WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemistry manufacturing controls

  1. 75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing...

  2. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... guidance for industry 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information--Fermentation...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for...

  3. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... availability of a guidance for industry 169 entitled ``Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls... Federal Register of June 1, 2006 (71 FR 31194), FDA published the notice of withdrawal and revision of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly 2003D-0571) Guidance for Industry on...

  4. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13629), FDA published the notice...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...

  6. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  7. The ecotoxicology and chemistry of manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Richard D; von der Kammer, Frank; Lead, Jamie R; Hassellöv, Martin; Owen, Richard; Crane, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The emerging literature on the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and nanomaterials is summarised, then the fundamental physico-chemistry that governs particle behaviour is explained in an ecotoxicological context. Techniques for measuring nanoparticles in various biological and chemical matrices are also outlined. The emerging ecotoxicological literature shows toxic effects on fish and invertebrates, often at low mg l(-1) concentrations of nanoparticles. However, data on bacteria, plants, and terrestrial species are particularly lacking at present. Initial data suggest that at least some manufactured nanoparticles may interact with other contaminants, influencing their ecotoxicity. Particle behaviour is influenced by particle size, shape, surface charge, and the presence of other materials in the environment. Nanoparticles tend to aggregate in hard water and seawater, and are greatly influenced by the specific type of organic matter or other natural particles (colloids) present in freshwater. The state of dispersion will alter ecotoxicity, but many abiotic factors that influence this, such as pH, salinity, and the presence of organic matter remain to be systematically investigated as part of ecotoxicological studies. Concentrations of manufactured nanoparticles have rarely been measured in the environment to date. Various techniques are available to characterise nanoparticles for exposure and dosimetry, although each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages for the ecotoxicologist. We conclude with a consideration of implications for environmental risk assessment of manufactured nanoparticles.

  8. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  9. Bifurcation Control, Manufacturing Planning and Formation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Kang; Mumin Song; Ning Xi

    2005-01-01

    The paper consists of three topics on control theory and engineering applications, namely bifurcation control, manufacturing planning, and formation control. For each topic, we summarize the control problem to be addressed and some key ideas used in our recent research. Interested readers are referred to related publications for more details. Each of the three topics in this paper is technically independent from the other ones. However, all three parts together reflect the recent research activities of the first author, jointly with other researchers in different fields.

  10. Manufacturing plant control challenges and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Gérard; Valckenaers, Paul; Faure, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Diedrich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Enterprise control system integration between business systems, manufacturing execution systems and shop-floor process-control systems remains a key issue for facilitating the deployment of plant-wide information control systems for practical e-business-to-manufacturing industry-led issues. Achievement of the integration-in-manufacturing paradigm based on centralized/distributed hardware/software automation architectures is evolving using the intelligence-in-manufactur...

  11. Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control

    CERN Document Server

    May, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable p...

  12. Handbook of Manufacturing Control Fundamentals, description, configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lödding, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This first-time English publication of one of Germany’s leading manufacturing control handbooks provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, with detailed and easy to understand descriptions of numerous control techniques from Kanban to CONWIP to Backlog Control. Based on the proven funnel model and written for the industry, this book clearly illustrates how companies can use manufacturing control to effectively improve on-time delivery, reduce inventories and cut down throughput times. “This book distinguishes itself with its convincing systematic approach based on thorough international research. Its clear presentation and direct applicability for analysing and configuring the manufacturing control make this handbook an outstanding and unique publication on PPC.” Hans-Peter Wiendahl “The field of manufacturing control is very convincingly reviewed and presented from a theoretical and methodological perspective. Both researchers as well as practitioners will profit from it.” Peter N...

  13. 78 FR 49546 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; IRIX Manufacturing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; IRIX Manufacturing... that on January 18, 2013, IRIX Manufacturing, Inc., 309 Delaware Street, Greenville, South...

  14. Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.

    1998-08-01

    Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately $16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition, $8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately $35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004.

  15. Interrelation of chemistry and process design in biodiesel manufacturing by heterogeneous catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dimian, A.C.; Srokol, Z.W.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    The pros and cons of using heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel manufacturing are introduced, and explained from a chemistry and engineering viewpoint. Transesterification reactions of various feed types are then compared in batch and continuous process operation modes. The results show that the reaction chemistry and process kinetics characterising a particular feedstock are determinant factors for obtaining high-grade biodiesel. When using heterogeneous catalysis, the biodiesel quality of ...

  16. Microeconomics of process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Process window control enables accelerated design-rule shrinks for both logic and memory manufacturers, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of process window control to maximum profitability are rare. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the maximum rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We show that the ability of process window control to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process variation at the lot, wafer, x-wafer, x-field, and x-chip levels. We conclude that x-wafer and x-field CD control strategies will be critical enablers of density, performance and optimum profitability at the 90 and 65nm technology nodes. These analyses correlate well with actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential incremental revenue and cost savings. As an example, we show that a scatterometry-based CD Process Window Monitor is an economically justified, enabling technology for the 65nm node.

  17. Controlling Chemistry in Dynamic Nanoscale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Lizana, Ludvig; Konkoli, Zoran;

    2011-01-01

    of the concept. Controlled release of chol-DNA molecules from SU-8 surfaces gives the possibility to dynamically change surface and/or solution properties in micro and nanoreactor applications, opening access to stable 2D chemistry on surface-based devices with potential for easy interfacing with conventional...

  18. Controlled surface chemistries and quantitative cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Anne L.

    2002-03-01

    Living cells experience a large number of signaling cues from their extracellular matrix. As a result of these inputs, a variety of intracellular signaling pathways are apparently initiated simultaneously. The vast array of alternative responses that result from the integration of these inputs suggests that it may be reasonable to look for cellular response not as an 'on' or 'off' condition but as a distribution of responses. A difficult challenge is to determine whether variations in responses from individual cells arise from the complexity of intracellular signals or are due to variations in the cell culture environment. By controlling surface chemistry so that every cell 'sees' the same chemical and physical environment, we can begin to assess how the distribution of cell response is affected strictly by changes in the chemistry of the cell culture surface. Using the gene for green fluorescent protein linked to the gene for the promoter of the extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, we can easily probe the end product in a signaling pathway that is purported to be linked to surface protein chemistry and to cell shape. Cell response to well-controlled, well-characterized, and highly reproducible surfaces prepared using soft lithography techniques are compared with more conventional ways of preparing extracellular matrix proteins for cell culture. Using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis of populations of cells on these surfaces, we probe quantitatively the relationship between surface chemistry, cell shape and variations in gene expression endpoint.

  19. Crevice chemistry control in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a basis for predicting and eventually controlling crevice solution chemistry in PWR steam generators, hideout tests were performed at several units. Results indicated that impurity hideout rates varied with the species and with bulk water concentration. Field evaluations of crevice impurity inventory models based on the hideout rate data indicated that further model refinements were necessary, e.g., more frequent quantification of the relation of hideout rates and bulk water concentration. An alternate crevice inventory model based on a real-time mass balance approach also began to be pursued. Modeling results currently are being used at several PWRs to establish a chloride injection rate consistent with development of a near neutral crevice solution to minimize IGA/SCC. Hideout return data are being used to independently establish predictions of crevice chemistry and to substantiate the hideout rate and mass balance model predictions

  20. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  1. Study on the Architecture of Control System for Manufacturing Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, and resource objects, so as to reduce costs and to increase the control system's agility with respect to changing environment.

  2. Logic control law design for automated manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien, Henry; Zamaï, Éric; Jacomino, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    To respond rapidly to the highly volatile market, the reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) have brought forward challenging issues. First of all there is a need to build a formal model of a manufacturing configuration. Second it has to be rather easy to derive the models associated to the manufacturing configuration changes (reconfiguration) from such an initial model. An off-line method of rapid design of an optimal logic control law (configuration) based on Petri net (PN) is presented...

  3. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu

  4. 75 FR 64744 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference...

  5. Research of user access control for networked manufacturing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-lin; LEI Yu; CHEN De-ren

    2006-01-01

    An integrated user access control method was proposed to address the issues of security and management in networked manufacturing systems (NMS).Based on the analysis of the security issues in networked manufacturing system,an integrated user access control method composed of role-based access control (RBAC),task-based access control (TBAC),relationship-driven access control (RDAC)and coalition-based access control (CBAC) was proposed,including the hierarchical user relationship model,the reference model and the process model.The elements and their relationships were defined,and the expressions of constraints authorization were given.The extensible access control markup language (XACML) was used to implement this method.This method was used in the networked manufacturing system in the Shaoxing spinning region of China.The results show that the integrated user access control method can reduce the costs of system security maintenance and management.

  6. 75 FR 53719 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Acid (GHB) (2010), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule I. The company plans to manufacture Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) (2010) in bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) form...

  7. Process and quality verification controls for solid propellant manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in-process tests to verify quality and detect discrepant propellant which could compromise motor performance are essential elements of the solid composite propellant manufacturing process. The successful performance of the 260SL-1 and 260SL-2 motors aptly verified the controls used for manufacturing the propellant. The present investigation is concerned with the selected control parameters, and their relationships to composition and final propellant properties. Control performance is evaluated by comparison with processing data experienced in the manufacture of the propellant for the 260SL-1 motor. It is found that the in-process quality verification controls utilized in the propellant manufacturing process for the 260-in. diameter motor contributed significantly to the confidence of successful and predictable motor performance.

  8. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  9. Component-based Control Software Design for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2003-01-01

    A new method that designs and implements the component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control software is described with a component concept in this paper. The proposed method takes aim at improving the flexibility and reliability of the control system. On the basis of describing the concepts of component-based software and the distributed object technology, the architecture of the component-based software of the control system is suggested with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). And then, we propose a design method for component-based distributed & hierarchical flexible manufacturing control system. Finally, to verify the software design method, a prototype flexible manufacturing control system software has been implemented in Orbix 2. 3c, VC++6.0 and has been tested in connection with the physical flexible ranufacturing shop at the WuXi Professional Institute.

  10. Control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Allan S; Krumme, Markus; Nasr, Moheb; Thomas, Hayden; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    This white paper provides a perspective of the challenges, research needs, and future directions for control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical processing. The main motivation for writing this paper is to facilitate the development and deployment of control systems technologies so as to ensure quality of the drug product. Although the main focus is on small-molecule pharmaceutical products, most of the same statements apply to biological drug products. An introduction to continuous manufacturing and control systems is followed by a discussion of the current status and technical needs in process monitoring and control, systems integration, and risk analysis. Some key points are that: (1) the desired objective in continuous manufacturing should be the satisfaction of all critical quality attributes (CQAs), not for all variables to operate at steady-state values; (2) the design of start-up and shutdown procedures can significantly affect the economic operation of a continuous manufacturing process; (3) the traceability of material as it moves through the manufacturing facility is an important consideration that can at least in part be addressed using residence time distributions; and (4) the control systems technologies must assure quality in the presence of disturbances, dynamics, uncertainties, nonlinearities, and constraints. Direct measurement, first-principles and empirical model-based predictions, and design space approaches are described for ensuring that CQA specifications are met. Ways are discussed for universities, regulatory bodies, and industry to facilitate working around or through barriers to the development of control systems engineering technologies for continuous drug manufacturing. Industry and regulatory bodies should work with federal agencies to create federal funding mechanisms to attract faculty to this area. Universities should hire faculty interested in developing first-principles models and control systems technologies for

  11. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  12. Hybrid fuzzy/crisp-logic control of manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, B; Moi, H.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, techniques such as dynamic programming, the maximum principle, linear programming, and genetic algorithms have been used to synthesise optimal control policies for manufacturing systems. However, such techniques are frequently rather opaque and often yield control policies that are implemented by open-loop rather than closed-loop control systems. In this paper, it is therefore shown that closed-loop systems incorporating hybrid fuzzy/crisp-logic controllers can be readily des...

  13. Wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2011-04-01

    This paper will explore the possibilities of implementing a wireless embedded control system for atomically precise manufacturing. The manufacturing process, similar to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, takes place within an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) chamber at a pressure of 10-10 torr. In order to create vibration isolation, and to keep internal noise to a minimum, a wireless link inside the UHV chamber becomes essential. We present a MATLAB simulation of the problem, and then demonstrate a hardware scheme between a Gumstix computer and a Linux based laptop for controlling nano-manipulators with three degrees of freedom. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, (75 FR 64744), Cayman Chemical... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code...

  15. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... August 9, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on August 18, 2011, 76 FR 51401, Austin Pharma LLC... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...

  16. 76 FR 17968 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... August 2, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on September 1, 2010, (75 FR 53720), Austin Pharma... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  17. 75 FR 9614 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... October 16, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009, (74 FR 55587), Cayman... controlled substances listed in schedule I: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes....

  18. Statistical Data Mining for Efficient Quality Control in Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben Steen;

    2015-01-01

    of the process e.g sensor measurements, machine readings etc, and the major contributor of these big data sets are different quality control processes. In this article we will present methodology to extract valuable insight from manufacturing data. The proposed methodology is based on comparison of probabilities...

  19. Design, manufacturing and testing of Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Thanasis K;

    The overall goal for the INDUFLAP project was realization of a test facility for development and test of Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flaps (CRTEF) for wind turbines. This report covers experimental work at DTU Wind Energy including design, manufacture and test of different configurations of...

  20. Water Chemistry Protection During AP1000 Secondary Equipment Manufacturing%AP1000二回路设备制造中的水化学防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德军

    2015-01-01

    steam generator is one of the key equipment in AP1000 nuclear plant, by strictly control secondary Water quality, is of great significance in guaranteeing the structure integrity of steam generator heating tube, which can improve the service life of steam generator and make the system more safe and reliable operation. This paper lists the control factors of secondary water chemistry, and briefly introduced the Water Chemistry control countermeasures from material, manufacturing process and other aspects during AP1000 secondary equipments manufacturing process.%蒸汽发生器是AP1000核电站的关键设备之一,严格控制二回路水质,对确保蒸汽发生器换热管结构完整性,提高可靠性使用寿命,保障系统更安全可靠运行具有重要意义。本文简要列举了二回路水化学控制的相关因素,并从材料、制造工艺等方面对AP1000常规岛设备制造过程中的水化学防护措施进行了简要介绍。

  1. Optimal control in a failure prone manufacturing system

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiaolan

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal control in a failure prone manufacturing system. A discrete-time model is used. A single commodity is produced and there is a constant demand. The optimal control policy minimizes the long run average cost incurred by holding inventory and by failing to meet the demand. We show that the optimal control policy in any finite horizon problem is characterized by a critical number, which we call the ideal inventory level (or hedging point). The system should not pr...

  2. Manufacturing of High Quality Teachers for Chemistry Education at Higher Secondary Level in Current Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *R. Azmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most influential tool whose efficient use requires the power of determination, devoted work and sacrifice. As teachers are major handler of this tool therefore, they must possess qualities of high education and competency for deliver. Education extends attractive way of life, talent and manners which make an individual a fine civilian. Primary and secondary education is one of the foundation stone of development of children and country. It acts as a vital part in placing the proper institution of child’s cultural, social, moral, emotional, intellectual, physical and spiritual improvement. Primary education contributes to national development while education at post graduate level provides think tank for progress of country. The Secondary education which serves as a link among primary and higher education is expected to prepare young people between the age group of 14-18 in the world of work, who are ready to enter into advanced education. Chemistry is the basis of life, and subject of importance in nation building, acquiring much attention from the world class Universities now days, to build interest and skills into the students for complex education. Chemical education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry. The curricula of higher secondary education require special attention at theory and practical level which should build the interest and attraction in chemistry in the age of 14-18. There is need of designing new curricula, covering chemistry in an easiest and attractive way associated with the environment1. Organization of continual workshops for teachers for fresh up courses aimed at building awareness in new themes in chemistry education. Themes1,2 in chemistry education should consist of

  3. The geometric phase controls ultracold chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the geometric phase is shown to control the outcome of an ultracold chemical reaction. The control is a direct consequence of the sign change on the interference term between two scattering pathways (direct and looping), which contribute to the reactive collision process in the presence of a conical intersection (point of degeneracy between two Born-Oppenheimer electronic potential energy surfaces). The unique properties of the ultracold energy regime lead to an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift enabling maximum constructive or destructive interference between the two pathways. By taking the O + OH → H + O2 reaction as an illustrative example, it is shown that inclusion of the geometric phase modifies ultracold reaction rates by nearly two orders of magnitude. Interesting experimental control possibilities include the application of external electric and magnetic fields that might be used to exploit the geometric phase effect reported here and experimentally switch on or off the reactivity

  4. Cavity-Controlled Chemistry in Molecular Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Felipe; Spano, Frank C.

    2016-06-01

    The demonstration of strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes of cavity QED with polyatomic molecules has opened new routes to control chemical dynamics at the nanoscale. We show that strong resonant coupling of a cavity field with an electronic transition can effectively decouple collective electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a disordered molecular ensemble, even for molecules with high-frequency quantum vibrational modes having strong electron-vibration interactions. This type of polaron decoupling can be used to control chemical reactions. We show that the rate of electron transfer reactions in a cavity can be orders of magnitude larger than in free space for a wide class of organic molecular species.

  5. Cavity-controlled chemistry in molecular ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The demonstration of strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes of cavity QED with polyatomic molecules has opened new routes to control chemical dynamics at the nanoscale. We show that strong resonant coupling of a cavity field with an electronic transition can effectively decouple collective electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in a disordered molecular ensemble, even for molecules with high-frequency quantum vibrational modes having strong electron-vibration interactions. This type of polaron decoupling can be used to control chemical reactions. We show that the rate of electron transfer reactions in a cavity can be orders of magnitude larger than in free space, for a wide class of organic molecular species.

  6. Optimized continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing via model-predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Kruisz, Julia; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes; Horn, Martin

    2016-08-20

    This paper demonstrates the application of model-predictive control to a feeding blending unit used in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. The goal of this contribution is, on the one hand, to highlight the advantages of the proposed concept compared to conventional PI-controllers, and, on the other hand, to present a step-by-step guide for controller synthesis. The derivation of the required mathematical plant model is given in detail and all the steps required to develop a model-predictive controller are shown. Compared to conventional concepts, the proposed approach allows to conveniently consider constraints (e.g. mass hold-up in the blender) and offers a straightforward, easy to tune controller setup. The concept is implemented in a simulation environment. In order to realize it on a real system, additional aspects (e.g., state estimation, measurement equipment) will have to be investigated. PMID:27317987

  7. Control through operators for quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Philippe; Salomon, Julien; Turinici, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of operator identification in quantum control. The free Hamiltonian and the dipole moment are searched such that a given target state is reached at a given time. A local existence result is obtained. As a by-product, our works reveals necessary conditions on the laser field to make the identification feasible. In the last part of this work, some algorithms are proposed to compute effectively these operators.

  8. Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, André; Trentesaux, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is emerging nowadays at multiple organizational levels in enterprise business, and it leverages technology in response to the growing need for greater business integration, flexibility and agility of manufacturing enterprises. This book gathers contributions from scientists, researchers and industrialists on concepts, methods, frameworks and implementing issues addressing trends in the service orientation of control technology and management applied to manufacturing enterprise. It analyzes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) representing a technical architecture, a business modelling concept, a type of infrastructure, an integration source and a new way of viewing units of automation within the enterprise. The presents how SOA aligns the business world with the world of information technology in a way that makes both more effective.  

  9. Development of a Reconfigurable Platform for Manufacturing Equipment Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shouting; LI Di; CHENG Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    In modern manufacturing equipment control area, controller is required to deliver higher computing capability for adopting advanced algorithms to meet speed and accuracy requirements, and reconfigurabilities for changing or (and) adding features or functions. This paper presents a methodology in design and implementation of a high performance and reconfigurable platform for manufacturing equipment control. This methodology is in virtue of system on a programmable chip (SoPC) technology but replacing the on-chip processor by an external high performance, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP). The application of the DSP is designed as a multi-threaded framework, which has more flexibilities than a traditional single-loop one. Furthermore, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) system can be reconfigured easily and quickly to meet a new requirement by dragging and dropping pre-built components in a SoPC building environment. As a result, the controller platform is more reconfigurable in terms of algorithms and functions. This platform is implemented in a 3-axis milling machine control and the result indicates that the design and implementation presented in this paper is feasible.

  10. New Interference Mechanism Controls Ultracold Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Brian K.; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    A newly discovered interference mechanism has been shown to control the outcome of ultracold chemical reactions. The mechanism originates from the unique properties associated with ultracold collisions, namely: (1) isotropic (s-wave) scattering and (2) an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift (which originates from the bound state structure of the molecule). These two properties can lead to maximum constructive or destructive interference between two interfering reaction pathways (such as exchange and non-exchange in systems with two or more identical nuclei). If the molecular system exhibits a conical intersection, then the associated geometric phase is shown to act as a ``quantum switch'' which can turn the reactivity on or off. Reaction rate coefficients for the O + OH --> H + O2 and H + H2, reactions are presented which explicitly demonstrate the effect. Experimentalists might exploit this new mechanism to control ultracold reactions by the application of external electric or magnetic fields or by the selection of a particular nuclear spin state. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program (Grant No. 20140309ER) at LANL (B.K.) and by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).

  11. Input-output identification of controlled discrete manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Vargas, Ana Paula; López-Mellado, Ernesto; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The automated construction of discrete event models from observations of external system's behaviour is addressed. This problem, often referred to as system identification, allows obtaining models of ill-known (or even unknown) systems. In this article, an identification method for discrete event systems (DESs) controlled by a programmable logic controller is presented. The method allows processing a large quantity of observed long sequences of input/output signals generated by the controller and yields an interpreted Petri net model describing the closed-loop behaviour of the automated DESs. The proposed technique allows the identification of actual complex systems because it is sufficiently efficient and well adapted to cope with both the technological characteristics of industrial controllers and data collection requirements. Based on polynomial-time algorithms, the method is implemented as an efficient software tool which constructs and draws the model automatically; an overview of this tool is given through a case study dealing with an automated manufacturing system.

  12. Intelligent system of coordination and control for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper wants shaping an intelligent system monitoring and control, which leads to optimizing material and information flows of the company. The paper presents a model for tracking and control system using intelligent real. Production system proposed for simulation analysis provides the ability to track and control the process in real time. Using simulation models be understood: the influence of changes in system structure, commands influence on the general condition of the manufacturing process conditions influence the behavior of some system parameters. Practical character consists of tracking and real-time control of the technological process. It is based on modular systems analyzed using mathematical models, graphic-analytical sizing, configuration, optimization and simulation.

  13. Control and Plant Modeling for Manufacturing Systems using Basic Statecharts

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Raimundo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2010-01-01

    In this work we presented a methodology for systematizing the process of plant and control modeling of manufacturing systems. Our proposal uses a formalism based on Statecharts diagrams, called Basic Statecharts (BSC). The plant modeling has three phases which can be executed as many times as necessary. In general, this methodology represents a hybrid approach - bottom-up and top-down, allowing components reuse and keeping a one-to-one relation between plant and model (i.e., it is faithful to...

  14. Spectrophotometric Procedure for Fast Reactor Advanced Coolant Manufacture Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, O. S.; Egorov, N. B.; Zherin, I. I.; Indyk, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a spectrophotometric procedure for fast reactor advanced coolant manufacture control. The molar absorption coefficient of dimethyllead dibromide with dithizone was defined as equal to 68864 ± 795 l·mole-1·cm-1, limit of detection as equal to 0.583 · 10-6 g/ml. The spectrophotometric procedure application range was found to be equal to 37.88 - 196.3 g. of dimethyllead dibromide in the sample. The procedure was used within the framework of the development of the method of synthesis of the advanced coolant for fast reactors.

  15. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, David Bue; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Denne Ph.D afhandling,?Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control?, omhandler additive fremstillingsmetoder, hvilket er en familie af processer der er kendetegnet ved at de er computerstyret, de drager nytte af en høj grad af automation, og de fremstiller emner lagvis ved addition af materiale. To områder af særlig interesse er addreseret i denne afhandling. De er begge forankret i to meget forskellige områder, men tjener fælles formål. At styrke additive frems...

  16. The operation of large computer-controlled manufacturing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines methods for operation of large computer-controlled manufacturing systems, with more than 50 or so disparate CNC machines in congregation. The central theme is the development of a distributed control system, which requires minimal central supervision, and allows manufacturing system re-configuration without extensive control software re-writes. Provision is made for machines to learn from their experience and provide estimates of the time necessary to effect various tasks. Routing is opportunistic, with varying degrees of myopia depending on the prevailing situation. Necessary curtailments of opportunism are built in to the system, in order to provide a society of machines that operate in unison rather than in chaos. Negotiation and contention resolution are carried out using a UHF radio communications network, along with processing capability on both pallets and tools. Graceful and robust error recovery is facilitated by ensuring adequate pessimistic consideration of failure modes at each stage in the scheme. Theoretical models are developed and an examination is made of fundamental characteristics of auction-based scheduling methods.

  17. SENSOR FUSION CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kumile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS, which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hedendaagse vervaardigingsondernemings ervaar gereeld onvoorspelbare markveranderinge wat aangedryf word deur wêreldwye mededinging. Om kompeterend te bly moet hierdie ondernemings die eienskappe van kosteeffektiwiteit en snelle-respons op markfluktuasies toon. Megatronika streef daarna om meganiese, elektroniese en rekenaarstelsels optimaal te integreer om hoëpresisieprodukte en produksieprosesse daar te stel. Hierdie artikel suggereer 'n metodologie vir toenemende aanpasbaarheid en herbruikbaarheid van 'n generiese rekenaargeïntegreerde vervaardigingsel-beheersisteem deur die gebruik van simulasie en die modellering van megatroniese sensorsisteemkonsepte. Die aanwending van sensors binne die sel fasiliteer datavaslegging, ontleding en multisensordatafusie. Sodoende verskaf die ontwerpte argitektuur insig in die funksie en metodologie van 'n generiese stukwerkwinkelbeheersisteem wat die vinnige

  18. Chemistry control strategies for a supercritical water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term viability of any Generation IV Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept depends on the ability of reactor designers and operators to predict and control water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport. Currently, SCWR material testing is being carried out using a limited range of water chemistries to establish the dependencies of the corrosion behavior on parameters such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration. Once a final suite of candidate alloys is identified, more detailed, longer term testing will be needed under water chemistry regimes expected to be used in the SCWR. Prior to these tests, it will be necessary to identify proposed water chemistry regimes for the SCWR, and provide expected ranges for the key parameters. The direct-cycle design proposed for various SCWR concepts take advantage of the extensive operating experience world-wide of fossil-fired SCW power plants. Conceptually, the SCWR replaces the fossil-fired boiler with the reactor core (pressure vessel or pressure tube); the concept is broadly similar to that of a boiling water reactor. Current fossil-fired SCW power plants use either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated water treatment for the feedwater systems. While the optimal water chemistry for a SCWR is yet to be determined, the monitored parameters are likely to be the same as those in existing fossil-fired and nuclear power plants: pH; conductivity, and concentrations of O2, H2, additives, impurities, corrosion and activation products. Monitoring will be required at many of the same components: feedwater, main 'steam', drains, pump outlets, condenser hotwell, and purification inlets and outlets. This paper outlines the strategy being used to develop a water chemistry regime for a CANDU® SCWR. It describes the key areas identified for chemistry monitoring and control: a) the reactor core, where materials are subjected to irradiation and high temperature, b

  19. Vibration control for precision manufacturing using piezoelectric actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, D.R.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Redmond, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Piezoelectric actuators provide high frequency, force, and stiffness capabilities along with reasonable Stroke limits, all of which can be used to increase performance levels in precision manufacturing systems. This paper describes two examples of embedding piezoelectric actuators in structural components for vibration control. One example involves suppressing the self excited chatter phenomenon in the metal cutting process of a milling machine and the other involves damping vibrations induced by rigid body stepping of a photolithography platen. Finite element modeling and analyses are essential for locating and sizing the actuators and permit further simulation studies of the response of the dynamic system. Experimental results are given for embedding piezoelectric actuators in a cantilevered bar configuration, which was used as a surrogate machine tool structure. These results are incorporated into a previously developed milling process simulation and the effect of the control on the cutting process stability diagram is quantified. Experimental results are also given for embedding three piezoelectric actuators in a surrogate photolithography platen to suppress vibrations. These results demonstrate the potential benefit that can be realized by applying advances from the field of adaptive structures to problems in precision manufacturing.

  20. RECONFIGURABLE PRODUCT ROUTING AND CONTROL FOR MASS CUSTOMISATION MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Walker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:Reconfigurable control of flexible manufacturing systems can allow for the efficient and responsive production of customised product instances. This can aid in providing make-to-order business models for various small- to medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and provide competitive advantage in a dynamic global marketplace. Reconfigurable control application requires an understanding of the modes of production variability in mass customisation manufacturing. Temporally uncorrelated workflow routings are considered as one of these production variability modes. In this light, this paper addresses the flexible material payload routing problem, and presents a mobile robot platform that has been developed to research and design reconfigurable routing systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Verstelbare beheer van aanpasbare vervaardigingstelsels kan die doeltreffende en reaktiewe produksie van doelgemaakte produkeksemplare toelaat. Hierdie beheer kan assisteer in die voorsiening van vervaardig-na-bestellingbesigheidsmodelle aan ’n aantal klein- tot medium-grootte ondernemings in Suid-Afrika, en aan hulle ’n kompeterende voorsprong bied in ’n dinamiese globale mark. Die instelling van verstelbare beheer vereis dat die modi van produkveranderlikheid in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging verstaan word. Hierdie artikel spreek die probleem van aanpasbare roetebepaling van materiaalvragte in massa verbruikersaanpassingsvervaardiging aan. ’n Mobiele robot-platform, ontwikkel vir navorsing in verstelbare roetebepalingstelsels, word ook voorgelê.

  1. Strategy For Yield Control And Enhancement In VLSI Wafer Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, B.; Rickey, D.; Bane, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    In most fully utilized integrated circuit (IC) production facilities, profit is very closely linked with yield. In even the most controlled manufacturing environments, defects due to foreign material are a still major contributor to yield loss. Ideally, an IC manufacturer will have ample engineering resources to address any problem that arises. In the real world, staffing limitations require that some tasks must be left undone and potential benefits left unrealized. Therefore, it is important to prioritize problems in a manner that will give the maximum benefit to the manufacturer. When offered a smorgasbord of problems to solve, most people (engineers included) will start with what is most interesting or the most comfortable to work on. By providing a system that accurately predicts the impact of a wide variety of defect types, a rational method of prioritizing engineering effort can be made. To that effect, a program was developed to determine and rank the major yield detractors in a mixed analog/digital FET manufacturing line. The two classical methods of determining yield detractors are chip failure analysis and defect monitoring on drop in test die. Both of these methods have short comings: 1) Chip failure analysis is painstaking and very time consuming. As a result, the sample size is very small. 2) Drop in test die are usually designed for device parametric analysis rather than defect analysis. To provide enough wafer real estate to do meaningful defect analysis would render the wafer worthless for production. To avoid these problems, a defect monitor was designed that provided enough area to detect defects at the same rate or better than the NMOS product die whose yield was to be optimized. The defect monitor was comprehensive and electrically testable using such equipment as the Prometrix LM25 and other digital testers. This enabled the quick accumulation of data which could be handled statistically and mapped individually. By scaling the defect densities

  2. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Bue

    -ended. What is to hope is that future research will tie these ends with the emerge of a fully developed system. Additive Multi Material Manufacturing Additive Manufacturing share close family bonds with CNC machine tools. State-of-the-art CNC machine tools of today are multi-axis hybrid machines....... Abendoflathes,mills,grindersinoneplatform. Ifhistoryrepeatitself, hybrid additive manufacturing machines will emerge as the field evolve. It is sought to fuel this, by developing a flexible multi material manufacturing platform that will permit fundamental research towards a second generation additive...... manufacturing system that truly will be a universally applicable manufacturing machine. A desktop sized factory. Not merely the development of such machine is undertaken, also examined is the possibility to additively manufacture complex electromechanical systems, as a step towards being able to autonomously...

