions. Part III studies the application of IT technology in chemistry education. Part I of this dissertation (chapter 1 and chapter 2) focuses on the theoretical studies on the mechanism of the hydrolysis reactions of benzenediazonium ion and guaninediazonium ion. The major conclusion is that in hydrolysis reactions the "unimolecular mechanism" actually has to involve the reacting solvent molecule. Therefore, the unimolecular pathway can only serve as a conceptual model but will not happen in the reality. Chapter I concludes that the hydrolysis reaction of benzenediazonium ion takes the direct SN2Ar mechanism via a transition state but without going through a pre-coordination complex. Chapter 2 concludes that the formation of xanthine from the dediazoniation reaction of guaninediazonium ion in water takes the SN2Ar pathway without a transition state. And oxanine might come from an intermediate formed by the bimolecular deprotonation of the H atom on N3 of guaninediazonium ion synchronized with the pyrimidine ring opening reaction. Part II of this dissertation includes chapters 3, 4, and 5. Chapter 3 studies the quadrupole moment of benzene and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. We concluded that the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction is important in the arene-arene interactions. Our study shows the most stable structure of benzene dimer is the point-to-face T-shaped structure. Chapter 4 studies the intermolecular interactions that result in the disorder of the crystal of 4-Chloroacetophenone-(4-methoxyphenylethylidene). We analyzed all the nearest neighbor interactions within that crystal and found that the crystal structure is determined by its thermo-dynamical properties. Our calculation perfectly reproduced the percentage of parallel-alignment of the crystal. Part III of this dissertation is focused on the

  4. Chemogenomics: a discipline at the crossroad of high throughput technologies, biomarker research, combinatorial chemistry, genomics, cheminformatics, bioinformatics and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Chemogenomics is the study of the interaction of functional biological systems with exogenous small molecules, or in broader sense the study of the intersection of biological and chemical spaces. Chemogenomics requires expertises in biology, chemistry and computational sciences (bioinformatics, cheminformatics, large scale statistics and machine learning methods) but it is more than the simple apposition of each of these disciplines. Biological entities interacting with small molecules can be isolated proteins or more elaborate systems, from single cells to complete organisms. The biological space is therefore analyzed at various postgenomic levels (genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or any phenotypic level). The space of small molecules is partially real, corresponding to commercial and academic collections of compounds, and partially virtual, corresponding to the chemical space possibly synthesizable. Synthetic chemistry has developed novel strategies allowing a physical exploration of this universe of possibilities. A major challenge of cheminformatics is to charter the virtual space of small molecules using realistic biological constraints (bioavailability, druggability, structural biological information). Chemogenomics is a descendent of conventional pharmaceutical approaches, since it involves the screening of chemolibraries for their effect on biological targets, and benefits from the advances in the corresponding enabling technologies and the introduction of new biological markers. Screening was originally motivated by the rigorous discovery of new drugs, neglecting and throwing away any molecule that would fail to meet the standards required for a therapeutic treatment. It is now the basis for the discovery of small molecules that might or might not be directly used as drugs, but which have an immense potential for basic research, as probes to explore an increasing number of biological phenomena. Concerns about the environmental impact of chemical industry

  5. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  6. The development of pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers: New opportunities through technology-mediated reflection and peer-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M. Cheryl-Ann

    This design-based research study investigates the development of pedagogical content knowledge among nine teacher-participants (N = 9) in three design phases. PCK is a particular type of teacher knowledge that addresses not only the teacher's understanding of the content to be instructed, but also ways of how to teach that content effectively. This knowledge has been well documented over several decades, and is seen as central to teacher expertise. However, its actual development has been difficult for researchers to investigate. This study offers a detailed perspective on how teachers developed PCK with their engagement in lesson planning and enactment of a project-based technology-enhanced lesson. The study includes two specific interventions designed to enhance teachers' development of PCK: (1) scaffolded reflection that occurs throughout the practices; and (2) peer-exchange of lesson plans, enactment ideas, and completed reflections. The findings demonstrate that teachers improve their planning and enactment of project-based technology-enhanced lessons with scaffolded reflection and peer exchange. Positive correlations were seen between teachers' engagement in the reflections and the quality of their lesson planning. Teachers who participated more deeply in the scaffolded reflections were able to understand how their lesson plans and enactment patterns fostered student understanding of relevant science concepts. Positive correlations were also seen between community influence and teacher lesson plans and enactment. Additionally, positive correlations were confirmed between teachers' level of participation in the peer exchange activities and the quality of their lesson planning and enactments. Teachers who contributed more deeply within the online and face-to-face peer community meetings benefited from the different perspectives of their peers about student learning and the best ways to succeed with project-based instruction. This study allowed some insight into

  7. Engineer exchanging project (coal mine technology field) in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (advance survey on Russia); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Roshia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This advance survey on Russia has performed visiting surveys and information collection at coal related organizations inside Japan and in overseas countries on production technology levels, trends and technology exchange needs in overseas coal producing countries. The project is intended to serve for improvement in the contents of and smooth execution of the engineer exchange project in the 'coal mine technology field. It was carried out by expertise people as the site surveys and the engineer reception and exchange surveys. Because of the economic crisis that has hit Russia in 1998, unprofitable coal mines were closed one after another under the coal mine scrap and build policy under the initiative of the World Bank. This situation is giving serious impacts on coal mines in the Far East Russia and the coastal areas. However, the importance of coal as the primary energy source has not been changed at all in the Far East Russia. Thus, the areas have fallen into a situation that they must rely on a great amount of introduced and imported coals as a result of weakening in coal mines in the Far Eastern area on the other hand. This paper reports mainly the situation in which the coal industries in the coastal areas are placed, and the possibilities of technology exchange. (NEDO)

  8. Impact of surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized. PMID:20880833

  9. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  10. On-Line Ion Exchange Liquid Chromatography as a Process Analytical Technology for Monoclonal Antibody Characterization in Continuous Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhumit A; Pinto, Nuno D S; Gospodarek, Adrian; Kilgore, Bruce; Goswami, Kudrat; Napoli, William N; Desai, Jayesh; Heo, Jun H; Panzera, Dominick; Pollard, David; Richardson, Daisy; Brower, Mark; Richardson, Douglas D

    2017-11-07

    Combining process analytical technology (PAT) with continuous production provides a powerful tool to observe and control monoclonal antibody (mAb) fermentation and purification processes. This work demonstrates on-line liquid chromatography (on-line LC) as a PAT tool for monitoring a continuous biologics process and forced degradation studies. Specifically, this work focused on ion exchange chromatography (IEX), which is a critical separation technique to detect charge variants. Product-related impurities, including charge variants, that impact function are classified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). First, we confirmed no significant differences were observed in the charge heterogeneity profile of a mAb through both at-line and on-line sampling and that the on-line method has the ability to rapidly detect changes in protein quality over time. The robustness and versatility of the PAT methods were tested by sampling from two purification locations in a continuous mAb process. The PAT IEX methods used with on-line LC were a weak cation exchange (WCX) separation and a newly developed shorter strong cation exchange (SCX) assay. Both methods provided similar results with the distribution of percent acidic, main, and basic species remaining unchanged over a 2 week period. Second, a forced degradation study showed an increase in acidic species and a decrease in basic species when sampled on-line over 7 days. These applications further strengthen the use of on-line LC to monitor CQAs of a mAb continuously with various PAT IEX analytical methods. Implementation of on-line IEX will enable faster decision making during process development and could potentially be applied to control in biomanufacturing.

  11. 75 FR 77753 - Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... systems, software application, cybersecurity, enterprise architecture, policy and planning, internet/web... professionals to enhance skills and competencies. The prompt implementation of an interim final rule is crucial... proactively position itself to keep pace with the changes in technology. The immediate implementation of an...

  12. Interpreting chemistry and technology of lime binders and implementing it in the conservation field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Zacharopoulou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is the compilation, review and dissemination of updated scientific knowledge on lime theory and technology in the field of heritage conservation. The strong evidence of the last decade's research on the positive effect of the - not demonstrable by a chemical equation – 'key' missing link of the maturation process is highlighted. It is demonstrated that the exceptional perfor -mance characteristics of durable lime based mortars predominately rely on the capacity for rapid, efficient and extensive carbonation of the air-hardening phase of limes, in particular when matured (nanoparticle wet slaked lime putties are used; and on the chemical and mechanical stability of the strength components (principally CSHs of the hydraulic phase of limes, which is higher in their more crystalline forms of historical lime-pozzolan mixtures than in their amorphous forms of modern cements. Hence, physicochemical adhesion and cohesion bonds both at the lime matrix and at the binder/aggregate interfaces are ensured imparting minimization of cracks and durability to lime based mortars and historic masonries. The comprehensive documentation of the former leads to optimal materials and procedures to preserve our cultural heritage.

  13. An outlook on chlorogenic acids-occurrence, chemistry, technology, and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mohan Rao, L Jagan

    2013-01-01

    Phenolics are widespread dietary antioxidants. Among these, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) received considerable attention for their wide distribution and part of human diet with potential biological effects. CGAs (71 compounds), being esters of derivatives of cinnamic acids with quinic acid are widely distributed in plant materials. Coffee is among the highest found in plants, ranging from 4 to 14%. Besides, these are reported in plant foods such as apples, pears, carrot, tomato, sweet potato, Phyllostachys edulis, oilseeds, Prunus domestica L, cherries, and eggplant. The traditional Chinese medicinal plants such as flowers and buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb and the leaves of Eucommia ulmodies contained CGAs as bioactive compound. These play an important role in the formation of roasted coffee flavor and have a marked influence on coffee cup quality. CGAs are considered as main precursors of coffee flavor and pigments. Recent technological advancements in the separation and purification of CGAs such as molecular-imprinted polymer technique; microwave-assisted extraction; pH gradient counter current chromatography has also been described. The consumption of coffee correlated to several health benefits such as reducing the risk of human chronic diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease owing to its antioxidant potential.

  14. Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene by surface chain transfer reaction based on mussel-inspired adhesion technology and thiol chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhijun; Zhao, Yang; Sun, Wei; Shi, Suqing; Gong, Yongkuan

    2016-11-01

    Biomimetic surface modification of polypropylene (PP) is conducted by surface chain transfer reaction based on the mussel-inspired versatile adhesion technology and thiol chemistry, using 2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (MPC) as a hydrophilic monomer mimicking the cell outer membrane structure and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in ethanol. A layer of polydopamine (PDA) is firstly deposited onto PP surface, which not only offers good interfacial adhesion with PP, but also supplies secondary reaction sites (-NH2) to covalently anchor thiol groups onto PP surface. Then the radical chain transfer to surface-bonded thiol groups and surface re-initiated polymerization of MPC lead to the formation of a thin layer of polymer brush (PMPC) with cell outer membrane mimetic structure on PP surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurements are used to characterize the PP surfaces before and after modification. The protein adsorption and platelet adhesion experiments are also employed to evaluate the interactions of PP surface with biomolecules. The results show that PMPC is successfully grafted onto PP surface. In comparison with bare PP, the resultant PP-PMPC surface exhibits greatly improved protein and platelet resistance performance, which is the contribution of both increased surface hydrophilicity and zwitterionic structure. More importantly, the residue thiol groups on PP-PMPC surface create a new pathway to further functionalize such zwitterion modified PP surface.

  15. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  16. Development of Technological and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of the Chemistry by Teachers in Training Through the Reflection of PaP-eRs and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fernando Candela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described how trainee teachers identified and developed some elements of the Technological and Pedagogical Knowledge of Chemistry Content (CTPC, along the course of educational and pedagogical context by "reflective orientation". The methodological perspective was qualitative by case study, which was configured by two interwoven areas of reflection, namely: (a reflecting on the opinions of experts about the teaching of a content, through the readings proposed in the training programs; and (b reflecting on the teaching carried out by experienced teachers through case videos and the Repertoire of Professional and Pedagogical Experiences (PaP-eRs. This heuristic reduced the complexity of teaching in a manageable story located in a specific context, so that teachers could identify and reflect on their theories about the teaching and learning of chemistry. This study showed that teachers in training identified and developed the following elements of the CTPC of chemistry: general pedagogy, language as a learning tool, difficulties and alternative conceptions, knowledge of technology as an instrument to represent the contents and manage the chemistry classroom, and the formative evaluation. Definitely, the reflection of the critical events of the PaP-eRs and videos of cases was considered an appropriate heuristic that allowed the future teachers to articulate the knowledge coming from the literature in education in chemistry, with the virtual experiences of teaching-learning of a real context. Of course, this reflection was mediated by reading, discussing and reflecting on the intelligent actions of an exemplary teacher when guiding singular students from a sociocultural perspective, with the purpose of beginning to refine their theories of teaching and learning chemistry.

  17. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (China); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of making technical exchanges with coal mine related engineers in China and surveying levels of coal production technology and the needs in China and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held and technical tours were made. On December 13, 2000, a workshop was held in China which was named 'Japan-China Joint Coal Project Workshop: Environment/Production/Security.' Participants were 112 including 16 from Japan and 96 from China. Subjects were as follows: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, technical exchange project and technical development, Japan-China technical cooperation project, report on the operational situation of China Coal Industry Environmental Preservation Safety Training Center, Japan-China Joint Project on spontaneous combustion prevention technology, CMG recovery/utilization system joint demonstration project, Japan-China joint coal exploration project, Japan-China coal field geology joint exploration project, etc. (NEDO)

  18. U.S. Technology Exchange with the Soviet Union: A Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    advanced technology without further analysis . Moreover, some of the conclusions pertaining to computers also warrant further st’idy. 1. The ee... espacially those still under U.S. and COCOM export controls, such as telecommunications equipment and numerically controlled machine tools. Such estimates...especially if combined with a closer analysis of Soviet capacity to pay, and if explicit allowance were made for structural differences between

  19. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Christopher J [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  20. Using contemporary liquid chromatography theory and technology to improve capillary gradient ion-exchange separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Bert; Broeckhoven, Ken; Wouters, Sam; Bruggink, Cees; Agroskin, Yury; Pohl, Christopher A; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2014-11-28

    The gradient-performance limits of capillary ion chromatography have been assessed at maximum system pressure (34.5 MPa) using capillary columns packed with 4.1 μm macroporous anion-exchange particles coated with 65 nm positively-charged nanobeads. In analogy to the van-Deemter curve, the gradient performance was assessed applying different flow rates, while decreasing the gradient time inversely proportional to the increase in flow rate in order to maintain the same retention properties. The gradient kinetic-performance limits were determined at maximum system pressure, applying tG/t0=5, 10, and 20. In addition, the effect of retention on peak width was assessed in gradient mode for mono-, di-, and trivalent inorganic anions. The peak width of late-eluting ions can be significantly reduced by using concave gradient, resulting in better detection sensitivity. A signal enhancement factor of 8 was measured for a late-eluting ion when applying a concave instead of a linear gradient. For the analysis of a complex anion mixture, a coupled column with a total length of 1.05 m was operated at the kinetic-performance limit applying a linear 250 min gradient (tG/t0=10). The peak capacity varied between 200 and 380 depending on analyte retention, and hence on charge and size of the ion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  2. Proceedings of the workshop for exchange of technology for CWC inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.R.