  3. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  4. Management and Control of Outsourcing in Dispersed Network Manufacturing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rob; Dekkers; Luping; Wang

    2002-01-01

    The trend of economic globalisation and advances in i nformation technology has led to the emergence of dispersed manufacturing system s as a form of the virtual organisation. New manufacturing strategy pays more at tention to the management of the total value chain and therefore puts emphasis o n outsourcing. In fact, outsourcing is an efficient way of utilizing available r esources and has become one key aspect of the manufacturing strategy. Improved d ecision and organization on outsourcing will result ...

  5. Design of a Production Activity Control System for the Computer Integrated Manufacturing Enviroment

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, lain Carlyle.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of research into provision of Production Activity Control (PAC) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems for manufacture of discrete parts. The role and environment of PAC systems is described, against the background of development of the discrete parts manufacturing industry. Strategies and architectures for building PAC systems are reviewed, in terms of the goals of PAC ...

  6. Object-oriented architecture of control system for agile manufacturing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, HCW; Ning, A.; Chan, FTS; Zhang, J.

    2000-01-01

    The depiction of the agile manufacturing cell includes a synopsis of some of the change proficiencies obtained by the configuration. To achieve agile configuration, the cell control system for agile manufacturing must be rapidly and efficiently generated or modified. In this paper, the object-oriented architecture is defined that supports design and implementation of highly reconfigurable control systems for agile manufacturing cells, which is composed of database objects, control objects, an...

  7. 76 FR 39127 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ...). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I 3,4,5-Trimethoxyamphetamine (7390) I 4-Bromo-2,5... plans to manufacture small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidol. In reference to drug...

  8. New Concepts and Theories For Intelligent Control of Cellular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad

    1996-01-01

    This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, and multi-agent theory in the context of manufacturing systems. The objective of the paper is to show how these theories can contribute to develop the new...... will evolve around the idea of integrating intelligent elements into the control systems of the manufacturing systems. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators....... concepts that are required for controlling the manufacturing systems of the future. Thereafter it will present the potential for improvement of the manufacturing system by introduction and implementation of these theories. The paper tries to encapsulate the main area of my Ph.D. thesis research which...

  9. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  10. On-line chemistry control in EDF Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes Electricite De France (EDF) policy concerning chemistry control in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Due to the great importance of some parameters, and high risks of pollution of grab samples, the main parameters are continuously measured by reliable chemical on-line monitors. EDF has consequently developed a large program of tests to select the best instrument, in a specific facility installed in a NPP. In addition, a guideline document describes all the operations necessary for the correct use of all chemical monitors. Periodic evaluations are organized to ensure the good quality of in-plant measurements: they consist of a complete inspection of all the monitors implemented in the unit, and comparative measurements between the unit monitors and those of Groupe des Laboratories (GDL), the central laboratories of EDF. EDF is presently designing chemical expert systems, making it possible to improve reliability and to shorten response time for all operation phases. The main advantage expected is an improvement of chemistry quality in the plants, resulting from quicker operator reaction in case of abnormal situations

  11. New Concepts and Theories For Intelligent Control of Cellular Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad

    1996-01-01

    This paper will present some new theories such as biological manufacturing system, the fractal factory theory, holonic manufacturing systems, agile manufacturing, object orientation, multi-agent theory, artificial intelligence, and artificial life in the context of manufacturing systems....... The objective of the paper is to show how these theories can contribute to develop the new concepts that are required for controlling the manufacturing systems of the future. Thereafter it will present the potential for improvement of the manufacturing system by introduction and implementation of these theories...... contributed to my research. The research will concentrate on integration of manufacturing units by use of intelligent control mechanisms, information technology and the material handling as the key integrators....

  12. 77 FR 5848 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... October 20, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2011, 76 FR 66994, Research... Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives...

  13. GREEN MANUFACTURING HELPS TO CONTROL GLOBAL WARMING: - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad Ahmad; Tasmeem Ahmad Khan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we are approaching to the effect of using Green manufacturing in the Global Warming. The main causes for energy inefficiency and environmental pollution are increased plant capacity and introduction of new factories, outdated production technology in use, aged industrial infrastructures, lack of management skills and coal dominated energy structures. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated approach like Green Manufacturing technology towards energy and environme...

  14. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of drugs; revision of certain labeling controls. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and veterinary drug products by limiting the application of special control procedures for the use of cut labeling to immediate container labels, individual unit cartons, or multiunit cartons containing immediate containers that are not packaged in individual unit cartons. FDA is also permitting the use of any automated technique, including differentiation by labeling size and shape, that physically prevents incorrect labeling from being processed by labeling and packaging equipment when cut labeling is used. This action is intended to protect consumers from labeling errors more likely to cause adverse health consequences, while eliminating the regulatory burden of applying the rule to labeling unlikely to reach or adversely affect consumers. This action is also intended to permit manufacturers to use a broader range of error prevention and labeling control techniques than permitted by current CGMPs.

  15. A Service-Oriented and Holonic Control Architecture to the Reconfiguration of Dispersed Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Robson,; Blos, Mauricio,; Junqueira, Fabrício; Santos Filho, Diolino,; Miyagi, Paulo,

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Monitoring and Supervision Systems International audience Manufacturing control systems must quickly react to variations of product, process specifications, fault occurrence, changes in the resources functional capabilities, and other operational demands. Besides, to gain competitive advantages, dispersed manufacturing systems must cooperate with each other. The combination of holonic control system and service-oriented architecture techniques can be effective to integrate these...

  16. 14 CFR 21.143 - Quality control data requirements; prime manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality control data requirements; prime manufacturer. 21.143 Section 21.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... control data requirements; prime manufacturer. (a) Each applicant must submit, for approval,...

  17. Research on Technological Process Control Model of Reverse Logistics in Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiane; LIU Chao

    2006-01-01

    This paper has found out some important input factors of reverse logistics in manufacturing system throuth analysis and summary, and established four kinds of technological process control models of reverse logistics in manufacturing system according to different processing methods. These models embed each other that form a cubic control system of reverse logistics.

  18. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J

    2004-06-15

    This is the third in a series of reports from an investigation co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) into the effectiveness of alternative amines for controlling the rate of tube-bundle fouling under steam generator (SG) operating conditions. The objectives of this investigation are to determine whether the fouling rate depends on the amine used for pH control, to identify those factors that influence the effectiveness, and use this information to optimize the selection of an amine for chemistry control and deposit control in the steam cycle and steam generator, respectively. Work to date has demonstrated that the rate of particle deposition under steam generator operating conditions is strongly influenced by surface chemistry (Turner et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1999). This dependence upon surface chemistry is illustrated by the difference between the deposition rates measured for hematite and magnetite, and by the dependence of the particle deposition rate on the amine used for pH control. Deposition rates of hematite were found to be more than 10 times greater than those for magnetite under similar test conditions (Turner et al., 1997). At 270{sup o}C and pH{sub T} 6.2, the surfaces of hematite and magnetite are predicted to be positively charged and negatively charged, respectively (Shoonen, 1994). Measurements of the point of zero charge (PZC) of magnetite at temperatures from 25{sup o}C to 290{sup o}C by Wesolowski et al. (1999) have confirmed that magnetite is negatively charged at the stated conditions. A PZC of 4.2 was measured for Alloy 600 at 25{sup o}C (Balakrishnan and Turner, un-published results), and its surface is expected to remain negatively charged for alkaline chemistry over the temperature range of interest. Therefore, there will be a repulsive force between the surfaces of magnetite particles and Alloy 600 at 270{sup o}C and pH{sub T} 6.2 that is absent for hematite particles

  19. Controlled Chemistry Approach to the Oxo-Functionalization of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigler, Siegfried

    2016-05-17

    Graphene is the best-studied 2D material available. However, its production is still challenging and the quality depends on the preparation procedure. Now, more than a decade after the outstanding experiments conducted on graphene, the most successful wet-chemical approach to graphene and functionalized graphene is based on the oxidation of graphite. Graphene oxide has been known for more than a century; however, the structure bears variable large amounts of lattice defects that render the development of a controlled chemistry impossible. The controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene avoids the formation of defects within the σ-framework of carbon atoms, making the synthesis of specific molecular architectures possible. The scope of this review is to introduce the field of oxo-functionalizing graphene. In particular, the differences between GO and oxo-functionalized graphene are described in detail. Moreover analytical methods that allow determining lattice defects and functional groups are introduced followed by summarizing the current state of controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene. PMID:26990805

  20. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te

  1. Management control of supplier relationships in manufacturing: a case study in the automotive industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies management control design of supplier relationships in manufacturing, a supply chain phase currently under-explored. Compared to supplier relations during procurement and R&D, which research found to be governed by a combination of formal and informal controls, supplier relations in manufacturing are more formal, so that they could be governed by more formal and less informal controls. To refine the management control system and influencing contingencies, we pro...

  2. 75 FR 6062 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... 21, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2009, (74 FR 46232), Research... schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Cocaine (9041) I The Institute will manufacture small quantities of cocaine and marihuana derivatives for use by their...

  3. Plug-Based Microfluidics with Defined Surface Chemistry to Miniaturize and Control Aggregation of Amyloidogenic Peptides**

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Matthias; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Choi, Se Hoon; Norstrom, Eric M.; Sisodia, Sangram S; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-01

    Small with control: For miniaturization of protein aggregation experiments the interfacial chemistry must be controlled to avoid protein aggregation caused by interfacial adsorption. Plug-based microfluidics with defined surface chemistry (see schematic picture) can then be used to perform hundreds of aggregation experiments with volume-limited samples, such as cerebrospinal fluid from mice.

  4. Controlled Molten Metal Droplet Deposition for Net-Form Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Melissa; Michaelis, Matthew; Smith, Robert

    2001-11-01

    Molten metal droplets generated from capillary stream breakup are employed as the deposition element in a droplet-based net-form manufacturing technique that is under development at UCI. The metallic droplets are electrostatically charged at the time of generation and are subsequently deflected onto a substrate by passing them through an electric field. As a showcase to this new technique, we have employed various combinations of electrostatic charging and substrate motion in order to net-form manufacture rectangular components with both thick (2.8 mm) and thin (0.6 mm) walls, tubular components with clover cross-sections, and intriguing metallic braids up to 3.0 meters in length.

  5. Special Issue on Manufacturing Plant Control Challenges and Issues: Guest editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Gérard; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    International audience This special issue of the IFAC journal on Control Engineering Practice contains improved selected papers of the 11th IFAC INCOM'04 Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing held in Brazil. The main purpose of INCOM'04 has been to point up international research and developments dealing with all the applications of automation, information and communication technologies in order to control and to manage the manufacturing plant within the e-enterprise. ...

  6. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... September 12, 2013, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  7. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; GE Healthcare... August 31, 2012, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004- 1412, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer...

  8. Modeling and Control of Welding Flexible Manufacturing Cell Using Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new welding flexible manufacturing cell (WFMC) with intelligent welding sensors was investigated. Based on the analysis of information flow in WFMC, automation Petri net control model has been studied, which can be extended to complex welding flexible manufacturing system in the future.

  9. An agile planning and control framework for customer-order driven discrete parts manufacturing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, van M.F.; Hans, E.W.; Velde, van de S.L.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a planning and control framework for manufacture-to-order environments that enables and supports agile-based discrete parts manufacturing. The characteristic elements of our framework are that it is decentralized, logistics and business oriented, and that it recognizes that

  10. Specifications, quality control, manufacturing, and testing of accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Einfeld, D

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the magnets plays an important role in the functioning of an accelerator. Most of the magnets are designed at the accelerator laboratory and built by industry. The link between the laboratory and the manufacturer is the contract containing the Technical Specifications of the magnets. For an overview of the contents of the Technical Specifications, the specifications for the magnets of ALBA (bending, quadrupole, and sextupole) are described in this paper. The basic rules of magnet design are reviewed in Appendix A.

  11. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  12. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemi...

  13. 78 FR 23958 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical...

  14. 78 FR 32458 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried USA, LLC... April 18, 2013, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  15. 77 FR 70825 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... November 5, 2012, Siegfried (USA) LLC, 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  16. 78 FR 46613 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA), LLC... 10, 2013, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070,...

  17. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Siegfried (USA... 19, 2012, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application...

  18. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  19. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  20. Factors controlling global tropospheric ozone: roles of isoprene chemistry, tropospheric halogen chemistry, convection, and lightning NOx sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Ozone is central to our understanding of tropospheric oxidant chemistry through its driving of radical cycles. Yet our understanding of factors determining its spatial distribution and long-term trend is still poor. In this work, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as a platform to test our current knowledge of key factors controlling tropospheric ozone. We evaluate the most recent GEOS-Chem simulation against in-situ data using ozonesonde networks from WOUDC and NOAA-GMD and using aircraft observations from MOZAIC/IAGOS, to examine the vertical distribution of modeled tropospheric ozone. Satellite observed ozone data from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) are used to assess the spatial distribution of the predicted ozone concentrations. We also examine different versions of GEOS-Chem outputs from historical benchmarks and from sensitivity runs (such as changing in chemistry and meteorological fields) for their capabilities to reproduce observed tropospheric ozone patterns. In this presentation, we interpret these analyses in terms of present understanding in isoprene chemistry, tropospheric bromine chemistry, lightning NOx sources and deep convection, and examine their implications for key model processes controlling the abundance and variability of global tropospheric ozone.

  1. State Modelling and Simultaneous Control of Discrete Part Manufacturing Product Transformation Processes and Resource Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans; Holm

    2002-01-01

    As competition in the market for discrete part prod uc ts gets harder and harder the requirements for extreme manufacturing operati on efficiencies get increasingly accentuated. Therefore requirements for well behaved manufacturing operation control get more and more significant. The purpose of the paper is to establish a framework for development of formal m ethods for design of systems for simultaneous control of continuous manufacturin g task processes and resource allocation of discrete part manu...

  2. Microeconomics of yield learning and process control in semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.

    2003-06-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link yield learning to profitability in semiconductor manufacturing have been rare or non-existent. In this work, we review such a model and provide links to inspection capability and cost. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300mm factories, including the impact of technology transitions to 130nm design rules and below. We show that the dramatic increase in value per wafer at the 300mm transition becomes a driver for increasing metrology and inspection capability and sampling. These analyses correlate well wtih actual factory data and often identify millions of dollars in potential cost savings. We demonstrate this using the example of grating-based overlay metrology for the 65nm node.

  3. Research on OEF geometry control algorithm in dual-galvanometric laser scanning manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilai Sun; Shuzhong Lin; Tao Wang

    2005-01-01

    For the dual-galvanometric laser scanning manufacturing, the traditional geometry algorithm-fθ only considered the distance between the two swaying mirrors, the distance between the swaying mirror and the convex lens, the mirror swaying angle, and the lens focal length. And it could not correctly express the manufacturing track which was made geometry distorted. Based on analysis, a creative geometry control algorithm - optical entire factors (OEF) was brought forward. From the creative algorithm it can be known that OEF geometry control algorithm was concerned with not only the distance of the two swaying mirrors, distance between the swaying mirror and the convex lens, mirror swaying angle, and lens focal length, but also the lens central height, lens convex radius, and medium refractive index. The manufacturing system can manufacture satisfied geometry with the creative double ends approach (DEA) control model based on OEF in the experiments.

  4. Context-Based Orchestration for Control of Resource-Efficient Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schwarz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices into services. An efficient discovery, context-based selection and dynamic orchestration of these services are the key features for the creation of highly adaptable manufacturing processes. We describe a semantic service discovery and ad-hoc orchestration system, which is able to react to new process variants and changed contextual information (e.g., failure of field devices, requirements on the consumption of resources. Because a standardized vocabulary, especially for the description of mechatronic functionalities, is still missing in the manufacturing domain, the semantic description of services, processes and manufacturing plants as well as the semantic interpretation of contextual information play an important part.

  5. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control t

  6. Water chemistry control to meet the advanced design and operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The road maps on R and D plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems in Japan have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry improvement for the advanced application of light water reactors (LWRs). The technical trends were divided into four categories, dose rate reduction, structural integrity, fuel integrity and radioactive waste reduction, and latest technical break through for each category was shown for the advanced application of LWRs. At the same time, the technical break through and the latest movements for regulation of water chemistry were introduced for each of major organizations related to nuclear engineering in the world. The conclusions were summarized as follows; 1. Water chemistry improvements might contribute to achieve the advanced application of LWRs, while water chemistry should be often changed to achieve the advanced application of LWRs. 2. Only one solution for water chemistry control was not obtained for achieving the advanced application of LWRs, but miscellaneous solutions were possible for achieving one. Optimal water chemistry control was desired for having the good practices for satisfying multi-targets at the same time and it was much affected by the plant unique systems and operational history. 3. That meant it was difficult to determine water chemistry regulation targets for achieving application of LWRs but it was necessary to prepare suitable guideline for good achievement of application of LWRs. That meant the guideline should be recommendation for good practice in the plant. 4. The water chemistry guide line should be modified along with progress of plant operation and water chemistry and related technologies. (author)

  7. 76 FR 5829 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  8. Control of microstructure in soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast or vapor deposited manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2015-11-10

    Disclosed are methods and systems for controlling of the microstructures of a soldered, brazed, welded, plated, cast, or vapor deposited manufactured component. The systems typically use relatively weak magnetic fields of either constant or varying flux to affect material properties within a manufactured component, typically without modifying the alloy, or changing the chemical composition of materials or altering the time, temperature, or transformation parameters of a manufacturing process. Such systems and processes may be used with components consisting of only materials that are conventionally characterized as be uninfluenced by magnetic forces.

  9. The contemporary controller's profile in a Chinese manufacturing context: The case of W company in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Study objectives The goal of this study is to research the controller's role in a Western manufacture company which operates in China. Prior researchers have focused their vision on the controller's change in Western countries, while the controller's role in China has been rarely known. And previous literature has already discussed some certain troubles faced by controllers. So in order to examine if the findings of the West also apply to Chinese controllers, two following re...

  10. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  11. 75 FR 53720 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... classes of controlled substances listed in schedules I and II: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  12. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  13. A framework for structural modelling of an RFID-enabled intelligent distributed manufacturing control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barenji, Ali Vatankhah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A modern manufacturing facility typically contains several distributed control systems, such as machining stations, assembly stations, and material handling and storage systems. Integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology into these control systems provides a basis for monitoring and configuring their components in real-time. With the right structural modelling, it is then possible to evaluate designs and translate them into new operational applications almost immediately. This paper proposes an architecture for the structural modelling of an intelligent distributed control system for a manufacturing facility, by utilising RFID technology. Emphasis is placed on a requirements analysis of the manufacturing system, the design of RFID-enabled intelligent distributed control systems using Unified Modelling Language (UML diagrams, and the use of efficient algorithms and tools for the implementation of these systems.

  14. Microstructure-controllable Laser Additive Manufacturing Process for Metal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.

  15. MANUFACTURING NON-CIRCULAR PARTS USING PROGRAMMABLE MULTIPLE-AXIS CONTROLLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Successful attempt is made to solve the problem of manufacturing non-circular parts with the aid of programmable multiple-axis controller(PMAC) integrated with high-speed electrical spindle. Principles of PMAC are introduced, and an NC-grinder system is integrated based on PMAC with proper software included. Control method and integration principle are discussed. Using PMAC's online measuring and time-based controlling, high-speed and high-precision manufacture of non-circular parts is accomplished, yielding satisfactory result, which sets an important foundation for development of high-speed and high-precision NC grinder aiming at machining of non-circular parts.

  16. 76 FR 30970 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... January 18, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011, 76 FR 5829, AMRI Rensselaer... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  17. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  18. Solar Heating and Cooling for a Controls Manufacturing Plant Lumberton, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Comprehensive report documents computer-controlled system which has separate solar-collector and cooling-tower areas located away from building and is completely computer controlled. System description, test data, major problems and resolution, performance, operation and maintenance, manufacturer's literature and drawing comprise part of 257-page report.

  19. MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.

  20. Optimisation and control of processes in apparel manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Helder

    2003-01-01

    The industrial production of garments and similar textile end products is an activity that has roots back to the 19th century, and that has profited immensely from continuous technological developments since its first emergence. However, several characteristics of the materials that are processed give rise to technical issues that are difficult to objectively manage and control. The limpness and elasticity of textiles make automated material handling and transportation within the shopfloor...

  1. Remote Robot Vision Control of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Anton, Silvia; Anton, Florin Daniel; Borangiu, Theodor

    2010-01-01

    The project was finished at the end of 2008 as part of the PRIC research program (Shared Research and Training Resources). The research project provide a communication and collaboration portal solution for linking the existing pilot platform with multiple V+ industrial robot-vision controllers from Adept Technology located in four University Labs from Romania (Bucharest, Craiova, Iasi and Galati). This allow teachers to train their student using robots and expensive devices which they do not ...

  2. System design and control integration for advanced manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Han-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Most existing robust design books address design for static systems, or achieve robust design from experimental data via the Taguchi method. Little work considers model information for robust design particularly for the dynamic system. This book covers robust design for both static and dynamic systems using the nominal model information or the hybrid model/data information, and also integrates design with control under a large operating region. This design can handle strong nonlinearity and more uncertainties from model and parameters.

  3. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  4. Performance Analysis of a Manufacturing Line Operated under Optimal Surplus-Based Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Starkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.

  5. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  6. 21 CFR 111.123 - What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... for Quality Control § 111.123 What quality control operations are required for the master manufacturing record, the batch production record, and manufacturing operations? (a) Quality control...

  7. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  8. 78 FR 11611 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  9. 78 FR 64425 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... proposed rule to establish requirements for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and... would create new current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations that specifically address the... Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals;...

  10. 78 FR 48636 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for Human Food... period. These two proposals are related to the proposed rule ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice...

  11. An Improved Multivariate T2 Control Chart for Individual Observations in Low Volume Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Rui(苗瑞); Wang Dongpeng; Yao Yingxue

    2004-01-01

    For multivariate statistical process quality control with individual observations, the usually recommended procedure is Hotelling's T2 control chart. Using the T2 statistic based on β distribution is an exact method for constructing multivariate control limits in low volume manufacturing, but it is not convenient in that the variation of sample size leads to a change in control limit. This paper presents an improved multivariate T2 control chart whose control limit does not change with sample size, which is especially useful when the sample size is small.

  12. 77 FR 47108 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cerilliant Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417(2007). Any bulk manufacturer who is presently, or is..., 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled...-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370)...

  13. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Institute By Notice dated April 16, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2013, 78 FR... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits, reagents,...

  14. 77 FR 75670 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    .... By Notice dated July 30, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on August 7, 2012, 77 FR 47114... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a...

  15. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Austin Pharma, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    .... By Notice dated May 9, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2012, 77 FR 30027... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  16. 77 FR 60145 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Apertus Pharmaceuticals, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Pharmaceuticals, LLC By Notice dated June 4, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 12, 2012, 77 FR 35058, Apertus Pharmaceuticals, LLC., 331 Consort Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63011, made application to... registration of Apertus Pharmaceuticals, LLC., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled...

  17. 77 FR 30028 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2324, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances...

  18. 78 FR 12104 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated November 5, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2012, 77 FR 67676, Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 870 Badger Circle, Grafton, Wisconsin 53024, made... of Cedarburg Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled...

  19. 78 FR 69134 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Apertus Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Pharmaceuticals By Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2013, 78 FR 46372, Apertus Pharmaceuticals, 331 Consort Drive, St Louis, Missouri 63011, made application by renewal to the... of Apertus Pharmaceuticals to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances...

  20. Towards an integration of process planning and production planning and control for flexible manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalman, GJC; Slomp, J; Suresh, NC

    1999-01-01

    This introduction article attempts to present some major issues relating to the integration of process planning and production planning and control (PPC) for flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs). It shows that the performance of an FMS can be significantly improved and FMS capabilities more effecti

  1. 77 FR 72409 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application: Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application: Siemens Healthcare... notice that on November 7, 2012, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc., Attn: RA, 100 GBC Drive, Mail Stop 514, Newark, Delaware 19702, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration...

  2. 78 FR 33442 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; GE Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; GE Healthcare By Notice dated February 8, 2013 and published in the Federal Register on February 21, 2013, 78 FR 12103, GE Healthcare, 3350 North Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004-1412, made application by renewal...

  3. Changes in production control required for untended operation of a flexible manufacturing cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Stecke, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines and improves the production control system of a firm that wants to operate its flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in an untended third shift. The FMC consists of a machining centre, a pallet storage, a rail-guided transport vehicle for pallets and a clamping/unclamping station.

  4. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Siegfried USA, LLC The Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2013, 78 FR 46613, page 18338, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, applied...

  5. 78 FR 30333 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (Usa), Llc. By Notice dated November 19, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 27, 2012, 77 FR 70825, Siegfried (USA), LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application...

  6. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried (USA) By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2323, Siegfried (USA), 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by renewal to...

  7. 78 FR 64020 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Siegfried USA, LLC By Notice dated May 22, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on May 30, 2013, 78 FR 32458, Siegfried USA, LLC., 33 Industrial Park Road, Pennsville, New Jersey 08070, made application by letter...

  8. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab By Notice dated June 18, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 26, 2012, 77 FR 38086, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to...

  9. Critical factors in manufacturing multi-layer tablets--assessing material attributes, in-process controls, manufacturing process and product performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithiyalingam, Sivakumar R; Sayeed, Vilayat A

    2010-10-15

    Advancement in the fields of material science, analytical methodologies, instrumentation, automation, continuous monitoring, feed forward/feed back control and comprehensive data collection have led to continual improvement of pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing technology, notably the multi-layer tablets. This review highlights the material attributes, formulation design, process parameters that impact the performance, and manufacturability of the multi-layer tablets. It also highlights on critical-to-quality elements that needs to be addressed in the regulatory submission.

  10. Operating experience in correcting severe secondary chemistry upsets by controlling makeup water organics (TOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper following observations are presented: conductivity and chloride excursions in steam condensate were directly linked to makeup water quality. Data strongly suggests that the breakdown of makeup water organics was responsible for substandard condensate water quality; although the short-term effects of gross organic contamination have been documented, the longer term consequences of continuous exposure by moderate organic levels needs to be addressed; a greater understanding of the organic removal efficiency of the various water purification technologies is essential to controlling TOC contamination; and a much better understanding of makeup plant chemistry and the interrelationship of makeup water contamination and plant chemistry has proven essential to optimizing plant performance and guaranteeing the best possible steam chemistry. The role of the chemistry group as an active participant in operations has been proven at Kewaunee Nuclear Plant

  11. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  12. The separation of ownership and control and investment decisions in Mexican manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Porras, Antonio; Lopez-Mateo, Celina

    2010-01-01

    We study how the ownership and control structures may explain investment decisions of Mexican manufacturing firms. We study them with aggregate indexes and the assessment of several regression sets. We use measures of ownership, management and agency costs. The econometric analysis uses longitudinal census data for 182 industries. Our findings support the claim that agency costs, as a measure of the separation of management and control, and firms` size can explain investment decisions. Furthe...

  13. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  14. A prototype expert system 'SMART' for water chemistry control in reactor water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational safety of a power plant depends mainly on the material compatibility of the system materials with the environment. However, for an operating plant, the material is almost fixed and hence one can improve the safety by controlling the surrounding environment. From the economy point of view, the plant availability factor as well as plant life extension (PLEX) are important considerations and these necessitate a systematic approach for continuous parametric monitoring, rapid data analysis and diagnosis for controlling the water chemistry regime. A prototype expert system 'SMART' was developed in BASIC language. The expert system consists of four modules. The DATA HANDLER module controls all the data handling functions and graphical display of the data parameters. It also generates weekly and monthly reports of the water chemistry data. The DATA INTERPRETER module compares the experimental data with the theoretically calculated values and predicts the presence of impurity ingress in the system. The CHEMISTRY EXPERT contains the knowledge base about the various sub-systems. All the water chemistry specifications are translated in the form of IF... THEN.. rules and are stored in this module. The expert system inferences with the forward chain reasoning mechanism to identify the diagnostic parameters by consulting the knowledge base and applying the appropriate rules. The ACTION EXPERT module collects all the diagnostic parameters and suggests the operator, the remedial actions/counter measures that should be taken immediately. This rule based system can be expanded to accommodate different water chemistry regimes. (author)

  15. Design and Implementation of Distributed Numerical Control in Flexible Manufacturing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炳海; 余传猛; 奚立峰; 曹永上

    2004-01-01

    To monitor, control and manage the work process ofcomputer numerical control machine tools in a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) effectively, the distributed numerical control (distributed-NC) software should be innovated with the characteristics of modularization and reconfiguration. In this paper, firstly, distributed-NC functions in the FMS environment are described. Then, we present a design and development method of the real time distributed-NC that is on the basis of the re-configurable software and hardware platform and with an object-oriented model concept. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the distributed-NC software has been implemented in VC + +6.0 and has been tested in connection with the different physical flexible manufacturing shops.

  16. Manufacture and quality control of concrete for Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikata Nuclear Power Station, only one nuclear power station in Shikoku, is located at the root of Sada Peninsula on Seto Inland sea side. At present, No.1 and No.2 plants of 566 MW each are in commercial operation, and on the east side, No.3 plant is under construction. No.3 plant is a PWR type plant of 890 MWe output, and the start of commercial operation is scheduled in March, 1995. In the construction of No.3 plant, the concrete used for civil engineering and building works is about 430,000 m3, and for the improvement of the quality control of concrete, the pursuit of economic efficiency, the fostering of concrete technology of employee and the coprosperity with local industries, the facilities for manufacturing concrete were constructed within the premise of the power station. The amount of use of concrete and respective materials classified by respective fiscal years, and the amount of manufacture of concrete that determines the scale of the concrete plant are shown. As to the construction of the concrete plant, the foundation work was started in March, 1987, and the machine foundation and building works were started in May, 1987. The acceptance was completed on August 17, 1987. The facilities of manufacturing concrete, the manufacture of concrete, and the quality control of materials and concrete are reported. (author)

  17. Chemistry with spatial control using particles and streams†

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinin, Yevgeniy V.; Murali, Adithya; Gracias, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial control of chemical reactions, with micro- and nanometer scale resolution, has important consequences for one pot synthesis, engineering complex reactions, developmental biology, cellular biochemistry and emergent behavior. We review synthetic methods to engineer this spatial control using chemical diffusion from spherical particles, shells and polyhedra. We discuss systems that enable both isotropic and anisotropic chemical release from isolated and arrayed particles to create inhomo...

  18. Control of criticality risk in the manufacture of fuel elements for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of criticality risk in a chemical plant adopts different forms according to the quantities of fissile material and the type of compounds used. This work presents the treatment of the critical excursion risk adopted in production plants of U3 O8 and manufacturing plants of fuel elements for research reactors, located in Constituyentes Atomic Center. The possible events and accidents related to the fissile material control are analyzed, and the systems of administrative control and intrinsic safety through engineering are described. (Author)

  19. Interaction of Units and Research Methods of Control Performances of Distributed Manufacturing Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-sheng; SUN Yan-ming; ZHENG Shi-xiong

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the function demand of the distributed manufacturing information system as well as its control demand,and eliminate information ambiguity among system units to integrate sernantics,the abstract Agent model and computational structure of each unit was presented based on flexible coupling automata.The autonomy of each unit was investigated in this foundation.The system unit was described usmg the Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology.And the system semantics was also integrated.On these basics the communication among the system units was analyzed with an example of interaction between a machine and a warehouse.The control performances of information system units were investigated usmg Boolean matrix as a substitute for traditional process in RWtheory,which reduced the computational complexity.This work established the foundation for the demand analysis,design and development of the distributed manufacture information system.

  20. From nanofabrication to self-fabrication--tailored chemistry for control of single molecule electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    as alternatives to the dominant top-down nanofabrication techniques. One example is solution-based self-assembly of a molecule enclosed by two gold nanorod electrodes. This article will discuss recent attempts to control the self-assembly process by the use of supramolecular chemistry and how to tailor...

  1. Nonlinear model-based control of thin-film drying for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah, A.; Ford Versypt, AN; Zhu, X.; Braatz, RD

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the model-based control of composition and thickness for a thin-film drying process used in the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceutical tablets. In this nonlinear distributed dynamical system, a drug formulation solution is coated onto a moving surface and then dried to form thin films of approximately 250 μm in thickness. A dynamic optimizer is designed that employs a first-principles process model to simulate the spatial distribution of solvent concentration in the f...

  2. The application of numerical control (NC) in manufacturing wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A numerically controlled milling machine with an accuracy of 0.01 to 0.02 mm adapted to the manufacturing of wind tunnel models, and a three axis measuring machine with an accuracy of 0.01 mm and a resolution of 0.05 mm on which models can be measured quickly and accurately are described. A procedure in which a given plasticine model is measured by the measuring machine to obtain the coordinates for models without numerical data is outlined.

  3. Studies in process modeling, design, monitoring, and control, with applications to polymer composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasagupta, Deepak

    2002-01-01

    High material and manufacturing costs have hindered the introduction of advanced polymer composite materials into mainstream civilian applications such as automotive. Even though high-fidelity models for several polymer composite manufacturing processes have become available over the past several years and offer significant benefits in manufacturing cost reduction, concerns about their inflexibility and maintenance has adversely affected their widespread usage. This research seeks to advance process modeling and design in polymer composites manufacturing to address these concerns. Other more general issues in measurement validation and distributed control are also addressed. Using a rigorous 3-D model of the injected pultrusion (IP) process validated recently, an algorithm was developed for process and equipment design with integrated economic, operability and environmental considerations. The optimum design promised enhanced throughput as well as reduction in the time and expenses of the current purely experimental approaches. Scale-up issues in IP were analyzed, and refinements to overcome some drawbacks in the model were suggested. The process model was then extended to simulate the co-injection resin transfer molding (CIRTM) process used for manufacture of foam-core sandwich composites. A 1-D isothermal model for real-time control was also developed. Process optimization using these models and experimental parametric studies increased the debond fracture toughness of sandwiches by 78% over current technology. To ensure the availability of validated measurements from process instrumentation, a novel in-situ sensor modeling approach to sensor validation was proposed. Both active and passive, time and frequency domain techniques were developed, and experimentally verified using temperature and flow sensors. A model-based dynamic estimator to predict the true measurement online was also validated. The effect of network communication delay on stability and control

  4. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  5. Kinetic controlled affinity labeling of target enzyme with thioester chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomohiro, Takenori; Nakabayashi, Masahiro; Sugita, Yuka; Morimoto, Shota

    2016-08-01

    High specificity has been an important feature in affinity labeling for target profiling. Especially, to label targets via rapidly progressing reactions with consumption of ligand (probe), high specificity of reaction with common functional groups of target protein should be achieved without reactions with similar groups of non-target proteins. Herein, we demonstrate the kinetic controlled affinity labeling of acyl CoA synthetase using a fatty acid analogue containing a phenylthioester linkage. High specificity was attained by accelerating the labeling rate in the binding pocket. This approach could be useful for profiling a series of target enzymes and transporters in signal transduction pathways. PMID:27298000

  6. Design of Biomedical and Biofunctional Polymers by Use of Living/Controlled Polymerizations and "Click" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    of interdigitated electrodes.6 The conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by ”click” chemistry with high spatial resolution. Through control of the applied electrode potentials the electrodes are selectively functionalized in sequence......The lecture will address recent research activities aiming at developing novel biomacromolecular materials with unsurpassed properties by use of the proper synthetic tools where various “click” chemistry approaches play a key prominent role. Two entirely different themes will be elaborated...... as demonstrated by use of two alkyne-modified fluorophores. For this method we have introduced the term “electroclick”. In the most recent development complex one- or two-dimentional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced locally on the PEDOT-N3 by stenciled “electroclick“ chemistry.7...

  7. Modeling and Control of Time-pressure Dispensing for Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To improve the consistency of the adhesive amount dispensed by the time-pressure dispenser for semiconductor manufacturing, a non-Newtonian fluid flow rate model is developed to represent and estimate the adhesive amount dispensed in each cycle. Taking account of gas compressibility, an intelligent model-based control strategy is proposed to compensate the deviation of adhesive amount dispensed from the desired one. Both simulations and experiments show that the dispensing consistency is greatly improved by using the model-based control strategy developed in this paper.

  8. Start-up conditions and the performance of women - and men - controlled businesses in manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Driga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms.

  9. The need for artificial intelligence as an aid in controlling a manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, J.

    AI applications to industrial production and planning are discussed and illustrated with diagrams and drawings. Applications examined include flexible automation of manufacturing processes (robots with open manual control, robots programmable to meet product specifications, self-regulated robots, and robots capable of learning), flexible fault detection and diagnostics, production control, and overall planning and management (product strategies, marketing, determination of development capacity, site selection, project organization, and technology investment strategies). For the case of robots, problems in the design and operation of a state-of-the-art machine-tool cell (for hole boring, milling, and joining) are analyzed in detail.

  10. Controlling Nonspecific Protein Adsorption in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System by Controlling Interfacial Chemistry Using Fluorous-Phase Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, L. Spencer; Song, Helen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2005-01-01

    Control of surface chemistry and protein adsorption is important for using microfluidic devices for biochemical analysis and high-throughput screening assays. This paper describes the control of protein adsorption at the liquid-liquid interface in a plug-based microfluidic system. The microfluidic system uses multiphase flows of immiscible fluorous and aqueous fluids to form plugs, which are aqueous droplets that are completely surrounded by fluorocarbon oil and do not come into direct contac...

  11. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25oC. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both

  12. Surface chemistry of black phosphorus under a controlled oxidative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Milligan, Cory A.; Du, Yuchen; Yang, Lingming; Wu, Yanqing; Ye, Peide D.

    2016-10-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), the bulk counterpart of monolayer phosphorene, is a relatively stable phosphorus allotrope at room temperature. However, monolayer phosphorene and ultra-thin BP layers degrade in ambient atmosphere. In this paper, we report the investigation of BP oxidation and discuss the reaction mechanism based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The kinetics of BP oxidation was examined under various well-controlled conditions, namely in 5% O2/Ar, 2.3% H2O/Ar, and 5% O2 and 2.3% H2O/Ar. At room temperature, the BP surface is demonstrated not to be oxidized at a high oxidation rate in 5% O2/Ar nor in 2.3% H2O/Ar, according to XPS, with the thickness of the oxidized phosphorus layer <5 Å for 5 h. On the other hand, in the O2/H2O mixture, a 30 Å thickness oxide layer was detected already after 2 h of the treatment. This result points to a synergetic effect of water and oxygen in the BP oxidation. The oxidation effect was also studied in applications to the electrical measurements of BP field-effect transistors (FETs) with or without passivation. The electrical performance of BP FETs with atomic layer deposition (ALD) dielectric passivation or h-BN passivation formed in a glove-box environment are also presented.

  13. Manufacturing implementation of scatterometry and other techniques for 300-mm lithography tool controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, T.; Corliss, D.; Brunner, T.; Ausschnitt, C.; Young, R.; Nielson, R.; Hwang, E.; Iannucci, J., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Focus and dose control of lithography tools for leading edge semiconductor manufacturing are critical to obtaining acceptable process yields and device performance. The need for these controls is increasing due to the apparent limitation of optical water immersion lithography at NA values of approximately 1.35 and the need to use the same equipment for 45nm, 32nm, and 22nm node production. There is a rich history of lithographic controls using various techniques described in the literature. These techniques include (but are not limited to) Phase Grating Focus Monitoring1 (PGFM), optical CD control using optical overlay metrology equipment (OOCD)2,3, and in more recent years optical scatterometry4,5. Some of the techniques, even though they are technically sound, have not been practical to implement in volume manufacturing as controls for various reasons. This work describes the implementation and performance of two of these techniques (optical scatterometry and OOCD) in a volume 300mm production facility. Data to be reviewed include: - General implementation approach. - Scatterometry dose and focus stability data for 193nm immersion and 248nm dry lithography systems. - Analysis of the stability of optical scatterometry dose and focus deconvolution coefficients over time for 193nm immersion and 248nm dry systems. - Comparison between scatterometry and OOCD techniques for focus monitoring of 248nm dry systems. The presentation will also describe the practical issues with implementing these techniques as well as describe some possible extensions to enhance the current capabilities being described.

  14. Shop Floor-Level Control of Manufacturing Companies: An Interview Study in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokola Henri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper publishes the results of interviews regarding shop-floor-level control of 18 Finnish manufacturing companies. The interviews had 17 open questions relating to demand characteristics, shop floor-level control issues, production flexibility, inventory control, and potential development areas. In order to get insights from the interviews, this paper analyses the answers from the interviews and categorises them into typical answers. The companies that were interviewed are also categorised as small companies with their own end products, subcontractors, or large companies with their own end products, and the emphasis of the analysis is on how companies differ in their shop floor-level control. The results show that different types of companies have different characteristics. Small companies are characterised by constant workflow, seasonal trends in demand, and the use of forecasts. Subcontractors have great daily variation in their demand and processing times. Large companies tend to focus on inventory issues.

  15. APPLICATION OF IMPROVED PRODUCTION ACTIVITY CONTROL ARCHITECTURE FOR SHOP FLOOR INFORMATION SYSTEM IN DIGITAL MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAHID Ikramullah Butt; SUN Houfang; GAO Zhengqing

    2006-01-01

    Shop floor control (SFC) is responsible for the coordination and control of the manufacturing physical and information flow within the shop floor in the manufacturing system. Weaknesses of the production activity control (PAC) architecture of the shop floor are addressed by the Maglica's new system architecture. This architecture gives rise to unlimited number of movers and producers thus evolving more complex but decentralized architecture. Beijing Institute of Technology - production activity control (BIT-PAC) architecture introduces an idea of sub-producers and sub-movers thus reducing the complexity of the architecture. All the equipments including sub-producers and sub-movers are considered to be passive in the proposed shop floor information system. The dissemination of information from sub-producers and sub-movers is done manually through a PC. Proposed BIT-PAC SFC architecture facilitates the information flow from shop floor to the other area of the organization. Effective use of internet information services (IIS) and SQL2000 is done along with the ASP. NET technology to implement the application logic. Applicability of the software based on BIT-PAC architecture is checked by running application software on a network PC that supports the dynamic flow of information from sub-producers and sub-movers to the other parts of the organization. Use of software is also shown at the end for BIT training workshop thus supporting the use of SFC architecture for similar kind of environments.

  16. Towards the implementation of e-manufacturing: design of an automatic tea drying control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabvuu, Never

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the production costs for producing tea are attributable to the process of drying the tea. E-manufacturing can assist companies to reduce these production costs by making crucial information available to decision-makers so that they can make informed decisions. This paper presents an application of e-manufacturing to the design of an automatic tea drying control system. This control system will ensure that the multiple drying parameters such as temperature, dryer-exit tea moisture content, and fuel consumption are maintained at optimal states during the course of the drying of tea. The additional aim of this system is to balance the cost of production and the quality of the final product. Using the Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB model, the optimum drying temperature was found to be 100-110°C, while maintaining a dryer-exit tea moisture content of 3 to 3.12 per cent, at a drying rate of 3 per cent per minute. A Barix control application to control the system’s activities, using the web user interface (WUI, was also developed.

  17. A model of quality control based on recycling economy and sustainable manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiangyu; Liang Gongqian; Ma Shining

    2006-01-01

    People currently pay attention to a hotspot problem that how industrial production is evaluated and controlled based on sustainable development theory. Quality is one of the important indexes. Two mainstream theories guide us to realize the industrial sustainable development,: mainly the circular economy and sustainable manufacturing are introduced.The basic characteristics of the sustainable manufacturing are introduced, and that quality management is important contents of sustainable development is indicated. Based on circular economy and sustainable manufacture theories, the drawbacks in the existing quality management models are analyzed. The requests that satisfy the big system "environment - society - economy" are summarized to build up a model. A Chinese traditional cultural principle is applied and the relevant contents are sublimated as the platform to set up the model. The new quality management concept models are put forward "T- D- R" three-dimensional structures and "ecological quality loop" model, from which the new quality concepts are formed. The paper elaborates the contents and the process of setting up the models. The big quality problems of the system can be handled by the new quality concept and model that are validated in practice.

  18. FROM MANUFACTURING SCHEDULING TO SUPPLY CHAIN COORDINATION:THE CONTROL OF COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter B. LUH; Weidong FENG

    2003-01-01

    With time-based competition and rapid technology advancements, effective manufacturing scheduling and supply chain coordination are critical to quickly respond to changing market conditions. These problems, however, are difficult in view of inherent complexity and various uncertainties involved. Based on a series of results by the authors, decomposition and coordination by using Lagrangian relaxation is identified in this paper as an effective way to control complexity and uncertainty. A manufacturing scheduling problem is first formulated within the job shop context with uncertain order arrivals, processing times, due dates, and part priorities as a separable optimization problem. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed. Method improvements to effectively solve large problems are also highlighted. To extend manufacturing scheduling within a factory to coordinate autonomic members across chains of suppliers, a decentralized supply chain model is established in the second half of this paper. By relaxing cross-member constraints, the model is decomposed into member-wise subproblems, and a nested optimization structure is developed based on the job shop scheduling results. Coordination is performed through the iterative updating of cross-member prices without accessing other members' private information or intruding their decision-making authorities, either with or without a coordinator. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Future prospects to overcome problem inseparability and improve computing efficiency are then discussed.

  19. Controlling Topological Entanglement in Engineered Protein Hydrogels with a Variety of Thiol Coupling Chemistries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchang eTang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Topological entanglements between polymer chains are achieved in associating protein hydrogels through the synthesis of high molecular weight proteins via chain extension using a variety of thiol coupling chemistries, including disulfide formation, thiol-maleimide, thiol-bromomaleimide and thiol-ene. Coupling of cysteines via disulfide formation results in the most pronounced entanglement effect in hydrogels, while other chemistries provide versatile means of changing the extent of entanglement, achieving faster chain extension, and providing a facile method of controlling the network hierarchy and incorporating stimuli responsivities. The addition of trifunctional coupling agents causes incomplete crosslinking and introduces branching architecture to the protein molecules. The high-frequency plateau modulus and the entanglement plateau modulus can be tuned by changing the ratio of difunctional chain extender to the trifunctional branching unit. Therefore, these chain extension reactions show promise in delicately controlling the relaxation and mechanical properties of engineered protein hydrogels in ways that complement their design through genetic engineering.

  20. Applications of dimensional micro metrology to the product and process quality control in manufacturing of precision polymer micro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Precision manufacturing of micro injection moulded (mu IM) components presents challenges in terms of quality control due to the miniaturization of product dimensions and tolerances. This paper addresses product compliance with specifications, focusing on tolerances of dimensions and position on ...

  1. Spatially controlled immobilisation of biomolecules: A complete approach in green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenval, Eva; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Vinet, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The development of 'green' sensors is a challenging task in the field of biomolecule sensing, for example in the detection of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). In the present work a complete approach in green chemistry was developed to create chemically active patterns for the immobilisation of biological probes. This key technology is discussed on the basis of the twelve green chemistry principles, and is a combination of surface patterning by spotting and surface chemistries modified by molecular vapour deposition. The (1H,1H,2H,2H)-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) was used as a novel anti-adsorption layer while the 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) was used to immobilise probes. Oligonucleotides and the anti-cTnI antibody were studied. The spatially controlled immobilisation of probes was characterised by fluorescence. The demonstrated surface modification has broad applications in areas such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing. Moreover, the environmental impacts of surface patterning and surface chemistry were discussed from a 'greenness' point of view.

  2. The NC (numerically controlled) assistant: Interfacing knowledge based manufacturing tools to CAD/CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of numerically controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer and a set of expert system manufacturing rules to select cutting parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system shell determines the NC sequence and the machining parameters. Several point-to-point NC functions are currently in production. A CAD/CAM system interface for milling and turning functions is also described. 2 refs., 24 figs.

  3. Closed vessel technique for assessment of ballistic characteristics in quality control of propellant manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siva Ramakrishnan

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available "In order to assess the ballistic performance of a propellant it is necessary to measure its following characteristics: (aForce constant, (bvivacity, and (cshape. It is possible to determine (aand (bby the closed vessel technique which enables ballistic performance of the propellant in the gun to be estimated. It can be very usefully employed for quality control of propellant manufacture. As more and more experience is gained in the closed vessel technique these tests have several other possible practical applications such as those: (afor inspection of propellants, (bfor assessment of quality, (c to reduce proof in guns, and (dto check ballistics of a lot after long storage."

  4. User's guide for vectorized code EQUIL for calculating equilibrium chemistry on Control Data STAR-100 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    A vectorized code, EQUIL, was developed for calculating the equilibrium chemistry of a reacting gas mixture on the Control Data STAR-100 computer. The code provides species mole fractions, mass fractions, and thermodynamic and transport properties of the mixture for given temperature, pressure, and elemental mass fractions. The code is set up for the electrons H, He, C, O, N system of elements. In all, 24 chemical species are included.

  5. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer

  6. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer. PMID:25933897

  7. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  8. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  9. Haze defect control and containment in a high volume DRAM manufacturing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry X.; Nguyen, Maihan; Arasaki, Osamu; Maraquin, Tammy; Sawyer, Daniel; Morrison, Pedro

    2005-11-01

    Haze and other progressive reticle defects have been known in the semiconductor industry for more than a decade [1]. Extensive research and experiments have been carried out to determine the sources and origins of the progressive haze growth, but the true mechanisms of its cause are still under speculation. To minimize the wafer yield loss at Samsung Austin Semiconductor (SAS), we introduced a practical method to control the haze defects in a DRAM manufacturing environment that integrates reticle and wafer inspections, reticle cleaning, and a dose-based and time-based control forecast software system. This development has been proven to be very effective in controlling the haze defects and reducing the related yield loss while still supporting high volume wafer production.

  10. Design study of water chemistry control system for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yuichiro; Ide, Hiroshi; Nabeya, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsukada, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    In relation to the aging of Light Water Reactor (LWR), the Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) has been regarded as a significant and urgent issue for the reliability of in-core components of LWR, and the irradiation research on the IASCC is now under schedule. With the progress of the irradiation research on reactor materials, well-controlled environment conditions during irradiation testing are required. Especially for irradiation testing of IASCC studies, water chemistry control is essential in addition to the control of neutron fluence and irradiation temperature. According to these requirements, at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), an irradiation testing facility that simulates in-core environment of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been designed to be installed in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). This facility is composed of the Saturated Temperature Capsules (SATCAP) that are installed into the JMTR's core to irradiate material specimens, the Water Control Unit that is able to supply high-temperature and high-pressure chemical controlled water to SATCAP, and other components. This report describes the design study of water chemistry control system of the Water Control Unit. The design work has been performed in the fiscal year 1999. (author)

  11. Characterization and control of dynamic lens heating effects under high volume manufacturing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, J.; Van Look, L.; Vandenberghe, G.; van Adrichem, P.; Maslow, M. J.; Gemmink, J.-W.; Cao, H.; Hunsche, S.; Neumann, J. T.; Wolf, A.

    2011-04-01

    The desire to reduce cost in volume manufacturing has driven up the throughput in the lithographic exposure machines. As a result the power transmitted in the projection optics increases. Although small, the absorption levels in the lens materials are not zero, which leads to localized heating of the lens and hence lens aberrations. To squeeze out the maximum process windows, the pupil shapes have transformed from simple annular shapes to shapes with very concentrated poles. As a result, the exposure energy transported through the lens is no longer equally distributed over the lenses of the projection options. Instead only a fraction of the lens gets to transport the total power. This concentration of power further aggravates the lens heating induced aberrations and enhances the importance of advanced lens heating control schemes which are available on ASML scanners. To analyze the effects of lens heating on the final imaging, a model was developed by the lens manufacturer Carl Zeiss SMT GmbH, and incorporated into a litho simulation environment by ASML BRION. This tool can be used to analyze the impact of dose/throughput, illumination shapes and reticle layout on aberrations. It provides a means to assess potential lens heating issues even before production masks are manufactured. Moreover, this computational tool opens the possibility to calculate parameters for lens heating correction, rather than measuring them, saving valuable machine time. In this paper, the performance of the novel computational lens heating control is demonstrated on wafer and compared with the traditional way of measuring the relevant parameters. In addition, a modeling study is performed to assess possible lens heating effects for freeform or non-traditional source shapes, thereby demonstrating the advanced correction potential of ASML latest aberration manipulator, called FlexWaveTM.

  12. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  13. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  14. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PENERIMAAN PESANAN MENGGUNAKAN LOAD ORIENTED MANUFACTURING CONTROL (LOMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Pandwinata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CV. Grafika Inndah is a printing company, majoring in job order production system. While so far, the company has problems on the decision making due to lead time for booking orders that the company can accept customer orders according to quantity and due date. The production process of the design, print finishing and that includes the print engine 52 and engine Sakura print shop. The station receives a print job that exceeds the load capacity. Thus this research aims to determine the lead time, the average output and average utility. Data processing in this study using the method of manufacturing systems based load control (load oriented manufacturing control, and to assist in decision-making applications built using Delphi. Programming of the analysis of the data processing method known LOMC can the average lead time work station 2.88 hours and an average of 99.7% utilities, and Print Shop Lead time average of 1.82 hours and an average of 99.85% utilities. Decision support system applied in this study deserves to be implemented. It can be seen from the test program using the Black Box Test and Alpha Test is evidenced in respondents answered SS (strongly agree as much as 48% and S (agree as much as 46% .

  15. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PENERIMAAN PESANAN MENGGUNAKAN LOAD ORIENTED MANUFACTURING CONTROL (LOMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Pandwinata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CV. Grafika Inndah is a printing company, majoring in job order production system. While so far, the company has problems on the decision making due to lead time for booking orders that the company can accept customer orders according to quantity and due date.  The production process of the design, print finishing and that includes the print engine 52 and engine Sakura print shop.  The station receives a print job that exceeds the load capacity. Thus this research aims to determine the lead time, the average output and average utility.  Data processing in this study using the method of manufacturing systems based load control (load oriented manufacturing control, and to assist in decision-making applications built using Delphi.  Programming of the analysis of the data processing method known LOMC can the average lead time work station 2.88 hours and an average of 99.7% utilities, and Print Shop Lead time average of 1.82 hours and an average of 99.85% utilities. Decision support system applied in this study deserves to be implemented.  It can be seen from the test program using the Black Box Test and Alpha Test is evidenced in respondents answered SS (strongly agree as much as 48% and S (agree as much as 46% .

  16. Hierarchical tailoring of strut architecture to control permeability of additive manufactured titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous titanium implants are a common choice for bone augmentation. Implants for spinal fusion and repair of non-union fractures must encourage blood flow after implantation so that there is sufficient cell migration, nutrient and growth factor transport to stimulate bone ingrowth. Additive manufacturing techniques allow a large number of pore network designs. This study investigates how the design factors offered by selective laser melting technique can be used to alter the implant architecture on multiple length scales to control and even tailor the flow. Permeability is a convenient parameter that characterises flow, correlating to structure openness (interconnectivity and pore window size), tortuosity and hence flow shear rates. Using experimentally validated computational simulations, we demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to tailor implant properties by controlling surface roughness at a microstructual level (microns), and by altering the strut ordering and density at a mesoscopic level (millimetre). Highlights: • Experimentally validated permeability prediction tools for hierarchical implants. • Randomised structures form preferential flow channels with stronger shear flows. • Hierarchical strut structures allow independent tailoring of flow and pore size

  17. The effects of coolant chemistry control and fuel management strategies on fuel cladding corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion model has been developed that describes the in-pile corrosion of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding irradiated in commercial pressurized water reactors. The model is used to quantify the effects of coolant chemistry control and fuel management strategies on the end-of-life cladding corrosion thickness. Corrosion data were obtained from autoclave experiments and from over 500 fuel rods irradiated in 14 different commercial reactors with varying duties and coolant chemistry control strategies. Data were obtained for both Conventional and Improved Zircaloy-4. Oxide thickness ranged from 5 microns to over 130 microns on fuel rods with burnups up to 60,000 MWD/MTU. Corrosion data were selected from along the lengths of the irradiated rods and were combined with the local thermal/hydraulic and coolant chemistry conditions to construct a corrosion database. More than 2800 data points were included in the database. In-pile corrosion rates were found to be higher than out-of-pile thermal corrosion rates. Studies were performed to identify the parameters that caused the increase, and it was determined that lithium concentration, fast neutron flux, oxide layer thickness, boiling rates and the tin level in the cladding affected the corrosion rates. An empirical model was developed to correlate the in-pile corrosion data with rate enhancement factors used as multipliers on the thermal corrosion rate. (UK)

  18. Best possible cycle chemistry control in steam turbine plants; Baesta moejliga oevervakning av vattenkemin i anlaeggningar med aangturbin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats [Hellman Vatten AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    A project has been conducted of a large number of power and pulp plants in Sweden. Production managers and those responsible for water quality control were visited and interviewed. In addition, a research of cycle chemistry literature has been conducted to determine what has been done in other countries. The review of this literature shows that the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA and ESKOM in South Africa are in the forefront regarding QA/QC and have come a long way in water control management. A key requirement for successful plant cycle chemistry is corporate management support. The project makes it clear that cycle chemistry control was best at plants where production management was aware of the importance of high water quality. There is a real need for feed water technique and water quality education at all company levels. The objective should be that 'everyone should know the importance of right water quality'. Personnel without an education in chemistry often regard cycle chemistry as somewhat complicated. Better understanding and better working cycle chemistry control can be obtained by making the control easier and clearer for persons without training in chemistry. Extensive on-line instrumentation with well-designed systems for presenting the data, by-far, gives the best cycle chemistry control. It is important to have a holistic view when water treatment systems and on-line instrumentation are planned. It is not the amount of instruments or the number of chemistry personnel that is important. The important thing is to ensure that all functions needed fit together in the best way possible. Today, when cycle chemistry monitoring is heavily dependent on on-line instrumentation, the reliability of the instruments is crucial. Therefore, it is important to have well-established routines for maintenance, calibration and service. In order to decrease forced outages of plants due to poor cycle chemistry, the focus of chemistry control should

  19. Dominant processes controlling water chemistry of the Pecos River in American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fasong; Miyamoto, Seiichi

    2005-09-01

    Here we show an analysis of river flow and water chemistry data from eleven gauging stations along the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, with time spanning 1959-2002. Analysis of spatial relationship between the long-term average flow and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration allows us to illuminate four major processes controlling river chemistry, namely saline water addition, evaporative concentration with salt gain or loss, dilution with salt gain or loss, and salt storage. Of the 10 river reaches studied, six reaches exhibit the process dominated by evaporative concentration or freshwater dilution with little change in salt load. Four reaches show considerable salt gains or losses that are induced by surface-ground water interactions. This analysis suggests that the evaporative concentration and freshwater dilution are the prevailing mechanisms, but local processes (e.g., variations in hydrologic flowpath and lithologic formation) also play an important role in regulating the hydrochemistry of the Pecos River.

  20. Effect of global climate change on forest productivity: Control through forest floor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest floor chemistry interacts with temperature and moisture to restrict or enhance the supply of nutrients for tree growth. In sub-arctic forests of interior Alaska, this control of element supply is manifest in dramatically different rates of nutrient cycling among the principal forest types. Slow-growing forests developing on cold, wet soils produce organic detritus that is slow to decompose because of its chemical composition. Consequently, element supply is restricted in these ecosystems. Productive forests developing on warm, drier soils produce organic detritus that decays more rapidly because of favorable chemical composition. Element supply is enhanced in these forest ecosystems. Using the compartment model Linkages, the authors evaluate several scenarios that propose altered temperature and precipitation regimes for their influence on forest floor chemistry, element supply and the consequence to forest productivity

  1. Interoperability for Space Mission Monitor and Control: Applying Technologies from Manufacturing Automation and Process Control Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with interoperability for space mission monitor and control are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Space Project Mission Operations Control Architecture (SuperMOCA) goals and methods for achieving them; 2) Specifics on the architecture: open standards ad layering, enhancing interoperability, and promoting commercialization; 3) An advertisement; 4) Status of the task - government/industry cooperation and architecture and technology demonstrations; and 5) Key features of messaging services and virtual devices.

  2. Intelligent manufacturing system of impeller for computer numerical control (CNC) programming based on KBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 黄红辉; 王大中

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problem of advanced digital manufacturing technology in the practical application, a knowledge engineering technology was introduced into the computer numerical control (CNC) programming. The knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning used in CNC programming were researched. The CNC programming system functional architecture of impeller parts based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) was constructed. The structural model of the general knowledge-based system (KBS) was also constructed. The KBS of CNC programming system was established through synthesizing database technology and knowledge base theory. And in the context of corporate needs, based on the knowledge-driven manufacturing platform (i.e. UG CAD/CAM), VC++6.0 and UG/Open, the KBS and UG CAD/CAM were integrated seamlessly and the intelligent CNC programming KBE system for the impeller parts was developed by integrating KBE and UG CAD/CAM system. A method to establish standard process templates was proposed, so as to develop the intelligent CNC programming system in which CNC machining process and process parameters were standardized by using this KBE system. For the impeller parts processing, the method applied in the development of the prototype system is proven to be viable, feasible and practical.

  3. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  4. Process Control Strategies for Dual-Phase Steel Manufacturing Using ANN and ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeenezhad, H.; Ghanei, S.; Seyedein, S. H.; Beygi, H.; Mazinani, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this research, a comprehensive soft computational approach is presented for the analysis of the influencing parameters on manufacturing of dual-phase steels. A set of experimental data have been gathered to obtain the initial database used for the training and testing of both artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The parameters used in the strategy were intercritical annealing temperature, carbon content, and holding time which gives off martensite percentage as an output. A fraction of the data set was chosen to train both ANN and ANFIS, and the rest was put into practice to authenticate the act of the trained networks while seeing unseen data. To compare the obtained results, coefficient of determination and root mean squared error indexes were chosen. Using artificial intelligence methods, it is not necessary to consider and establish a preliminary mathematical model and formulate its affecting parameters on its definition. In conclusion, the martensite percentages corresponding to the manufacturing parameters can be determined prior to a production using these controlling algorithms. Although the results acquired from both ANN and ANFIS are very encouraging, the proposed ANFIS has enhanced performance over the ANN and takes better effect on cost-reduction profit.

  5. Controlled Redox Chemistry at Cerium within a Tripodal Nitroxide Ligand Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Justin A; Lippincott, Connor A; Carroll, Patrick J; Booth, Corwin H; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Ligand reorganization has been shown to have a profound effect on the outcome of cerium redox chemistry. Through the use of a tethered, tripodal, trianionic nitroxide ligand, [((2-tBuNOH)C6 H4 CH2 )3 N](3-) (TriNOx (3-) ), controlled redox chemistry at cerium was accomplished, and typically reactive complexes of tetravalent cerium were isolated. These included rare cationic complexes [Ce(TriNOx )thf][BAr(F) 4 ], in which Ar(F) =3,5-(CF3 )2 -C6 H3 , and [Ce(TriNOx )py][OTf]. A rare complete Ce-halide series, Ce(TriNOx )X, in which X=F(-) , Cl(-) , Br(-) , I(-) , was also synthesized. The solution chemistry of these complexes was explored through detailed solution-phase electrochemistry and (1) H NMR experiments and showed a unique shift in the ratio of species with inner- and outer-sphere anions with size of the anionic X(-) group. DFT calculations on the series of calculations corroborated the experimental findings.

  6. Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V.

    2005-11-11

    The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

  7. Composite materials pipings: selection of basic materials and manufacturing process, quality control during manufacture; Tuyauteries en materiaux composites: choix des materiaux de base et modes de fabrication, controle de la qualite des realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pays, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the paper is to present a summary of the knowledge acquired at the R and D on resins used as composite matrix, the resistance to hydrolysis and mechanical strength of pipings made from these materials, and on quality control during manufacture. The initial targets concerning the material selection, industrial manufacturing and quality control procedures are presented. The paper describes the results obtained concerning the investigation of the damage produced by hydrolysis in polyesters, vinyl esters and epoxides, the influence of temperature, reinforcement and the mechanical characterization of the tubing manufacturing. The performances of the nondestructive testings (radiography, ultrasonic controls, differential interferometry and infrared thermography) used are also reported. The paper ends with a further research and testings programme. (author). 34 refs.