    1993-04-01

    With the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the work of the Preparatory Commission in defining the modalities of on-site verification inspections will begin early in 1993. One of the methods for increasing the effectiveness of inspections is the collection of samples for chemical analysis. The CWC allows for this analysis to be performed either at the site of the inspection or in a dedicated off-site laboratory. The decision as to where samples are to be analyzed in any specific instance may involve a consideration of the threat, real or perceived, to the compromise of legitimate sensitive host-party information. The ability to perform efficient chemical analysis at the inspection site, where samples remain in joint (host-inspector) custody and the analytical procedures can be observed by the host, can alleviate much of the concern over possible loss of confidential information in both government and industry. This workshop was designed to encourage the exchange of information among participants with experience in the use of analytical equipment for on-site sample collection and analysis. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases.

  3. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  4. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a strong commitment to transfer the results of its science and technology programs to the private sector. The intent is to apply innovative and sometimes advanced technologies to address needs while simultaneously stimulating new commercial business opportunities. Such focused “technology transfer” was evident in the late 1990s as the results of DOE investments in environmental management technology development led to new tools for characterizing and remediating contaminated sites as well as handling and minimizing the generation of hazardous wastes. The Department’s Office of Environmental Management was attempting to reduce the cost, accelerate the schedule, and improve the efficacy of clean-up efforts in the nuclear weapons complex. It recognized that resulting technologies had broader world market applications and that their commercialization would further reduce costs and facilitate deployment of improved technology at DOE sites. DOE’s Albuquerque Operations Office (now part of the National Nuclear Security Administration) began in 1995 to build the foundation for a technology exchange program with Mexico. Initial sponsorship for this work was provided by the Department’s Office of Environmental Management. As part of this effort, Applied Sciences Laboratory, Inc. (ASL) was contracted by the DOE Albuquerque office to identify Mexico’s priority environmental management needs, identify and evaluate DOE-sponsored technologies as potential solutions for those needs, and coordinate these opportunities with decision makers from Mexico’s federal government. That work led to an improved understanding of many key environmental challenges that Mexico faces and the many opportunities to apply DOE’s technologies to help resolve them. The above results constituted, in large part, the foundation for an initial DOE-funded program to apply the Department’s technology base to help address some of Mexico

  5. Pedagogy-Based-Technology and Chemistry Students' Performance in Higher Institutions: A Case of Debre Berhan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Tesfaye; Ochonogor, Chukunoye E.; Engida, Temechegn

    2011-01-01

    Many students have difficulty in learning abstract and complex lessons of chemistry. This study investigated how students develop their understandings of abstract and complex lessons in chemistry with the aid of visualizing tools: animation, simulation and video that allow them to build clear concepts. Animation, simulation and video enable…

  6. Finding the Connections between a High-School Chemistry Curriculum and Nano-Scale Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2017-01-01

    The high-school chemistry curriculum is loaded with many important chemical concepts that are taught at the high-school level and it is therefore very difficult to add modern contents to the existing curriculum. However, many studies have underscored the importance of integrating modern chemistry contents such as nanotechnology into a high-school…

  7. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of industrial technology exchange with international networking organizations; 2000 nendo kokusaitekina network gata soshiki tono sangyo gijutsu koryu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to promote exchange of industrial technologies, investigations and analyses were made on identification of the current status of networking organizations in different countries working as windows for industrial technology exchange, and on the actual status of technology commercialization methods in overseas incubators. Activities were taken in the following three fields: 1) the current status of networking organizations and incubators in different countries, 2) typology of technology commercialization, technical fields, and success factors, and 3) possibility of the use of technology information in the networking organizations. In Item 1), investigations were performed on the current status and actual activity status of the networking organizations including research parks and individual incubators intended of information exchange, mainly in the United States, UK, and Finland. In Item 2), considerations are given on the points related to technology incubation based on the information about the networking organizations and incubators in each country, and the way the industry-academia cooperation should be. In Item 3), discussions were given on the roles of the networking organizations and the possibility of utilization of technological information in the networking organizations in Japan. (NEDO)

  8. Fiscal 1999 international engineer exchange project (Coal mining technology field). Overseas workshop (Australia); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Goshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the technology exchange with Australian coal mining engineers, the technical levels and needs on coal production, safety and environment in Australia, and the FS result on transfer of Japanese technologies, engineer exchange and joint research in a coal mining technology field. The overseas workshop (Australia) was held on Nov. 9, 1999 (Tues.) in Brisbane, Queensland. The Australia-Japan Technology Exchange Workshop on coal resources and coal mining technology includes 5 sessions (keynote address, trends and issues of coal resource development, coal resources and production technology, coal resources and safety technology, coal resources and environmental problems), and the open forum discussion on innovative technologies for coal mining. 6 Japanese specialists and 11 Australian specialists read papers. After the workshop, the participants visited Liddell Mine in New South Wales to master natural conditions, and production and safety technology levels of Australian coal mines, and to exchange various information with Australian coal mining engineers. (NEDO)

  9. Ion Exchange and Thin Layer Chromatographic Separation and Identification of Amino Acids in a Mixture: An Experiment for General Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunauer, Linda S.; Caslavka, Katelyn E.; Van Groningen, Karinne

    2014-01-01

    A multiday laboratory exercise is described that is suitable for first-year undergraduate chemistry, biochemistry, or biotechnology students. Students gain experience in performing chromatographic separations of biomolecules, in both a column and thin layer chromatography (TLC) format. Students chromatographically separate amino acids (AA) in an…

  10. Effect of Material Ion Exchanges on the Mechanical Stiffness Properties and Shear Deformation of Hydrated Cement Material Chemistry Structure C-S-H Jennit - A Computational Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    to improve material performances. For example, cementitious materials that are the binders for mortar and concrete have material, geometrical... nanotechnology research from the nascent exploratory research which was initiated mostly to understand underlining principles to designing new materials...2005. 4. Taylor, H.F., Cement chemistry. 1997: Thomas Telford. 5. Mindess, S., J.F. Young, and D. Darwin, Concrete . 2003. 6. Nonat, A., The

  11. Project to promote the development of global environmental industry technology. Feasibility study of research exchanges; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In fiscal 1995, three teams were organized to study the following subjects: plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress; simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction; the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange. The team studying plant genetic and cellular engineering in relation to drought stress visited the Department of Botany, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, the Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Grunion University, Israel, the Department of Biochemistry and the Office of Arid Lands Studies, Arizona University, the U.S. to survey the present and future trend of the study and feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying simulation models of global environment for accurate assessment and prediction visited Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Electric Power Research Institute, and Battle Research Institute in the U.S. to survey feasibility of research exchanges. The team studying the APEC Virtual Center for environmental technology exchange visited institutes in ASEAN countries to survey needs for the Virtual Center. 312 refs., 74 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  13. 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry: Crop, Environment, and Public Health Protection, Technologies for a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Laura L; Racke, Kenneth D; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Seiber, James N

    2016-01-13

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA, USA, in August 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of agricultural research: sustainability; agriculture's response to climate change and population growth; pollinator health and risk assessment; and global food production and food security. In addition, as part of the Congress, a workshop on "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century" identified specific recommendations to attract the best scientists to agricultural science, to provide opportunities to study and conduct research on crop protection chemistry topics, and to improve science communication skills.

  14. Development of next generation micro-CHP system: Based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsalis, A.

    2012-01-15

    Novel proposals for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology are described and analyzed to investigate the technical feasibility of such systems. The proposed systems must provide electricity, hot water, and space heating for an average single-family household in Denmark. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The research project is divided into five main study topics: (a) Modeling, simulation and validation of the system in LabVIEW environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components, and thereby more realistic design in the future; (b) Modeling, parametric study, and sensitivity analysis of the system in EES (Engineering Equation Solver). The parametric study is conducted to determine the most viable system/component design based on maximizing total system efficiency; (c) An improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize operational implications, experienced when using conventional operational strategies; (d) Application of a GA (Genetic Algorithm) optimization strategy. The objective function of the single-objective optimization strategy is the net electrical efficiency of the micro-CHP system. The implemented optimization procedure attempts to maximize the objective function by variation of nine decision variables; (e) The micro-CHP system is optimized by formulating and applying a process integration methodology. The methodology involves system optimization targeting in net electrical efficiency maximization. Subsequently a MINLP (Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming) problem optimization strategy is applied to minimize the annual cost of the HEN (Heat Exchanger Network). The results obtained throughout this research work indicate the high potential of the proposed

  15. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  16. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  17. 13th IUPAC- international congress of pesticide chemistry: crop, environment, and public health protection, technologies for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    This introductory paper provides an overview of Perspectives papers written by plenary speakers from the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held in San Francisco, CA in August, 2014. This group of papers emphasizes some of the emerging issues and challenges at the forefront of...

  18. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Preliminary survey (Europe); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For effective measures for technology transfer to developing countries and effective project on exchanges of engineers, survey was conducted for main European coal producing countries including Germany and the U.K. in terms of levels of coal technology and the trends, measures for technology transfer overseas, and the present situation of the coal industry. The results of the survey were classified into the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) positioning of Germany and the U.K. in Europe; 3) coal industry in Germany; 4) coal technology in Germany; 5) coal industry in the U.K.; 6) coal technology in the U.K.; 7) coal industry in other European countries. 2) is composed of the coal situation in Europe, E.U.'s policy for aiding the coal industry of Germany, and the subsidy system of the U.K. E.U.'s coal consumption amount was 238 million Mtce in 1995, which was approximately 17% of the total energy consumption in the E.U. The coal production amount was 85 million Mtce in the E.U., 41 million Mtce in Germany and 30 million Mtce in the U.K. in 1999. Two-thirds of the consumption amount in the E.U. was import coal. (NEDO)

  19. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on research exchange possibility; 1999 nendo kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey deals with research institutions of governmental organizations, universities, and business entities for the purpose of discussing the possibility of research exchange standing on a long-term point of view to serve for solving global environment problems, and the way the exchange should be. The research exchange shall cover the areas of trends in research and development of global environment related technologies, themes for the research and development, institutions for the research and development, and exchange of researchers and information with these research organizations. In fiscal 1999, three survey missions were dispatched to cover the following three areas: (1) surveys on research possibility of catalyst development by means of combinatorial chemistry, (2) surveys on research exchange possibility for thermo-chemical solar hybrid fuel production technologies, and (3) surveys on research exchange possibility for structuring function improving technologies of the 21st century type. Each survey mission has visited research institutions of the world to survey the trends in researches related to global environment, and the possibility of exchanging researches with RITE. The visits presented the following conclusions and findings: (1) the research on the combinatorial chemistry in the U.S.A. is still in the initial stage; (2) important findings were obtained when surveys were made on methane reformation utilizing solar heat, and coal gasification technologies in Europe; and (3) surveys were made on pioneering researches on plant molecule physiology in Europe. (NEDO)

  20. Immobilization chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Sascha; Blohm, Dietmar H

    2009-01-01

    Among the parameters which influence the success of a microarray experiment, the attachment of the nucleic acid captures to the support surface plays a decisive role.This article attempts to review the main concepts and ideas of the multiple variants which exist in terms of the immobilization chemistries used in nucleic acid microarray technology. Starting from the attachment of unmodified nucleic acids to modified glass slides by adsorption, further strategies for the coupling of nucleic acid capture molecules to a variety of support materials are surveyed with a focus on the reactive groups involved in the respective process.After a brief introduction, an overview is given about microarray substrates with special emphasis on the approaches used for the activation of these - usually chemically inert - materials. In the next sections strategies for the "undefined" and "defined" immobilization of captures on the substrates are described. While the latter approach tries to accomplish the coupling via a defined reactive moiety of the molecule to be immobilized, the former mentioned techniques involve multiply occurring reactive groups in the capture.The article finishes with an example for microarray manufacture, the production of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized glass substrates to which PDITC homobifunctional linker molecules are coupled; on their part providing reactive functional groups for the covalent immobilization of pre-synthesized, amino-modified oligonucleotides.This survey does not seek to be comprehensive rather it tries to present and provide key examples for the basic techniques, and to enable orientation if more detailed studies are needed. This review should not be considered as a guide to how to use the different chemistries described, but instead as a presentation of various principles and approaches applied in the still evolving field of nucleic acid microarray technology.

  1. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  2. Host-guest chemistry of a water-soluble pillar[5]arene: evidence for an ionic-exchange recognition process and different complexation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Borja; Francisco, Vitor; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Garcia-Rio, Luis; Martín-Pastor, M; Paleo, M Rita; Sardina, F Javier

    2014-09-15

    The complexation of an anionic guest by a cationic water-soluble pillararene is reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), (1)H NMR, (1)H and (19)F DOSY, and STD NMR experiments were performed to characterize the complex formed under aqueous neutral conditions. The results of ITC and (1)H NMR analyses showed the inclusion of the guest inside the cavity of the pillar[5]arene, with the binding constant and thermodynamic parameters influenced by the counter ion of the macrocycle. NMR diffusion experiments showed that although a fraction of the counter ions are expelled from the host cavity by exchange with the guest, a complex with both counter ions and the guest inside the pillararene is formed. The results also showed that at higher concentrations of guest in solution, in addition to the inclusion of one guest molecule in the cavity, the pillararene can also form an external complex with a second guest molecule. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense Senior Vice Minister CHEN Qiufa exchanging gifts at luncheon and signing the Guest Book on 1st November 2007 with CERN Director-General R. Aymar.

  4. Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries : From Exploring Molecular Recognition to Systems Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianwei; Nowak, Piotr; Otto, Sijbren

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) is a subset of combinatorial chemistry where the library members interconvert continuously by exchanging building blocks with each other. Dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) are powerful tools for discovering the unexpected and have given rise to many

  5. Tubular Ridge Surfaces with Intensified Heat Exchange and Technology of Their Manufacturing for Air Coolers of Fuel and Energy Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Кuntysh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents designs of bimetallic ridge pipes (BRP with spirally-wound aluminium KLM-edges for heat exchange air coolers. Heat exchange BRP differ from the applied ones in heat-transfer coefficient which is higher by 10–15 %, extended temperature of applicability up to 320 °С for a cooled heat carrier at the pipe input, higher thermal reliability at alternating thermal burdens, current consumption for their manufacturing which is less by 1.8–2.5-fold, aluminium consumption which is less up to 1.8-fold, manufacturability in batch production,  availability high-production equipment.