  8. Supramolecular and heterosupramolecar chemistry in controlled release and molecular recognition processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral titulada ¿Supramolecular and heterosupramolecular chemistry in controlled release and molecular recognition processes¿ está centrada en los dos aspectos principales de la química supramolecular que han experimentado un gran auge en los últimos años: el reconocimiento molecular y los procesos de liberación controlada. En particular la primera parte de la tesis se focaliza en el diseño y síntesis de moléculas orgánicas que pueden ser empleados cómo...

  9. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 8287), such controls are deemed necessary for law enforcement to identify... illicitly manufacture the schedule I controlled substance lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). This rule is... (LSD) is a synthetic schedule I hallucinogen. It is the most potent hallucinogen known and...

  10. Processes controlling groundwater chemistry and identification of water resource vulnerability: Yarra catchment, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Assessment of processes controlling groundwater chemistry is essential for water resource management and identification of water resource vulnerability. The Yarra Catchment (4045 km2) extends 120 km east of Melbourne and is considered a significant area for Melbourne's water resources. This catchment is characterised by fractured rock aquifers, a high baseflow component, high, localised recharge, and diverse land use. Therefore, identification of processes controlling groundwater chemistry is important for determining areas where groundwater, and inevitably surface water, are most vulnerable to contamination. The regional groundwater flow system is affected by high, localised recharge in areas of high surface elevations. Hence, a local groundwater flow system is investigated in detail to aid regional interpretation. Processes causing spatial heterogeneity of groundwater chemistry include the extent of recharge, water-rock interaction and land use processes. At high surface elevations Na:CI = 1, and direct recharge of precipitation into sedimentary or granitic aquifers results in groundwater with lower TDS values (∼ 50 to 100 mg/L), compared to groundwater where precipitation directly recharges younger basaltic aquifers (TDS ∼ 100 to 150 mg/L). At lower surface elevations Na:CI ratios decrease, and major ion concentrations, pH and TDS are significantly higher (TDS ∼ 400 to 500 mg/L) reflecting cumulative effects of water-rock interaction and agricultural land use lower in the catchment. Groundwater samples were also analysed for stable isotopes, the 180 and 2H values (-6.2 to 5.50, and -38.1 to 32.20 VSMOW respectively) lie on the Melbourne Meteoric Water Line, indicating that groundwater has not been subjected to evaporation or high-temperature water rock interaction. Slightly lower 180 and 2H values for groundwater compared to nearby surface water indicates that recharge of colder rains occurs preferentially, both on local and more regional scales

  11. Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500–1400 μatm and O2 from 80–240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  12. Active chemistry control for coolant helium applying high-temperature gas-cooled reactors - HTR2008-58096

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetime extension of high-temperature equipment such as the intermediate heat exchanger of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is important from the economical point of view. Since the replacing cost will cause the increasing of the running cost, it is important to reduce replacing times of the high-cost primary equipment during assumed reactor lifetime. In the past, helium chemistry has been controlled by the passive chemistry control technology in which chemical impurity in the coolant helium is removed as low concentration as possible, as does Japan's HTTR. Although the lifetime of high- temperature equipment almost depends upon the chemistry conditions in the coolant helium, it is necessary to establish an active chemistry control technology to maintain adequate chemical conditions. In this study, carbon deposition which could occur at the surface of the heat transfer tubes of the intermediate heat exchanger and decarburization of the high-temperature material of Hastelloy XR used at the heat transfer tubes were evaluated by referring the actual chemistry data obtained by the HTTR. The chemical equilibrium study contributed to clarify the algorism of the chemistry behaviours to be controlled. The created algorism is planned to be added to the instrumentation system of the helium purification systems. In addition, the chemical composition to be maintained during the reactor operation was proposed by evaluating not only core graphite oxidation but also carbon deposition and decarburization. It was identified when the chemical composition could not keep adequately, injection of 10 ppm carbon monoxide could effectively control the chemical composition to the designated stable area where the high-temperature materials could keep their structural integrity beyond the assumed duration. The proposed active chemistry control technology is expected to contribute economically to the purification systems of the future very high-temperature reactors. (authors)

  13. PENGENDALIAN LANTAI PABRIK DENGAN LOAD ORIENTED MANUFACTURING CONTROL PADA INDUSTRI MEBEL (STUDI KASUS PT “X”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Load Oriented Manufacturing Control (LOMC is an input-output control system development thatconsidered work load in every work center. Production planning starts with determining production leadtime, then work load control (WLC. WLC consist of defining criteria and determining release procedure tothe shop floor for items that will be processed. This research tried to implement LOMC concept in afurniture company called PT.X. The result of the research showed that LOMC could improve throughputand minimize work in process (WIP.

  14. Data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (DAWAC). Report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides information on the current status and development trends in monitoring, diagnostics and control of water chemistry and corrosion of core and primary circuit materials in water cooled power reactors. It summarizes the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project and focuses on the methods for development, qualification and implementation of water chemistry expert systems at nuclear power plants. These systems are needed to have full benefit from using on-line sensors in real time mode when sensor signals, and other chemistry and operational data, are collected and continuously analysed with data acquisition and evaluation software. Technical knowledge was acquired in water chemistry control techniques (grab sampling, on-line monitoring, data collecting and processing, etc), plant chemistry and corrosion diagnostics, plant monitoring (corrosion, chemistry, activity) and plant chemistry improvement (analytical models and practices). This publication covers contributions from leading experts in water chemistry/corrosion, representing organizations from 16 countries with the largest nuclear capacities

  15. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  16. 78 FR 3646 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... The food safety challenge is only compounded by globalization, which has resulted in approximately 15..., packing, or holding of human food (34 FR 6977). The CGMP regulation established criteria for effective sanitation control in the manufacture, processing, packing, or holding of human foods to effect...

  17. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL; Silva, Pamela C [ORNL; Cruz Molina, Carola [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  18. Pore chemistry and size control in hybrid porous materials for acetylene capture from ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, X.

    2016-05-20

    The trade-off between physical adsorption capacity and selectivity of porous materials is a major barrier for efficient gas separation and purification through physisorption. We report control over pore chemistry and size in metal coordination networks with hexafluorosilicate and organic linkers for the purpose of preferential binding and orderly assembly of acetylene molecules through cooperative host-guest and/or guest-guest interactions. The specific binding sites for acetylene are validated by modeling and neutron powder diffraction studies. The energies associated with these binding interactions afford high adsorption capacity (2.1 millimoles per gram at 0.025 bar) and selectivity (39.7 to 44.8) for acetylene at ambient conditions. Their efficiency for the separation of acetylene/ethylene mixtures is demonstrated by experimental breakthrough curves (0.73 millimoles per gram from a 1/99 mixture).

  19. Polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer based on mussel-inspired chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Guo-xiang; Hu, Jia-mei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, He-yun; Zhou, Feng

    2013-03-27

    This work reports on a facile and reliable method to prepare a polydopamine film coated controlled-release multielement compound fertilizer (PCMCF) based on mussel-inspired chemistry for the first time. The polydopamine (Pdop) film was coated on double copper potassium pyrophosphate trihydrate, providing three essential nutrients (Cu, K, and P) by spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The thickness of the polymer coating of the fertilizer was controlled by using the multistep deposition technique. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, a vis spectrophotometer, and a Kjeltec autoanalyzer. The controlled-release behavior of four elements, including nitrogen from Pdop, was evaluated in water and in soil (sterilized or not). The results revealed that the coated fertilizers had good slow-release properties, incubated in either water or soil. It is noted that the release rate of nutrients of PCMCF can be tailored by the thickness of the Pdop coating, and the Pdop coating can be biodegraded in soil. This coating technology will be effective and promising in the research and development of controlled-release fertilizer. PMID:23464683

  20. Controls of Polysaccharide Chemistry on the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Calcium Carbonate Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffre, A. J.; Han, N.; Dove, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Polysaccharide fibrils control the orientation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biominerals. Good examples are found in the multilayered extracellular mucilaginous sheath of green algae and cyanobacteria and in specialized vesicles inside coccolithophorids. More complex organisms such as arthropods and mollusks form biomineralized exoskeletons and shells that consist of insoluble polysaccharides and soluble acid-rich proteins. In these structures, CaCO3 mineral orientation occurs along fibers of the polysaccharide chitin. This raises the question of whether polysaccharide chemistry has specific roles in directing biomineralization. The last three decades of research show that acidic proteins influence CaCO3 polymorph selection, crystallographic orientation, and nucleation and growth rates but little is known about the function of polysaccharides. In fact, polysaccharides are long considered an inert component of organic frameworks. In this experimental investigation, we test the hypothesis that polysaccharides have chemistry-specific influences on calcification by measuring the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto three types of polysaccharide films under controlled solution compositions. Characterized polysaccharides of simple repeating monomer sequences were chosen as model compounds to represent the major carbohydrates seen in microbial and calcifying environments: 1) alginic acid with carboxyl groups, 2) hyaluronic acid with alternating carboxyl and acetylamine groups, and 3) chitosan with amine and acetylamine groups. Biosubstrates were prepared by electrodeposition of these compounds as thin gel-like films onto gold-coated silicon wafers. Using a flow-through cell, heterogeneous nucleation rates of calcite were measured for a suite of supersaturation conditions. These rate data were compared to similar measurements for carboxyl- and hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers. Calcite nucleation rates onto the three polysaccharides vary by a factor of 400x

  1. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  2. Spatially Controlled Delivery of siRNAs to Stem Cells in Implants Generated by Multi-Component Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Østergaard; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Chen, Muwan;

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a promising technique in tissue engineering, as it enables truly individualized implants to be made to fit a particular defect. As previously shown, a feasible strategy to produce complex multicellular tissues is to deposit different small interfering RNA (siRNA) in porous...... implants that are subsequently sutured together. In this study, an additive manufacturing strategy to deposit carbohydrate hydrogels containing different siRNAs is applied into an implant, in a spatially controlled manner. When the obtained structures are seeded with mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells......, the selected siRNAs are delivered to the cells and induces specific and localized gene silencing. Here, it is demonstrated how to replicate part of a patient's spinal cord from a computed tomography scan, using an additive manufacturing technique to produce an implant with compartmentalized si...

  3. 77 FR 55504 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Institute By Notice dated May 15, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on May 22, 2012, 77 FR 30327... Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives...

  4. CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW REPORT: CFC-11 EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM MANUFACTURING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an engineering evaluation of technical options to reduce chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) emissions from flexible slabstock and molded polyurethane foam manufacturing plants. Among the technical options studied were recovery and recycle of CFC-11, alternative ...

  5. Introducing Quality Control in the Chemistry Teaching Laboratory Using Control Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schazmann, Benjamin; Regan, Fiona; Ross, Mary; Diamond, Dermot; Paull, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Quality control (QC) measures are less prevalent in teaching laboratories than commercial settings possibly owing to a lack of commercial incentives or teaching resources. This article focuses on the use of QC assessment in the analytical techniques of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) at…

  6. Strategic elements of steam cycle chemistry control practices at TXU's Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early industry experience defined the critical importance of Chemistry Control Practices to maintaining long-term performance of PWR steam generators. These lessons provided the impetus for a number of innovations and alternate practices at Comanche Peak. For example, advanced amine investigations and implementation of results provided record low iron transport and deposition. The benefits of the surface-active properties of dimethyl-amine exceeded initial expectations. Operation of pre-coat polishers and steam generator blowdown demineralizers in the amine cycle enabled optimization of amine concentrations and stable pH control. The strategy for coordinated control of oxygen and hydrazine dosing complemented the advanced amine program for protective oxide stabilization. Additionally, a proactive chemical cleaning was performed on Unit 1 to prevent degradations from general fouling of steam generator tube-tube support plate (TSP) and top-of-tubesheet (TTS) crevices. This paper shares the results of these innovations and practices. Also, the bases, theory, and philosophy supporting the strategic elements of program will be presented. (authors)

  7. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Ziwei; Mao, Jiahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Tan, Huaping, E-mail: hptan@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Hu, Xiaohong [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-01

    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37 °C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry. - Highlights: • A biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogel was crosslinked via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone was covalently immobilized into the hyaluronic acid hydrogel via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone could be released from the Diels–Alder hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a controlled fashion.

  8. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37 °C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry. - Highlights: • A biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogel was crosslinked via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone was covalently immobilized into the hyaluronic acid hydrogel via aqueous Diels–Alder chemistry. • Dexamethasone could be released from the Diels–Alder hyaluronic acid hydrogel in a controlled fashion

  9. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  10. Sigma metrics in clinical chemistry laboratory – A guide to quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha S. Adiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Six sigma is a process of quality measurement and improvement program used in industries. Sigma methodology can be applied wherever an outcome of a process is to be measured. A poor outcome is counted as an error or defect. This is quantified as defects per million (DPM. Six sigma provides a more quantitative frame work for evaluating process performance with evidence for process improvement and describes how many sigma fit within the tolerance limits. Sigma metrics can be used effectively in laboratory services. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the quality of the analytical performance of clinical chemistry laboratory by calculating sigma metrics. Methodology: The study was conducted in the clinical biochemistry laboratory of Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar. Sigma metrics of 15 parameters with automated chemistry analyzer, transasia XL 640 were analyzed. The analytes assessed were glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin (BT, direct bilirubin (BD, total protein, albumin, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and Calcium. Results: We have sigma values <3 for Urea, ALT, BD, BT, Ca, creatinine (L1 and urea, AST, BD (L2. Sigma lies between 3-6 for Glucose, AST, cholesterol, uric acid, total protein(L1 and ALT, cholesterol, BT, calcium, creatinine and glucose (L2.Sigma was more than 6 for Triglyceride, ALP, HDL, albumin (L1 and TG, uric acid, ALP, HDL, albumin, total protein(L2. Conclusion: Sigma metrics helps to assess analytical methodologies and augment laboratory performance. It acts as a guide for planning quality control strategy. It can be a self assessment tool regarding the functioning of clinical laboratory.

  11. DIMENSIONAL VERIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF IMPLANTS PRODUCED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Toth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Development of computer technology and alternative manufacturing methods in form of additive manufacturing leads to the manufacture of products with complex shapes. In the field of medicine they include, inter alia, custom-made implants manufactured for a particular patient, such as cranial implants, maxillofacial implants, etc. With regard to the fact that such implants are inserted into a patient’s body, it is necessary to perform the verification, including the shape and dimensional verification. The article deals with the application of the industrial computer tomography within the process of inspection and verification of selected custom-made implant types.Methodology/Approach: The Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement performs the verification of medicinal products manufactured by the additive manufacturing technologies from the Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5 titanium alloy, using the coordinate measuring machine Carl Zeiss Contura G2 and the industrial computed tomography machine Carl Zeiss Metrotom 1500. These equipment fulfil the requirements for the identification and evaluation of dimensions of both, the external and the internal structures. Findings: The article presents the possibilities of the computed tomography utilisation in the inspection of individual implant manufacture using the additive manufacturing technologies. The results indicate that with the adjustment of appropriate input parameters (alignment, this technology is appropriate for the analysis of shape deviations, when compared with the CAD model.Research Limitation/implication: With the increasing distance of measured object from X-ray source, the machine’s resolution function decreases. Decreasing of resolution has a minor impact on the measured dimensions (relatively high tolerances, but has a significant impact on the evaluation of porosity and inclusions. Originality/Value of paper: Currently, the verification of a manufactured implant  can be

  12. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  13. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  14. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  15. Controls of Ca/Mg/Fe activity ratios in pore water chemistry models of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, C.; Grangeon, S.; Wille, G.; Flehoc, C.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C. [BRGM av. Claude Guillemin BP6009 45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Vinsot, A. [ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground research Laboratory (URL), RD 960, 55290 Bure (France); Made, B.; Altmann, S. [ANDRA - Parc de la Croix Blanche, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    In the pore water chemistry model of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation, the divalent cations Ca, Mg, and Fe are controlled by equilibrium reactions with pure carbonates: calcite for Ca, dolomite for Mg, and siderite for Fe. Results of a petrological study and computing of the Ca/Mg and Ca/Fe activity ratios based on natural pore water chemistry provide evidence that equilibrium with pure calcite and pure dolomite is a reasonable assumption for undisturbed pore waters; on the other hand, siderite cannot be considered at equilibrium with pore waters at the formation scale. (authors)

  16. Water chemistry and corrosion control of cladding and primary circuit components. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion is the principal life limiting degradation mechanism in nuclear steam supply systems, especially taking into account the trends to increase fuel burnup, thermal rate and cycle length. Primary circuit components of water cooled power reactors have an impact on Zr-based alloys behaviour due to crud (primary circuit corrosion products) formation, transport and deposition on heat transfer surfaces. Crud deposits influence water chemistry, radiation and thermal hydraulic conditions near cladding surface, and by this way-Zr-based alloy corrosion. During the last decade, significant improvements were achieved in the reduction of the corrosion and dose rates by changing the cladding material for one more resistant to corrosion or by the improvement of water chemistry conditions. However, taking into account the above mentioned tendency for heavier fuel duties, corrosion and water chemistry, control will remain a serious task to work with for nuclear power plant operators and scientists, as well as development of generally accepted corrosion model of Zr-based alloys in a water environment in a new millennium. Upon the recommendation of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, water chemistry and corrosion of cladding and primary circuit components are in the focus of the IAEA activities in the area of fuel technology and performance. At present the IAEA performs two co-ordinated research projects (CRPs): on On-line High Temperature Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion (WACOL) and on Activity Transport in Primary Circuits. Two CRPs deal with hydrogen and hydride degradation of the Zr-based alloys. A state-of-the-art review entitled: 'Waterside Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants' was published in 1998. Technical Committee meetings on the subject were held in 1985 (Cadarache, France), 1989 (Portland, USA), 1993 (Rez, Czech Republic). During the last few years extensive exchange of experience in

  17. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  18. Start-up conditions and the performance of women – and men- controlled businesses in manufacturating industries

    OpenAIRE

    Prior Jiménez, Diego; Driga, Otilia

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not result from differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, but it can be the result of different levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, this paper examines the effects that selected start-up conditions have on the economic performance observed in a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results indicate significant differences regarding ...

  19. Development and control of the process for the manufacture of zircaloy-4 tubing for LWBR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel elements (fuel rods) imposed certain unique requirements for the low hafnium Zircaloy-4 tubing used as fuel rod cladding. This report describes, in detail, the tube manufacturing process, the product and process controls used, the inspections and tests performed, and the efforts involved in refining a commercial tube reducing process to produce tubes that would satisfy the requirements for LWBR fuel rod cladding

  20. 77 FR 47115 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... diethylamide (7315) I 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine I (7348). Marihuana (7360) I... small quantities of marihuana derivatives for research purposes. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code...

  1. 77 FR 30028 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...., Pharmaceuticals Materials By Notice dated January 6, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2012, 77 FR 2324, Johnson Matthey, Inc., Pharmaceuticals Materials, 900 River Road, Conshohocken... determined that the registration of Johnson Matthey Inc., Pharmaceuticals Materials to manufacture the...

  2. 78 FR 15975 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Johnson Matthey, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...., Pharmaceuticals Materials By Notice dated November 1, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on November 9, 2012, 77 FR 67397, Johnson Matthey, Inc., Pharmaceuticals Materials, 900 River Road, Conshohocken... registration of Johnson Matthey Inc., Pharmaceuticals Materials to manufacture the listed basic classes...

  3. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Patheon Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. By Notice dated March 20, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2013, 78 FR 19016, Patheon ] Pharmaceutical, Inc., 2110 E. Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, made...) and determined that the registration of Patheon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to manufacture the listed...

  4. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Pharmaceuticals By Notice dated March 12, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on March 20, 2013, 78 FR 17231, Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, 6451 Main Street, Morton Grove, Illinois 60053-2633, made... determined that the registration of Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals to manufacture the listed basic class...

  5. 78 FR 5503 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Pharmaceuticals By Notice dated September 25, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2012, 77 FR 60144, Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, 6451 Main Street, Morton Grove, Illinois 60053-2633, made... determined that the registration of Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals to manufacture the listed basic class...

  6. 29 CFR 801.13 - Exemption of employers authorized to manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH... regarding the use of polygraph tests for employers authorized to manufacture, distribute, or dispense a... U.S.C. 812). This exemption permits the administration of polygraph tests, subject to the...

  7. Method and apparatus for controlled manufacturing of nanometer-scale apertures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, A.J.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for manufacturing nanometer-scale apertures, wherein, in an object, in a conventional manner, at least one aperture is provided with a nanometer-scale surface area, after which, by means of an electron beam, energy is supplied to at least the edge of said at least o

  8. Building the Interest of High School Students for Science--A PACT Ambassador Program to Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew; Geary, Nicholas; Hagaman, Karen; Munson, Anne; Sabo, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Describes a program for bringing industrial applications of technology into high schools to enhance students' perceptions of the chemical industry and industrial careers in chemistry. Ambassadors from the Proctor and Gamble Company and Miami University--Middletown helped students work through a typical product-development cycle for fabricating…

  9. The "Parade Blue": effects of short-term emission control on aerosol chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2016-07-18

    The strict control on emissions implemented in Beijing, China, during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (V-day Parade) to commemorate the 70(th) Anniversary of Victory in World War II, provided a good opportunity to investigate the relationship between emission sources and aerosol chemistry in a heavily polluted megacity. From August 11 to September 3, 2015, an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was deployed in urban Beijing, together with other collocated instruments, for the real-time measurement of submicron aerosol characteristics. The average PM1 mass concentration was 11.3 (±6.7) μg m(-3) during the V-day Parade, 63.5% lower than that before the V-day Parade. Differently to the relatively smaller decrease of organics (53%), secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) showed significant reductions of 65-78% during the V-day Parade. According to the positive matrix factorization results, primary organic aerosol (POA) from traffic and cooking emissions decreased by 41.5% during the parade, whereas secondary organic aerosol (SOA) presented a much greater reduction (59%). The net effectiveness of emission control measures was investigated further under comparable weather conditions before and during the parade. By excluding the effects of meteorological parameters, the total PM1 mass was reduced by 52-57% because of the emission controls. Although the mass concentrations of aerosol species were reduced substantially, the PM1 bulk composition was similar before and during the control period as a consequence of synergetic control of various precursors. The emission restrictions also suppressed the secondary formation processes of sulfate and nitrate, indicated by the substantially reduced SOR and NOR (molar ratios of sulfate or nitrate to the sums of the sulfate and SO2 or nitrate and NO2) during the event. The study also explored the influence of emission controls on the evolution of organic aerosol using the mass ratios of SOA/POA and oxygen

  10. Controlling orbital-selective Kondo effects in a single molecule through coordination chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki, E-mail: n-takagi@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Minamitani, Emi; Kim, Yousoo [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-08-07

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule causes novel Kondo effects derived from the unique electronic structure of multi-spins and multi-orbitals when attached to Au(111). Two unpaired electrons in the d{sub z}{sup 2} and the degenerate dπ orbitals are screened stepwise, resulting in spin and spin+orbital Kondo effects, respectively. We investigated the impact on the Kondo effects of the coordination of CO and NO molecules to the Fe{sup 2+} ion as chemical stimuli by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory calculations. The impacts of the two diatomic molecules are different from each other as a result of the different electronic configurations. The coordination of CO converts the spin state from triplet to singlet, and then the Kondo effects completely disappear. In contrast, an unpaired electron survives in the molecular orbital composed of Fe d{sub z}{sup 2} and NO 5σ and 2π* orbitals for the coordination of NO, causing a sharp Kondo resonance. The isotropic magnetic response of the peak indicates the origin is the spin Kondo effect. The diatomic molecules attached to the Fe{sup 2+} ion were easily detached by applying a pulsed voltage at the STM junction. These results demonstrate that the single molecule chemistry enables us to switch and control the spin and the many-body quantum states reversibly.

  11. Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-02-01

    The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use. PMID:23278123

  12. The Novel ''Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion'' and its Possible Industrial Realization as Predicted by Hadronic Mechanics and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we propose, apparently for the first time, a new type of controlled nuclear fusion called "intermediate" because occurring at energies intermediate between those of the ''cold'' and ''hot'' fusions, and propose a specific industrial realization. For this purpose: 1) We show that known limitations of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and special relativity cause excessive departures from the conditions occurring for all controlled fusions; 2) We outline the covering hadronic mechanics, hadronic chemistry and isorelativity specifically conceived, constructed and verified during the past two decades for new cleans energies and fuels; 3) We identify seven physical laws predicted by the latter disciplines that have to be verified by all controlled nuclear fusions to occur; 4) We review the industrial research conducted to date in the selection of the most promising engineering realization as well as optimization of said seven laws; and 5) We propose with construction details a specific {\\it hadron...

  13. A Concrete Pipe Manufacturing Control System with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and HMI for Industrial Plants — an Experimental Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas V. Suryavanshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PLC based concrete pipe manufacturing system whichcontrols the sequential operations involved in processprovides levels of safety, reliability and stability, isdeveloped. The brain of system is Programmable LogicController (PLC. The control module providesmultilevel component fault detection, tolerance incritical areas such as in level detection and motorcontrol circuits. The control module is designed forreliable operation far beyond normal appliance life.The facility of Input/ Output force on, force off,monitoring the inputs and outputs are also provided.Timer provides precise timing for operations ofmotors. Program minimizes shutdowns by providingrecycle under certain conditions to establish normaloperation before checking out. Finally this system isfactory programmable to provide different warm uptime for concrete pipe manufacturing process.

  14. Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogel, L W

    1986-02-01

    Effective protection factors for lead-acid storage battery manufacturing workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-mask, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered, air-purifying respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.

  15. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    OpenAIRE

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flo...

  16. Nanosphere Lithography: A Powerful Method for the Controlled Manufacturing of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Colson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The never-ending race towards miniaturization of devices induced an intense research in the manufacturing processes of the components of those devices. However, the complexity of the process combined with high equipment costs makes the conventional lithographic techniques unfavorable for many researchers. Through years, nanosphere lithography (NSL attracted growing interest due to its compatibility with wafer-scale processes as well as its potential to manufacture a wide variety of homogeneous one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructures. This method combines the advantages of both top-down and bottom-up approaches and is based on a two-step process: (1 the preparation of a colloidal crystal mask (CCM made of nanospheres and (2 the deposition of the desired material through the mask. The mask is then removed and the layer keeps the ordered patterning of the mask interstices. Many groups have been working to improve the quality of the CCMs. Throughout this review, we compare the major deposition techniques to manufacture the CCMs (focusing on 2D polystyrene nanospheres lattices, with respect to their advantages and drawbacks. In traditional NSL, the pattern is usually limited to triangular structures. However, new strategies have been developed to build up more complex architectures and will also be discussed.

  17. Chemistry control at Bruce NGS 'B' from constructed to commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-operational storage chemistry and flushing of the secondary side is described. The approach devised for Bruce NGS 'B' Unit 6 was unique for an Ontario Hydro Nuclear Unit. The significance of the improved Construction installation and Quality Assurance procedures, combined with those of Operations is identified. Secondary side chemistry during both commissioning and later operation is reported. It will be shown that the application of ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) concept has resulted in tighter chemical specifications being met

  18. The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network: Data and quality control summary for 1986 and 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Barchet, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    This report, the tenth in a series documenting results from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network, contains a statistical summary of daily precipitation chemistry data from the nine-site network in the eastern United States, both for the years 1986 and 1987 individually and for the period 1977 through 1987. In addition, external quality assurance results for 1986 and 1987 are summarized. 17 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (DAWAC). Additional information. Report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CD-ROM attached to the printed version of TECDOC 1505 'Data Processing Technologies and Diagnostics for Water Chemistry and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants (DAWAG)' includes the report itself, detailed progress reports of three research coordination meetings (Annexes I-III) and the final country reports. This publication provides information on the current status and development trends in monitoring, diagnostics and control of water chemistry and corrosion of core and primary circuit materials in water cooled power reactors. It summarizes the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project and focuses on the methods for development, qualification and implementation of water chemistry expert systems at nuclear power plants. These systems are needed to have full benefit from using on-line sensors in real time mode when sensor signals, and other chemistry and operational data, are collected and continuously analysed with data acquisition and evaluation software. Technical knowledge was acquired in water chemistry control techniques (grab sampling, on-line monitoring, data collecting and processing, etc), plant chemistry and corrosion diagnostics, plant monitoring (corrosion, chemistry, activity)and plant chemistry improvement (analytical models and practices). This publication covers contributions from leading experts in water chemistry/corrosion, representing organizations from 16 countries with the largest nuclear capacities

  20. Framework for Grid Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笠; 邓宏; 邓倩妮; 吴振宇

    2004-01-01

    With the development of networked manufacturing, it is more and more imminent to solve problems caused by inherent limitations of network technology, such as heterogeneity, collaboration collision, and decentralized control.This paper presents a framework for grid manufacturing, which neatly combines grid technology with the infrastructure of advanced manufacturing technology.The paper studies grid-oriented knowledge description and acquisition, and constructs a distributed knowledge grid model.The paper also deals with the protocol of node description in collaborative design, and describes a distributed collaborative design model.The protocol and node technology leads to a collaborative production model for grid manufacturing.The framework for grid manufacturing offers an effective and feasible solution for the problems of networked manufacturing.The grid manufacturing will become an advanced distributed manufacturing model and promote the development of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  1. A novel triple-actuating mechanism of an active air mount for vibration control of precision manufacturing machines: experimental work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the goal of vibration control and isolation in a clean room, we propose a new type of air mount which consists of pneumatic, electromagnetic (EM), and magnetorheological (MR) actuators. The air mount is installed below a semiconductor manufacturing machine to reduce the adverse effects caused by unwanted vibration. The proposed mechanism integrates the forces in a parallel connection of the three actuators. The MR part is designed to operate in an air spring in which the EM part is installed. The control logic is developed with a classical method and a switching mode to avoid operational mismatch among the forces developed. Based on extended microprocessors, a portable, embedded controller is installed to execute both nonlinear logic and digital communication with the peripherals. The pneumatic forces constantly support the heavy weight of an upper structure and maintain the level of the air mount. The MR damper handles the transient response, while the EM controller reduces the resonance response, which is switched mutually with a threshold. Vibration is detected by laser displacement sensors which have submicron resolution. The impact test results of three tons load weight demonstrate practical feasibility by showing that the proposed triple-actuating mechanism can reduce the transient response as well as the resonance in the air mount, resulting in accurate motion of the semiconductor manufacturing machine. (technical note)

  2. 基于QFD的制造知识质量控制研究%Research on the Quality Control Based on QFD and Manufacturing Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 王克勤; 罗晓阳; 刘久义

    2011-01-01

    As there exist quality defects in manufacturing knowledge, it takes manufacturing knowledge as a special type of product to apply the quality function deployment (QFD) into the quality control process of manufacturing knowledge. It proposes the QFD model for manufacturing knowledge, prepents the manufacturing knowledge quality control approach based on house of quality, constructs the house of manufacturing knowledge quality and illustrates through an example. According to the calculation results from the house of quality, the key knowledge quality control points can be identified along with the formation process of manufacturing knowledge. This method can support the manufacturing knowledge quality improvement.%针对制造知识存在的质量问题,将制造知识看作一类特殊产品,将质量功能展开引入制造知识质量控制过程,提出了制造知识质量功能展开模型,给出了基于质量屋的制造知识质量控制模式,构建了制造知识质量屋,并通过实例进行了演示.通过实际数据的计算,可得出制造知识形成各环节的关键知识质量控制点,为制造知识质量改进提供支持.

  3. Hydrogeologic controls of surface-water chemistry in the Adirondack region of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Driscoll, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between surface-water discharge, water chemistry, and watershed geology were investigated to evaluate factors affecting the sensitivity of drainage waters in the Adirondack region of New York to acidification by atmospheric deposition. Instantaneous discharge per unit area was derived from relationships between flow and staff-gage readings at 10 drainage basins throughout the region. The average chemical composition of the waters was assessed from monthly samples collected from July 1982 through July 1984. The ratio of flow at the 50-percent exceedence level to the flow at the 95-percent exceedence level of flow duration was negatively correlated with mean values of alkalinity or acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), sum of basic cations (SBC), and dissolved silica, for basins containing predominantly aluminosilicate minerals and little or no carbonate-bearing minerals. Low ratios are indicative of systems in which flow is predominately derived from surface- and ground-water storage, whereas high ratios are characteristic of watersheds with variable flow that is largely derived from surface runoff. In an evaluation of two representative surface-water sites, concentrations of ANC, SBC, and dissolved silica, derived primarily from soil mineral weathering reactions. decreased with increasing flow. Furthermore, the ANC was highest at low flow when the percentage of streamflow derived from ground water was maximum. As flow increased, the ANC decreased because the contribution of dilute surface runoff and lateral flow through the shallow acidic soil horizons to total flow increased. Basins having relatively high ground-water contributions to total flow, in general, have large deposits of thick till or stratified drift. A major factor controlling the sensitivity of these streams and lakes to acidification is the relative contribution of ground water to total discharge. ?? 1987 Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  4. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Onno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  5. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  6. Microbiological Control of Flour-Manufacture: Dissemination of Mycotoxins Producing Fungi in Cereal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Doolotkeldieva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like В1, С1 and С4.

  7. Review of best available techniques for the control of pollution from the combustion of fuels manufactured from or including waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a technical review of the techniques available for controlling pollution from combustion processes burning fuels (over 3 MW thermal input) manufactured from or including the following: Waste and recovered oil; Refuse derived fuel; Rubber tyres and other rubber waste; Poultry litter; Wood and straw. This review forms the basis for the revision of the Chief Inspector's Guidance Notes referring to the prescribed processes listed with special emphasis on recommending achievable releases to all environmental media. In formulating achievable releases account is taken of technologies in operation in the UK and overseas. (UK)

  8. Operation and control of flow manufacturing based on constraints management for high-mix/low-volume production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailin GUAN; Yunfang PENG; Li MA; Chaoyong ZHANG; Peigen LI

    2008-01-01

    The existing technology of flow manufacturing, which is mainly appropriate for high volume and repetitive production, is proven difficult to be applied in high-mix/ low-volume environments. To adapt lean production into the latter, a new type of flow manufacturing is proposed based on flow path management technology. This paper first describes the general operation framework of the pro-posed new mode. The main idea is the dynamic formation of adaptable virtual production lines (called flow paths) corresponding to different product families. The applica-tion of different theories of constraints/drum-buffer-rope (TOC/DBR) control policies depends on the differences in scope of variety and scale of demand for these product families. The overall architecture of the proposed mech-anism of constraint management-based operation and con-trol is introduced. For the implementation, a mathematical programming method is suggested for the dynamic plan-ning of flow paths, and a TOC/DBR 'path-specific' mech-anism with group scheduling is used for the control over each flow path. We also study other critical issues including the identification and management of resource bottlenecks, and the setting of the buffer size in the deployment of the TOC/DBR mechanism.

  9. Controls on water column chemistry of the southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niencheski, L. F.; Windom, H. L.; Moore, W. S.

    2014-10-01

    Chemistry of Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf (SBS) waters, between 28.5°S and 34°S, is evaluated in relation to the mixing of thermohaline defined water masses and concomitant water column processes. Data on inorganic nutrient and trace metal (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, V and Zn) concentrations and radium isotopic activities from previous reports and recent analyses are presented and discussed with the aim of providing a state of knowledge on processes governing their sources, distribution, transport and fate on the SBS. Nutrients concentrations/distributions on the shelf are controlled mainly by Tropical Water/Subtropical Shelf Water, seasonally modified as a result of summer upwelling in the northern shelf region, and by Plata Plume Water, which is seasonally modified by discharges of submarine groundwater (SGD), the Patos Lagoon and by the greater northern penetration of the Rio de la Plata plume during winter. Radium-226 activity varies little across the shelf. Radium-228 activity, associated dominantly with SGD, decreases conservatively, with respect to salinity, across shelf transects, converging on a typical ocean endmember activity. The low salinity endmember activity, however, depends on the location of the shelf transect controlled by the variability of coastal SGD. Because SGD is so important to the coastal shelf region, 228Ra activity appears to provide a better tracer of water mass interactions than thermohaline characteristics. Using metal-228Ra relationships, sources, transport and fate of trace metals are better constrained enabling the following conclusion: The major source of dissolved Co, Mn and Fe to the shelf is SGD, along the coastal Holocene barrier system, followed by removal as coastal water mixes across the shelf. Cu and Si concentrations are explained as conservative mixtures of three endmembers: SGD, surface freshwater discharge and oceanic. Cd and Zn are largely explained similarly. Vanadium is enriched in coastal waters during

  10. 78 FR 17142 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... correcting the January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3646), proposed rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... regulation for current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding human food...

  11. Chemistry control at Bruce N.G.S. 'B' from construction to commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-operational storage chemistry and flushing of the secondary side is described. The approach devised for Bruce N.G.S. 'B' Unit 6 was unique for an Ontario Hydro nuclear unit. The significance of the improved construction installation and quality assurance is identified. Secondary side chemistry during both commissioning and later operation is reported. It will be shown that the application of ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) concept has resulted in tighter chemical specifications being met. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CONCURRENCY CONTROL OF COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING(CIM DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raviram

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing database store large amount of interrelated data. The designers access specific information or group of information in the data. Each designer accessing an entity tries to modify the design parameters meeting the requirements of different customers. Sister concerns of the same group of company will be modifying the data as per design requirements. When information is updated with new modification by different group of designers, what is the order in which modification of the data has to be allowed. If simultaneous access of the information is done, how to maintain the consistency of the data. and a designer voluntarily corrupts the data, how to make sure the designer is responsible for the corruption of data. In any case if the transaction process corrupts the data, how to maintain the consistency of the data. Deleting the information wantedly can be identified with extra security for the data. However, when transaction protocol is not implemented properly, then corruption of data in the form of misleading information that showing less numerical value than what it has to be or showing more numerical than before updation. In this research work, we have proposed a neural network method for the managing the locks assigned to objects and the corresponding transactions are stored in a data structure. The main purpose of using the ANN is that it will require less memory in storing the lock information assigned to objects. We have attempted to use backpropagation algorithm for storing lock information when multi users are working on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM database.

  14. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  15. Primary water chemistry control at units of Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary water chemistry of the four identical units of Paks Nuclear Power Plant has been developed based on Western-type PWR units, taking into consideration some Soviet-Russian modifications. The political changes in 90s have also influenced the water chemistry specifications and directions. At PWR units the transition operational modes have been developed while in case of VVER units - in lack of central uniform regulation - this question has become the competence and responsibility of each individual plant. This problem has resulted in separate water chemistry developments with a considerable time delay. The needs for life-time extensions all over the World have made the development of start-up and shut-down chemistry procedures extremely important, since they considerably influence the long term and safe operation of plants. The uniformly structured limit value system, the principles applied for the system development, and the logic schemes for actions to be taken are discussed in the paper, both for normal operation and transition modes. (author)

  16. Transport of Ions and Particles Through Single Pores of Controlled Geometry and Surface Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevarnik, Matthew A.

    Synthetic nanopores are a powerful tool to control the transport of ions, molecules, and water at the molecular level, mimicking biological systems. In this research, polymer pores are prepared of different geometries, sizes, and surface chemistry to utilize features seen in naturally occurring systems. Specifically, it was one of the goals of this research to prepare and characterize single polymer pores that rectify the current due to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, similar to naturally occurring ion channels. Prior to modification, aqueous electrolytic solutions are able to conduct readily through the single polymer pores, but after the chemisorption of hydrophobic chemical groups, the pore demonstrates open and closed states. This behavior is also observed to be voltage dependent. Increasing voltage increases the probability of the pore to be in the open states. There is also a voltage range where the pore does not conduct at all. The hydrophobic gating was studied as a function of pore diameter and charge of the residual groups and could be used for an on demand drug delivery system. Another technique that was utilized in this research is the resistive-pulse technique, which is a powerful approach to detect single molecules and particles. A single particle passing through a pore can be observed as a transient drop of the transmembrane current. This research focuses on resistive-pulse sensing experiments performed with track-etched polymer pores characterized by an undulating diameter along the pore length. The resistive pulses generated by spherical beads passing through these pores have a repeatable pattern of large variations corresponding to these diameter changes. We show that this pattern of variations enables the unambiguous resolution of multiple particles simultaneously in the pore, the detection of transient sticking of particles within the pore, and confirmation whether any individual particle completely translocates the

  17. Heat Transfer Salts for Nuclear Reactor Systems - Chemistry Control, Corrosion Mitigation, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Peterson, Per [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Calderoni, Pattrick [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scheele, Randall [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Casekka, Andrew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McNamara, Bruce [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-01-22

    -evaluate thermophysical properties of flibe and flinak. Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has focused on evaluating the fluorinating gas nitrogen trifluoride as a potential salt purification agent. Work there was performed on removing hydroxides and oxides from flinak salt under controlled conditions. Lastly, the University of California Berkeley has spent considerable time designing and simulating reactor components with fluoride salts at high temperatures. Despite the hurdles presented by the innate chemical hazards, considerable progress has been made. The stage has been set to perform new research on salt chemical control which could advance the fluoride salt cooled reactor concept towards commercialization. What were previously thought of as chemical undesirable, but nuclear certified, alloys have been shown to be theoretically compatible with fluoride salts at high temperatures. This preliminary report has been prepared to communicate the construction of the basic infrastructure required for flibe, as well as suggest original research to performed at the University of Wisconsin. Simultaneously, the contents of this report can serve as a detailed, but introductory guide to allow anyone to learn the fundamentals of chemistry, engineering, and safety required to work with flibe salt.

  18. A comparison of HK-CONWIP and BK-CONWIP control strategies in a multi-product manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonyelum Emmanuel Onyeocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of the Hybrid Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy and Basestock Kanban Constant Work-In-Process control strategy operating Shared Kanban Allocation Policy (S-KAP and Dedicated Kanban Allocation Policy (D-KAP in a multi-product serial flow line. We explored the effect of an increase of product types on the WIP inventory in the system. A simulation-based optimisation technique was used in determining the optimal settings for the strategies. The strategies were compared via pairwise comparison technique and Nelson’s ranking and selection procedure. S-KAP responds quicker to demand than D-KAP. BK-CONWIP outperforms HK-CONWIP in a serial manufacturing system. It was shown that an increase in the number of product-type increases the number of PAC and WIP inventory.

  19. A livelock control policy for a flexible manufacturing system modeling with a subclass of generalized Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Hou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Livelocks, like deadlocks, can result in the serious problems in running process of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs as well. Current deadlock control policies based on the approaches of siphon detection and control, cannot cope with livelocks in a system of sequential systems with shared resources (S4R, a typical subclass of Petri nets that can model FMSs. On the basis of the mixed integer programming method, this study proposes a livelock control policy (LCP that can not only solve the new smart siphons (NSSs associated with livelocks or deadlocks in an S4R system directly, but also make the solved NSSs max′-controlled by adding the corresponding control places (CPs. As a result, an original S4R system with livelocks or deadlocks can be turned into the live controlled one in which no NSSs can be found. The related theoretical analysis and several examples are given to demonstrate the proposed LCP. Compared with the existing methods in the literature, the proposed one is more general and powerful.

  20. 78 FR 69132 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, National Center for Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana in support of the National Institute on...

  1. 77 FR 67398 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application; National Center For Natural Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse...

  2. 77 FR 47114 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; AMRI Rensselaer, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  3. 78 FR 33443 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... FR 12103, Alltech Associates, Inc., 2051 Waukegan Road, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, made application... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431)..... I...

  4. Manufacturing and testing a thin glass mirror shell with piezoelectric active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Basso, S.; Candia, R.; Civitani, M.; Di Bella, M.; Di Cicca, G.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lullo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Riva, M.; Salmaso, B.; Sciortino, L.; Varisco, S.

    2015-09-01

    Optics for future X-ray telescopes will be characterized by very large aperture and focal length, and will be made of lightweight materials like glass or silicon in order to keep the total mass within acceptable limits. Optical modules based on thin slumped glass foils are being developed at various institutes, aiming at improving the angular resolution to a few arcsec HEW. Thin mirrors are prone to deform, so they require a careful integration to avoid deformations and even correct forming errors. On the other hand, this offers the opportunity to actively correct the residual deformation: a viable possibility to improve the mirror figure is the application of piezoelectric actuators onto the non-optical side of the mirrors, and several groups are already at work on this approach. The concept we are developing consists of actively integrating thin glass foils with piezoelectric patches, fed by voltages driven by the feedback provided by X-rays. The actuators are commercial components, while the tension signals are carried by a printed circuit obtained by photolithography, and the driving electronic is a multi-channel low power consumption voltage supply developed inhouse. Finally, the shape detection and the consequent voltage signal to be provided to the piezoelectric array are determined in X-rays, in intra-focal setup at the XACT facility at INAF/OAPA. In this work, we describe the manufacturing steps to obtain a first active mirror prototype and the very first test performed in X-rays.

  5. Biodegradable hyaluronic acid hydrogels to control release of dexamethasone through aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Zhang, Ziwei; Mao, Jiahui; Tan, Huaping; Hu, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    A robust synthetic strategy of biopolymer-based hydrogels has been developed where hyaluronic acid derivatives reacted through aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry without the involvement of chemical catalysts, allowing for control and sustain release of dexamethasone. To conjugate the hydrogel, furan and maleimide functionalized hyaluronic acid were synthesized, respectively, as well as furan functionalized dexamethasone, for the covalent immobilization. Chemical structure, gelation time, morphologies, swelling kinetics, weight loss, compressive modulus and dexamethasone release of the hydrogel system in PBS at 37°C were studied. The results demonstrated that the aqueous Diels-Alder chemistry provides an extremely selective reaction and proceeds with high efficiency for hydrogel conjugation and covalent immobilization of dexamethasone. Cell culture results showed that the dexamethasone immobilized hydrogel was noncytotoxic and preserved proliferation of entrapped human adipose-derived stem cells. This synthetic approach uniquely allows for the direct fabrication of biologically functionalized gel scaffolds with ideal structures for adipose tissue engineering, which provides a competitive alternative to conventional conjugation techniques such as copper mediated click chemistry.

  6. Control and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Morphology: Applications in Surface Organometallic Chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Jeantelot, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Surface Organometallic Chemistry leads to the combination of the high activity and specificity of homogeneous catalysts with the recoverability and practicality of heterogeneous catalysts. Most metal complexes used in this chemistry are grafted on metal oxide supports such as amorphous silica (SiO2) and γ-alumina (Al2O3). In this thesis, we sought to enable the use of titania (TiO2) as a new support for single-site well-defined grafting of metal complexes. This was achieved by synthesizing a special type of anatase-TiO2, bearing a high density of identical hydroxyl groups, through hydrothermal synthesis then post-treatment under high vacuum followed by oxygen flow, and characterized by several analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, as a proof of concept, the grafting of vanadium oxychloride (VOCl3) was successfully attempted.

  7. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... methamphetamine will not be sold as a commercial product. The company plans to utilize a bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), as an intermediate for the development of another controlled substance,...

  8. A comparison of inventory control policies for a joint manufacturing/Remanufacturing environment with remanufacturing yield loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.P. Bayindir (Pelin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a joint manufacturing / remanufacturing environment with remanufacturing yield loss. Demand and return follow independent stationary Poisson processes. Returns can be disposed off upon arrival to the system. Manufacturing and remanufacturing operations performed in the same f

  9. Controls of functional group chemistry on calcium carbonate nucleation: Insights into systematics of biomolecular innovations for skeletal mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, P. M.; Hamm, L. M.; Giuffre, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Living organisms produce skeletal structures within a complex matrix of organic macromolecules that guide the nucleation and growth of crystalline structures into the organic-inorganic composites we know as biominerals. This type of biomolecule-directed mineralization is an ancient process as evidenced by structures in the fossil record that date to the Ediacaran (ca. 549 Ma). Our understanding of template-directed biomineralization, however, is largely based upon assumptions from studies that: 1) qualitatively demonstrate some chemical functionalities influence the nucleating mineral phase and morphology; 2) propose proteins are the primary driver to template-directed mineralization and 3) propose the ubiquitous polysaccharides are inert components. Thus, a mechanistic basis for how the underlying chemistry of macromolecules controls nucleation kinetics and thermodynamics in template-directed nucleation is not well established. Moreover, there is not yet a good appreciation for how patterns of skeletal mineralization evolved with biochemical innovations in response to environmental changes over geologic timescales. In small steps toward understanding biochemical controls on biomineralization, we test the hypothesis that the kinetics and thermodynamics of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation is regulated by a systematic relationship to the functional group chemistry of macromolecules. A long-term goal is to establish the energetic basis for biochemical motifs that are seen (and not seen) at sites of calcification across the phylogenetic tree. Two types of studies were conducted. The first measured nucleation rates on model biomolecular substrates with termini that are found in proteins associated with sites of calcification (-COOH, -PO4, and -SH) and two alkanethiol chain lengths (16-C and 11-C) at a variety of chemical driving forces. The measurements show functional group chemistry and molecule conformation regulate rates by a predictable relation to interfacial

  10. 海缆监造管控要点分析%Analysis on Key Points in Quality Control of Submarine Cable Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆月冬; 邱能海

    2016-01-01

    Submarine cable manufacturing is a complex project, and the quality control over all links is very important. In combination with submarine cable manufacturing project, the paper analyzes the key control points in the preparation time before manufacturing, in manufacturing and in acceptance period. The paper takes the quality control over the submarine cable manufacturing for 110 kV Penglai-Shenjiawan transmission line as an example to analyze the cause, reasons and corrective measures of two events during quality control of submarine cable manufacturing; besides, it indicates the importance of production equipment maintenance as well as specifics check of production technique; in the final, the paper stresses that it is the key of sub-marine cable manufacturing for the project supervision department to record equipment maintenance of the manufacturer and check production process record.%海缆制造是一个比较复杂的生产项目,对每个环节的质量管控都至关重要。结合海缆监造项目,分别介绍了海缆生产前准备阶段、生产阶段及验收阶段的控制要点,并以蓬莱-沈家湾110 kV输电线路工程海缆监造项目为例,分析了海缆监造过程2起事件的经过、原因及纠正措施。指出生产设备的维护和对生产工艺细节检查的重要性,并强调监造项目部对生产单位的设备维护记录及生产过程记录的核查应作为海缆监造工作的重点。

  11. Secondary water chemistry control practices and results of the Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, since the start of the operation of the first PWR plant, Mihama Unit-1 in 1970, 24 PWR plants have been built by 2010, and all of them are in operation. Due to the plant-specific needs of management, and by flexibly incorporating the state-of-the-art insights into the design, the system configurations of the plants vary so many as 15 types. Meanwhile, the geographical feature of Japan makes all the Japanese PWR plants to have condensers cooled by sea water, and all the plants have a common system with a full-flow Condensate Polisher System (CPS). To prevent corrosion, continued improvements of the secondary water chemistry management has been performed like other countries, and one of the major features of the Japanese PWR plants is an enhanced provision for the condenser leakage. The water quality of SG (Steam Generator) has been significantly improved by the provision for the sea water leakage, in combination with other improvements in water chemistry management. Also in Japan, almost all of the treatments of the spent polisher resin and the wastewater are performed within the power plant sites. To facilitate the treatment of the waste water and the regeneration of the spent resins, either ammonia or ETA (Ethanol Amine) is selected as the pH adjustment agent for the secondary system water. Also at the ammonia treatment, high pH accomplishes the inhibition of the piping wall thinning and the lower iron transportation into SGs. In addition, the iron transported into the SG is removed by the chemical conditioning treatment called ASCA (Advanced Scale Conditioning Agent). This provides the effective recovery of the SG heat-transfer performance, and the improved SG support plate BEC (Broached Egg Crate) hole blockage rates. Basically in Japan, the secondary water chemistry management has been improved based on a single basic specification, for the variety of the plant configurations, with the plant-specific investigations and analyses. This paper summarizes

  12. Medição e controle do tempo de atravessamento em um sistema de manufatura Measurement and control of lead-time in a manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um método para a medição do tempo de atravessamento e do inventário em processo em manufatura. A medição foi usada em processo de controle organizacional de manufatura, cuja variável controlada foi o tempo de atravessamento de ordens. Tal controle pode ser útil em estratégias de manufatura em que a competição é baseada no uso do tempo, a TBC (time-based competition. Apresentou-se o método de medição, que inclui elementos da teoria das filas, e considerações para a simplificação de arranjos produtivos de manufatura. Para testar e refinar o método, estudou-se um caso em manufatura calçadista. Foram coletados dados de remessas e obtido, por análise estatística e simulação computacional, o comportamento da variável aleatória tempo de atravessamento de remessas. Como a medição foi inferior ao objetivo de desempenho, partiu-se para o controle, fazendo um diagnóstico que apontou efeitos indesejáveis observados que foram endereçados por ações corretivas implementadas. Para verificar a eficácia das ações, nova coleta foi feita. Desta vez, o objetivo de desempenho das entregas foi atendido, fechando um ciclo de controle. Os resultados foram discutidos, chegando-se a conclusões e alternativas de continuidade.This paper presents a method for the measurement of the lead-time and work-in-process in manufacturing. The measurement was used in an organizational control process in manufacturing, in which the controlled variate was the order lead-time. This kind of control can be useful in manufacture strategies formulated to compete in TBC (time-based competition. We presented the method, who includes elements from the queuing theory, and concerns about simplifying complex manufacturing arrays, in order to facilitate the analysis. In order to test and refine the method, we studied a case in a footwear manufacture system. We collected data from orders and, by statistical techniques and computational

  13. 78 FR 24691 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... the proposed rule, ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  14. 78 FR 69604 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., and 211 RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based... 3646), entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive... rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based...

  15. 78 FR 64735 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... 16, 225, 500 et al. Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive... Administration 21 CFR Parts 16, 225, 500, 507, and 579 RIN 0910-AG10 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and..., and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to establish requirements for current good manufacturing practice...

  16. Atomic-scale control of TiO6 octahedra through solution chemistry towards giant dielectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanbiao; Li, Liping; Li, Guangshe; Liu, Yun; Withers, Ray L.

    2014-10-01

    The structures of many important functional oxides contain networks of metal-oxygen polyhedral units i.e. MOn. The correlation between the configurations and connectivities of these MOn to properties is essentially important to be well established to conduct the design, synthesis and application of new MOn-based functional materials. In this paper, we report on an atomic-scale solution-chemistry approach that for the first time enables TiO6 octahedral network control starting from metastable brookite TiO2 through simultaneously tuning pH values and interfering ions (Fe3+, Sc3+, and Sm3+). The relationship between solution chemistry and the resultant configuration/connectivity of TiO6 octahedra in TiO2 and lepidocrocite titanate is mapped out. Apart from differing crystalline phases and morphologies, atomic-scale TiO6 octahedral control also endows numerous defect dipoles for giant dielectric responses. The structural and property evolutions are well interpreted by the associated H+/OH- species in solution and/or defect states associated with Fe3+ occupation within TiO6 octahedra. This work therefore provides fundamental new insights into controlling TiO6 octahedral arrangement essential for atomic-scale structure-property design.

  17. 77 FR 13633 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; National Center for Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Register on October 7, 2011, 76 FR 62449, National Center for Natural Products Research-NIDA MProject... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for...

  18. 78 FR 23597 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, National Center for Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... November 9, 2012, 77 FR 67398, National Center for Natural Products Research-NIDA MProject, University of... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) II Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) II The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for research approved by...

  19. Adaptive sliding mode control of the A-axis used for blisk manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pengbing; Shi Yaoyao

    2014-01-01

    As a key assembly in the 5-axis CNC machine tools, positioning precision of the A-axis directly affects the machining accuracy and surface quality of the parts. First of all, mechanical structure and control system of the A-axis are designed. Then, considering the influence of nonlin-ear friction, backlash, unmodeled dynamics, uncertain cutting force and other external disturbance on the control precision of the A-axis, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) based on extended state observer (ESO) is proposed. ESO is employed to estimate the state variables of the unknown system and an adaptive law is adopted to compensate for the input dead-zone caused by friction, backlash and other nonlinear characteristics. Finally, stability of the closed-loop system is guaran-teed by the Lyapunov theory. Positioning experiments illustrate the perfect estimation of ESO and the stronger anti-interference and robustness of ASMC, which can improve the control precision of the A-axis by about 40 times. Processing experiments show that the ASMC can reduce the waviness, average error and roughness of the processed surface by 35.63%, 31.31%and 30.35%, respectively.

  20. Adaptive sliding mode control of the A-axis used for blisk manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Pengbing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a key assembly in the 5-axis CNC machine tools, positioning precision of the A-axis directly affects the machining accuracy and surface quality of the parts. First of all, mechanical structure and control system of the A-axis are designed. Then, considering the influence of nonlinear friction, backlash, unmodeled dynamics, uncertain cutting force and other external disturbance on the control precision of the A-axis, an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC based on extended state observer (ESO is proposed. ESO is employed to estimate the state variables of the unknown system and an adaptive law is adopted to compensate for the input dead-zone caused by friction, backlash and other nonlinear characteristics. Finally, stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theory. Positioning experiments illustrate the perfect estimation of ESO and the stronger anti-interference and robustness of ASMC, which can improve the control precision of the A-axis by about 40 times. Processing experiments show that the ASMC can reduce the waviness, average error and roughness of the processed surface by 35.63%, 31.31% and 30.35%, respectively.

  1. Disk Chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals wit...

  2. Tuning of nanoparticle biological functionality through controlled surface chemistry and characterisation at the bioconjugated nanoparticle surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Delyan R.; Rocks, Louise; Kelly, Philip M.; Thomas, Steffi S.; Pitek, Andrzej S.; Verderio, Paolo; Mahon, Eugene; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2015-12-01

    We have used a silica - PEG based bionanoconjugate synthetic scheme to study the subtle connection between cell receptor specific recognition and architecture of surface functionalization chemistry. Extensive physicochemical characterization of the grafted architecture is capable of capturing significant levels of detail of both the linker and grafted organization, allowing for improved reproducibility and ultimately insight into biological functionality. Our data suggest that scaffold details, propagating PEG layer architecture effects, determine not only the rate of uptake of conjugated nanoparticles into cells but also, more significantly, the specificity of pathways via which uptake occurs.

  3. Cold and controlled molecular collisions: a bridge from quantum physics to organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental dynamics of molecular collisions and reactions have challenged researchers for many years. This continues to drive the development of more informative experiments and more precise theoretical descriptions in physical chemistry and chemical physics. I will discuss two collision processes that we have studied with different techniques in my group. The first one is a fully quantum state-resolved inelastic collision, which we have achieved to study in a low-temperature ion trap. The second one is the elementary nucleophilic substitution reaction, for which we have been able to image and analyse several different reaction mechanisms. (author)

  4. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  5. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TOOLS IN GLASS BOTTLES MANUFACTURING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Mengesha Awaj

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive in a competitive market, improving quality and productivity of product or process is a must for any company. This study is about to apply the statistical process control (SPC tools in the production processing line and on final product in order to reduce defects by identifying where the highest waste is occur at and to give suggestion for improvement. The approach used in this study is direct observation, thorough examination of production process lines, brain storming session, fishbone diagram, and information has been collected from potential customers and company's workers through interview and questionnaire, Pareto chart/analysis and control chart (p-chart was constructed. It has been found that the company has many problems; specifically there is high rejection or waste in the production processing line. The highest waste occurs in melting process line which causes loss due to trickle and in the forming process line which causes loss due to defective product rejection. The vital few problems were identified, it was found that the blisters, double seam, stone, pressure failure and overweight are the vital few problems. The principal aim of the study is to create awareness to quality team how to use SPC tools in the problem analysis, especially to train quality team on how to held an effective brainstorming session, and exploit these data in cause-and-effect diagram construction, Pareto analysis and control chart construction. The major causes of non-conformities and root causes of the quality problems were specified, and possible remedies were proposed. Although the company has many constraints to implement all suggestion for improvement within short period of time, the company recognized that the suggestion will provide significant productivity improvement in the long run.

  6. Self-organization principles result in robust control of flexible manufacturing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nature shows us in our daily life how robust, flexible and optimal self-organized modular constructions work in complex physical, chemical and biological systems, which successfully adapt to new and unexpected situations. A promising strategy is therefore to use such self-organization and pattern...... constructed dynamical system approach (coupled selection equations) is used which is based on pattern formation principles and results in fault resistant and robust behaviour. An important feature is that this type of control also guarantees feasiblitiy of the assignment solutions. In previous work...

  7. Manufacturing, Structure Control, and Functional Testing of Ti-Nb-Based SMA for Medical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Dubinskiy, S.; Zhukova, Y.; Sheremetyev, V.; Konopatsky, A.; Inaekyan, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the development and characterization of Ni-free shape memory alloys, more specifically, Ti-Nb-based alloys for biomedical applications. It starts by describing the smelting technology used to produce small and medium size ingots of selected compositions. Thermomechanical treatments: structure interrelations are discussed next. Finally, the results of their mechanical, electrochemical, and in vitro cytotoxicity testing are presented to allow a general assessment of the mechanical, chemical, and biological aspects of compatibility of these alloys, and of the methods to control their functional properties.

  8. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process. 

  9. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  10. Study on the methods of precision controlling for the manufacture of hull curvature sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-jun; HU Ri-qiang; DENG Yan-ping

    2006-01-01

    The precision controlling technology is a key step for the modern ship construction, with the precision controlling of the ship-hull curvature as one of bottlenecks in shipbuilding, where the initial is to present a compensation value for the ship-hull plate precisely. The compensation value of the curvature plate is composed of two parts: the construction compensation, which results in the process of heating construction of curvature plate, and the assembling compensation, which results in welding ribbed stiffeners onto the curvature plate. Based on the developed computation system for the local contraction value, this paper presents a method to establish the experimented samples for the assembling compensation by means of numerical experiments, and another method to establish the practical mathematical model for the construction compensation of curvature plate. Furthermore, it introduces the experimental measuring method for the assembling compensation of the curvature plate, based on which the related database system has been developed. Numerical examples are analyzed to demonstrate the process to establish mathematical model for the assembling compensation values.

  11. Panels Manufactured from Vegetable Fibers: An Alternative Approach for Controlling Noises in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Pacheco Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise control devices such as panels and barriers, when of high efficiency, generally are of difficult acquisition due to high costs turning in many cases their use impracticable, mainly for limited budget small-sized companies. There is a huge requirement for new acoustic materials that have satisfactory performance, not only under acoustic aspect but also other relevant ones and are of low cost. Vegetable fibers are an alternative solution when used as panels since they promise satisfactory acoustic absorption, according to previous researches, exist in abundance, and derive from renewable sources. This paper, therefore, reports on the development of panels made from vegetable fibers (coconut, palm, sisal, and açaí, assesses their applicability by various experimental (flammability, odor, fungal growth, and ageing tests, and characterize them acoustically in terms of their sound absorption coefficients on a scale model reverberant chamber. Acoustic results point out that the aforementioned fiber panels play pretty well the role of a noise control device since they have compatible, and in some cases, higher performance when compared to commercially available conventional materials.