  6. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  7. Sea-air exchange patterns along the central and outer East Siberian Arctic Shelf as inferred from continuous CO2, stable isotope, and bulk chemistry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humborg, Christoph; Geibel, Marc C.; Anderson, Leif G.; Björk, Göran; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Sundbom, Marcus; Thornton, Brett F.; Deutsch, Barbara; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo; Ek, Jörgen; Semiletov, Igor

    2017-07-01

    This large-scale quasi-synoptic study gives a comprehensive picture of sea-air CO2 fluxes during the melt season in the central and outer Laptev Sea (LS) and East Siberian Sea (ESS). During a 7 week cruise we compiled a continuous record of both surface water and air CO2 concentrations, in total 76,892 measurements. Overall, the central and outer parts of the ESAS constituted a sink for CO2, and we estimate a median uptake of 9.4 g C m-2 yr-1 or 6.6 Tg C yr-1. Our results suggest that while the ESS and shelf break waters adjacent to the LS and ESS are net autotrophic systems, the LS is a net heterotrophic system. CO2 sea-air fluxes for the LS were 4.7 g C m-2 yr-1, and for the ESS we estimate an uptake of 7.2 g C m-2 yr-1. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and δ13CCO2) in the water column indicates that the LS is depleted in δ13CDIC compared to the Arctic Ocean (ArcO) and ESS with an offset of 0.5‰ which can be explained by mixing of δ13CDIC-depleted riverine waters and 4.0 Tg yr-1 respiration of OCter; only a minor part (0.72 Tg yr-1) of this respired OCter is exchanged with the atmosphere. Property-mixing diagrams of total organic carbon and isotope ratio (δ13CSPE-DOC) versus dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration diagram indicate conservative and nonconservative mixing in the LS and ESS, respectively. We suggest land-derived particulate organic carbon from coastal erosion as an additional significant source for the depleted δ13CDIC.

  8. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  9. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  10. Staff exchange with Chemical Waste Management. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Barak, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Original objective was transfer of PNL technology and expertise in computational chemistry and waste flow/treatment modeling to CWM. Identification and characterization of a broader portfolio of PNL`s environmental remediation technologies with high potential for rapid application became the focus of the exchange, which included E-mail exchanges. Of the 14 technologies discussed, the following were identified as being of high interest to CWM: six phase soil heating (in-situ heating), high energy electrical corona, RAAS/ReOpt{trademark} (remedial, expert system), TEES{trademark} (catalytic production of methane from biological wastes), PST (process for treating petroleum sludge). CWM`s reorganization and downsizing reduced the potential benefits to industry, but a proposal for transfer and application of PST to Wheelabrator was made.

  11. Characterization of sodium stibogluconate by online liquid separation cell technology monitored by ICPMS and ESMS and computational chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rusz; Hansen, Claus; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and computational chemistry has been applied to resolve the composition and structure of the Sb species present in dilutions of Pentostam, a first-line treatment drug against Leishmania parasites. Using HPLC-inductively coupled......(V)-glyconate complexes of various stoichiometry (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:2, 2:3, 2:4, 3:3, 3:4). The 1:1 complex became the most abundant low molecular mass Sb(V) complex with dilution time. A novel mixed-mode chromatographic system was applied in order to separate complexes of various stoichiometry and isomers. Density...

  12. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (Indonesia); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Indonesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of making effective technology exchanges and surveying levels of technology in Indonesia and the needs and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held in Jakarta city on March 1, 2001. Subjects were the following seven: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, challenge in coal development in Indonesia, geological structure survey at Tanjung Enim coal mine, waste water treatment in Indonesia, outlook for underground mining coal mines, joint research on the centralized monitoring system, and introduction of the optimum high wall coal mining system into open pit mining coal mines in Indonesia. The coal production amount in Indonesia was 75 million tons, and the domestic demand was 22 million tons. Japan imported 14 million tons from Indonesia. In coal mines in Indonesia, most of the coal preparation plants have no waste water treatment facilities. Considering that waste water treatment facilities are necessary for the plants in future, the joint research was made on the simple coal preparation waste water treatment system. (NEDO)

  13. Scientific Information Analysis of Chemistry Dissertations Using Thesaurus of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Rajabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.

  14. A New Adsorbent Composite Material Based on Metal Fiber Technology and Its Application in Adsorption Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Wittstadt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve process intensification for adsorption chillers and heat pumps, a new composite material was developed based on sintered aluminum fibers from a melt-extraction process and a dense layer of silico-aluminophosphate (SAPO-34 on the fiber surfaces. The SAPO-34 layer was obtained through a partial support transformation (PST process. Preparation of a composite sample is described and its characteristic pore size distribution and heat conductivity are presented. Water adsorption data obtained under conditions of a large pressure jump are given. In the next step, preparation of the composite was scaled up to larger samples which were fixed on a small adsorption heat exchanger. Adsorption measurements on this heat exchanger element that confirm the achieved process intensification are presented. The specific cooling power for the adsorption step per volume of composite is found to exceed 500 kW/m3 under specified conditions.

  15. Product technology and market assessment for silicon carbide whisker reinforced alumina heat-exchanger tubes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutfy, R.O.; Withers, J.C. [Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States); Chakravarti, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a study designed to develop an assessment of key performance features, desirable technical specifications and market potential for silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina (henceforth SCWRA) tubes for heat exchanger applications in a number of industries. The results of the first stage of a Delphi study conducted in the US market are presented. The second phase of the study is in progress. The first stage results suggest that there is a small market for SCWRA tubes in heat exchanger applications. The market is expected to grow steadily during the 1990`s. With appropriate performance specifications and competitive pricing, growth should come from (a) new applications that permit recovery in cases that were previously infeasible and (b) selective, partial substitution and replacement of current ceramics and metal/ceramic composites in existing applications. We identify key performance factors and detailed specifications needed in six designated industries (primary metals, fabricated metals, chemicals, glass, utility and incinerators). Reliability, durability and low maintenance costs emerge as critical performance factors across these industries. The data show that although ceramics are recognized as having better properties, enhancing reliability and durability and thus improving maintenance cost performance is a key priority. Such improvements, reflected in the objectives for SCWRA tubes, should facilitate adoption in both new and existing applications. At this time, we are unable to assess market size directly. However, expert judgment provided indices tracking the projected market for heat exchanger tubes from 1990 to 2005.

  16. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  17. Density functional theory in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuneda, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book examines density functional theory based on the foundation of quantum chemistry. Unconventional in approach, it reviews basic concepts, then describes the physical meanings of state-of-the-art exchange-correlation functionals and their corrections.

  18. Comparison of reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange trimodal stationary phases and their use in active pharmaceutical ingredient and counterion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher A

    2012-04-06

    This study involved three commercial reversed-phase (RP)/anion-exchange (AEX)/cation-exchange (CEX) trimodal columns, namely Acclaim Trinity P1 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Obelisc R (SIELC Technologies) and Scherzo SM-C18 (Imtakt). Their chromatographic properties were compared in details with respect to hydrophobicity, anion-exchange capacity, cation-exchange capacity, and selectivity, by studying retention behavior dependency on organic solvent, buffer concentration and pH. It was found that their remarkably different column chemistries resulted in distinctive chromatography properties. Trinity P1 exhibited strong anion-exchange and cation-exchange interactions but low RP retention while Scherzo SM-C18 showed strong reversed-phase retention with little cation-exchange and anion-exchange capacities. For Obelisc R, its reversed-phase capacity was weaker than Scherzo SM-C18 but slightly higher than Trinity P1, and its ion-exchange retentions were between Trinity P1 and Scherzo SM-C18. In addition, their difference in selectivity was demonstrated by examples of determining the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and counterion of drug products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Podcasts in the Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Leite

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide facilities in teaching through education. There are many new tools and methodologies that use ICT as a knowledge-building support, but that are not always related to pedagogical practice. The Podcast is an important technology that can be used in the classroom. Using this tool, it can make the most interactive chemistry class, fleeing the classroom routine. However, it is necessary to point out that the podcast is just one feature that should be incorporated into education and not a substitute. This paper describes the development of Chemistry Podcasts by teachers and chemistry students in three disciplines in 2015. This study took place over a one-year period in a public University, in Pernambuco, Brazil. In the discipline of "Computer applied to the teaching of chemistry" participated 21 Chemistry teachers. In the disciplines of "Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching of chemistry" and "Informatics, Chemistry and Education" was composed of 54 undergraduate students in chemistry. Twelve podcasts were elaborated by students and five by teachers in this paper we present only nine. The results showed the contribution of podcasts produced by teachers and students in teaching and learning process chemistry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.898

  20. Development of Technology and Equipment of the Automated Laser Welding for Manufacturing Heat Exchanger Details of Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelyagin, V.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developed automated laser welding technology for flat tubes of copper-nickel alloys laser welding complex technological equipment, which can be applied on the enterprises of machine building, aerospace, shipbuilding and automobile industries, was designed and created. To control the integrity of welded flat tubes a technique, which consists in testing sample pressure and finding defective sections by laser interferometry in the automated mode, was developed. Specialized welding head was designed and manufactured for the industrial use of the developed laser welding technology.

  1. Engineer exchanging project on coal mine technology field in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (advance survey on North America); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Hokubei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has been performed with an intention of making visiting surveys and information collection at coal related organizations in overseas coal producing countries on production technology levels and trends. The project is intended to serve for improvement in the contents of and smooth execution of the engineer exchange project in the 'coal mine technology field. It was carried out by the site surveys. The surveys revealed that the situation of the American coal industry is expected of stable increase in the demand and supply in the future, but the coal price is on the falling trend, and therefore, the industry is compelled to further increase the intensity and enhance the productivity. The industry is strongly influenced by the amended air pollution prevention act and nature destruction problems, hence further coal mine curtailment is estimated. Under such a background, it was found that the long-wall mining process progressing toward larger scale and higher productivity, and the high-wall mining process that provides higher productivity at lower cost and has less impact on the environmental problems can continue development in mountainous areas, particularly in the Appalachian area. The high-wall mining process mines coal at exposed facings on the side of a mountain by using a continuous miner, and transports the coal using machines. (NEDO)

  2. NASA/University JOint VEnture (JOVE) Program. VIXEN(tm): Object-Oriented, Technology-Adaptive, Virtual Information Exchange Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyiwo, Joshua C.

    2000-01-01

    Vixen is a collection of enabling technologies for uninhibited distributed object computing. In the Spring of 1995 when Vixen was proposed, it was an innovative idea very much ahead of its time. But today the technologies proposed in Vixen have become standard technologies for Enterprise Computing. Sun Microsystems J2EE/EJB specifications, among others, are independently proposed technologies of the Vixen type. I have brought Vixen completely under the J2EE standard in order to maximize interoperability and compatibility with other computing industry efforts. Vixen and the Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) Server technologies are now practically identical; OIL, another Vixen technology, and the Java Messaging System (JMS) are practically identical; and so on. There is no longer anything novel or patentable in the Vixen work performed under this grant. The above discussion, notwithstanding, my independent development of Vixen has significantly helped me, my university, my students and the local community. The undergraduate students who worked with me in developing Vixen have enhanced their expertise in what has become the cutting edge technology of their industry and are therefore well positioned for lucrative employment opportunities in the industry. My academic department has gained a new course: "Multi-media System Development", which provides a highly desirable expertise to our students for employment in any enterprise today. The many Outreach Programs that I conducted during this grant period have exposed local Middle School students to the contributions that NASA is making in our society as well as awakened desires in many such students for careers in Science and Technology. I have applied Vixen to the development of two software packages: (a) JAS: Joshua Application Server - which allows a user to configure an EJB Server to serve a J2EE compliant application over the world wide web; (b) PCM: Professor Course Manager: a J2EE compliant application for configuring a

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with China (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kenshu Chugoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A coal mining engineer exchange project was implemented by Japan and China for improving on coal mining engineers' production and management technologies in the Asia-Pacific region. Six engineers were dispatched to the jurisdiction of Kailuan Co., Ltd., Tangshan City, who stayed there in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. The six engineers gave lectures and training on the coal situation in the world, coal mining technology, degassing technology, production control technology, safety management technology, management technology, and the like. Ten trainees were received, who were given lectures and training at Taiheiyo Coal Mining Corporation, Kushiro City, in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. Coal mining technologies that were taught involved drift excavation, rock-bed excavation, rock bolting, and transportation. Production control technologies that were taught involved production control, equipment management, technology development, quality control, risk control, and management technologies. (NEDO)

  4. Examining the effects of technology-enhanced, inquiry-based laboratories on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning ability and attitudes of community college chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantley, Scott Jackson

    This study investigated the effects of inquiry-based technology-enhanced, laboratories with the use of Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) activities on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning skills, and attitudes of introductory general chemistry community college students. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest comparison and treatment group design. The treatment group received a MBL technology. Inquiry-based laboratory activities were used for each. Four major research questions were explored in my study. The following instruments were used: the Modified Lawson Test of Scientific Reasoning; the Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS); the modified laboratory instrument ("Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" with accompanies content questions, validated by a panel of chemists, as well as an attitude survey. Mean scores from the Lawson, TOGS, Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption labs, content knowledge questions were analyzed using t-tests to determine if a statistical significance exists between their mean scores. Basic statistics were used to analyze the attitude survey. The results from the Lawson revealed that students' mean score performance were not statistically significant between treatment and comparison groups. The t-test results indicated that each group had similar reasoning ability. The TOGS t-test results revealed that the mean scores were not statistically significant between each group. The results suggest that each group had similar graphing abilities. However, significant differences in the mean scores were found on their performance for the "Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" laboratories. Conducting a follow-up assessment of content knowledge for Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption, revealed that no statistically significant difference exists on their mean scores, suggesting that though treatment students' performance was improved in the laboratory by

  5. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  6. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  7. A High School-Collegiate Outreach Program in Chemistry and Biology Delivering Modern Technology in a Mobile Van

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craney, Chris; Mazzeo, April; Lord, Kaye

    1996-07-01

    During the past five years the nation's concern for science education has expanded from a discussion about the future supply of Ph.D. scientists and its impact on the nation's scientific competitiveness to the broader consideration of the science education available to all students. Efforts to improve science education have led many authors to suggest greater collaboration between high school science teachers and their college/university colleagues. This article reviews the experience and outcomes of the Teachers + Occidental = Partnership in Science (TOPS) van program operating in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area. The program emphasizes an extensive ongoing staff development, responsiveness to teachers' concerns, technical and on-site support, and sustained interaction between participants and program staff. Access to modern technology, including computer-driven instruments and commercial data analysis software, coupled with increased teacher content knowledge has led to empowerment of teachers and changes in student interest in science. Results of student and teacher questionnaires are reviewed.

  8. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  9. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-01-01

    A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cos...

  10. Digital technology use among disadvantaged Australians: implications for equitable consumer participation in digitally-mediated communication and information exchange with health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Baum, Fran

    2012-05-01

    To present research findings on access to, and use of, digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) by Australians from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds to determine implications for equitable consumer access to digitally-mediated health services and information. Focus groups were held in 2008-09 with 80 residents from lower income and disadvantaged backgrounds in South Australia, predominantly of working- and family-formation age (25 to 55 years). Qualitative analysis was conducted on a-priori and emergent themes to describe dominant categories. Access to, and use of, computers, the Internet and mobile phones varied considerably in extent, frequency and quality within and across groups due to differences in abilities, resources and life experience. Barriers and facilitators included English literacy (including for native speakers), technological literacy, education, income, housing situation, social connection, health status, employment status, and trust. Many people gained ICT skills by trial and error or help from friends, and only a few from formal programs, resulting in varied skills. The considerable variation in ICT access and use within lower income and disadvantaged groups must be acknowledged and accommodated by health initiatives and services when delivering digitally-mediated consumer-provider interaction, online health information, or online self-management of health conditions. If services require consumers to participate in a digitally-mediated communication exchange, then we suggest they might support skills and technology acquisition, or provide non-ICT alternatives, in order to avoid exacerbating health inequities.

  11. Survey report of FY 1997 on the global environmental industry technology development promotion project. International research exchange project; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo (kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Exchange of personnel among foreign research organizations is significant for promoting research and development to create new research fields and to build new technological systems for the purpose of solving global environmental problems. For this purpose, researchers were sent/invited to/from international conferences and international symposiums related to global environmental technology and exchange of personnel with major foreign research organizations and universities was conducted under the cooperation of RITE and RITE-related researchers and related academic societies. Based on short-term invitation and sending of researchers as well as the feasibility study of researcher exchange, researchers were sent/invited on long- and mid-terms. As a result, exchange of personnel engaged in the latest research in Japan and overseas could be promoted. It was found that various researches are being conducted abroad in basic areas of global environmental technology. Since they are closely related to the research and development of industrial technology contributing to global environmental preservation promoted by RITE, it is important to establish a more efficient exchange system of researchers in the future. 91 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  13. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2B. Alabama. Water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Alabama study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricks, J D; Bogner, J E; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Johnson, D O

    1980-05-01

    As part of a program to examine the ability of existing control technologies to meet federal guidelines for the quality of aqueous effluents from coal mines, an intensive study of water, coal, and overburden chemistry was conducted at a surface coal mine in Alabama from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites included the pit sump, a stream downgrade from the mine, the discharge from the water treatment facility, and a small stream outside the mine drainage. Water samples were collected every two weeks by Argonne subcontractors at the Alabama Geological Survey and analysed for the following parameters: specific conductance, pH, temperature, acidity, bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfate, and 20 metals. Analysis of the coal and overburden shows that no potential acid problem exists at this mine. Water quality is good in both streams sampled, and high levels of dissolved elements are found only in water collected from the pit sump. The mine effluent is in compliance with Office of Surface Mining water quality standards.

  14. In-Frame and Unmarked Gene Deletions in Burkholderia cenocepacia via an Allelic Exchange System Compatible with Gateway Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Mustafa; Harrison, Joe J.; Gambino, Michela; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis, which are often difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Understanding the genetic basis of virulence in this emerging pathogen is important for the development of novel treatment regimes. Generation of deletion mutations in genes predicted to encode virulence determinants is fundamental to investigating the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, there is a lack of appropriate selectable and counterselectable markers for use in B. cenocepacia, making its genetic manipulation problematic. Here we describe a Gateway-compatible allelic exchange system based on the counterselectable pheS gene and the I-SceI homing endonuclease. This system provides efficiency in cloning homology regions of target genes and allows the generation of precise and unmarked gene deletions in B. cenocepacia. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its utility by deleting the Bcam1349 gene, encoding a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-responsive regulator protein important for biofilm formation. PMID:25795676

  15. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and electric vehicle applications: From basic research to technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Parthasarathy, A.; CesarFerreira, A.; Wakizoe, Masanobu; Rho, Yong Woo; Kim, Junbom; Mosdale, Renaut A.; Paetzold, Ronald F.; Lee, James

    1994-01-01

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising electrochemical power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. The wide spectrum of R&D activities on PEMFC's, carried out in our Center from 1988 to date, is as follows (1) Electrode Kinetic and Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction; (2) Optimization of Structures of Electrodes and of Membrane and Electrode Assemblies; (3) Selection and Evaluation of Advanced Proton Conducting Membranes and of Operating Conditions to Attain High Energy Efficiency; (4) Modeling Analysis of Fuel Cell Performance and of Thermal and Water Management; and (5) Engineering Design and Development of Multicell Stacks. The accomplishments on these tasks may be summarized as follows: (1) A microelectrode technique was developed to determine the electrode kinetic parameters for the fuel cell reactions and mass transport parameters for the H2 and O2 reactants in the proton conducting membrane. (2) High energy efficiencies and high power densities were demonstrated in PEMFCs with low platinum loading electrodes (0.4 mg/cm(exp 2) or less), advanced membranes and optimized structures of membrane and electrode assemblies, as well as operating conditions. (3) The modeling analyses revealed methods to minimize mass transport limitations, particularly with air as the cathodic reactant; and for efficient thermal and water management. (4) Work is in progress to develop multi-kilowatt stacks with the electrodes containing low platinum loadings.

  16. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  17. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  18. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  19. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  20. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  1. Evaluation of the feasibility of security technologies in teleradiology as biometric fingerprint scanners for data exchange over a satellite WAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soegner, Peter I.; Helweg, Gernot; Holzer, Heimo; zur Nedden, Dieter

    2000-05-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of fingerprint-scanners in combination with smart cards for personal identification and transmission of encrypted TCP/IP-data-packages via satellite between the university-hospital of Innsbruck and the rural hospital of Reutte. The aim of our study was the proof of the userfriendliness of the SkymedTM technology for security purpose in teleradiology. We examined the time of the personal identification process, the time for the necessary training and the personal satisfaction. The images were sent from the local PACS in Reutte via a Data-Encryption-and-Transmission- Box via satellite from Reutte to Innsbruck. We used an asymmetric bandwidth of 512 kbit/s from Reutte to Innsbruck and 128 kbit/s in the opposite direction. Window NT 4.0- operating PCs were used for the electronical patient record, the medical inquiry of the referring physician and the final report of the radiologist. The images were reported on an UNIX-PACS viewing station. After identification through fingerprint-scanners in combination with the smart card the radiologist was able to open the electronic patient record (EPR) from Reutte and sign with his digital signature his confirmed final report before it was send back to Reutte. The used security technology enables encrypted communication over a WAN, which fulfill data-protection.

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on result of project for promoting exchange of international environmental technology information; 2000 nendo kankyo gijutsu kokusai joho koryu sokushin jigyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With the purpose of sharing environmental technology information of the APEC countries, the homepage structuring was commenced linking and systematizing the home pages owned by governments, institutions, enterprises, etc., as the APEC Virtual Center (APEC-VC) project, with the fiscal 2000 results reported. In creating the homepage contents, in order to disseminate more useful information for the developing countries, 'Environmental Technology Cooperation for Developing Countries' as the original contents was prepared. In building a search engine, for the purpose of improving convenience for website users of the Virtual Center, APEC VC Japan created a retrieval system on the site. In overseas investigation, the researchers visited local plants to grasp problems and the needs by enterprises and organizations on water-pollution, waste treatment and the like, with the purpose of reflecting the investigation result in the website. In addition, the researchers visited APEC VC coordinators and/or contact points to exchange opinions with the view of expanding the network. (NEDO)

  3. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  4. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffense Etienne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. Among the topics which I worked out, I highlighted more particularly the following subjects: the degumming chemistry of oil and fat; the improvement of physical refining; a new chemical analytical tool for the dry fractionation; new development in the dry fractionation

  5. Game Changing Development Program - Next Generation Life Support Project: Oxygen Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Using Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jiao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the Phase I research and development work performed during the March 13, 2015 to July 13, 2016 period. The proposal for this work was submitted in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH14ZOA001N, "Space Technology Research, Development, Demonstration, and Infusion 2014 (SpaceTech-REDDI-2014)," Appendix 14GCD-C2 "Game Changing Development Program, Advanced Oxygen Recovery for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Appendix" The Task Agreement for this Phase I work is Document Control Number: GCDP-02-TA-15015. The objective of the Phase I project was to demonstrate in laboratories two Engineering Development Units (EDU) that perform critical functions of the low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis and the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide into carbon and carbon dioxide. The low temperature carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was built by the University of Delaware with Dr. Feng Jiao as the principal investigator in charge of this EDU development (under NASA Contract NNC15CA04C). The carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was built by the NASA Glenn Research Center with Kenneth Burke as the principal investigator and overall project leader for the development of both EDUs. Both EDUs were successfully developed and demonstrated the critical functions for each process. The carbon dioxide electrolysis EDU was delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center and the carbon monoxide catalytic conversion EDU was delivered to the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center.

  6. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with Vietnam (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A coal mining engineer exchange project was implemented by Japan and Vietnam for improving on coal mining engineers' production and management technologies in the Asia-Pacific region. Six engineers were dispatched to Hon Cam Training School for mine workers, Hon Gai, where they taught in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. There were 18 trainees, to whom lectures were given on 16 subjects including the steep slope mining method, excavation technology, transportation technology, ventilation control technology, production control technology, quality control technology, cost and material control, risk control, and centralized monitoring technology. Discussion was also held on the subjects. Ten trainees were invited and received mainly by Taiheiyo Coal Mining Corporation for the period August 24 through September 9, 2000, where they were given lectures and underwent training in the mine. The trainees also visited Isoko Power Station, Coal Research Institute of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., and Kushiro Plant of Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. (NEDO)

  7. 78 FR 38203 - Refunds and Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Service through the manager, Payment Technology, USPS Headquarters. Subsequently, as part of this final... from the manager, Payment Technology (see 608.8.1 for address). * * * * * 9.0 Exchanges and Refunds... Not Exchangeable The following postage items cannot be exchanged: a. Adhesive stamps, unless mistakes...

  8. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  10. Chemistry and technology of surfactants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farn, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    ... 2.3.1 Micelles and critical micelle concentration 2.3.2 Aggregate structures and shapes 2.4 Adsorption of surfactants at surfaces 2.4.1 Adsorption at liquid- gas and liquid- liquid interfaces 2.4....

  11. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  12. Electron Driven Chemistry In Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of novel process windows by the combination of atmospheric pressure plasmas with microreaction technology. In the first chapter, recent literature on microreactor technology and non-equilibirum microplasma chemistry is discussed. The focus is on microplasmas in

  13. On Study of New Progress and Application of Coordination Chemistry in Chemistry and Chemical Industry in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshen

    2017-12-01

    Coordination chemistry refers to a branch of chemistry, and its research results are widely used in industry and people's daily life. Many edge disciplines emerge during the development, which propels the process of disciplines and technology. This paper briefly discusses new progress of coordination chemistry and its application in chemistry and chemical industry in recent years.

  14. Food carbohydrate chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrolstad, R. E

    2012-01-01

    .... Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates...

  15. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  16. Confectionary Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elise Hilf

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities and demonstrations that enable teachers to use various types of confections as tactile experiences to spark chemistry students' interest and generate enthusiasm for learning. Presents uses of candy in teaching about atomic structure, spontaneous nuclear decay, chemical formulas, fractoluminescence, the effect of a molecular…

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  18. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with Indonesia (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Indonesia rich in coal resources consumed 70-million tons of coal in 1999, which covered 17% of its total energy demand. It is estimated that as much as 120-million tons will be produced in 2005, and it is expected that underground mining will increase. Under such circumstances, Indonesia strongly desires that Japan's underground mining technologies be transferred to Indonesia. For the transfer of technologies especially involving production control and management out of Japan's underground mining technologies, Japan dispatched engineers to Indonesia under a mining engineer exchange project, and received and trained Indonesian engineers. Under the engineer exchange project, five engineers were dispatched to Indonesia and gave lectures and on-site training in the period July 9 through August 5, 2000. Japan received seven engineers, who were given lectures and training at the Ikeshima mining field of Matsushima Coal Mining Company in the period November 12 through December 12, 2000. (NEDO)

  19. An intervention to help community-based organizations implement an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention: the Mpowerment Project technology exchange system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegeles, Susan M; Rebchook, Gregory; Pollack, Lance; Huebner, David; Tebbetts, Scott; Hamiga, John; Sweeney, David; Zovod, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    Considerable resources have been spent developing and rigorously testing HIV prevention intervention models, but such models do not impact the AIDS pandemic unless they are implemented effectively by community-based organizations (CBOs) and health departments. The Mpowerment Project (MP) is being implemented by CBOs around the U.S. It is a multilevel, evidence-based HIV prevention program for young gay/bisexual men that targets individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues by using empowerment and community mobilization methods. This paper discusses the development of an intervention to help CBOs implement the MP called the Mpowerment Project Technology Exchange System (MPTES); CBOs' uptake, utilization and perceptions of the MPTES components; and issues that arose during technical assistance. The seven-component MPTES was provided to 49 CBOs implementing the MP that were followed longitudinally for up to two years. Except for the widely used program manual, other program materials were used early in implementing the MP and then their use declined. In contrast, once technical assistance was proactively provided, its usage remained constant over time, as did requests for technical assistance. CBOs expressed substantial positive feedback about the MPTES, but felt that it needs more focus on diversity issues, describing real world implementation approaches, and providing guidance on how to adapt the MP to diverse populations.

  20. Current status and future perspectives of electron interactions with molecules, clusters, surfaces, and interfaces [Workshop on Fundamental challenges in electron-driven chemistry; Workshop on Electron-driven processes: Scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt H.; McCurdy, C. William; Orlando, Thomas M.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2000-09-01

    This report is based largely on presentations and discussions at two workshops and contributions from workshop participants. The workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Electron-Driven Chemistry was held in Berkeley, October 9-10, 1998, and addressed questions regarding theory, computation, and simulation. The workshop on Electron-Driven Processes: Scientific Challenges and Technological Opportunities was held at Stevens Institute of Technology, March 16-17, 2000, and focused largely on experiments. Electron-molecule and electron-atom collisions initiate and drive almost all the relevant chemical processes associated with radiation chemistry, environmental chemistry, stability of waste repositories, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, plasma processing of materials for microelectronic devices and other applications, and novel light sources for research purposes (e.g. excimer lamps in the extreme ultraviolet) and in everyday lighting applications. The life sciences are a rapidly advancing field where the important role of electron-driven processes is only now beginning to be recognized. Many of the applications of electron-initiated chemical processes require results in the near term. A large-scale, multidisciplinary and collaborative effort should be mounted to solve these problems in a timely way so that their solution will have the needed impact on the urgent questions of understanding the physico-chemical processes initiated and driven by electron interactions.