  12. Application of articulated absolute co-ordinate measuring machine for quality control in manufacturing of ELM control coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under India-EU collaboration, Institute for Plasma Research had undertaken an engineering feasibility initiative aimed at developing a 1:1 prototype Edge Localized Modes control coils (ELM CC) for Joint European Torus (JET). The ELM coils comprised of winding pack made of CuCrZr conductor encased in Inconel 625 casing. The ELM control coils are designed in saddle coil configuration having toroidal and poloidal curves similar to that of JET vacuum vessel. ELM coil are in-vessels coils forming the primary boundary with torus vacuum which demands stringent requirement for its quality aspects. The dimensional accuracies of winding pack and casing are critical for its encasing and remote assembly inside vacuum vessel. The articulated arm co-ordinate measuring machine (AACMM) has been extensively used for dimensional metrology of ELM CC from winding to its encasing. The inspection methodology and procedures using noncontact technique for ELM CC with AACMM has been developed and established with extensive trials. The winding pack, their formers and final ELM control coils has been systematically investigated for their dimensional accuracies with AACMM. The effectiveness of AACMM based evaluation for quality control in fabrication of 1:1 prototype of ELM CC has been presented in this paper. (author)

  13. PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Control Status: A Summary of Industry Initiatives, Experience and Trends Relative to the EPRI PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest revision of the EPRI Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines was issued in February 2009. The Guidelines continue to focus on minimizing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator tubes, as well as minimizing degradation of other major components / subsystems of the secondary system. The Guidelines provide a technically-based framework for a plant-specific and effective PWR secondary water chemistry program. With the issuance of Revision 7 of the Guidelines in 2009, many plants have implemented changes that allow greater flexibility on startup. For example, the previous Guidelines (Revision 6) contained a possible low power hold at 5% power and a possible mid power hold at approximately 30% power based on chemistry constraints. Revision 7 has established a range over which a plant-specific value can be chosen for the possible low power hold (between 5% and 15%) and mid power hold (between 30% and 50%). This has provided plants the ability to establish significant plant evolutions prior to reaching the possible power hold; such as establishing seal steam to the condenser, placing feed pumps in service, or initiating forward flow of heater drains. The application of this flexibility in the industry will be explored. This paper also highlights the major initiatives and industry trends with respect to PWR secondary chemistry; and outlines the recent work to effectively address them. These will be presented in light of recent operating experience, as derived from EPRI's PWR Chemistry Monitoring and Assessment (CMA) program (which contains more than 400 cycles of operating chemistry data). (authors)

  14. 《中学化学实验研究》网络课程的制作%"The Chemistry Experiment of the High School Research" Curricular Manufacture of Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘仁凤; 孙开进

    2011-01-01

    "The chemist-ry experiment research of the middle school" forward that designing network-course should go along with instruction and system design based on person originally doctrine study theories,the theory of instruction design and theory of constructivism.The system design includes 4 aspects as follows: design of framework,design of navigation,design of interaction and design of interface.Inquiried into the concrete realization of the network course,such as the manufacture of the preparation,web page of the material,and gather from the technique angle also,adjusting to try to circulate and support and renew...etc.%《中学化学实验研究》网络课程的制作以人本主义学习理论、教学设计理论和建构主义学习理论为基础,确定了教学目标和教学内容,从结构设计、导航设计、界面设计等方面设计了课程系统。并从技术角度探讨了网络课程的具体实现如素材的准备、网页的制作与集成、调试运行以及维护与更新等。

  15. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  16. In situ optical diagnostic for monitoring or control of sodium diffusion in photovoltaics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Levi, Dean; Contreras, Miguel; Glynn, Stephen

    2015-09-15

    A method of fabricating a photovoltaic device 100, includes the steps of providing a glass substrate 102, depositing a molybdenum layer 104 on a surface of the glass substrate, directing light through the glass substrate to the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 206, detecting an optical property of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer after interaction with the incident light 208 and determining a density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer from the detected optical property 210. A molybdenum deposition parameter may be controlled based upon the determined density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 218. A non-contact method measures a density of the near-substrate region of a molybdenum layer and a deposition chamber 300.

  17. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  18. EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BWRVIP-190: BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines – 2008 Revision has been revised. The revision committee consisted of U.S. and non-U.S. utilities (members of the BWR Vessel and Internals Protection (BWRVIP) Mitigation Committee), reactor system manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and EPRI and industry experts. The revised document, BWRVIP-190 Revision 1, was completely reformatted into two volumes, with a simplified presentation of water chemistry control, diagnostic and good practice parameters in Volume 1 and the technical bases in Volume 2, to facilitate use. The revision was developed in parallel and in coordination with preparation of the Fuel Reliability Guidelines Revision 1: BWR Fuel Cladding Crud and Corrosion. Guidance is included for plants operating under normal water chemistry (NWC), moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M), and noble metal application (GE-Hitachi NobleChem™) plus hydrogen injection. Volume 1 includes significant changes to BWR feedwater and reactor water chemistry control parameters to provide increased assurance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of reactor materials and fuel reliability during all plant conditions, including cold shutdown (≤200°F (93°C)), startup/hot standby (>200°F (93°C) and ≤ 10%) and power operation (>10% power). Action Level values for chloride and sulfate have been tightened to minimize environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of all wetted surfaces, including those not protected by hydrogen injection, with or without noble metals. Chemistry control guidance has been enhanced to minimize shutdown radiation fields by clarifying targets for depleted zinc oxide (DZO) injection while meeting requirements for fuel reliability. Improved tabular presentations of parameter values explicitly indicate levels at which actions are to be taken and required sampling frequencies. Volume 2 provides the technical bases for BWR water chemistry control for control of EAC, flow accelerated corrosion

  19. Tectonic, climatic and hydrothermal control on sedimentation and water chemistry of northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchu, Philippe; Bergonzini, Laurent; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Golubev, Vladimir; Benedetti, Marc; Klerkx, Jean

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a multi-disciplinary characterisation of processes that influence sedimentation and lake water chemistry in the northern part of the Lake Malawi (or Lake Nyasa), East Africa. This characterisation is based on geophysical (heat-flow), tectonic, hydrological, hydrochemical (major elements, stable isotopes) and sedimentological (seismic profiles, core mineralogy) studies of data acquired from 1990 to 1994 during the CASIMIR project (Comparative Analysis of Sedimentary Infill Mechanisms in Rifts). Sub-surface activity is expressed through seismic and volcanic activity, as well as elevated heat-flow values, both beneath the lake and the surrounding area; hydrothermal activity is observed in the watershed however it was not clearly identified in the sub-lacustrine environment. Relatively high heat-flow values (80-90 mW/m 2) and the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids in hot springs suggest the presence of a magmatic body at depth. The influence of Quaternary tectonic activity on sedimentary dynamics and infilling is observed not only on land but also in the lake through high-resolution seismic profiles. The main feature is a general tilting of the Kyela Plain as shown by a shift in the river course. The Quaternary stacking pattern of seven sedimentary sequences identified on a grid of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles represents a complete long-term lake-level cycle, from a lake lowstand at about 320 m below the present level to the present-day lake highstand. The North-Kiwira and Songwe River delta systems, composed of a number of stacked lobes, were developed in response to the interplay between gradual lake-level rise, tectonic movement and sediment input. The river dynamics is also recorded in a short core by a mineralogical evolution probably due to a decrease of detrital inputs from the Songwe River in response to hydroclimatic changes. Such changes are very important as this northern part of the watershed is considered as a

  20. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  1. Understanding of anthropogenic controls on water chemistry and isotopic compositions of nitrate in the Geum River, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Lee, D.; Shin, W.; Park, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved ions and isotopic compositions of nitrate were determined for water samples collected along the main channel of the Geum River, South Korea to identify anthropogenic and natural controls on water chemistry. The catchment characteristics vary along the river encompassing relatively undisturbed forest areas in its upper reach, agricultural and populated urban areas in the middle, and dominantly agricultural areas in the lower reach. Compared to the undisturbed upper reach, the dissolved ion concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO42- and NO3-) slightly increased in agricultural areas. Abrupt increases in Na, Cl, SO42- and NO3- concentrations were observed in the river water after flowing through populated Daejeon metropolitan city. The effects of anthropogenic inputs were clearly represented in SO42- vs. Cl cross plot. Data from all locations were plotted along the assumed binary mixing line between rainwater and sewage with the data from the upper reach plotted close to the rainwater and the data from the urban areas close to the sewage end-member. δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 indicated that the dominant nitrate sources in the river were manure/sewage derived from agricultural and residential areas, except the dam discharge that contains a large proportion of soil nitrates. Notably, the anthropogenic disturbances in water chemistry were moderated in the lower reaches and dam discharges possibly due to the dilution effects and metabolic recycling. Our results suggest that water chemistry in the Geum River was closely related to the land use patterns in the catchment and therefore the management efforts for water quality should be devised according to the catchment characteristics.

  2. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  3. Computationally Improved Optimal Control Methodology for Linear Programming Problems of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Liang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock prevention policies are used to solve the deadlock problems of FMSs. It is well known that the theory of regions is the efficient method for obtaining optimal (i.e., maximally permissive controllers. All legal and live maximal behaviors of Petri net models can be preserved by using marking/transition-separation instances (MTSIs or event-state-separation-problem (ESSP methods. However, they encountered great difficulties in solving all sets of inequalities that is an extremely time consuming problem. Moreover, the number of linear programming problems (LPPs of legal markings is also exponential with net size when a plant net grows exponentially. This paper proposes a novel methodology to reduce the number of MTSIs/ESSPs and LPPs. In this paper, we used the well-known reduction approach Murata (1989 to simply the construct of system such that the problem of LPPs can then be reduced. Additionally, critical ones of crucial marking/transition-separation instances (COCMTSI are developed and used in our deadlock prevention policy that allows designers to employ few MTSIs to deal with deadlocks. Experimental results indicate that the computational cost can be reduced. To our knowledge, this deadlock prevention policy is the most efficient policy to obtain maximal permissive behavior of Petri net models than past approaches.

  4. Imaging techniques applied to quality control of civil manufactured goods obtained starting from ready-to-use mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Federica

    2003-05-01

    Concrete materials obtained from the utilization of pre-mixed and ready to use products (central mix-concrete) are more and more used. They represent a big portion of the civil construction market. Such products are used at different scale, ranging from small scale works, as those commonly realized inside and house, an apartment, etc. or at big civil or industrial scale works. In both cases the problem to control the mixtures and the final work is usually realized through the analysis of properly collected samples. Through appropriate sampling it can be derived objective parameters, as size class distribution and composition of the constituting particulate matter, or mechanical characteristics of the sample itself. An important parameter not considered by the previous mentioned approach is "segregation", that is the possibility that some particulate materials migrate preferentially in some zones of the mixtures and/or of the final product. Such a behavior dramatically influences the quality of the product and of the final manufactured good. Actually this behavior is only studied adopting a human based visual approach. Not repeatable analytical procedures or quantitative data processing exist. In this paper a procedure fully based on image processing techniques is described and applied. Results are presented and analyzed with reference to industrial products. A comparison is also made between the new proposed digital imaging based techniques and the analyses usually carried out at industrial laboratory scale for standard quality control.

  5. On-line Measurements and Control of Viable Cell Density in Cell Culture Manufacturing Processes using Radio-frequency Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvell, John P; Dowd, Jason E

    2006-03-01

    In this work, radio-frequency (RF) impedance is reviewed as a method for monitoring and controlling cell culture manufacturing processes. It is clear from the many publications cited that RF Impedance is regarded as an accurate and reliable method for measuring the live cell bio-volume both on-line and off-line and the technology is also sutable for animal cells in suspension, attached to micro-carriers or immobilized in fixed beds. In cGMP production, RF Impedance is being used in three main areas. Firstly, it is being used as a control instrument for maintaining consistent perfusion culture allowing the bioreactor to operate under optimum conditions for maximum production of recombinant proteins. In the second application it has not replaced traditional off-line live cell counting techniques but it is being used as an additional monitoring tool to check product conformance. Finally, RF Impedance is being used to monitor the concentration of live cells immobilized on micro-carriers or packed beds in cGMP processes where traditional off-line live cell counting methods are inaccurate or impossible to perform. PMID:19003069

  6. Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice Afrifa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC using the six sigma metrics application. Materials and Methods: We used commercial control serum [normal (L1 and pathological (L2] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine, lipids [triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (AST], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs, inaccuracy (Bias and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Results: Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%, chloride (2.52% and 2.51% for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%, cholesterol (4.86% for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2 were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but 1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Conclusion: Unsatisfactory sigma levels (<3 where achieved for all parameters using both control levels, this shows instability and low consistency of results. There is the need for detailed assessment of the analytical procedures and the strengthening of the laboratory control systems in order to achieve effective six sigma levels for the laboratory.

  7. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  8. Hot-electron-mediated surface chemistry: toward electronic control of catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Young; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I

    2015-08-18

    Energy dissipation at surfaces and interfaces is mediated by excitation of elementary processes, including phonons and electronic excitation, once external energy is deposited to the surface during exothermic chemical processes. Nonadiabatic electronic excitation in exothermic catalytic reactions results in the flow of energetic electrons with an energy of 1-3 eV when chemical energy is converted to electron flow on a short (femtosecond) time scale before atomic vibration adiabatically dissipates the energy (in picoseconds). These energetic electrons that are not in thermal equilibrium with the metal atoms are called "hot electrons". The detection of hot electron flow under atomic or molecular processes and understanding its role in chemical reactions have been major topics in surface chemistry. Recent studies have demonstrated electronic excitation produced during atomic or molecular processes on surfaces, and the influence of hot electrons on atomic and molecular processes. We outline research efforts aimed at identification of the intrinsic relation between the flow of hot electrons and catalytic reactions. We show various strategies for detection and use of hot electrons generated by the energy dissipation processes in surface chemical reactions and photon absorption. A Schottky barrier localized at the metal-oxide interface of either catalytic nanodiodes or hybrid nanocatalysts allows hot electrons to irreversibly transport through the interface. We show that the chemicurrent, composed of hot electrons excited by the surface reaction of CO oxidation or hydrogen oxidation, correlates well with the turnover rate measured separately by gas chromatography. Furthermore, we show that hot electron flows generated on a gold thin film by photon absorption (or internal photoemission) can be amplified by localized surface plasmon resonance. The influence of hot charge carriers on the chemistry at the metal-oxide interface are discussed for the cases of Au, Ag, and Pt

  9. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  10. Controlling Short-Range Interactions by Tuning Surface Chemistry in HDPE/Graphene Nanoribbon Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soheil; Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-09-01

    Unique dispersion states of nanoparticles in polymeric matrices have the potential to create composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The present work aims to determine the state of dispersion from the melt-state rheological behavior of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon (GNR) nanomaterials. GNRs were synthesized from nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via a chemical route using potassium permanganate and some second acids. High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/GNR nanocomposite samples were then prepared through a solution mixing procedure. Different nanocomposite dispersion states were achieved using different GNR synthesis methods providing different surface chemistry, interparticle interactions, and internal compartments. Prolonged relaxation of flow induced molecular orientation was observed due to the presence of both carbon nanotubes and GNRs. Based on the results of this work, due to relatively weak interactions between the polymer and the nanofillers, it is expected that short-range interactions between nanofillers play the key role in the final dispersion state. PMID:26266528

  11. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-06-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects.

  12. Studies of manufacturing controlled-release graphene acid and catalyzing synthesis of chalcone with Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihui; Feng, Jia; Li, Mei; Wang, Qiaolian; Su, Yumin; Jia, Zhixin

    2013-07-01

    In the paper, graphene acid (GA) was manufactured, using flake graphite as raw material, and the acidity and the structure of GA were characterized as well as. Then, chalcone was synthesized in the presence of GA, using acetophenone and benzaldehyde as the reactant. The results showed that the acidity of GA was for pH = 1.12 in aqueous solution, and it was structured by the graphene sheets with the spaces between the graphene sheet and the graphene sheet and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and acetic acid (CH3CO2H) inside the spaces. At the same time, the results also exhibited that the chalcone yield was able to reach 60.36% when GA dosage was 5 g, and the chalcone yields could attain apart 60.36, 52.05 and 31.16% when 5 g of GA was used thrice. This shows that GA is not only a high-performance catalyst, but also a controlled-release catalyst.

  13. Advanced methods of process/quality control in nuclear reactor fuel manufacture. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel plays an essential role in ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear energy and its acceptance by the public. The economic and market situation is not favorable at present for nuclear fuel designers and suppliers. The reduction in fuel prices (mainly to compete with fossil fuels) and in the number of fuel assemblies to be delivered to customers (mainly due to burnup increase) has been offset by the rising number of safety and other requirements, e.g. the choice of fuel and structural materials and the qualification of equipment. In this respect, higher burnup and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and the use of MOX fuels are the real means to improve the economics of the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole. Therefore, utilities and fuel vendors have recently initiated new research and development programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel for safe and reliable reactor operation more demanding conditions. In this connection, improvement of fuel quality occupies an important place and this requires continuous effort on the part of fuel researchers, designers and producers. In the early years of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in quality control/quality assurance related mainly to the product itself. Now, the emphasis is transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall total quality management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical methods are now widely implemented, replacing 100% inspection. The IAEA, recognizing the importance of obtaining and maintaining high standards in fuel fabrication, has paid particular attention to this subject. In response to the rapid progress in development and implementation of advanced methods of process/quality control in nuclear fuel manufacture and on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology, the IAEA conducted a

  14. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. PMID:24631743

  15. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: the introduction of green radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J H

    2014-07-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use.

  16. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  17. Cable manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  18. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  19. Applications To Become Registered Under the Controlled Substances Act To Manufacture Marijuana To Supply Researchers in the United States. Policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-12

    To facilitate research involving marijuana and its chemical constituents, DEA is adopting a new policy that is designed to increase the number of entities registered under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) to grow (manufacture) marijuana to supply legitimate researchers in the United States. This policy statement explains how DEA will evaluate applications for such registration consistent with the CSA and the obligations of the United States under the applicable international drug control treaty. PMID:27529905

  20. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmentally DurableThermal Control Material Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase II proposal will develop next generation products for Thermal Control Material Systems (TCMS) an adhesives based on the next generation...

  1. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  2. Applications, benefits and challenges of flow chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2013-01-01

    , environmental and manufacturing perspective. A potential solution to resolve these issues is to use flow chemistry in such processes, preferably with applications of micro-and mini-sized equipment. In addition, Process Analytical Technology (PAT) may be implemented in a very efficient way in such equipment due...... to the high degree of automation and process controllability that can be achieved in small scale continuous equipment.......Organic synthesis (incorporating both chemo-catalysis and biocatalysis) is essential for the production of a wide range of small-molecule pharmaceuticals. However, traditional production processes are mainly based on batch and semi-batch operating modes, which have disadvantages from an economic...

  3. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  4. Trajectory-Oriented and Fault-Tolerant-Based Intelligent Process Control for Flexible CIGS PV Module Manufacturing; Final Technical Report, 13 May 2002--30 May 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, L.; Britt, J.; Birkmire, R.; Vincent, T.

    2005-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, Inc., and Global Solar Energy, Inc., assisted by NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D program, have continued to advance CIGS production technology by developing trajectory-oriented predictive/control models, fault-tolerance control, control platform development, in-situ sensors, and process improvements. Modeling activities included developing physics-based and empirical models for CIGS and sputter-deposition processing, implementing model-based control, and applying predictive models to the construction of new evaporation sources and for control. Model-based control is enabled by implementing reduced or empirical models into a control platform. Reliability improvement activities include implementing preventive maintenance schedules; detecting failed sensors/equipment and reconfiguring to tinue processing; and systematic development of fault prevention and reconfiguration strategies for the full range of CIGS PV production deposition processes. In-situ sensor development activities have resulted in improved control and indicated the potential for enhanced process status monitoring and control of the deposition processes. Substantial process improvements have been made, including significant improvement in CIGS uniformity, thickness control, efficiency, yield, and throughput. In large measure, these gains have been driven by process optimization, which in turn have been enabled by control and reliability improvements due to this PV Manufacturing R&D program.

  5. A comparison of inventory control policies for a joint manufacturing/Remanufacturing environment with remanufacturing yield loss

    OpenAIRE

    Bayindir, Pelin; Teunter, Ruud; Dekker, Rommert

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a joint manufacturing / remanufacturing environment with remanufacturing yield loss. Demand and return follow independent stationary Poisson processes. Returns can be disposed off upon arrival to the system. Manufacturing and remanufacturing operations performed in the same facility at exponential rates. Yield information becomes available after remanufacturing. Demands that are not directly satisfied are lost. We investigate what inventories to consider when making pr...

  6. Microstructure Evolution and Cracking Control of 316L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Multi-layer Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJian-li; DENGQi-lin; HUDe-jin; SUNKang-kai; ZHOUGuang-cai

    2004-01-01

    Multi-layer laser cladding manufacturing is a newly developed rapid manufacturing technology. It is a powerful tool for direct fabrication of three-dimensional fully dense metal components and part repairing. In this paper, the microstructure evolution and properties of 316L stainless steel deposited with this technology was investigated, compact components with properties similar to the as-cast and wrought annealed material was obtained. Cracking was eliminated by introducing of supersonic vibration and application of parameter adjustment technologies.

  7. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).

  8. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  9. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  10. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  11. Control of Chemical Equilibrium by Solvent: A Basis for Teaching Physical Chemistry of Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.; Craig, Colleen F.; Fialkov, Yuriy; Prezhdo, Victor V.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates that the solvent present in a system can highly alter and control the chemical equilibrium of a system. The results show that the dipole moment and polarizibility of a system can be highly altered by using different mixed solvents.

  12. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  13. The Incorporation of Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction into the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum Using Internet-Facilitated Remote Diffractometer Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, P. S.; Hunter, A. D.; Zeller, M.

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of integrating single crystal X-ray diffraction into the curricula of the disciplines of science such as chemistry, biology, biochemistry physics, and many more are addressed. The results showed that students were able to complete all report requirements with the aid of handouts and instructor inputs, and remote control of the…

  14. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt

  15. Development of chemistry support programme for algae control in spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major problem in any open recirculating cooling water system, is the growth of micro-organisms, especially algae, which adversely affects the efficient and safe operation of the plant. The algae control depends to a great extent, on the selection of an effective algaecide and on the adoption of proper dose and dosing frequency of the algaecide. The present paper describes the development of (i) a generally applicable analytical method for comparing the algicidal efficacies of available commercial algaecides, for the specific local strains of algae in the spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor at Trombay, and (ii) a procedure for assessing 'algicide demand' in open recirculating cooling water systems, which can be used to establish an effective and efficient algae control programme. (author)

  16. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  17. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  18. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  19. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  20. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  1. Revenue Management in Make-To-Order Manufacturing: Case Study of Capacity Control at ThyssenKrupp VDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hintsches

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available While revenue management (RM is traditionally considered a tool of service operations, RM shows considerable potential for application in manufacturing operations. The typical challenges in make-to-order manufacturing are fixed manufacturing capacities and a great variety in offered products, going along with pronounced fluctuations in demand and profitability. Since Harris and Pinder in the mid-90s, numerous papers have furthered the understanding of RM theory in this environment. Nevertheless, results to be expected from applying the developed methods to a practical industry setting have yet to be reported. To this end, this paper investigates a possible application of RM at ThyssenKrupp VDM, leading to considerable improvements in several areas.

  2. Gold nanoparticle growth control - Implementing novel wet chemistry method on silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ameer, Ammar

    2013-04-01

    Controlling particle size, shape, nucleation, and self-assembly on surfaces are some of the main challenges facing electronic device fabrication. In this work, growth of gold nanoparticles over a wide range of sizes was investigated by using a novel wet chemical method, where potassium iodide is used as the reducing solution and gold chloride as the metal precursor, on silicon substrates. Four parameters were studied: soaking time, solution temperature, concentration of the solution of gold chloride, and surface pre-treatment of the substrate. Synthesized nanoparticles were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The precise control of the location and order of the grown gold overlayer was achieved by using focused ion beam (FIB) patterning of a silicon surface, pre-treated with potassium iodide. By varying the soaking time and temperature, different particle sizes and shapes were obtained. Flat geometrical shapes and spherical shapes were observed. We believe, that the method described in this work is potentially a straightforward and efficient way to fabricate gold contacts for microelectronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Fracture control of ground water flow and water chemistry in a rock aquitard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Timothy T; Anderson, Mary P; Bradbury, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    There are few studies on the hydrogeology of sedimentary rock aquitards although they are important controls in regional ground water flow systems. We formulate and test a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model of ground water flow and hydrochemistry in a fractured sedimentary rock aquitard to show that flow dynamics within the aquitard are more complex than previously believed. Similar conceptual models, based on regional observations and recently emerging principles of mechanical stratigraphy in heterogeneous sedimentary rocks, have previously been applied only to aquifers, but we show that they are potentially applicable to aquitards. The major elements of this conceptual model, which is based on detailed information from two sites in the Maquoketa Formation in southeastern Wisconsin, include orders of magnitude contrast between hydraulic diffusivity (K/S(s)) of fractured zones and relatively intact aquitard rock matrix, laterally extensive bedding-plane fracture zones extending over distances of over 10 km, very low vertical hydraulic conductivity of thick shale-rich intervals of the aquitard, and a vertical hydraulic head profile controlled by a lateral boundary at the aquitard subcrop, where numerous surface water bodies dominate the shallow aquifer system. Results from a 3D numerical flow model based on this conceptual model are consistent with field observations, which did not fit the typical conceptual model of strictly vertical flow through an aquitard. The 3D flow through an aquitard has implications for predicting ground water flow and for planning and protecting water supplies.

  4. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  5. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  6. Control of Colloid Surface Chemistry through Matrix Confinement: Facile Preparation of Stable Antibody Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewis, Lynell R.; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe a simple yet efficient gel matrix assisted preparation method which improves synthetic control over the interface between inorganic nanomaterials and biopolymers and yields stable biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles. Covalent functionalization of the noble metal surface is aided by the confinement of polyethylene glycol acetate functionalized silver nanoparticles in thin slabs of a 1% agarose gel. The gel confined nanoparticles can be transferred between reaction and washing media simply by immersing the gel slab in the solution of interest. The agarose matrix retains nanoparticles but is swiftly penetrated by the antibodies of interest. The antibodies are covalently anchored to the nanoparticles using conventional crosslinking strategies, and the resulting antibody functionalized nanoparticles are recovered from the gel through electroelution. We demonstrate the efficacy of this nanoparticle functionalization approach by labeling specific receptors on cellular surfaces with functionalized silver nanoparticles that are stable under physiological conditions. PMID:20161660

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    that carbon blacks contain free radical and other surface functionality as manufactured, and that exposure to ozone further functionalizes the surface. Samples of carbon black that have been exposed to ozone react with their ambient environment so that acid anhydride and cyclic ether functionality hydrolyze to form carboxylic acid functionality, observable by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Persistent free radical content, but not free radical content from ozone exposure, may mediate the toxic response of cells to carbon blacks in vitro. Results showed that macrophages exposed to carbon blacks that had been exposed to ozone were not less viable in vitro than macrophages exposed to carbon blacks as manufactured because the free radical content that resulted from ozone exposure was not persistent in an aqueous medium. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to ozonated carbon blacks and ozone was less lethal to macrophages than carbon black exposure alone, possibly because the ozone oxidatively preconditioned the macrophages to resist oxidative stress. The nature of redox-active iron species on the surface of iron-loaded synthetic carbon particles was explored. The particles had been shown in previous studies to provoke an inflammatory response involving the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, which was correlated with their production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the source of bioavailable Fenton-active iron on the surfaces of the particles was fluoride species that were byproducts of a step in the synthetic process. Fluoride ligated the iron already on the surface, forming a complex that resisted precipitation in the biological medium and thus made the iron more bioavailable. The results of this thesis aim to clarify whether the size and surface chemistry of nanoparticles should be considered more closely as criteria with which to develop better environmental controls

  8. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-30

    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  9. Papyrus Manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    The papyrus plant that grew along the River Nile was used to manufacture writing material in ancient Egypt. It was employed throughout the Classical Period and beyond until superseded by paper in about 800 CE.

  10. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  11. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  12. A Contingency Theory-based Investigation of the Role of Management Accounting Information in Management Control Systems in Large Manufacturing Companies in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Haedr, Adel Ramdan

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a better understanding of the design and use of effective management control systems (MCS) in a developing country, this research study adopts a contingency theory approach to investigate the role of management accounting information (MAI) in facilitating MCS in large manufacturing companies. Drawing the relevant literature on contingency theory, a framework is developed and forms the basis for investigating the possible influence of several contingent variables, inc...

  13. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Orłowicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7, utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  14. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    OpenAIRE

    W. Orłowicz; M. Tupaj; M. Mróz; E. Guzik; J. Nykiel; A. Zając; B. Piotrowski

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7), utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  15. Controls on the water chemistry of some springs in a volcanic terrain, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolution and alteration of minerals and glass in fresh rock, and the extensive occurrence of amorphous residues and precipitates in the weathered rock, control the spring water composition of two volcanoes located in the northwestern segment of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. SEM photomicrographs reveal dissolution and alteration features on phenocrysts that include crystallographically oriented etch pits, and high Al and Fe residues. Vessicles in glass appear to be coalescing to form large voids. Amorphous products are Al-Fe-Si oxides and hydroxides and include allophane and other pseudo-crystalline products. No clay minerals occur in concentrations above the detection limit of an XRD. Silica, sodium and potassium are released into solution at the fresh rock/weathered rock interface. Silica appears to reach a maximum of 100 ppm due to buffering by amorphous silica precipitates. Sinks for potassium may occur deep in the weathering profile on some rock types as Na/K released upon weathering is significantly lower than that found in solution. The anomolously high concentrations of magnesium and calcium in the groundwater and weathered rock, is an indication that they are being released along the flow path and may be adsorbed onto clay-size material where the water emerges through the soil zone.

  16. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plante, Ianik, E-mail: ianik.plante-1@nasa.gov [Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering, 1290 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Devroye, Luc, E-mail: lucdevroye@gmail.com [School of Computer Science, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  17. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  18. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinke, ten Erik

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information a

  19. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  20. Linking management accounting and control systems, strategy, information technology, manufacturing technology and organizational performance of the firm in contingency framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvönen, J. (Johanna)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation aims to provide an extensive picture of management accounting systems and explore the relationships between management accounting systems, strategy, information technology, manufacturing technology and organizational performance. The dissertation consists of four essays. The first essay focuses on the adoption and benefits of management accounting practices, whereas the second essay studies the relations between customer-focused strategy, performance measurement ...

  1. Beyond interfacial anion/cation pairing: The role of Cu(I) coordination chemistry in additive-controlled copper plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects of various polymeric suppressor additives and MPS relevant for copper electroplating. ► Type-I suppressors (e.g. PEGs) show a purely antagonistic interaction with MPS. ► Type-II suppressors (e.g. PEIs) show a purely synergistic interaction with MPS. ► Hybrid suppressors (e.g. Imep) reveal both synergistic and antagonistic effects depending on the MPS concentration. ► We identify a combination of Cu(I) coordination chemistry and an inner salt formation as key to the understanding of the suppressing mode of polymeric leveler additives. - Abstract: This study reinvestigates the electrochemical characteristics of three different suppressor additives that are used in context of industrial copper plating (Damascene, Through-Silicon-Via). It is the particular aim of this contribution to further substantiate our recently introduced classification scheme of suppressor chemistries that relies on their antagonistic and synergistic interplay with MPS (mercaptopropane sulfonic acid/sulfonate). The latter appears as intermediate species in the course of copper electrodeposition in the presence of SPS (bis-(sodium-sulfopropyl)-disulfide). Both the linear sweep voltammetry and potential transient experiments reveal a purely antagonistic interaction between PAG (polyalkylene glycol) based suppressor ensembles and the SPS (MPS precursor) which is rationalized in terms of the coordinative dissolution of a hyper-branched PAG-Cu(I)-Cl coordination network by the MPS. Such purely antagonistic suppressor/MPS interplay is our criterion for a so-called type-I suppressor. A purely synergistic suppressor/MPS interaction is observed for the PEI (polyethylene-imine) which can be considered as a prototypical type-II suppressor. Beyond classical interfacial anion/cation pairing the partly protonated, poly-cationic PEI is capable to form MPS-stabilized Cu(I) adducts. Their suppressing effect relies on an in situ hyper

  2. Demonstration of thermal control, microstructure control, defect mitigation and process parameter database generation for Ti-6Al-4V Direct Digital Manufacturing - Understanding defect mitigation and process parameter database generation for direct digital manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, Niyanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dinwiddie, Ralph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robson, Alan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Jordan, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chaudhary, Anil [Applied Optimization, Dayton, OH (United States); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Researchers from Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Applied Optimization (AO) to understand and evaluate the propensity for defect formation in builds manufactured using DM3D-POM laser direct metal deposition. The main aim of this collaboration was to understand the character of powder jet behavior as a function of the nozzle parameters such as cover gas, carrier gas, and shaping gas. In order to evaluate the sensitivities of the parameters used in model, various experiments were performed with in-situ monitoring of the powder stream characteristics using a high speed camera. A wide variety of conditions while keeping the hopper motor rpm constant, including laser power and travel speed were explored. The cross sections of the deposits were characterized using optical microscopy.

  3. Chain Sprockets Manufacturing, on Vertical Machining Center GDV400PM1F4 Updated with Numerical Control NCT®2000M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Francisc Fekete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper content comprise a few aspects regarding processing of chain sprockets on vertical processing center GDV400PM1F4 updated by changing the original equipment CNC-2S42-65 (1Я3.035.090 with NCT®2000M, which includes in short characteristics of two CNC, the old and the new one, the constructive elements of chain sprockets processed, enunciation of mains stages of manufacturing process adopted. The aim is to manufacture chain sprockets with classic tools, bypassing the need to design and build a sprocket hob in accordance with specified chain sprockets geometry, processing is performed on a machine which technological parameters have been improved.

  4. High temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion control in water cooled power reactors. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on High Temperature On-line Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion in Water Cooled Power Reactors (1995-1999). This report attempts to provide both an overview of the state of the art with regard to on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion in operating reactors, and technical details of the important contributions made by programme participants to the development and qualification of new monitoring techniques. The WACOL CRP is a follow-up to the WACOLIN (Investigations on Water Chemistry Control and Coolant Interaction with Fuel and Primary Circuit Materials in Water Cooled Power Reactors) CRP conducted by the IAEA from 1986 to 1991. The WACOLIN CRP, which described chemistry, corrosion and activity-transport aspects, clearly showed the influence of water chemistry on corrosion of both fuel and reactor primary-circuit components, as well as on radiation fields. It was concluded that there was a fundamental need to monitor water-chemistry parameters in real time, reliably and accurately. The objectives of the WACOL CRP were to establish recommendations for the development, qualification and plant implementation of methods and equipment for on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion. Chief investigators from 18 organizations representing 15 countries provided a variety of contributions aimed at introducing proven monitoring techniques into plants on a regular basis and filling the gaps between plant operator needs and available monitoring techniques. The CRP firmly demonstrated that in situ monitoring is able to provide additional and valuable information to plant operators, e.g. ECP, high temperature pH and conductivity. Such data can be obtained promptly, i.e. in real time and with a high degree of accuracy. Reliable techniques and sensor devices are available which enable plant operators to obtain additional information on the response of structural materials in

  5. Human Development VIII: A Theory of “Deep” Quantum Chemistry and Cell Consciousness: Quantum Chemistry Controls Genes and Biochemistry to Give Cells and Higher Organisms Consciousness and Complex Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep quantum chemistry is a theory of deeply structured quantum fields carrying the biological information of the cell, making it able to remember, intend, represent the inner and outer world for comparison, understand what it “sees”, and make choices on its structure, form, behavior and division. We suggest that deep quantum chemistry gives the cell consciousness and all the qualities and abilities related to consciousness. We use geometric symbolism, which is a pre-mathematical and philosophical approach to problems that cannot yet be handled mathematically. Using Occam’s razor we have started with the simplest model that works; we presume this to be a many-dimensional, spiral fractal. We suggest that all the electrons of the large biological molecules’ orbitals make one huge “cell-orbital”, which is structured according to the spiral fractal nature of quantum fields. Consciousness of single cells, multi cellular structures as e.g. organs, multi-cellular organisms and multi-individual colonies (like ants and human societies can thus be explained by deep quantum chemistry. When biochemical activity is strictly controlled by the quantum-mechanical super-orbital of the cell, this orbital can deliver energetic quanta as biological information, distributed through many fractal levels of the cell to guide form and behavior of an individual single or a multi-cellular organism. The top level of information is the consciousness of the cell or organism, which controls all the biochemical processes. By this speculative work inspired by Penrose and Hameroff we hope to inspire other researchers to formulate more strict and mathematically correct hypothesis on the complex and coherence nature of matter, life and consciousness.

  6. Manufacture of first wall mock-ups with calibrated defects for fabrication control methods: Development of UT detectable defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Research and Development program for the ITER Blanket-First Wall has been implemented in Europe to provide input data for the manufacture of the full-scale production components. In this frame, FW mock-ups have been fabricated according to ITER FW design requirements. In order to define acceptance criteria for non-destructive examination (NDE) for the series production, FW mock-ups (FWMU) representative of ITER FW are manufactured with calibrated defects to be validated by heat flux tests to assess the critical defect dimensions able to degrade fatigue performance and lifetime, when located at Be/CuCrZr joint corners and beryllium tile edges, and at the CuCrZr/CuCrZr and CuCrZr/316L SS joints. In order to create the defects of given dimensions, two techniques were studied: alumina and zirconia coating using a PVD technique in one hand; and on the another hand alumina and quartz thicker inserts. The paper describes the different approaches used to manufacture test samples with calibrated defects, before applying on FW mock-ups, and related non-destructive examination (NDE) by ultrasonic examination (UT). High heat flux (HHF) testing is not part of this work.

  7. Dynamic production scheduling in virtual cellular manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    马俊; Ma, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing companies must constantly improve productivity to respond to dynamic changes in customer demand in order to maintain their competitiveness and marketshares. This requires manufacturers to adopt more efficient methodologies to design and control their manufacturing systems. In recent decades, virtual cellular manufacturing (VCM), as an advanced manufacturing concept, has attracted increasing attention in the research community, because traditional cellular manufacturing is inadeq...

  8. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  10. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  11. Social Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Robert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This article is both an essay to propose social chemistry as a new scientific discipline, and a preface of the book Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. Environmental chemistry is a fast emerging discipline aiming at the understanding the fate of pollutants in ecosystems and at designing novel processes that are safe for ecosystems. Past pollution should be cleaned, future pollution should be predicted and avoided (Lichtfouse et al., 2005a). Such advices ...

  12. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  13. Introduction to semiconductor manufacturing technology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. [i]Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition[/i] thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discuss

  14. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  15. Manufacturing workshop production activity control and scheduling research%制造业车间作业计划与调度研究(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 王铁雁; 江佳; 陈龙虎; 欧海燕

    2012-01-01

    车间作业计划(Production Activity Control,PAC)是企业生产计划的最终环节,对制造领域的经营管理效率起着支撑作用.针对当前企业存在的诸多问题,在系统分析了作业的特点以及对PAC编制的来源及过程的总结基础上,科学归纳了制造业PAC与调度流程,并给出了相应的评价标准和调控措施.%The Production Activity Control (Production Activity Control,PAC) is the last step in manufacturing plan for the enterprise.In view of the current problems in the enterprise,the characteristics of the operation process have been analyzed.On the basis of summarization of source and process of PAC,the PAC and scheduling process in manufacturing workshop have been summarized scientifically.The corresponding evaluation standards and control measures have been pointed out.

  16. Manufacturing workshop production activity control and scheduling research%制造业车间作业计划与调度研究(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 王铁雁; 江佳; 陈龙虎; 欧海燕

    2012-01-01

    车间作业计划(Production Activity Control,PAC)是企业生产计划的最终环节,对制造领域的经营管理效率起着支撑作用.针对当前企业存在的诸多问题,在系统分析了作业的特点以及对PAC编制的来源及过程的总结基础上,科学归纳了制造业PAC与调度流程,并给出了相应的评价标准和调控措施.%The Production Activity Control (Produclion Activity Control, PAC) is the last step in manufacturing plan for the enterprise. In view of the current problems in the enterprise, the characteristics of the operation process have been analyzed. On the basis of summarization of source and process of PAC, the PAC and scheduling process in manufacturing workshop have been summarized scientifically. The corresponding evaluation standards and control measures have been pointed out.

  17. EERE Quality Control Workshop Final Report: Proceedings from the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative; Golden, Colorado, December 9-10, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) has recognized the cross-cutting, pre-competitive and enabling nature of quality control for a wide range of clean energy technologies. As such, the Fuel Cell Technologies Office, Solar Energy Technologies Office, Vehicle Technologies Office, Building Technologies Office, and Advanced Manufacturing Office decided to explore needs and potential cross-office synergies in this area by holding the EERE Quality Control Workshop, in support of the DOE Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative. This report summarizes the purpose and scope of the workshop; reviews the current status and state-of-the-art for in-line quality control; summarizes the results from three breakout sessions; and presents conclusions and recommendations.

  18. High-throughput DNA sequencing: a genomic data manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G M

    1999-01-01

    The progress trends in automated DNA sequencing operation are reviewed. Technological development in sequencing instruments, enzymatic chemistry and robotic stations has resulted in ever-increasing capacity of sequence data production. This progress leads to a higher demand on laboratory information management and data quality assessment. High-throughput laboratories face the challenge of organizational management, as well as technology management. Engineering principles of process control should be adopted in this biological data manufacturing procedure. While various systems attempt to provide solutions to automate different parts of, or even the entire process, new technical advances will continue to change the paradigm and provide new challenges.

  19. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  20. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  1. Controlling the microstructure and properties of wire arc additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V with trace boron additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates that trace boron addition to Ti–6Al–4V coupons produced by additive layer manufacturing is an effective way to eliminate the deleterious anisotropic microstructures often encountered with this manufacturing technique. Trace boron additions (up to 0.13 wt.%) to this alloy eliminate grain boundary-α and colony-α, and instead produce a homogeneous α-microstructure consisting of fine equiaxed α-grains in both as-deposited and heat treated coupons. Prior-β grains remain columnar with boron addition but become narrower due to the wider solidification range and growth restricting effect of the boron solute. Compared to unmodified Ti–6Al–4V alloy, Ti–6Al–4V modified with trace boron additions showed up to 40% improvement in plasticity with no loss in strength under uniaxial compression at room temperature. Boron additions were found to inhibit twinning transmission that causes sudden large load drops during deformation of the unmodified Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the heat treated condition

  2. Good chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The subject matter in chemistry courses reflects almost nothing of the issues that chemists are interested in. It is important to formulate a set of topics - and a Medical College Admissions Test reflecting them - that would leave chemistry departments no choice but to change their teaching.

  3. A manufacturing process for tubular blanks made of zircaloy 2 and internally plated with zirconium, with possibility of ultrasonic control of the zirconium thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to be able to carry out ultrasonic measurement of the thickness of the zirconium coating on the inner side of nuclear fuel tubes made of zircaloy 2, a new process for the fabrication of plated tubular blanks is proposed: the plating is thermo-mechanically treated at one or more stages of the blank manufacturing, in order to control the grain size at precise levels on the zircaloy 2 (ASTM Index between 9 and 12) and on the zirconium (6 to 10); the grain size difference between the two material should remain larger than 2 ASTM indexes. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Factors controlling the major ion chemistry of streams in the Blue Ridge and Valley and Ridge physiographic provinces of Virginia and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.; Bricker, O.P.

    1992-01-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine regional patterns in stream chemistry and to examine the degree to which the chemistry of low-order streams is controlled by the bedrock upon which they flow. Streams clustered into regionally isolated groups strongly related to bedrock type, with SO42- and HCO3- the chemical variables of most importance. Sulphate concentrations appear to be strongly controlled by climate and hydrology, and sorption in the soils within the watershed. Much of the atmospherically derived SO42- accumulates in watersheds during the growing season and is later flushed out. Weathering reactions were found to be particularly important in the production of HCO3-, accounting for 91% on an annual basis, and export of divalent cations from these watersheds, accounting for 48-50% on an annual basis. About half of non-anthropogenic Na+ was derived from weathering of silicates, whereas nearly all K+ was identified with leaching by SO42-. Water chemistry was strongly related to the rock type in the watershed and the weatherability of the component minerals. -from Authors

  5. A framework for distributed manufacturing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Paulo; Restivo, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The new organisational structures used in world wide manufacturing systems require the development of distributed applications, which present solutions to their requirements. The work research in the distributed manufacturing control leads to emergent paradigms, such as Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) and Bionic Manufacturing Systems (BMS), which translates the concepts from social organisations and biological systems to the manufacturing world. This paper present a Framework for the deve...

  6. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  7. Study on Product Material Control in Layout of Manufacturing Industry%制造业布局中物控管理问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we reviewed the theory on product material control,oh such basis introduced the current status of the development of product material control in layout of the manufacturing industry,and set out the thtee major influence factors in product material control,the common problems therein and the key points in enterprise internal product material control.Then through comprehensive discussion,we integrated and analyzed all the problems in product material control,proposed the specific strategies suitable for certain circumstances atd at the end put forward suggestions and forecasting for the development of material control in the layout of the manufacturing industry in China.%首先对物控管理进行了理论综述,在此基础上介绍了目前制造业布局中物控管理的发展现状,并列出了物控管理的三大因素所经常出现的问题和在企业内部物控管理工作的相关问题要点,通过全面而系统地剖析问题,将物控管理中出现的所有问题进行整合分析,提出了特定因素下所采取的应对策略,具体表现在物料控制、生产控制和仓库管理方面提出的可行性解决方案,为制造型企业解决物控管理问题提供了可靠的依据,最后提出了针对我国制造业布局中物控管理的发展建议和预测.

  8. Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

    2006-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

  9. The Recent Trend of the National and International Standard of Manufacturing Quality Control for Diagnostic X-ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly published IEC 60601-1-3 ; 2008 2nd Edition has two important meanings. First, Radiation Quality and Dose should make sure for safety of patient and staff in manufacturing diagnostic X-ray equipment. Second, it should be minimized of Leakage Radiation, Residual Radiation, and Stray Radiation. The requirement to make enactment or revision of national standard for diagnostic X-ray Equipment is as follows : 1. It should be adjusted the new standard to the recent IEC Publication under the consideration of the Korea medical circumstances. 2. For focus to the Radiation Safety, IEC 60601-1-3 (General requirements for radiation protection in diagnostic X-ray equipment) could be applied to the new regulation. It should be compact sentence. 3. A sudden Notification change should not be desired. It needs a enough time to make easy the circumstances.

  10. New trends and developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It uses radiation as the initiator of chemical reactions. Practical applications of radiation chemistry today extend to many fields, including health care, food and agriculture, manufacturing, industrial pollution abatement, biotechnology and telecommunications. The important advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used to produce, and study, almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reactions, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. The techniques are applicable to gaseous, liquid, solid, and heterogeneous systems. By combining different techniques of radiation chemistry with analytical chemistry, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions are studied. In November 1988 in Bologna, Italy, the IAEA convened an advisory group meeting to assess new trends and developments in radiation chemistry. The present publication includes most of the contributions presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. 可实现特殊激光微加工工艺的控制系统%Control system of special laser micro-manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符永宏; 潘国平; 华希俊; 符昊; 高兴东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the acoustic-optic Q-switched Nd technology of YAG laser, control system of special laser micro-manufacturing technology was designed to process the inner surface of engine cylinder. According to the programing of MC8041A motion control card and self-developed laser Q-switch card, the mechanical motion system of equipment and the output of laser Q-signal were controlled. Four-axis servo motors were controlled by the motion control card. The feedback pulses from a high accuracy incremental rotary encoder on rotational axis were received by laser Q-switch card to output laser Q-signal after counting and frequency dividing. With the laser Q-switch card's coordinated control between rotational motion of laser head and output of single laser pulse, the laser micro-manufacturing approach of single pulse one time with repeating at intervals was achieved. By the proposed approach, laser micro-manufacturing can be performed on the inner surface of engine cylinder with high efficiency and quality.%以发动机气缸内表面作为激光微加工对象,基于半导体二极管泵浦YAG激光器的声光调Q技术,研制出可满足特殊激光微加工工艺要求的激光微加工设备控制系统.通过对运动控制卡MC8041A及自制的激光调Q控制卡的软件编程,实现对设备机械运动系统以及激光调Q信号输出的控制.运动控制卡控制各轴伺服电动机运转;激光调Q控制卡接收安装在旋转轴上的高精度增量式旋转编码器的反馈脉冲,对其进行计数、分频后,输出所需激光调Q信号.借助于激光调Q控制卡对激光头旋转运动和激光器单个激光脉冲输出的协调联动控制,形成单脉冲同点间隔多次激光微加工工艺,实现对发动机气缸内表面高效、高质量的微加工.

  12. Laser in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Generally a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is defined as "a device which uses a quantum mechanical effect, stimulated emission, to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity, size, and shape". Laser material processing represents a great number of methods, which are rapidly growing in current and different industrial applications as new alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the use of lasers in manufacturing is an emerging area with a wide variety of applications, for example, in electronics, molds an

  13. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  14. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences. PMID:19780101

  15. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  17. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  18. Patterned porous silicon photonic crystals with modular surface chemistry for spatial control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiffany H.; Pei, Yi; Zhang, Douglas; Li, Yanfen; Kilian, Kristopher A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a strategy to spatially define regions of gold and nanostructured silicon photonics, each with materials-specific surface chemistry, for azide-alkyne cycloaddition of different bioactive peptides. Neural stem cells are spatially directed to undergo neurogenesis and astrogenesis as a function of both surface properties and peptide identity.We present a strategy to spatially define regions of gold and nanostructured silicon photonics, each with materials-specific surface chemistry, for azide-alkyne cycloaddition of different bioactive peptides. Neural stem cells are spatially directed to undergo neurogenesis and astrogenesis as a function of both surface properties and peptide identity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08327c

  19. Conjugation chemistry through acetals toward a dextran-based delivery system for controlled release of siRNA

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Lina

    2012-09-26

    New conjugation chemistry for polysaccharides, exemplified by dextran, was developed to enable the attachment of therapeutic or other functional moieties to the polysaccharide through cleavable acetal linkages. The acid-lability of the acetal groups allows the release of therapeutics under acidic conditions, such as that of the endocytic compartments of cells, regenerating the original free polysaccharide in the end. The physical and chemical behavior of these acetal groups can be adjusted by modifying their stereoelectronic and steric properties, thereby providing materials with tunable degradation and release rates. We have applied this conjugation chemistry in the development of water-soluble siRNA carriers, namely acetal-linked amino-dextrans, with various amine structures attached through either slow- or fast-degrading acetal linker. The carriers with the best combination of amine moieties and structural composition of acetals showed high in vitro transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity in the delivery of siRNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Complex Reaction Systems for Computer-Aided Control and its Illustration on Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiryan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling of sequential process has its own importance in Atmospheric Chemistry. Numerical calculations which allow to predict separate stages and components of chemical reaction make possible the reaction management, such is the new and perspective direction in chemical researches. Chemical processes basically pass multiple simple stages where various atoms and radicals participate. The complex chain of chemical reactionary systems complicates their research and the research is impossible without new methods of mathematical simulation and high technologies which allow not only to explain results of experiments but also to predict dynamics of processes. A new program package is suggested for solving research problems of chemical kinetics. The program is tested on different illustrative examples on Atmospheric Chemistry and installed in various scientific and educational institutions.

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  3. Novel cross-linkers for PDMS networks for controlled and well distributed grafting of functionalities by click chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2013-01-01

    by 35%. The contact angle of PDMS films was increased from 108° to 116° by the introduction of a small poly(pentafluorostyrene) chain. Finally, 17α-ethynyl-1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17β-diol and 1-ethynyl-3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene were incorporated as examples of other functional groups. © 2013...... The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  4. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  5. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  6. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  7. Manufacture tolerance analysis and control for a polymer on-silicon Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-based electro-optic switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-tao; MA Chun-sheng; YAN Xin; CUI Zhan-chen; ZHANG Da-ming

    2011-01-01

    To enhance the electro-optic (EO) modulation efficiency and realize the impedance-matching, a polymer-on-silicon multi mode interference (MMI) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) -based electro-optic (EO) switch is designed and optimized.Under the central operation wavelength of 1550 nm, the driving voltages of the designed switch are O and ±1.375 V,respectively, with a short active region length of 5 mm, and the characteristic impedance of the electrode is about 49.6 Ω.The manufacture tolerance is analyzed for instructing the device fabrication. The results show that to realize ideal switching function, high fabrication accuracy on the buffer thickness, core thickness, electrode width and MMI wavegnide width is extremely required, and a small voltage drift of-0.03-0.05 V is also expected for reducing the crosstalk to less than -30 dB.The allowed 3 dB bandwidth is 60 nm, and within this spectrum range, the insertion loss and crosstalk are less than 6.71 dB and -30 dB, respectively.

  8. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard;

    to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM...

  9. New methods of in situ metrology and process control for EBF3 Additive Manufacturing, a feasibility study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a methodology for advanced process control and deposition analysis built around using signals generated by beam-component interactions in...

  10. Comparative analysis of quality assurance systems which effectively control, review and verify the quality of components manufactured for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors within the EEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analyses are made of Quality Assurance Systems, by techniques and the methodology used, for the manufacture of component parts for the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) within the EEC. Two differing alternative systems are presented in the analysis. First, a tabulated analytical treatment which analyses 14 codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance which can be applied to LMFBR's. The comparison equates equivalent clauses between codes and standards followed by an analysis of individual clauses in tabular form, the International Standard ISO 6215. A statistical summary and recommendations conclude this analysis. The second alternative system used in the comparison is a descriptive analytical method applied to 9 selected codes and standards relating to Quality Assurance based on the 13 criteria of the International IAEA Code of Practice no. 50 C.QA entitled ''Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants''. An investigation is then made of the state of the art on the subject of classification of component parts bearing generally on Quality Assurance. The method of classification is segregated into General, Safety and Inspection categories. A summary of destructive and non destructive controls that may be applied during the manufacture of LMFBR components is given, together with tests that may be applied to selected components, namely Primary Tank, Secondary Sodium Pump and the Primary Cold Trap allocated to Safety Classes, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The report concludes with a summary of typical records produced at the delivery of a component

  11. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  12. Mitigation of organically bound sulphate from water treatment plants at Bruce NGS and impact on steam generator secondary side chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Power is the source of more than 20 per cent of Ontario's electricity and currently operates six reactor units at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (two units) and B (four units) stations located on Lake Huron. This paper discusses the challenges faced and operating experience (OPEX) gained in meeting WANO 1.0 chemistry performance objectives for steam generator secondary side chemistry control, particularly with control of steam generator sulphates. A detailed sampling and analysis program conducted as part of this study concluded that a major contributor to steam generator (SG) elevated sulphates is Organically Bound Sulphate (OBS) in Water Treatment Plants (WTP) effluent. The Bruce A and B WTPs consist of clarification with downstream sand and carbon filtration for Lake Water pre-treatment, which are followed by conventional Ion Exchange (IX) demineralization. Samples taken from various locations in the process stream were analyzed for a variety of parameters including both organic bound and inorganic forms of sulphate. The results are inconclusive with respect to finding the definitive source of OBS. This is primarily due to the condition that the OBS in the samples, which are in relatively low levels, are masked during chemical analysis by the considerably higher inorganic sulphate background. Additionally, it was also determined that on-line Total Organic Carbon (TOC) levels at different WTP locations did not always correlate well with OBS levels in the effluent, such that TOC could not be effectively used as a control parameter to improve OBS performance of the WTP operation. Improvement efforts at both plants focused on a number of areas including optimization of clarifier operation, replacement of IX resins, addition of downstream mobile polishing trailers, testing of new resins and adsorbents, pilot-scale testing with a Reverse Osmosis (RO) rig, review of resin regeneration and backwashing practices, and operating procedure improvements

  13. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  14. 75 FR 37295 - Control of Immediate Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Fentanyl as a Schedule II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... List I Chemical'' (72 FR 20039, April 23, 2007), followed by a Final Rule (73 FR 43355, July 25, 2008... laboratories. Under a separate rulemaking first published as an interim rule on April 23, 2007 (72 FR 20039), followed by a final rule on July 25, 2008 (73 FR 43355), DEA has controlled the precursor NPP as a List...

  15. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  17. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: The introduction of green radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. - Highlights: • We report application of the principles of green chemistry to a radiochemistry setting. • Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent. • Green radiochemistry simplifies production and QC in busy clinical production laboratories. • Residual solvent analysis can be relegated to a quarterly or annual QC test

  18. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  19. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lowe's new edition assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry. It can serve as a primary text in quantum chemistry courses, and enables students and researchers to comprehend the current literature. This third edition has been thoroughly updated and includes numerous new exercises to facilitate self-study and solutions to selected exercises.* Assumes little initial mathematical or physical sophistication, developing insights and abilities in the context of actual problems* Provides thorough treatment

  20. Arc-welding process control based on back face thermography: application to the manufacturing of nuclear steam generators

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo García, Adolfo; Mirapeix Serrano, Jesús María; Conde Portilla, Olga María; García Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Madruga Saavedra, Francisco Javier; López Higuera, José Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of reducing defects in the arc welding process has attracted research interest, particularly, in the aerospace and nuclear sectors where the resulting weld quality is a major concern and must be assured by costly, time-consuming, non-destructive testing (NDT) procedures. One possible approach is the analysis of a measurand correlated with the formation of defects, from which a control action is derived. Among others, the thermographic analysis of the weld pool and the heat-aff...

  1. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  2. Application of Controlling Electro-static Discharge to Electronic Product Manufacture%防静电技术在电子产品生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋坤

    2011-01-01

    阐述了防静电技术及产品在电子产品设计和生产过程中的应用,系统分析了静电对电子产品所造成的危害;重点说明了防静电的三个基本要素,介绍了消除静电的实际有效方法.对电子产品的质量和可靠性的提高,提出了系统的解决方案;介绍了直流自反馈离子平衡技术和防静电接地系统实时监控技术在实践中的应用和实践.%Expound the application of controlling Electro-static Discharge technologies and products to electronic product design and manufacture. Analyze the harm caused by Electro-static Discharge for electronic product. Explain the basic three elements of controlling Electro-static Discharge. Introduce the effective methods of controlling Electro-static Discharge. Put forward the solutions to improve quality and reliability of electronic product. Also introduce the applications of self-feedback AC ion air blower balance technology and real-time monitor technology of Electro-static Discharge protection grounding system in practice.

  3. Power electronic modules design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, William W

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionSelection ProcedureMaterialsInsulating Substrate and MetallizationBase PlateBonding MaterialPower Interconnection and TerminalEncapsulantPlastic Case and Cover Manufacturing of Power IGBT ModulesManufacturing Process Process Control/Long-Term ReliabilityManufacturing FacilitiesManufacturing Flow Charts DesignThermal ManagementCircuit PartitioningDesign Guidelines and ConsiderationsThermal Results of Different Samples

  4. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry from a hard rockterrain – A case study from Mettur taluk, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Srinivasamoorthy; S Chidambaram; M V Prasanna; John Peter; P Anandhan

    2008-02-01

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To identify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 groundwater samples for two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. The groundwater chemistry is dominated by silicate weathering and (Na + Mg) and (Cl + SO4) accounts of about 90% of cations and anions. The contribution of (Ca +Mg) and (Na + K) to total cations and HCO3 indicates the domination of silicate weathering as major sources for cations. The plot for Na to Cl indicates higher Cl in both seasons, derived from Anthropogenic (human) sources from fertilizer, road salt, human and animal waste, and industrial applications, minor representations of Na also indicates source from weathering of silicate-bearing minerals. The plot for Na/Cl to EC indicates Na released from silicate weathering process which is also supported by higher HCO3 values in both the seasons. Ion exchange process is also activated in the study area which is indicated by shifting to right in plot for Ca +Mg to SO4 + HCO3. The plot of Na − Cl to Ca +Mg − HCO3 − SO4 confirms that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations in groundwater are derived from aquifer materials. Thermodynamic plot indicates that groundwater is in equilibrium with kaolinite, muscovite and chlorite minerals. Saturation index of silicate and carbonate minerals indicate oversaturation during pre-monsoon and undersaturation during post-monsoon, conforming dissolution and dilution process. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange along with influence of Cl ions from anthropogenic impact.

  5. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the mycotoxin research group are discussed. This includes the isolation and structure determination of mycotoxins, plant products, the biosyntheris of mycotoxins, the synthesis and characteristics of steroids, the synthesis and mechanistic aspects of heterocyclic chemistry and the functionality of steroids over long distances. Nmr spectra and mass spectroscopy are some of the techniques used

  6. Design and manufacture of an ultrasonic inspection device for the friction welds in reactor vessel control rod drive mechanism housings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control rod drive mechanism housings of a PWR reactor vessel consist of a stainless steel flange and a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy tube, assembled by friction welding. The properties of the interface and the nature of the adjacent materials require the development of a specific ultrasonic inspection technique which could be easily automated, considering the number of parts involved (77 parts per 1300 MWe reactor vessel). The part has the general shape of a tube (inside diameter: 70 mm, outside diameter: 103 mm). The transition between both forged parent materials (stainless steel/Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) is obtained by a very thin interface, whose general orientation is normal to the tube centerline. The heat affected zone has generally a coarser and more irregular structure than that observed in the parent materials. The design and development were carried out using a prototype machine on test-pieces representative of a control rod drive mechanism housing, and containing the following artificial reflectors: notches obtained by electro-discharge machining on the inside and outside surfaces, on each side of the interface; planar artificial defects, parallel to the interface. These defects, obtained from 2 flat bottomed holes, drilled into the mock-up constituent parts, were conveyed to the interface during friction welding

  7. Characterization and stability of gold nanoparticles depending on their surface chemistry: Contribution of capillary zone electrophoresis to a quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Arnaud; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Clarot, Igor

    2016-08-26

    Four kinds of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) quite similar in terms of gold core size (ca. 5nm) and shape (spherical) but differing by their surface chemistry (either negatively, or positively charged, or neutral) were synthesized. They were analyzed using both the classical physicochemical approach (spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering coupled or not to electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy) and capillary zone electrophoresis equipped with photodiode array detection. The results obtained by both methodologies (related to Surface Plasmon Band-maximal absorbance wavelength-, and zeta potential and electrophoretic mobilities) were well correlated. Moreover, taking advantage of the separation method, the sample heterogeneity was evaluated and an impurity profile was extracted. This allowed setting some specifications which were then applied on the one hand to a batch-to-batch survey to declare NP as conform or not after production and on the other hand to a stability study. PMID:27435685

  8. Strong Coupling between Nanofluidic Transport and Interfacial Chemistry: How Defect Reactivity Controls Liquid-Solid Friction through Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Laurent; Tocci, Gabriele; Merabia, Samy; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-04-01

    Defects are inevitably present in nanofluidic systems, yet the role they play in nanofluidic transport remains poorly understood. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the friction of liquid water on defective graphene and boron nitride sheets. We show that water dissociates at certain defects and that these "reactive" defects lead to much larger friction than the "nonreactive" defects at which water molecules remain intact. Furthermore, we find that friction is extremely sensitive to the chemical structure of reactive defects and to the number of hydrogen bonds they can partake in with the liquid. Finally, we discuss how the insight obtained from AIMD can be used to quantify the influence of defects on friction in nanofluidic devices for water treatment and sustainable energy harvesting. Overall, we provide new insight into the role of interfacial chemistry on nanofluidic transport in real, defective systems. PMID:27012818

  9. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving ma...

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  11. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation. PMID:19728494

  12. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239)

  13. A study on manufacturing and quality control technology of DUPIC fuel -A study on the direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the first year of the experimental research for the manufacturing and irradiation of prototypic DUPIC nuclear fuel, UO2 pellets made from the natural uranium dioxide were used for the study of OREOX (oxidation/reduction of oxide fuel) process. The reference oxidation and reduction processes were established from the evaluation of the characteristics of produced powders and pellets. The manufacturing process and the layout of the manufacturing equipment were established in consideration of the high radioactivity of DUPIC process and the function of hot cells. The properties of materials to be used for DUPIC manufacturing were evaluated, and the punching machine for decladding was also developed. (Author)

  14. Design of Embedded Intelligent Terminal for Quality Control in Discrete Manufacturing%嵌入式智能工序质量控制终端设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    演鑫; 蔡晋辉; 蒋庆; 姚燕

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limitation of single device access to the production and quality monitoring system in traditional discrete manufacturing industry,a novel terminal of quality control in working procedure was developed.S3C2440 was used as the core processor and the embedded WINCE was used as the operation system,and with the barcode reader,wireless communication modular and IO expansion modular,the terminal could be used to add many functions which include automatic identification,remote communication,quality chain control,process ability analysis and so on.With the terminal of quality control in working procedure,to the original single equipment of which with not or less change to the hardware and software,the equipment can be reliably integrated into the production quality control system.%为了改进传统离散制造业单机设备接入生产质量监控系统的局限性,研制了一种新型的基于物联网相关技术的工序质量控制终端.该终端以S3C2440为核心处理器,采用嵌入式WINCE操作系统,搭载条码阅读器、无线通信模块、IO扩展模块等,实现了产品自动识别、生产数据远传、质量连锁控制、工序能力分析等功能.通过工序质量控制终端,在少动或不动原有自动化单机设备软硬件的情况下,将设备可靠地融入生产质量监控系统.