  1. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  2. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  3. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  4. Proceedings of the third international steam generator and heat exchanger conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Third International Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger conference had the objective to present the state of knowledge of steam generator performance and life management, and also heat exchanger technology. As this conference followed on from the previous conferences held in Toronto in 1990 and 1994, the emphasis was on recent developments, particularly those of the last 4 years. The conference provided an opportunity to operators, designers and researchers in the field of steam generation associated with electricity generation by nuclear energy to present their findings and exchange ideas. The conference endeavoured to do this over the widest possible range of subject areas,including: general operating experience, life management and fitness for service strategies, maintenance and inspection, thermalhydraulics, vibration, fretting and fatigue, materials, chemistry and corrosion and the regulatory issues.

  5. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  6. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Cytec Industries, developed the MAX HT sodalite scale inhibitor for heat exchangers and pipes in the Bayer process, which converts bauxite into alumina.

  8. Interstellar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature. PMID:16894148

  9. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea-ice-covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea-ice as "melt ponds" and below sea-ice as "interface waters") and mixed-layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At 19 stations, the salinity (∼0.5 to 1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (>8.2 to 10.8). All of the observed melt ponds had very low (pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed-layer pCO2, thereby enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea-ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

    2011-01-01

    Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This…

  11. Towards quantum dot and FRET-based optical DNA biosensor technology: surface chemistry and photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnS and Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, W. Russ; Zhou, Yuehui; Zeng, Jiang; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2007-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are nanostructures that are highly attractive to optical biosensing. We have developed a nucleic acid biosensing strategy based on the use of quantum dots as energy donors in FRET. One of the challenges in such an approach is avoiding the non-specific adsorption of oligonucleotides. In this report, we describe our efforts to develop poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrophilic surface chemistry and hexanethiol based hydrophobic surface chemistry to alleviate non-specific adsorption. With respect to the former, it was found that the PEG surface chemistry strongly quenched the band-edge luminescence of CdSe/ZnS QDs and yielded significant band-gap luminescence. Furthermore, the PEG chemistry proved ineffective in preventing adsorption. With respect to hexanethiol capped CdSe/ZnS QDs, it was found that good QD luminescence was retained in organic solvent but was quenched in aqueous solution. The use of hydrophobic hexanethiol QDs in aqueous solution required the immobilization of QDs. To achieve this, we used thiol modified biotin and avidin coated fused silica optical fibers. Despite the quenching of the QDs, minimal adsorption was observed suggesting the methodology has good potential. In addition, we describe the development of a one-pot method for both the synthesis and capping of silicon QDs. Our approach also allows versatile post-synthetic modification of the silicon QD capping to produce a variety of functional groups. Silicon QDs are of interest in biosensing due to their biocompatibility and much lower toxicity compared to II-VI semiconductors.

  12. Focus: Bridging the Chemistry-Statistics Gap: Chemometrics Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents highlights of a conference that provided an open forum for experts in statistics and in chemistry to exchange views on how research in statistical modeling and analysis can affect research in chemistry. A list of activities to reach new "customers" (including teaching chemometrics in high school) is included. (JN)

  13. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  14. The Eighth Central European Conference ?Chemistry towards Biology?: Snapshot?

    OpenAIRE

    Perczel, Andr?s; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Sklen??, Vladim?r; Nov??ek, Ji??; Papou?kov?, Veronika; Kade??vek, Pavel; ??dek, Luk??; Koz?owski, Henryk; Wat?y, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Ko?kowska, Paulina; Ko?a, Jaroslav; Svobodov?-Va?ekov?, Radka; Pravda, Luk??; Sehnal, David

    2016-01-01

    The Eighth Central European Conference “Chemistry towards Biology” was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28–September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered “Chemistry towards Biology”, meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biol...

  15. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  16. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  17. Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Engel

    2017-01-01

    Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry www.rug.nl/research/gbb The scientific discoveries in biomolecular sciences have benefitted enormously from technological innovations. At the Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (GBB) we now sequence a genome in days,

  18. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea ice covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea ice as "melt ponds" and below sea ice as "interface waters") and mixed layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At nineteen stations, the salinity (~ 0.5 to 1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (8 to 10.7). All of observed melt ponds had very low (pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed layer pCO2 enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Meltwater contributions to changes in mixed-layer DIC were also used to estimate net community production rates (mean of 46.9 ±29.8 g C m-2 for the early-season period) under sea-ice cover. Although sea-ice melt is a transient seasonal feature, above-ice melt pond coverage can be substantial (10 to > 50%) and under-ice interface melt water is ubiquitous during this spring/summer sea-ice retreat. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to predict in an era of rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean.

  20. Designing Alkaline Exchange Membranes from Scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-10

    perfluorinated backbones invite interesting comparisons with the analogous proton exchange membranes. Conference Name: 220th ECS Meeting Conference...based on perfluorinated backbones invite interesting comparisons with the analogous proton exchange membranes. doi: 10.1149/1.3635708 2011, Volume 41...Liberatore,a and Andrew M. Herring,a a Department of Chemical Engineering and bDepartment of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Headwaters Technology Innovation, developed a metal nanocatalyst to synthesize hydrogen peroxide directly from hydrogen and oxygen, eliminating hazardous chemicals.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winner, Buckman Laboratories International, developed Optimyze technology, which uses an esterase enzyme to remove sticky contaminants from paper products prior to recycling.

  3. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  4. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  5. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    Contents: Adsorption, Chemistry,Alkaloids, Analytical Chemistry, Catalysis,Chemical Industry,,Coal Gasification, Combustion, Electrochemistry,Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Free Radicals, Inorganic...

  6. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  7. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization…

  8. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Workshop in Japan; 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya). Kokusai koryu jigyo (kokunai workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of surveying a possibility of transfer of Japanese technology and strengthening the engineer sending project and engineer receiving/training project, Asia/Pacific Coal Workshop was held in Tokyo on November 29 and 30, 2000. On the 1st day, 9 persons including 5 from overseas and 4 from Japan gave lectures on coal production technology. On the 2nd day, after the session on safety, a panel discussion titled 'How to handle global environmental problems' was made. The lectures given were 'Development of coal resource and technical innovation,' and 'Heightening of production technology and utilization of unused resource.' The titles of the engineers invited from overseas were as follows: Trend of resource assessment/exploration technology in Australia and the subjects; Trend of resource assessment/exploration technology in Russia and the subjects; Auger coal mining - new coal mining system and possibility in the U.S. market; Successful restructure in the coal industry of Germany by technology improvement in long-wall mining/transportation/infrastructure; Present situation and future outlook of Indonesian low-ash/low-sulfur coal. (NEDO)

  9. Information Technologies as a Tool for Agricultural Extension and Farmer-to-Farmer Exchange: Mobile-Phone Video Use in Mali and Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando; Nicolay, Gian; Home, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are widespread in the rural areas of Mali and Burkina Faso, but their potential as a tool for knowledge transfer by extension services in the region remains largely unexplored. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of video on mobile phones as a tool for farmer-to-farmer exchange and agricultural extension in…

  10. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  11. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part I: purification of decayed thorium-227 on cation exchange columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-02-01

    Targeted thorium conjugates (TTCs) are being explored as a potential future platform for specific tumor targeting pharmaceuticals. In TTCs, the alpha emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th) with a half-life of 18.697 d is labeled to targeting moieties, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The amount of daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.435 d) will increase during manufacture and distribution, and so a technology for purification is required to assure an acceptable level of (223)Ra is administrated to the patient. Since (223)Ra is the only progeny of (227)Th with a long half-life (days), the progenies of (223)Ra will have a very limited stay in the formulation once (223)Ra is removed. The focus in this study has, therefore, been on the removal of (223)Ra. In this study, the sorption and separation of (223)Ra (radium(II)) and (227)Th (thorium(IV)) on cation exchange columns has been evaluated as a purification method of decayed (227)Th (i.e. prior to radiolabelling of a mAb and formation of TTC). The goal is to minimize the sorption of (227)Th and maximize the sorption of (223)Ra. Statistical experimental design with formulation and process parameters, including buffered formulations comprising citrate and acetate, at various concentrations and pH, presence of free radical scavenger and chelator, and resin amount have been evaluated for impact on the purification process. The studies have been interpreted by the aid of multivariate data analysis. The correlations between design of experimental variables and sorption are summarized by regression models. The predictive accuracy of radionuclide sorption was given by standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals originating from statistical cross validation. Experimental results and statistical models for citrate-buffered formulations verified reproducible and acceptable sorption levels of (223)Ra and (227)Th under selected conditions. For acetate-buffered formulations, prediction of (227)Th

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  13. Chemistry in Our Life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    toothpaste, soaps and cosmetics, (7) plastics and polymers, (8) chemistry in health and disease, (9) chemistry of building, (10) fire chemistry and (11) chemistry of electricity. To write on these topics at a popular level for lay persons, without bringing in chemical for- mulas, structures or equations, is extremely difficult.

  14. Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Willie E.; Cavanagh, Richard R.; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody V.; DeRose, Paul; Choquette, Steven J.; Kramer, Gary W.; Sieber, John R.; Greenberg, Robert R.; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen W.; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth W.; Scott, John H. J.; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan J.; Matschat, Ralf; Reich, Peter

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  15. Silane Discharge Ion Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert Hood, III

    We have studied silane dc, rf and dc proximity discharges, using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. We have developed qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges from our measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, we have measured the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane, and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, we have measured the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He('+), Ne('+), and Ar('+) with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane, as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. We have developed a detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge, by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that we have gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  16. Many-electron approaches in physics, chemistry and mathematics a multidisciplinary view

    CERN Document Server

    Site, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad description of the development and (computational) application of many-electron approaches from a multidisciplinary perspective. In the context of studying many-electron systems Computer Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are all intimately interconnected. However, beyond a handful of communities working at the interface between these disciplines, there is still a marked separation of subjects. This book seeks to offer a common platform for possible exchanges between the various fields and to introduce the reader to perspectives for potential further developments across the disciplines. The rapid advances of modern technology will inevitably require substantial improvements in the approaches currently used, which will in turn make exchanges between disciplines indispensable. In essence this book is one of the very first attempts at an interdisciplinary approach to the many-electron problem.

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Ligand Exchange Reaction Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Visible spectrophotometry is used to study the kinetics of ligand exchange in the system Ni(salpn)/H2salen with or without triethylamine (NEt3) and ... coordination chemistry.4,5 However, the kinetics of polydentate ligands exchange ..... chlorides and tetraaza Schiff bases: synthesis and characterization of some novel tin(IV) ...

  18. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  19. Mars aqueous chemistry experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benton C.; Mason, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment (MACE) is designed to conduct a variety of measurements on regolith samples, encompassing mineral phase analyses, chemical interactions with H2O, and physical properties determinations. From these data, much can be learned or inferred regarding the past weathering environment, the contemporaneous soil micro-environments, and the general chemical and physical state of the Martian regolith. By analyzing both soil and duricrust samples, the nature of the latter may become more apparent. Sites may be characterized for comparative purposes and criteria could be set for selection of high priority materials on future sample return missions. Progress for the first year MACE PIDDP is reported in two major areas of effort: (1) fluids handling concepts, definition, and breadboard fabrication and (2) aqueous chemistry ion sensing technology and test facility integration. A fluids handling breadboard was designed, fabricated, and tested at Mars ambient pressure. The breadboard allows fluid manipulation scenarios to be tested under the reduced pressure conditions expected in the Martian atmosphere in order to validate valve operations, orchestrate analysis sequences, investigate sealing integrity, and to demonstrate efficacy of the fluid handling concept. Additional fluid manipulation concepts have also been developed based on updated MESUR spacecraft definition. The Mars Aqueous Chemistry Experiment Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) facility was designed as a test bed to develop a multifunction interface for measurements of chemical ion concentrations in aqueous solution. The interface allows acquisition of real time data concerning the kinetics and heats of salt dissolution, and transient response to calibration and solubility events. An array of ion selective electrodes has been interfaced and preliminary calibration studies performed.

  20. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  1. ict in teaching and learning chemistry activities on the ipad

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    ABSTRACT. The purpose of this workshop is to equip chemistry educators with practical activities and logistical training to incorporate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into their chemistry curriculum. During this workshop, participants will gain hands-on experience using technology such as iPads and a ...

  2. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Sathyanarayana, M N

    1991-01-01

    The spice Capsicum is the fruit of the cultivated species of the genus Capsicum (family, Solanaceae), C. annuum principally, and C. frutescens L. to a lesser extent. A third variety of C. annuum var. annuum fruits, the large-sized, fleshy bell capsicum is used as a fresh vegetable and valued for its aroma, color, and crisp texture, but with no pungency. This variety is not considered in this series of reviews covering primary processing, production, international trade, chemistry, and biochemistry of functional components--the red keto carotenoids, the aromatic volatiles and the pungent capsaicinoids in Parts I to III. The valid qualitative aspects correlating the specific components of capsicum and their sensory responses are critically covered in Part IV. In this the concluding part of the series of reviews, the significant preference of the spice for initially evoking an aversive response, its potent physiological and pharmacological effects, and the aspects of structure-activity relationships of the pungent stimuli of the capsaicinoids are reviewed. The beneficial effects particularly associated with long usage by some ethnic groups and its safe consumption levels, with a critical review of the studies on the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, the sensory system, thermoregulation, nutritional impacts, and an overview of the five series is also detailed.

  3. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  4. Teaching-as-Research Internships: A Model for the Development of Future Chemistry Faculty and the Improvement of Teaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian-Daniel, Donald L.; Walz, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) and Madison Area Technical College (Madison College) partnered to create an internship pathway for graduate students pursuing careers as future science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) faculty members. Since 2003, 10 doctoral students from the university completed…

  5. Preliminary survey report for fiscal 1999 on engineer exchange project (field of coal mining technology), international exchange project. Europe; 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo jizen chosa. Oshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In Europe, international division is in progress as the result of market internationalization, and the coal market is experiencing an increasingly intensive competition in the storm of deregulation. The coal industry of Britain is away from a crisis for the time being, thanks to a new 5-year contract concluded with the electric utilities who are the primary purchasers, but it has to compete with imported coal and natural gas. The industry is also hit by the control imposed on the development of new opencast coal mines. Production is on the decline in the German coal market, which is one the largest in Western Europe, due to reduced subsidies, unfavorable geological conditions, lowered price, etc. The German coal industry is positively striving to exploit coal mines overseas and to export coal mining technologies. In Spain and France, the coal industry is forced to shrink and, in France, there is a plan to terminate coal mining completely in 2005. In Poland, the introduction of market economy has resulted in the influx of low-price coal from Russia etc., and all the Polish mines are now in the red. Its joining the European Union in the near future will further increase the pressure from other nations. It is learned that in Britain, Germany, etc., coal businesses are accelerating their transfer of technology to developing countries and are positively strengthening their presence abroad. (NEDO)

  6. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Pre-survey in Europe; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey in Europe surveyed the current status of the coal industry, supporting directions and policies of governments on the coal industry, and summarized the information thereof. The survey included movements in policies and activities in transfer of technologies to overseas countries by governments and corporations of different countries, and the current status of the coal technology training project. The survey covered Britain and Germany. The British coal industry is facing a serious difficulty because the electric power industry being the major coal purchaser has changes its sourcing to natural gas. In addition, the open-cut mining which has been considered high in productivity has no further hope of big progress due to regulations in the environmental aspects. However, as a result of having performed positively research and development on production cost reduction, the production efficiency has grown excellently. Using this situation as the base, positive advancement into overseas countries is being carried out. The German coal industry has, in spite of having reduced the production size and the number of coal mines, shifted coal purchasers to electric power generation and steel making areas, and its quality and supply capability stand equivalent to those of imported coals. (NEDO)

  7. Information technology equipment cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  8. Modeling of Isotope Fractionation in Stratospheric CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3: Investigations of Stratospheric Chemistry and Transport, Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange, and Their Influence on Global Isotope Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boering, Kristie A.; Connell, Peter; Rotman, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, the stable isotopic composition of chemically and datively important stratospheric species, such as ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4), was largely unexplored, despite indications from the few measurements available and theoretical studies that global-scale isotopic variations will provide a unique tool for quantifying rates of global-scale mass transport into, within, and out of the stratosphere and for understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in ozone production. The number and geographical extent of observations are beginning to increase rapidly, however, as access to the stratosphere, both directly and by remote-sensing, has increased over the last 10 years and as new analytical techniques have been developed that make global-scale isotope measurements by whole-air sampling more feasible. The objective of this study, begun in April 1999, is to incorporate into the Livermore 2D model the likely photochemical fractionation processes that determine the isotopic compositions of stratospheric CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, and to use the model results and new observations from NASA field campaigns in 1996 and 1997 to investigate stratospheric chemistry and mass transport. Additionally, since isotopic signatures from the stratosphere are transferred to the troposphere by downward transport at middle and high latitudes, the isotopic compositions may also serve as sensitive tracers of stratosphere-totroposphere transport. Comparisons of model results with stratospheric and upper tropospheric observations from these campaigns, as well as with ground-based observations from new NOAA and NSF-sponsored studies, will help determine whether the magnitudes of the stratospheric fractionation processes are large enough to use as global-scale tracers of transport into the troposphere and, if so, will be used to help constrain the degree of coupling between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  9. Contribution from philosophy of chemistry to chemistry education: In a case of ionic liquids as technochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hernani, Widhiyanti, Tuszie; Sudrajat, Devi Pratiwi

    2017-08-01

    Traditional chemistry education is commonly handing down of concepts, principles, and theories, such as mechanical properties, the relationship between structure and properties as well as chemical structure and chemical bonding theory, to students without engaging them in the processes of chemical inquiry. This practice leads to the lack of opportunity for the students to construct an appropriate understanding of these concepts, principles, and theories. Students are also rarely facilitated in modeling the structure and function of matter themselves. This situation shows that the philosophy of chemistry has not received as much attention from chemistry educators. The main idea of this paper is to embed philosophy of chemistry through the implementation of technochemistry in chemistry education. One of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas of modern chemistry, technologies and engineering is Ionic Liquids (ILs) as an emerging knowledge on technochemistry which can be applied to chemistry education. The developments between academic researchers and industrial developments in the ILs area are conducted in parallel. In order to overcome the existing problems of scientific development in chemistry education, the science and technology of ILs can be used for reconceptualizing the teaching and learning of chemistry to embrace the epistemology in chemistry. This study promises a potential contribution by philosophy of chemistry. The main objectives of this study are to develop: (i) a perspective based on philosophy of science considerations (rational reconstruction) in order to understand ionic liquids and (ii) teaching materials that can be used to enhance pre-service teacher's view of nature of science and technology (VNOST). The method used in the study is analytical-descriptive (elementarization), i.e. the first step in the model of educational reconstruction (MER). This study concludes that the development of the concepts and their applications of ionic

  10. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2A: Ohio: water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Ohio study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J E; Henricks, J D; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Wilkey, M L; Johnson, D O

    1979-05-01

    An intensive study of water, overburden, and coal chemistry was conducted at a large surface mine in Ohio from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites were chosen to include the final mine effluent at the outflow of a large settling pond and chemically-treated drainage from a coal storage pile. Samples were collected semimonthly and analyzed for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, chloride, and 16 metals. Field measurements included pH, flow rate, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The final effluent, where sampled, generally complied with Office of Surface Mining reclamation standards for pH, iron, and total suspended solids. Comparison of the final effluent with water quality of an unnamed tributary above the mine suggested that elevated values for specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were attributable to the mine operation. In general, there were observable seasonal variations in flow rates that correlated positively to suspended solids concentrations and negatively to concentrations of dissolved constituents in the final effluent. Drainage from the coal storage pile contained elevated levels of acidity and dissolved metals which were not reduced significantly by the soda ash treatment. The storage pile drainage was diluted, however, by large volumes of alkaline water in the settling pond. Analysis of overburden and coal indicated that the major impact of mine drainage was pyrite oxidation and hydrolysis in the Middle Kittanning Coal and in the Lower Freeport Shale overlying the coal. However, the presence of a calcite-cemented section in the Upper Freeport Sandstone contributed substantial self-neutralizing capacity to the overburden section, resulting in generally alkaline drainage at this site.

  11. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  12. Coordination Chemistry of Life Processes: Bioinorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Coordination Chemistry of Life Processes: Bioinorganic Chemistry. R N Mukherjee. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 53-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  14. Future perspectives of automatization in clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, R

    1980-08-01

    In planning the internal organization of central laboratories, the future needs for clinical chemistry in hospitals must be considered. For the next decade the medical laboratory will primarily be concerned with the interpretation of laboratory data and with organizational problems, such as sample identification, specimen splitting and especially the timing of its service. The consequences for instrumentation, newer technology for routine clinical chemistry, and recommendations for the future development of analytical systems are discussed.

  15. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  16. A dictionary of chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daintith, John

    2008-01-01

    "Fully revised and updated, the sixth edition of this popular dictionary covers all aspects of chemistry from physical chemistry to biochemisty, and boasts broader coverage in forensics, metallurgy, and geology...

  17. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  18. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  19. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  20. Multimedia Information eXchange for I-NET, Inc. at the Kennedy Space Center: A continuing study of the application of worldwideweb technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, David

    1995-01-01

    Multimedia Information eXchange (MIX) is a multimedia information system that accommodates multiple data types and provides consistency across platforms. Information from all over the world can be accessed quickly and efficiently with the Internet-based system. I-NET's MIX uses the World Wide Web and Mosaic graphical user interface. Mosaic is available on all platforms used at I-NET's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) facilities. Key information system design concepts and benefits are reviewed. The MIX system also defines specific configuration and helper application parameters to ensure consistent operations across the entire organization. Guidelines and procedures for other areas of importance in information systems design are also addressed. Areas include: code of ethics, content, copyright, security, system administration, and support.

  1. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    RESONANCE ⎜ March 2009. GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Keywords. Green fluorescent protein,. FRET. Chemistry is Evergreen. 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. Swagata Dasgupta is an. Associate Professor in the. Department of Chemistry at IIT Kharagpur. Her research interests revolve around proteins and ...

  2. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  3. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  4. Anion exchange membrane design for reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güler, E.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a clean, sustainable technology for the generation of energy from the mixing of solutions with different salinity. The ion exchange membranes are key elements in RED. Especially the study of anion exchange membranes is crucial since limited research has been done

  5. BASF and acetylene. 70 years of reppe chemistry - long-standing reliability and promising future - and now, the only natural gas based clean technology for acetylene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicari, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Acetylene is still an attractive intermediate synthesis component because carbon in methane from natural gas comes at a lower price than carbon in naphtha from crude oil or coal. Acetylene can be understood as a product of C-C coupling and functionalization. Beginning in the 1950s, BASF developed the partial oxidation (Pox) process, in addition to the electric arc process dating from the 1930s and the submerged flame process. The originally developed Pox process came along with severe emissions of hydrocarbons to the environment. Nowadays it is extremely important to have a clean, environmentally friendly technology. So in the 1990s a closed water-quench process was developed and built in the United States. The presentation focuses on the ways of making acetylene, the use of acetylene and BASF's closed water-quench process based on natural gas. This process will be presented including some important safety aspects. The process is available for licensing. (orig.)

  6. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  7. Data Exchanges and Verifications Online (DEVO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEVO is the back-end application for processing SSN verifications and data exchanges. DEVO uses modern technology for parameter driven processing of both batch and...

  8. Action Plan for Harnessing Science and Technology towards ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2007 Section: Chemistry. Singh, Prof. Harkesh Bahadur Ph.D. (Lucknow & Aston), FNASc, FNA. Date of birth: 1 March 1956. Specialization: Main Group Chemistry, Organochalcogen Chemistry and Organometallic Chemistry Address: Professor, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, ...

  9. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  10. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  11. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  12. Analytical chemistry in the Aegean Sea region: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria F

    2012-12-01

    The Eighth Aegean Analytical Chemistry Days Conference took place in Urla, İzmir, Turkey, from 16-20 September 2012. This conference is held every 2 years, organized alternately by analytical chemistry departments of Turkish and Greek universities, so that analytical chemists from the region around the Aegean Sea can exchange experience and knowledge based on their research in a large number of fields. This report summarizes the most interesting presentations and posters pertaining to bioanalytical work.

  13. Study of a combined sulfur autotrophic with proton-exchange membrane electrodialytic denitrification technology: sulfate control and pH balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dongjin; Liu, Huijuan; Liu, Ruiping; Qu, Jiuhui

    2011-12-01

    A novel combined system established for nitrate removal from aqueous solution consisted of two parts: sulfur autotrophic denitrification and bio-electrochemical denitrification based on proton-exchange membrane electrodialysis (PEMED). The system was operated at various hydraulic retention times (HRT) and current intensities. Its optimum operation condition was also determined. The combined process had pH adjustment thus generating less nitrite than PEMED process. The denitrification rate of sulfur autotrophic part was dependent on HRT, while shorter HRT could reduce the sulfate generated by the sulfur autotrophic process. The denitrification rate of PEMED process depended on the applied current. For 32±1 mg-N/L nitrate in influent, the optimum operation parameters of combined process were: HRT 2h; applied current 350 mA. The combined reactor could achieve 95.8% nitrate removal without nitrite accumulation, the pH of effluent kept neutral and the sulfate of effluent was 202.1 mg/L, lower than the drinking water standard in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  15. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  16. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  17. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  18. Challenges of green chemistry in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsova Ganna Ziyvna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with study of Ukrainian chemical enterprises’ ecologisation issues and elaboration of the economic problems to realize principles of green chemistry. Theoretical aspects of green chemistry as a modern interdisciplinary conception, which reveals peculiarities to implement sustainable development paradigm in the chemical industry, are studied. Based on the analysis of essence and effectiveness to introduce international initiatives on sustainable development at the chemical industry enterprises, it is concluded that the implemented measures are only first steps on the way to realize key principles of green chemistry.It is proved that in order to promote conceptual ideas of the green chemistry further, it is reasonable to consider economic and marketing aspects of the ecological innovations: to provide economic effectiveness of green chemical products and technologies, to form ecological culture of consumption, to motivate green demand and to prevent market asymmetry of information.

  19. Combustion chemistry - activities in the CHEK research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This presentation describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Programme. (orig.)

  20. The Changing Landscape of Teaching High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kristin D.; Taylor, Terri M.

    2009-01-01

    High school chemistry teachers have faced a number of changes in their classrooms in recent years. Technology has impacted the way chemistry laboratories are equipped. Teachers have students who are learning English and the language of chemistry simultaneously. The enactment of No Child Left Behind has placed an emphasis on assessment, requiring teachers to develop new protocols to assess their students in line with state and national standards.

  1. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part II: purification of targeted thorium conjugates on cation exchange columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-09-01

    Tumor targeting pharmaceuticals will play a crucial role in future pharma pipelines. The targeted thorium conjugate (TTC) therapeutic platform could provide real benefit to patients, whereby targeting moieties like monoclonal antibodies are radiolabelled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th, t1/2 = 18.7 days). A potential problem could be the accumulation of the long-lived daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 days) in the drug product during manufacturing and distribution. Therefore, the level of (223)Ra must be standardized before administration to the patient. The focus in this study has been the removal of (223)Ra, as the other progenies will have a very limited stay in the formulation. In this study, the purification of TTCs labeled with decayed (227)Th has been explored. Columns packed with a strong cation exchange resin have been used to sequester (223)Ra. The separation of TTC from (223)Ra has been evaluated as influenced by both formulation and process parameters with a design of experiments (DOE) study; including citrate or acetate buffer, pH, buffer concentration, presence or absence of pABA + EDTA, resin amount and sodium chloride concentration. The aim was to achieve a separation with high sorption of (223)Ra and accompanying low TTC sorption. The results were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Four regression models of TTC and (223)Ra sorption from citrate and acetate buffered formulations were developed. The predictive accuracy of sorption in the four statistical models was given by standard deviations and confidence intervals. The TTC sorption in citrate and acetate buffered formulations was affected by the identical variables and the variation in TTC sorption was comparable for the two models. However, the DOE variables had a significantly stronger impact on the (223)Ra sorption in citrate buffered formulations than the (223)Ra sorption in acetate buffer. An optimal separation with a TTC sorption

  2. Journal of Business Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Business Chemistry examines issues associated with leadership and management for chemists and managers working in chemical research or industry. This journal is devoted to improving and developing the field of Business Chemistry. The Journal of Business Chemistry publishes peer-reviewed papers (including case studies) and essays. Areas for possible publication in include: leadership issues in the chemical and biochemical industry, such as teamwork, team building, mentoring, coa...

  3. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  4. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Projects for international research exchanges and international seminars; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kokusai kenkyu koryu jigyo / kokusai seminar kaisai jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the international research exchange projects promoted by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) in FY 2000. The international research exchanges are important for creation of new research areas and technological systems for solving the global environmental problems. In order to promote these activities, RITE invites and dispatches researchers to international conferences and symposiums, promotes research exchanges with major foreign research institutes and academic organizations, and invites and dispatches researchers for medium to long periods. These projects promote exchanges of the latest researches with various institutes, both domestic and foreign, and confirm that the research and development projects now RITE is promoting are closely related to those promoted by various organizations. In the FY 2000, RITE invites 5 foreign researchers for joint researches, and invites 3 foreign researchers to international conferences. RITE also dispatches 3 Japanese researchers to American and European universities, and 12 Japanese researchers to international conferences and the like, to effectively promote the domestic researches and grasp development tendencies at institutes of various countries. RITE holds 5 international seminars for exchanging and discussing broad topics over advanced researches related to global environmental technologies by researchers, both domestic and foreign. (NEDO)

  5. Proton exchange between oxymethyl radical and acids and bases: semiempirical quantum-chemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Pustolaikina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions with proton participation are widely represented in the analytical, technological and biological chemistry. Quantum-chemical study of the exchange processes in hydrogen bonding complexes will allow us to achieve progress in the understanding of the elementary act mechanism of proton transfer in hydrogen bonding chain as well as the essence of the acid-base interactions. Oxymethyl radical •CH2ОН is small in size and comfortable as a model particle that well transmits protolytic properties of paramagnetic acids having more complex structure. Quantum-chemical modeling of proton exchange reaction oxymethyl radical ∙CH2OH and its diamagnetic analog CH3OH with amines, carboxylic acids and water was carried out using UAM1 method with the help of Gaussian-2009 program. QST2 method was used for the search of transition state, IRC procedure was applied for the calculation of descents along the reaction coordinate. The difference in the structure of transition states of ∙CH2OH/ CH3OH with bases and acids has been shown. It has been confirmed that in the case of bases, consecutive proton exchange mechanism was fixed, and in the case of complexes with carboxylic acids parallel proton exchange mechanism was fixed. The similarity in the reaction behavior of paramagnetic and diamagnetic systems in the proton exchange has been found. It was suggested that the mechanism of proton exchange reaction is determined by the structure of the hydrogen bonding cyclic complex, which is, in turn, depends from the nature of the acid-base interactions partners.

  6. Utilization of Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    viability of additive manufacturing for producin9 aerospace heat exchangers for naval air platforms . This report considers various heat exc...demonstration , aerospace heat exchangers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED... Aerospace Heat Exchangers Research Conducted for the Office of Naval Research Under the Enabling Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Industry

  7. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. USSR Report, Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    This USSR Report on Chemistry contains articles on Aerosols, Adsorption, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal Gasification, Electrochemistry, Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Food...

  9. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  10. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated meteorological...

  11. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A T

    1998-06-01

    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  12. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    ... more. Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  13. Computational Chemistry for Kids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naef, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to show that computational chemistry is not exclusively restricted to molecular energy and structure calculations but also includes chemical process control and reaction simulation...

  14. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  15. Synthesis and transition metal chemistry of novel phosphorus(III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    RASHMISHREE PANDA and M S BALAKRISHNA. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai. Mumbai 400 076, India. Synthesis of phosphorus containing macrocycles and cryptands has evoked much interest in recent years and provided exciting and novel chemistry. The introduction of ...

  16. Platinum metal chemistry of bisphosphines derived from N,N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Platinum metal chemistry of bisphosphines derived from. N,N¢-substituted ethylenediamine derivatives. RITA M ABHYANKAR and M S BALAKRISHNA. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai,. Mumbai 400 076, India. The role of chelate complexes containing bisphosphine ligands in ...

  17. PhET Interactive Simulations: Transformative Tools for Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emily B.; Chamberlain, Julia M.; Parson, Robert; Perkins, Katherine K.

    2014-01-01

    Developing fluency across symbolic-, macroscopic-, and particulate-level representations is central to learning chemistry. Within the chemistry education community, animations and simulations that support multi-representational fluency are considered critical. With advances in the accessibility and sophistication of technology,…

  18. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    projections of research in frontier areas of inorganic chemistry, includ- ing organometallics, bio-inorganic chemistry, catalysis and materials chemistry. We do hope that the wide range of topics covered in this Issue reflect the current trends of research in inorganic chemistry in India and prac- titioners of inorganic chemistry ...

  19. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  20. 22nd September 2010 - Korean Minister of Education, Science and Technology J.-H. Lee signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting ALICE exhibition with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft; accompanied throughout by Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams : M. Brice ; JC Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    22nd September 2010 - Korean Minister of Education, Science and Technology J.-H. Lee signing the guest book and exchanging gifts with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting ALICE exhibition with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft; accompanied throughout by Adviser R. Voss.

  1. empowerment of teaching and learning chemistry through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    There is an obvious growing of the importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in science education. It is used as a tool for designing new learning environments, integrating virtual models and creating learning communities (e-learning). However, e-learning used in teaching and learning chemistry, ...

  2. Empowerment of teaching and learning chemistry through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an obvious growing of the importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in science education. It is used as a tool for designing new learning environments, integrating virtual models and creating learning communities (e-learning). However, e-learning used in teaching and learning chemistry, ...

  3. Role of Biocatalysis in Sustainable Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Roger A; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the principles and metrics of green chemistry and sustainable development, biocatalysis is both a green and sustainable technology. This is largely a result of the spectacular advances in molecular biology and biotechnology achieved in the past two decades. Protein engineering has enabled...

  4. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  5. Diversity in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David

    2018-01-08

    The wide world of medicinal chemistry: We look back at our activities in 2017, particularly the expansion of the journal's scope to nanomedicine and why we need a more inclusive medicinal chemistry journal. Additionally, we look at upcoming special issues and developments for ChemPubSoc Europe in 2018. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  7. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  8. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  9. Movies in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  10. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  11. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Chemistry is Everygreen - 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 248-258. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Health information exchange among US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Jha, Ashish K

    2011-11-01

    To determine the proportion of US hospitals engaged in health information exchange (HIE) with unaffiliated providers and to identify key hospital-level and market-level factors associated with participating in exchange. Using the 2009 American Hospital Association Information Technology survey, supplemented by Dartmouth Atlas, Area Resource File, and other national data, we examined which hospitals participated in regional efforts to electronically exchange clinical data. We used logistic regression models to determine hospital-level characteristics and market-level characteristics associated with hospitals' likelihood of participating in HIE. We found that 10.7% of US hospitals engaged in HIE with unaffiliated providers. In communities where exchange occurred, for-profit hospitals and those with a small market share were far less likely to engage in HIE than nonprofit hospitals or those with a larger market share. Hospitals in more concentrated markets were more likely to exchange and hospitals in markets with higher Medicare spending were less likely to exchange. At the start of implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, only a small minority of US hospitals electronically exchange clinical data with unaffiliated providers. Health information exchange is a key part of reforming the healthcare system, and factors related to competitiveness may be holding some providers back.

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Faraday Technology, Inc., process high-performance chrome coatings to be made from the less toxic, trivalent chromium. Reduce millions of pounds hexavalent chromium without comprising performance.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Novozymes North America, developed BioPreparation, an enzyme technology to separate natural waxes, oils, and contaminants from cotton before it is made into fabric.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Life Technologies, developed a one-pot synthesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a much more efficient process that prevents about 1.5 million pounds of hazardous waste a year.

  16. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Nalco Company, developed 3D TRASAR technology to monitor the condition of cooling water continuously and add chemicals only when needed, saving water and energy.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winners, Albemarle and CB&I, developed a safer technology to produce alkylate, a clean gasoline component by replacing liquid acid catalysts with a lower environmental impact catalyst

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Dow Agrosciences LLC, developed Instinct®, a technology that reduces fertilizer nitrate leaching to ground and surface waters and atmospheric nitrous oxide emissions. More corn and reduces CO2.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, SC Fluids, with Los Alamos National Laboratory, developed supercritical CO2 resist remover technology to clean residues from semiconductor wafers during manufacture.

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winners, Arkon Consultants and NuPro Technologies, developed a safer processing system for flexographic printing that includes washout solvents and reclamation/recycling.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winner, Battelle, developed a biobased soy toner for laser printers and copiers. The technology saves energy and improves de-inking, allowing more paper fiber to be recycled.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, BioAmber, developed an integrated technology to produce large, commercial quantities of succinic acid by bacterial fermentation, replacing petroleum-based feedstocks.

  3. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, PYROCOOL Technologies, developed a nontoxic, highly biodegradable fire extinguishing foam to replace ozone-depleting gases and foams that release toxic chemicals.

  4. Transuranic Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2018-02-26

    Recent developments in the chemistry of the transuranic elements are surveyed, with particular emphasis on computational contributions. Examples are drawn from molecular coordination and organometallic chemistry, and from the study of extended solid systems. The role of the metal valence orbitals in covalent bonding is a particular focus, especially the consequences of the stabilization of the 5f orbitals as the actinide series is traversed. The fledgling chemistry of transuranic elements in the +II oxidation state is highlighted. Throughout, the symbiotic interplay of experimental and computational studies is emphasized; the extraordinary challenges of experimental transuranic chemistry afford computational chemistry a particularly valuable role at the frontier of the periodic table. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  6. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Samuel R. [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Ruberu, T. Purnima A. [Ames Laboratory; Tavasoli, Elham [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-15

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor–metal and semiconductor–metal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  7. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology USSR: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-26

    synthesized YBa2Cu3Ox polycrystals and the mass of the pure metals. The methods of electron probe microanalysis, iodometric titration , and x-ray...up to 870 K), and a tetragonal modification is found to occur at 6.3-6.05 (from 870 to 1,170 K). The iodometric analysis results confirm a loss of

  9. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-26

    Grebennikov ; KHIMICHESKIYE VOLOKNA, No 6, Nov-Dec 90] 14 Polymer Composite Materials Reinforced With Aramid Fabric (N.M. Grad, V.N. Pershikov, et al...Fridman, S. F. Grebennikov ] UDC 677.529.661.183 [Abstract] Carbon-fiber adsorbents with 6- to 12- um-diameter elementary fibers, variable and homoge

  10. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    granulation of potassium chloride, production lines for manufacture of carbamide, and equipment for a vapor reforming unit for manufacture of ammonia...IArtlcle by S, Ye. Kudaybergenov, V, A, Frolova, G. S, Kanapyanova, V. Ya. Kabo and Ye, A, Bekturov, Institute of Chemical Sciences, KaSSR Academy

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-23

    2 Resolution of Raman Spectra into Constituent Components [R. Ya. Yuga , Yu. L. Khaldna; ZHURNAL...Shushakov, and Yu. D. Tsvetkov, Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combus- [Article by R. Ya. Yuga and Yu. L. Khaldna, Institute of tion, Siberian Department

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-08

    fibrous complex-forming sorbent with amidoxime groups to preconcentrate the metals. The metals were sorption concentrated on a filter made of nonwoven ...Waters in Apatite Flotation [V. K. Karzhavin; KHIMIYA I TEKHNOLOGIYA VODY, Vol 12 No 4, Apr 90] 6 Precipitation of Sulfates From Wastewaters ...of moist gaseous samples. The accuracy of results from determining components without filter -drying the sample increased more than fourfold in this

  13. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-29

    KHIMICHESKAYA TEKHNOLOGIYA, No 3, May-Jun 91] 10 The Effect of Cr203 on the Mineralogie Makeup of Clinker and on the Properties of Cement [Ye.A...Russian). The Effect of Cr2<X on the Mineralogie Makeup of Clinker and on the Properties of Cement 917M0131C Kiev KHIMICHESKA YA TEKHNOLOGIYA in Russian

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Field [B. T. Dzhetpisov, Dzh. Koshebekov, et al; KHIMIYA I TEKHNOLOGIYA TOPLIVIMASEL, No 9, Sep90] 23 Organosulfur and Organonitrogen Compounds of... Organosulfur and Organonitrogen Compounds of Oil of Kotyrtas Field 917M0009C Moscow KHIMIYA I TEKHNOLOGIYA TOPLIVI MASEL in Russian No 9, Sep 90

  15. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  16. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry with Diselenides, Disulfides, Imines and Metal Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne

    The design and preparation of strong and selective artificial receptors, especially biomi-metic receptors that function in aqueous solution, has proved truly challenging. In this thesis it will be described how the strengths of dynamic combinatorial chemistry can be used to great advantage...... in this field. The aim of this project has therefore been to develop new ways of using dynamic combinatorial libraries for molecular recognition in aqueous media. The focus has been on using what has been learned from the well-established di-sulfide exchange chemistry to incorporate a new reaction into dynamic...... combinatorial chemistry, namely the reversible diselenide exchange reaction. The first part of the thesis describes the development of a thermally induced OAr → SeAr migration reaction. Here, it was proven possible to rearrange a variety of substituted O-aryl selenocarbamates into the corresponding Se...

  17. EPA Calls for the 21st Presidential Green Chemistry Award Nominations/Program promotes environmental and economic benefits of using novel green technologies in chemical design, manufacture, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its request for nominations for its 2016 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards for companies or institutions that have developed a process or product that better pr

  18. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  19. I Like Facebook: Exploring Israeli High School Chemistry Teachers' TPACK and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Rap, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine how Israeli chemistry teachers at high school level use Facebook groups to facilitate learning. Two perspectives were used: Teachers' TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) and the self-efficacy beliefs of chemistry teachers for using CLFG (chemistry learning Facebook groups). Three different…

  20. Development and Assessment of a Chemistry-Based Computer Video Game as a Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Kermin Joel

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry-based computer video game is a multidisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and computer graphics and technology fields developed to explore the use of video games as a possible learning tool. This innovative approach aims to integrate elements of commercial video game and authentic chemistry context environments into a learning…

  1. Chemistry and propulsion; Chimie et propulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potier, P. [Maison de la Chimie, 75 - Paris (France); Davenas, A. [societe Nationale des Poudres et des Explosifs - SNPE (France); Berman, M. [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, VA (United States)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion, held in march 2002, ten papers have been presented. The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram-jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for 2015, high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports. (A.L.B.)

  2. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  3. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  4. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  5. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  6. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  7. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  8. Chemistry with a Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Londa; Larsen, Eric

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce natural product chemistry into high school classrooms. In the laboratory activities, students isolate and analyze the oil in orange peels. Students also perform a steam distillation and learn about terpenes. (DDR)

  9. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  10. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  11. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  12. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 14-23 ...

  13. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology": Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Atanasov, Atanas G; Sklenář, Vladimír; Nováček, Jiří; Papoušková, Veronika; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Žídek, Lukáš; Kozłowski, Henryk; Wątły, Joanna; Hecel, Aleksandra; Kołkowska, Paulina; Koča, Jaroslav; Svobodová-Vařeková, Radka; Pravda, Lukáš; Sehnal, David; Horský, Vladimír; Geidl, Stanislav; Enriz, Ricardo D; Matějka, Pavel; Jeništová, Adéla; Dendisová, Marcela; Kokaislová, Alžběta; Weissig, Volkmar; Olsen, Mark; Coffey, Aidan; Ajuebor, Jude; Keary, Ruth; Sanz-Gaitero, Marta; van Raaij, Mark J; McAuliffe, Olivia; Waltenberger, Birgit; Mocan, Andrei; Šmejkal, Karel; Heiss, Elke H; Diederich, Marc; Musioł, Robert; Košmrlj, Janez; Polański, Jarosław; Jampílek, Josef

    2016-10-17

    The Eighth Central European Conference "Chemistry towards Biology" was held in Brno, Czech Republic, on August 28-September 1, 2016 to bring together experts in biology, chemistry and design of bioactive compounds; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topics of the conference covered "Chemistry towards Biology", meaning that the event welcomed chemists working on biology-related problems, biologists using chemical methods, and students and other researchers of the respective areas that fall within the common scope of chemistry and biology. The authors of this manuscript are plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

  15. Plane-Wave DFT Methods for Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylaska, Eric J.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed description of modern plane-wave DFT methods and software (contained in the NWChem package) are described that allow for both geometry optimization and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Significant emphasis is placed on aspects of these methods that are of interest to computational chemists and useful for simulating chemistry, including techniques for calculating charged systems, exact exchange (i.e. hybrid DFT methods), and highly efficient AIMD/MM methods. Sample applications on the structure of the goethite+water interface and the hydrolysis of nitroaromatic molecules are described.

  16. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  17. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  18. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  19. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  20. Engineering Two-dimensional Materials Surface Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-11-30

    This account reviews our recent research activities and achievements in the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials surface chemistry. 2D materials are atomically thin, so that carriers are less-restricted to move in the in-plane direction, whereas the out-of-plain motion is quantum-confined. Semiconductor quantum wells and graphene are two well-known examples. Applications of 2D materials in optoelectronics, surface modification, and complex materials must overcome engineering challenges associated with understanding and engineering surface chemistry of 2D materials, which essentially bridge multiscale physical phenomena. In my research group, we understand and engineer broad aspects of chemistry and physics at nanomaterials surfaces for advancing nanomaterials-based technologies. The three main topics covered in this account are as follows: i) colloidal synthesis of stacking-controlled 2D materials, ii) wetting properties of 2D materials, and iii) engineering electronic transport at 2D materials-semiconductor interfaces.

  1. Information technology equipment cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  2. Ideal Heat Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  3. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  4. Handbook on process and chemistry on nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki (ed.) [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Asakura, Toshihide; Adachi, Takeo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    'Wet-type' nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, based on PUREX technology, has wide applicability as the principal reprocessing technology of the first generation, and relating technologies, waste management for example, are highly developed, too. It is quite important to establish a database summarizing fundamental information about the process and the chemistry of 'wet-type' reprocessing, because it contributes to establish and develop fuel reprocessing process and nuclear fuel cycle treating high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel and spent MOX fuel, and to utilize 'wet-type' reprocessing technology much widely. This handbook summarizes the fundamental data on process and chemistry, which was collected and examined by 'Editing Committee of Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing', from FY 1993 until FY 2000. (author)

  5. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Schaap, M.; Sauter, F.J.; Zanten, M.C. van; Pul, W.A.J. van

    2012-01-01

    A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM) for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface-atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of

  6. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  7. DNA-encoded chemistry: enabling the deeper sampling of chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Robert A; Dumelin, Christoph E; Keefe, Anthony D

    2017-02-01

    DNA-encoded chemical library technologies are increasingly being adopted in drug discovery for hit and lead generation. DNA-encoded chemistry enables the exploration of chemical spaces four to five orders of magnitude more deeply than is achievable by traditional high-throughput screening methods. Operation of this technology requires developing a range of capabilities including aqueous synthetic chemistry, building block acquisition, oligonucleotide conjugation, large-scale molecular biological transformations, selection methodologies, PCR, sequencing, sequence data analysis and the analysis of large chemistry spaces. This Review provides an overview of the development and applications of DNA-encoded chemistry, highlighting the challenges and future directions for the use of this technology.

  8. small-scale chemistry for a hands-on approach to chemistry practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Norway .... implemented as of 2008, 70% of the student enrolment in universities (and secondary schools alike) has to be in the ..... friendly, and both they and their students were smiling, signs of their motivation and happiness.

  9. Modelling chemistry over the Dead Sea: bromine and ozone chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Glasow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of O3 and BrO concentrations over the Dead Sea indicate that Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs, widely known to happen in polar regions, are also occuring over the Dead Sea due to the very high bromine content of the Dead Sea water. However, we show that BrO and O3 levels as they are detected cannot solely be explained by high Br levels in the Dead Sea water and the release of gas phase halogen species out of sea borne aerosol particles and their conversion to reactive halogen species. It is likely that other sources for reactive halogen compounds are needed to explain the observed concentrations for BrO and O3. To explain the chemical mechanism taking place over the Dead Sea leading to BrO levels of several pmol/mol we used the one-dimensional model MISTRA which calculates microphysics, meteorology, gas and aerosol phase chemistry. We performed pseudo Lagrangian studies by letting the model column first move over the desert which surrounds the Dead Sea region and then let it move over the Dead Sea itself. To include an additional source for gas phase halogen compounds, gas exchange between the Dead Sea water and the atmosphere is treated explicitly. Model calculations indicate that this process has to be included to explain the measurements.

  10. Extratropical Stratosphere-Troposphere Mass Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the exchange of gases between the stratosphere and the troposphere is important for determining how pollutants enter the stratosphere and how they leave. This study does a global analysis of that the exchange of mass between the stratosphere and the troposphere. While the exchange of mass is not the same as the exchange of constituents, you can t get the constituent exchange right if you have the mass exchange wrong. Thus this kind of calculation is an important test for models which also compute trace gas transport. In this study I computed the mass exchange for two assimilated data sets and a GCM. The models all agree that amount of mass descending from the stratosphere to the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics is approx. 10(exp 10) kg/s averaged over a year. The value for the Southern Hemisphere by about a factor of two. ( 10(exp 10) kg of air is the amount of air in 100 km x 100 km area with a depth of 100 m - roughly the size of the D.C. metro area to a depth of 300 feet.) Most people have the idea that most of the mass enters the stratosphere through the tropics. But this study shows that almost 5 times more mass enters the stratosphere through the extra-tropics. This mass, however, is quickly recycled out again. Thus the lower most stratosphere is a mixture of upper stratospheric air and tropospheric air. This is an important result for understanding the chemistry of the lower stratosphere.

  11. Chemistry beyond positivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Werner W

    2003-05-01

    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education.

  12. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  13. ICT in teaching and learning chemistry activities on the iPad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this workshop is to equip chemistry educators with practical activities and logistical training to incorporate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into their chemistry curriculum. During this workshop, participants will gain hands-on experience using technology such as iPads and a variety of ...

  14. Educational Technology: Identifying the Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Mark; Cambre, Marge

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of two school "telecommunities" in Ohio and South Dakota demonstrated the importance of studying a range of technology effectiveness indicators: standardized measures, behavior, stakeholder involvement, technology competency, multicultural exchange, equity, new student and teacher roles, learning climate, teacher…

  15. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  16. Academia–Industry Symbiosis in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial “sponsoring” is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry’s point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry’s desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply “pure science” research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the “real world” at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate

  17. Chemistry: our Life, our Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruccio Trifirò

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this note we look at a number of aspects relating to chemistry that have had a strong impact on the future of humanity. In particular, some technological innovations have been examined which have had a strong impact on daily life in general; the role of different chemical industries in the restoration of deteriorated monuments and works of art; the development of chemical products for carrying out restoration work; the financing of restoration and conservation; finally, mention has been made of the ethical principles and codes of conduct of the different chemical companies, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW and the fundamental principles for the correct use of chemicals.

  18. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  19. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  20. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  1. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  2. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rizzuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production of renewable raw materials. The company has developed a new dedicated product line, Olitema, whose purpose is to offer highly technological solutions with complete environmental sustainability. In this context, Foundry Alfe CHEM has created a new product which represents a breakthrough in the class of HFC hydraulic fluids: Ecosafe Plus is a biodegradable fire-resistant hydraulic fluid with high engineering and technological performances, high environmental sustainability and the best security guarantees in workplaces. Its formulation is glycols-free, and it allows for easier disposal of the exhausted fluid, compared to a traditional water/ glycol-based HFC hydraulic fluid. For what concern the technological properties, Ecosafe Plus has been tested by accredited laboratories with tribological trials (4 Ball wear test ASTM D 4172, Ball on disc test ASTM 6425, Brugger test DIN 51347, Vickers test ASTM D 2882, with elastomer compatibility test (ASTM D 471 and biodegradability test (OECD 310 F.

  3. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  4. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  5. Materials Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piippo, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a materials science and technology course for high school students, which combines chemistry, physics, engineering, math, technology education, and crafts to introduce students to the atomic make-up and physical properties of materials and to apply this knowledge in creative activities. (SK)

  6. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jcsc/121/03/0235-0256. Keywords. Materials for technology; role of inorganic chemistry; acidity/basicity; oxidation/reduction; crystal field theory; Jahn-Teller distortions; mixed valence; metal-metal ... There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology.

  7. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  8. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  9. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  10. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  11. Chemistry of Transactinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  12. Chemistry in second life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S I D; Bradley, Jean-Claude

    2009-10-23

    This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

  13. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  14. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  15. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  16. Chemistry in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

  17. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  18. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-07-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  19. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Ion exchange substrates for plant cultivation in extraterrestrial stations and space crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange substrates Biona were specially designed at the Belarus Academy of Sciences for plants cultivation in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial stations. The first versions of such substrates have been successfully used in several space experiments and in a long-term experiment in which three soviet test-spacemen spent a full year in hermetic cabin imitating a lunar station cabin (1067-1968). In this experiment the life support system included a section with about one ton of the ion exchange substrate, which was used to grow ten vegetations of different green cultures used in the food of the test persons. Due to failure of a number of Soviet space experiments, decay of the Soviet Union and the following economic crisis the research in this field carried out in Belarus were re-directed to the needs of usual agriculture, such as adaptation of cell cultures, growing seedlings, rootage of cuttings etc. At present ion exchange substrate Biona are produced in limited amounts at the experimental production plant of the Institute of Physical Organic Chemistry and used in a number of agricultural enterprises. New advanced substrates and technologies for their production have been developed during that time. In the presentation scientific principles of preparation and functioning of ion exchange substrates as well as results of their application for cultivation different plants are described. The ion exchange substrate is a mixture of cation and anion exchangers saturated in a certain proportions with all ions of macro and micro elements. These chemically bound ions are not released to water and become available for plants in exchange to their root metabolites. The substrates contain about 5% mass of nutrient elements far exceeding any other nutrient media for plants. They allow generating 3-5 kg of green biomass per kilogram of substrate without adding any fertilizers; they are sterile by the way of production and can be sterilized by usual methods; allow regeneration

  1. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  2. Chemistry: Experiments, Demonstrations and Other Activities Suggested for Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This publication is a handbook used in conjunction with the course of study in chemistry developed through the New York State Education Department and The University of the State of New York. It contains experiments, demonstrations, and other activities for a chemistry course. Areas covered include the science of chemistry, the atomic structure of…

  3. Connected Chemistry--Incorporating Interactive Simulations into the Chemistry Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieff, Mike; Wilensky, Uri

    2003-01-01

    Describes a novel modeling and simulation package and assesses its impact on students' understanding of chemistry. Connected Chemistry was implemented inside the NetLogo modeling environment. Using Connected Chemistry, students employed problem -solving techniques characterized by stronger attempts at conceptual understanding and logical…

  4. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q.; Kentish, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This...

  5. Combustion chemistry. Activities in the CHEC research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This paper describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control Research Programme). (au) 173 refs.

  6. Myrrh--Commiphora chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Lumír O; Rezanka, Tomás; Dembitsky, Valery M; Moussaieff, Arieh

    2005-06-01

    Myrrh and opopanax has been used throughout history in incense and as a perfume. Since Bible times it has been used for the treatment of wounds. The first attempts to identify content compounds were almost 100 years ago. In this review we discuss the present state of knowledge in the chemistry of substances of Commiphora spp.

  7. Elements of Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 1. Elements of Chemistry. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Classics Volume 17 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 92-100. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/01/0092-0100. Author Affiliations.

  8. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  9. Concept of Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Chemistry has provided valuable materials in the form of medi- cines, food products, cosmetics, dyes, paints, agrochemicals, biomolecules, high-tech substances like polymers, liquid crystals and nanoparticles. Chemists have used their knowledge and skill to prepare a large number of new materials which are far better.

  10. Chemistry at the Nanoscale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Program, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of. Rochester, New York. His research interests are in studying the structure, function, interaction and the chemistry of biomolecules as well as their assemblies and networks. Ram Ramaswamy teaches in the Schools of Physical. Sciences (SPS) and. Computational and.

  11. Chemistry in the Troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chameides, William L.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1982-01-01

    Topics addressed in this review of chemistry in the troposphere (layer of atmosphere extending from earth's surface to altitude of 10-16km) include: solar radiation/winds; earth/atmosphere interface; kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions; tropospheric free-radical photochemistry; instruments for nitric oxide detection; sampling…

  12. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an excellent summary of the field of supramolecular chemistry, readers are referred to the article by J-M Lehn in Resonance, VaLl,. No.3, p.39, 1996. Electrostatics plays an important role in weak intermolecular interactions. The present series is aimed at understanding these electrostatic aspects. This article presents the.

  13. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrostatics in Chemistry. 3. Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre and Pravin K Bhadane. 1 1. Basic Principles, Resona- nce, Vol.4, No.2, 11-19, 1999. 2. Electrostatic Potentials of. Atoms, Ions and Molecules,. Resonance, Vol.4, No.5, 40-51,. 1999. Topographical features of the ...

  14. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  15. Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Tunnelling Effects in Chemistry. Molecules in the Strange Quantum World. Sharmistha Karmakar, Deepthi Jose and Ayan Datta. (left) Sharmistha Karmakar is doing her PhD in the group of. Ayan Datta, IACS,. Kolkata. Her research interests are modelling molecules with strong optical absorbtion and emission properties.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  17. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  18. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 7. Chemistry: The Middle Kingdom. Gautam R Desiraju. General Article Volume 12 Issue 7 July 2007 pp 44-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/07/0044-0060. Keywords.

  19. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  20. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.