  15. The effect of statistical analytical measurement variations on the plant control parameters and production costs in cement manufacturing – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Love

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials used in cement manufacturing normally have varying chemical compositions and require regular analyses for plant control purposes. This is achieved by using several analytical instruments, such as XRF and ICP. The values obtained for the major elements Ca, Si, Fe and Al, are used to calculate the plant control parameters Lime Saturation Factor (LSF, Silica Ratio (SR and Alumina Modulus (AM. These plant control parameters are used to regulate the mixing and blending of various raw meal components and to operate the plant optimally. Any errors and large fluctuations in these plant parameters not only influence the quality of the cement produced, but also have a major effect on the cost of production of cement clinker through their influence on the energy consumption and residence time in the kiln. This paper looks at the role that statistical variances in the analytical measurements of the major elements Ca, Si, Fe and Al can have on the ultimate LSF, SR and AM values calculated from these measurements. The influence of too high and too low values of the LSF, SR and AM on clinker quality and energy consumption is discussed, and acceptable variances in these three parameters, based on plant experiences, are established. The effect of variances in the LSF, SR and AM parameters on the production costs is then analysed, and it is shown that variations of as large as 30% and as little as 5% can potentially occur. The LSF calculation incorporates most chemical elements and therefore is prone to the largest number of variations due to statistical variances in the analytical determinations of the chemical elements. Despite all these variations in LSF values they actually produced the smallest influence on the production cost of the clinker. It is therefore concluded that the LSF value is the most practical parameter for plant control purposes.

  16. Additive manufacturing : A new option in manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nestrell, Annéa

    2015-01-01

    GE Healthcare wants to investigate whether additive manufacturing would be an alternative method in their workshops in the Umeå plant. Additive manufacturing is called 3D printing in everyday language and manufactures details by building them up layer by layer in an automated machine. The purpose of this work is therefore to investigate how mature additive manufacturing methods are and how they could be used at GE. The work has been divided into three parts. The first section investigates ho...

  17. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  18. Peroxy radical chemistry and the control of ozone photochemistry at Mace Head, Ireland during the summer of 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radical (HO2+ΣRO2 measurements, using the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA technique at the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment (NAMBLEX at Mace Head in summer 2002, are presented and put into the context of marine, boundary-layer chemistry. A suite of other chemical parameters (NO, NO2, NO3, CO, CH4, O3, VOCs, peroxides, photolysis frequencies and meteorological measurements, are used to present a detailed analysis of the role of peroxy radicals in tropospheric oxidation cycles and ozone formation. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 10 to 40 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. Using a box model based on the master chemical mechanism the average model measurement agreement was 2.5 across the campaign. The addition of halogen oxides to the model increases the level of model/measurement agreement, apparently by respeciation of HOx. A good correlation exists between j(HCHO.[HCHO] and the peroxy radicals indicative of the importance of HCHO in the remote atmosphere as a HOx source, particularly in the afternoon. The peroxy radicals showed a strong dependence on [NO2] with a break point at 0.1 ppbv, where the radicals increased concomitantly with the reactive VOC loading, this is a lower value than seen at representative urban campaigns. The HO2/(HO2+ΣRO2 ratios are dependent on [NOx] ranging between 0.2 and 0.6, with the ratio increasing linearly with NOx. Significant night-time levels of peroxy radicals were measured up to 25 pptv. The contribution of ozone-alkenes and NO3-alkene chemistry to night-time peroxy radical production was shown to be on average 59 and 41%. The campaign mean net ozone production rate was 0.11±0.3 ppbv h-1. The ozone production rate was strongly dependent on [NO] having linear sensitivity (dln(P(O3/dln(NO=1.0. The results imply that the N(O3 (the in-situ net photochemical rate of ozone

  19. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  20. 搅拌摩擦点焊机器人无纸化制造控制平台%Paperless Manufacturing Control Platform for Friction Stir Spot Welding Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 乔凤斌; 陈正宇

    2013-01-01

      针对搅拌摩擦点焊机器人无纸化制造控制平台的实现方法进行了研究。采用STEP中性文件几何信息作为设计基础,根据对点焊机器人运动分析,利用OCC搭建了搅拌摩擦点焊机器人无纸化加工平台,以XML文件作为数控加工程序、监控与控制的数据载体。阐明了单个搅拌摩擦点焊机器人加工控制方法。同时,应用面向服务的网络控制框架方法,对搅拌摩擦点焊机器人组的远程控制与监控进行了研究与设计,使得搅拌摩擦点焊机器人焊接加工设计与控制过程更加简单。%The paperless manufacturing control platform realization method of robotic friction stir spot welding equipment has been aimed at and studied. By using geometrical information of STEP neutral file as a design basis,and according to movement analysis of the spot welding robot,the OCC was used to build a friction stir spot welding robot platform for paperless processing. Also the Extensible Markup Language (XML)file was used as the Computer Numerical Control (CNC)machining process monitoring and control data carrier. The single process control method of robotic friction stir spot welding equipment was illustrated. At the same time,by applying the method of serviceoriented network control framework,the remote control and monitor of friction stir spot welding robotic group was also studied and designed. It has made even simple of the design and control process of welding by the friction stir spot welding robot.

  1. Statistical and Computational Techniques in Manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in developing statistical and computational techniques for applied manufacturing engineering has been increased. Today, due to the great complexity of manufacturing engineering and the high number of parameters used, conventional approaches are no longer sufficient. Therefore, in manufacturing, statistical and computational techniques have achieved several applications, namely, modelling and simulation manufacturing processes, optimization manufacturing parameters, monitoring and control, computer-aided process planning, etc. The present book aims to provide recent information on statistical and computational techniques applied in manufacturing engineering. The content is suitable for final undergraduate engineering courses or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. This book serves as a useful reference for academics, statistical and computational science researchers, mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and professionals in industries related to manu...

  2. Organometallic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkin, James K.; M.L.H. Green; Dr. M. L. H. Green

    1982-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic chemistry is a rapidly expanding field, which has an important relationship to industrial problems of petrochemical catalysis. This thesis describes studies of fundamental organometallic reaction processes, such as C-H and C-C bond formation and cleavage, and investigations of the structure and bonding of organometallic compounds. A number of techniques were used to pursue these studies, including synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and semi-em...

  3. Interstellar chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species o...

  4. Bias-controlled selective excitation of vibrational modes in molecular junctions: a route towards mode-selective chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Roie; Härtle, Rainer; Thoss, Michael; Peskin, Uri

    2011-08-28

    We show that individual vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions with asymmetric molecule-lead coupling can be selectively excited by applying an external bias voltage. Thereby, a non-statistical distribution of vibrational energy can be generated, that is, a mode with a higher frequency can be stronger excited than a mode with a lower frequency. This is of particular interest in the context of mode-selective chemistry, where one aims to break specific (not necessarily the weakest) chemical bond in a molecule. Such mode-selective vibrational excitation is demonstrated for two generic model systems representing asymmetric molecular junctions and/or scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. To this end, we employ two complementary theoretical approaches, a nonequilibrium Green's function approach and a master equation approach. The comparison of both methods reveals good agreement in describing resonant electron transport through a single-molecule contact, where differences between the approaches highlight the role of non-resonant transport processes, in particular co-tunneling and off-resonant electron-hole pair creation processes.

  5. Electrochemical evidence that pyranopterin redox chemistry controls the catalysis of YedY, a mononuclear Mo enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Hope; Simonov, Alexandr N; Kierzek, Michelina; Rothery, Richard A; Weiner, Joel H; Bond, Alan M; Parkin, Alison

    2015-11-24

    A long-standing contradiction in the field of mononuclear Mo enzyme research is that small-molecule chemistry on active-site mimic compounds predicts ligand participation in the electron transfer reactions, but biochemical measurements only suggest metal-centered catalytic electron transfer. With the simultaneous measurement of substrate turnover and reversible electron transfer that is provided by Fourier-transformed alternating-current voltammetry, we show that Escherichia coli YedY is a mononuclear Mo enzyme that reconciles this conflict. In YedY, addition of three protons and three electrons to the well-characterized "as-isolated" Mo(V) oxidation state is needed to initiate the catalytic reduction of either dimethyl sulfoxide or trimethylamine N-oxide. Based on comparison with earlier studies and our UV-vis redox titration data, we assign the reversible one-proton and one-electron reduction process centered around +174 mV vs. standard hydrogen electrode at pH 7 to a Mo(V)-to-Mo(IV) conversion but ascribe the two-proton and two-electron transition occurring at negative potential to the organic pyranopterin ligand system. We predict that a dihydro-to-tetrahydro transition is needed to generate the catalytically active state of the enzyme. This is a previously unidentified mechanism, suggested by the structural simplicity of YedY, a protein in which Mo is the only metal site.

  6. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  7. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  8. Guideline for Evaluating Analytical Chemistry Capabilities and Recommending Upgraded Methods and Instrumentation for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability at Russian Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical chemistry plays a key role in nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). A large part of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) inventories and virtually all of the highly attractive SNM inventories are based on sampling bulk materials followed by destructive assay (DA) of these materials. These measurements support MC and A in process control, physical inventory verification, evaluation of the effects of process changes, detecting and resolving shipper-receiver differences, and the resolution of inspector-facility differences. When evaluating these important functions, US Project Teams need to carefully assess the existing Russian analytical chemistry capabilities and to specify appropriate upgrades where needed. This evaluation and the specification of upgrades have proven difficult, in part, because of the highly specialized and technical nature of DA and because of the wide variety of methods and applications. In addition, providing a DA capability to a Russian analytical laboratory requires much more than simply supplying new instrumentation. Experience has shown that DA upgrades at Russian analytical facilities require more support equipment than was originally anticipated by US Teams. The purpose of this guidance document is to: (1) recommend criteria for US Projects Teams to use in their evaluation of Russian DA capabilities; (2) provide a basis for selection of appropriate upgrades where capabilities are inadequate to support MC and A goals; and (3) to provide a list of Da methods suitable for MC and A with the following information: performance and applications information, strengths and limitations, and references and information on cost. Criteria for evaluating existing capabilities and determining appropriate upgrades are difficult to define. However, this is the basic information needed by the US project Teams. Section IV addresses these criteria

  9. Guideline for Evaluating Analytical Chemistry Capabilities and Recommending Upgraded Methods and Instrumentation for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability at Russian Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, G.P.

    1999-10-21

    Analytical chemistry plays a key role in nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). A large part of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) inventories and virtually all of the highly attractive SNM inventories are based on sampling bulk materials followed by destructive assay (DA) of these materials. These measurements support MC and A in process control, physical inventory verification, evaluation of the effects of process changes, detecting and resolving shipper-receiver differences, and the resolution of inspector-facility differences. When evaluating these important functions, US Project Teams need to carefully assess the existing Russian analytical chemistry capabilities and to specify appropriate upgrades where needed. This evaluation and the specification of upgrades have proven difficult, in part, because of the highly specialized and technical nature of DA and because of the wide variety of methods and applications. In addition, providing a DA capability to a Russian analytical laboratory requires much more than simply supplying new instrumentation. Experience has shown that DA upgrades at Russian analytical facilities require more support equipment than was originally anticipated by US Teams. The purpose of this guidance document is to: (1) recommend criteria for US Projects Teams to use in their evaluation of Russian DA capabilities; (2) provide a basis for selection of appropriate upgrades where capabilities are inadequate to support MC and A goals; and (3) to provide a list of Da methods suitable for MC and A with the following information: performance and applications information, strengths and limitations, and references and information on cost. Criteria for evaluating existing capabilities and determining appropriate upgrades are difficult to define. However, this is the basic information needed by the US project Teams. Section IV addresses these criteria.

  10. Comparison of control of Listeria by nitric oxide redox chemistry from murine macrophages and NO donors: insights into listeriocidal activity of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, R; Pacelli, R; Espey, M G; Miranda, K M; Friedman, N; Kim, S M; Cox, G; Mitchell, J B; Wink, D A; Russo, A

    2001-02-01

    The physiological function of nitric oxide (NO) in the defense against pathogens is multifaceted. The exact chemistry by which NO combats intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes is yet unresolved. We examined the effects of NO exposure, either delivered by NO donors or generated in situ within ANA-1 murine macrophages, on L. monocytogenes growth. Production of NO by the two NONOate compounds PAPA/NO (NH2(C3H6)(N[N(O)NO]C3H7) and DEA/NO (Na(C2H5)2N[N(O)NO]) resulted in L. monocytogenes cytostasis with minimal cytotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species generated from xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine were neither bactericidal nor cytostatic and did not alter the action of NO. L. monocytogenes growth was also suppressed upon internalization into ANA-1 murine macrophages primed with interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) + tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha or INF-gamma + lipid polysaccharide (LPS). Growth suppression correlated with nitrite formation and nitrosation of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene elicited by stimulated murine macrophages. This nitrosative chemistry was not dependent upon nor mediated by interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but resulted solely from NO and intermediates related to nitrosative stress. The role of nitrosation in controlling L. monocytogenes was further examined by monitoring the effects of exposure to NO on an important virulence factor, Listeriolysin O, which was inhibited under nitrosative conditions. These results suggest that nitrosative stress mediated by macrophages is an important component of the immunological arsenal in controlling L. monocytogenes infections. PMID:11165873

  11. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  12. Digital manufacturing-the development direction of the manufacturing technology in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG You-lun; YIN Zhou-ping

    2006-01-01

    After introducing the concepts of digital manufacturing technology,the discipline framework of digital manufacturing is presented in the paper by discussing its basic concept,theory foundation,key technology and scientific problems in detail.As the core of the advanced manufacturing technology,digital manufacturing is gradually becoming the main manufacturing technology of the twenty-first century.Firstly,the main features of digital manufacturing are indicated and its key supporting technologies are investigated by grouping them into four levels related to product development, numerical control, production management,and enterprise collaboration,respectively.Moreover,the existing problems in the research on the multi-discipline theory foundation of digital manufacturing such as manufacturing informatics, computational manufacturing,and manufacturing intelligence,are also indicated.Then,the core scientific problems of digital manufacturing are discussed in depth,which focuses on digitization of manufacturing information,modeling of manufacturing constraints,high-speed and high-precision numerical control theory,and Internet-based collaboration and integration.Lastly, the development trends and application perspectives of digital manufacturing are concluded.

  13. Evaluation of the applicability of amines as feed-water control reagents in terms of equilibrium water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All Volatile Treatment (AVT), using ammonia and hydrazine, has been employed in Japan to control the pH of PWR secondary water. However, this treatment may become less effective at high temperatures. In recent years, new methods for controlling pH values have been studied overseas. One such method in high-pH control, which employs high-concentration ammonia solution. Other methods involve treatment with organic chemicals such as ethanolamine (ETA) and dimethylamine (DMA). It is important to evaluate the pH control effects of these new treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of these treatments on pH control and on mitigation of iron and copper oxides transportation into a PWR secondary water system. The main results are as follows: 1. High-pH control treatment can decrease the transportation of iron oxide in both feed-water and drainage-water systems. However, it is necessary to exclude copper alloys and to devise methods for decreasing the condensate demineralizer load. 2. ETA treatment appears to be more effective in mitigating the transportation of iron and copper oxides than the conventional AVT treatment. ETA treatment is the most effective method for pH control, particularly in drainage-water system. (author)

  14. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  15. 77 FR 16158 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs; Revision of Certain Labeling... Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the current good manufacturing... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 29, 1997 (62 FR 40489) (the...

  16. Design, Manufacturing and Test of a High Lift Secondary Flight Control Surface with Shape Memory Alloy Post-Buckled Precompressed Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sinn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of morphing components on aerospace structures can greatly increase the versatility of an aircraft. This paper presents the design, manufacturing and testing of a new kind of adaptive airfoil with actuation through Shape Memory Alloys (SMA. The developed adaptive flap system makes use of a novel actuator that employs SMA wires in an antagonistic arrangement with a Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP mechanism. SMA actuators are usually used in an antagonistic arrangement or are arranged to move structural components with linearly varying resistance levels similar to springs. Unfortunately, most of this strain energy is spent doing work on the passive structure rather than performing the task at hand, like moving a flight control surface or resisting air loads. A solution is the use of Post-Buckled Precompressed (PBP actuators that are arranged so that the active elements do not waste energy fighting passive structural stiffnesses. One major problem with PBP actuators is that the low tensile strength of the piezoelectric elements can often result in tensile failure of the actuator on the convex face. A solution to this problem is the use of SMA as actuator material due to their tolerance of tensile stresses. The power consumption to hold deflections is reduced by approximately 20% with the Post-Buckled Precompressed mechanism. Conventional SMAs are essentially non-starters for many classes of aircraft due to the requirement of holding the flight control surfaces in a given position for extremely long times to trim the vehicle. For the reason that PBP actuators balance out air and structural loads, the steady-state load on the SMAs is essentially negligible, when properly designed. Simulations and experiments showed that the SMAPBP actuator shows tip rotations on the order of 45°, which is nearly triple the levels achieved by piezoelectric PBP actuators. The developed SMAPBP actuator was integrated in a NACA0012 airfoil with a flexible skin

  17. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  18. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Crosslinked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Controlling Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved or in different phases of clinical trials or under rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger the various components of the immune system, unintentionally, and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers to predict the effect of biotherapeutics on modulating the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, and were found recently to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse and experiments are usually conducted using different assays and under specific conditions, making direct comparisons nearly impossible and, thus, tailoring properties of nanomaterials based on the available data is challenging. In this account, the effects of chemical structure, crosslinking, degradability, morphology, concentration and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with focus being given on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized, uniquely, to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple and easy way to compare the immunotoxicity of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate-well with published data. Based on the investigated polymeric systems in this study, valuable information has been collected that aids in the

  19. Regulation and control of microbial growth in bio-manufacturing processes%生物制造过程中的微生物生长与调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯慧; 李春

    2016-01-01

    提高生物基产品的产量和生产效率是生物制造发展的目标。由于微生物具有生长快、营养要求简单和基因操作简便等特点,常用作生物基产品制造过程中的底盘宿主,因此,产品制造过程中微生物细胞的生长与调控尤为重要,其生长调控会直接或间接地影响生物基产品的合成效率。微生物的生长不仅受外界环境如温度、溶氧量、pH等的影响,而且还受微生物本身的生长与调控机制如细胞分裂调控、必需基因表达调控、程序化死亡等的影响。本文综述了利用分子生物学、合成生物学和系统生物学等方法对微生物细胞生长和分裂过程进行分子调控,以提高生物反应速率和目标产物的产量,为化工、食品、生物医药以及环境保护等领域构建高效的生物制造工艺提供新思路。%Improving the yield and production efficiency of bio-based products is the goal of bio-manufacturing and bio-industry. Because of the advantages of fast growth, simple nutritional requirement and convenient gene manipulation,microorganisms are often used as chassis of bio-based products. Thus,the growth regulation and control of microbial cells are particularly important in the process of bio-manufacturing,as the microbial cell growth will directly or indirectly affect the synthesis efficiency of bio-based products. The growth of microorganisms can be affected not only by external conditions such as temperature,dissolved oxygen and pH,but also by their own cell growth mechanism. The cell growth mechanism can be referred to cell division regulation,essential genes expression regulation and programmed cell death. This paper reviewed the molecular regulation of microbial cell growth and division through molecular biology,synthetic biology and systematic biology methods to improve the biological reaction rate and the yield of target products,which provides new insights for the development of

  20. Using Art-Based Chemistry Activities to Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danipog, Dennis L.; Ferido, Marlene B.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of art-based chemistry activities (ABCA) on high school students' conceptual understanding in chemistry. The study used the pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 64 third-year high school students from two different chemistry classes participated in the study. One class was exposed to art-based…

  1. Intra-field variability in microbial community associated with phase-separation-controlled hydrothermal fluid chemistry in the Mariner field, the southern Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Lupton, J.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Hirayama, H.; Horikoshi, K.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Suzuki, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A newly discovered hydrothermal field called the Mariner field at the northernmost central Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Lau Basin was explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The hydrothermal fluid (max. 365 u^C) emitting from the most vigorous vent site (Snow chimney) was boiling just beneath the seafloor at a water depth of 1908 m and two end-members of hydrothermal fluid were identified. Mineral and fluid chemistry of typical brine-rich (Snow chimney and Monk chimney) and vapor-rich (Crab Restaurant chimney) hydrothermal fluids and the host chimney structures were analyzed. Microbial community structures in three chimney structures were also investigated by culture-dependent and - independent analyses. The 16S rRNA gene clone analysis revealed that both bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities at the chimney surface zones were different among three chimneys. The bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene communities of the Snow chimney surface were very similar with those in the dead chimneys, suggesting concurrence of metal sulfide deposition at the inside and weathering at the surface potentially due to its large structure and size. Cultivation analysis demonstrated the significant variation in culturability of various microbial components, particularly of thermophilic H2- and/or S-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs such as the genera Aquifex and Persephonella, among the chimney sites. The culturability of these chemolithoautotrophs might be associated with the input of gaseous energy and carbon sources like H2S, H2 and CH4 from the hydrothermal fluids, and might be affected by phase-separation- controlled fluid chemistry. In addition, inter-fields comparison of microbial community structures determined by cultivation analysis revealed novel characteristics of the microbial communities in the Mariner field of the Lau Basin among the global deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  2. Chemistry in the Time of the Pharaohs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Egyptians were known in the ancient world as experts in many applied chemistry fields such as metallurgy, wine and beer making, glass making, paper manufacture, paint pigments, dyes, cosmetics, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. They made significant developments in the extraction of metals from their ores, especially copper and gold. The…

  3. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...

  4. 21 CFR 1303.25 - Increase in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.25 Increase in individual manufacturing quotas. (a) Any registrant who holds an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance listed in Schedule...

  5. 21 CFR 1303.21 - Individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual manufacturing quotas. 1303.21 Section... Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.21 Individual manufacturing quotas. (a) The Administrator shall, on or before July 1... controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II, and who applies for a manufacturing quota, an...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.26 - Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. 1303... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1303.26 Reduction in individual manufacturing quotas. The Administrator may at any time reduce an individual manufacturing quota for a basic class of controlled substance...

  7. Integrated flexible manufacturing program for manufacturing automation and rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. L.; Brown, C. W.; King, M. S.; Simons, W. R.; Zimmerman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of Allied Signal Inc., as part of the Integrated Flexible Manufacturing Program (IFMP), is developing an integrated manufacturing environment. Several systems are being developed to produce standards and automation tools for specific activities within the manufacturing environment. The Advanced Manufacturing Development System (AMDS) is concentrating on information standards (STEP) and product data transfer; the Expert Cut Planner system (XCUT) is concentrating on machining operation process planning standards and automation capabilities; the Advanced Numerical Control system (ANC) is concentrating on NC data preparation standards and NC data generation tools; the Inspection Planning and Programming Expert system (IPPEX) is concentrating on inspection process planning, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection standards and CMM part program generation tools; and the Intelligent Scheduling and Planning System (ISAPS) is concentrating on planning and scheduling tools for a flexible manufacturing system environment. All of these projects are working together to address information exchange, standardization, and information sharing to support rapid prototyping in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) environment.

  8. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  9. Application Cases and Integration of Additive Manufacturing Processes into Conventional Process Chains by the Example of Tool Repair Using the Con-trolled Metal Build-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis an overview of the most common Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes and a valid classification scheme outside of the classification of conventional ma-chining processes is presented. Advantages and shortcomings of these processes are briefly explained and application cases from the industry are given. Transitioning from the shortcom-ings of current Additive Manufacturing processes the so called “hybrid additive subtractive” processes are introduced.The concep...

  10. Development of a qualification procedure, and quality assurance and quality control concepts and procedures for repairing and reproducing parts with additive manufacturing in MRO processes

    OpenAIRE

    Uriondo Del Pozo, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This MSc by Research is focused mainly on Quality Assurance (QA) and Qualification Procedures for metal parts manufactured using new Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques in the aerospace industry. The main aim is to understand the state of the art of these technologies and the strong regulatory framework of this industry in order to develop correct QA/QC procedures in accordance with the certification process for the technology and spare parts. These include all the testin...

  11. Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Fluid Chemistry at Ultrafast Spreading Rates: Control by Phase Separation and Water-Rock Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, K. M.; Von Damm, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    Phase separation, overprinted by water-rock equilibration are the major controls on the chemical composition of hydrothermal vent fluids sampled from two morphologically distinct areas (18\\deg 24-26'S and 21\\deg 24-27'S) along the ultrafast spreading ( ~15 cm/yr full rate) Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) during the 1998 SouEPR Cruise. This conclusion, along with the growing evidence that phase separation and water-rock equilibrium also control the composition of previously sampled hydrothermal vent fluids from slower-spreading ridges, indicates that to a first approximation neither spreading rate nor ridge morphology can be directly related to hydrothermal fluid compositions. Hydrothermal fluids from ultrafast spreading centers therefore do not form a unique subset in the global range of known chemical compositions. Previous geophysical surveys and submersible observations suggested that the hydrothermal system located at 21\\deg 24-27'S, the SouEPR Area, was dominated by tectonic activity (Renard et al., 1985; Tufar, 1995; Krasnov et al., 1997). Submersible observations and hydrothermal vent fluid chemistry indicated that the N. Hump Area, experienced volcanic activity shortly before the 1993 NADUR Cruise (Charlou et al., 1996). The N. Hump Area vent fluids sampled during the 1998 SouEPR Cruise displayed a relatively uniform chlorinity (616-670 mmol/kg Cl) that is greater than seawater. The Si and Cl data from the N. Hump Area vent fluids suggest reaction zone conditions up to ~360 bars (~1 km below the seafloor) and ~430\\deg C, indicating supercritical phase separation. The unusually large chlorinity variation (113-803 mmol/kg Cl) in the SouEPR Area hydrothermal vent fluids covers almost the entire range of sampled mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vent fluid chemistries worldwide (30.5-1245 mmol/kg Cl). The Si and Cl data from the SouEPR Area vent fluids suggest reaction zone conditions up to ~410 bars ( ~1.3 km below the seafloor) and ~450\\deg C. The

  12. Research and Realization on Control Module of Laser Rapid Manufacturing System%激光快速成形系统控制模块的研发与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙妍; 张凯

    2013-01-01

    Laser direct rapid manufacturing is a state-of-the-art technology which correlates the rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) and laser processing During this process,driven by computer 3D model,materia/is deposited by scanning the laser across a surface while injecting metallic powders into the molten pool at the laser focus.The metal part is then fabricated layer by layer without any tool or mold.One of the components of laser rapid manufacturing system,the computer control module plays an important role in causing the manufacturing system automatic and intelligent.The control module can be divided into hardware and software components.The hardware structure mainly includes industrial computer,motors,and motion control card,which build the overall framework,and are driven by software structure.The software structure,namely the system application program with GUI,can instruct every module of manufacturing system to finish the motion cooperatively,adjust the processing parameters freely,and fulfill the manufacturing technology automatically and intelligently.The hardware and software structures work in harmony with each other,thus flexibly controlling the manufacturing system.%激光直接快速成形是一项融合了快速原型和激光加工的先进制造技术.该技术能在无需工模具的情况下,在计算机三维实体模型的驱动下利用激光熔覆原理逐层堆积加工金属零件.在激光快速成形系统的组成模块中,计算机控制模块在实现系统智能化和自动化方面起着至关重要的作用.该模块可以分为硬件和软件两大组成部分.硬件结构主要由工控计算机、电机和运动控制卡组成,软件结构则为具有图形用户界面的系统应用程序.硬件和软件组成部分协调工作,由此灵活控制整个激光成形系统.

  13. Preparation and analysis of amorphous carbon films deposited from (C{sub 6}H{sub 12})/Ar/He chemistry for application as the dry etch hard mask in the semiconductor manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungmoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jaihyung; Choi, Jongsik [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Samseok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Yeonhong; Lee, Hyeondeok [TC Technology Team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeounggi-Do, 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Dongjin, E-mail: dbyun@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous carbon layers (ACL) were deposited on Si (100) wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by using 1-hexene (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}) as a carbon source for dry etch hard mask of semiconductor devices manufacturing process. The deposition characteristics and film properties were investigated by means of ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and stress analysis. Hardness, Young's modulus, and surface roughness of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were investigated by using nano-indentation and AFM. The deposition rate was decreased from 5050 A/min to 2160 A/min, and dry etch rate was decreased from 2090 A/min to 1770 A/min, and extinction coefficient was increased from 0.1 to 0.5. Raman analysis revealed a higher shift of the G-peak and a lower shift of the D-peak and the increase of I(D)/I(G) ratio as the deposition temperature was increased from 350 deg. C to 550 deg. C. XPS results of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C revealed a carbon 1s binding energy of 284.4 eV. The compressive film stress was decreased from 2.95 GPa to 1.28 GPa with increasing deposition temperature. The hardness and Young's modulus of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C were 5.8 GPa and 48.7 GPa respectively. The surface roughness RMS of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C was 2.24 A, and that after cleaning in diluted HF solution (H{sub 2}O:HF = 200:1), SC1 (NH{sub 4}OH:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:H{sub 2}O = 1:4:20) solution, and sulfuric acid solution (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} = 6:1) was 2.28 A, 2.30 A and 7.34 A, respectively. The removal amount of ACL deposited at 550 deg. C in diluted HF solution, SC1 solution and sulfuric acid solution was 6 A, 36 A and 110 A, respectively. These results demonstrated the viability of ACL deposited by PECVD from C{sub 6}H{sub 12} at 550 deg. C for application as the dry etch hard mask in fabrication of semiconductor devices.

  14. BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines: 1993 Revision, Normal and hydrogen water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of water chemistry control is to extend the operating life of the reactor and rector coolant system, balance-of-plant components, and turbines while simultaneously controlling costs to safeguard the continued economic viability of the nuclear power generation investment. To further this goal an industry committee of chemistry personnel prepared guidelines to identify the benefits, risks, and costs associated with water chemistry in BWRs and to provide a template for an optimized water chemistry program. This document replaces the BWR Normal Water Chemistry Guidelines - 1986 Revision and the BWR Hydrogen Water Chemistry Guidelines -- 1987 Revision. It expands on the previous guidelines documents by covering the economic implications of BWR water chemistry control

  15. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  16. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  17. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    Addressing three development trends of manufacturing, this thesis aims to explore: (1) facing challenges on manufacturing (globalisation, knowledge-based manufacturing and servitisation of manufacturing), what kinds of roles does manufacturing play within industrial companies; (2) along...... with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  18. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  19. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  20. Gated supramolecular chemistry in hybrid mesoporous silica nanoarchitectures: controlled delivery and molecular transport in response to chemical, physical and biological stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Sebastián; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-04-11

    This review presents and discusses recent advances in the emerging field of "gated nanochemistry", outlining the substantial progress made so far. The development of hybrid mesoporous silica with complex tailored pore nanoarchitectures bridges the gap between molecular materials and the requirements of nanodevices for controlled nanoscale chemistry. In the last decade, membranes, particles and thin film porous architectures have been designed, synthesized and selectively modified by molecular, polymeric, organometallic or biologically active groups. The exquisite manipulation of mesopore morphology and interconnection combined with molecular or supramolecular functionalities, and the intrinsic biological compatibility of silica have made these materials a potential platform for selective sensing and drug delivery. The wide répertoire of these hard-soft architectures permit us to envisage sophisticated intelligent nano-systems that respond to a variety of external stimuli such as pH, redox potential, molecule concentration, temperature, or light. Transduction of these stimuli into a predefined response implies exploiting spatial and physico-chemical effects such as charge distribution, steric constraints, equilibria displacements, or local changes in ionic concentration, just to name a few examples. As expected, this "positional mesochemistry" can be only attained through the concerted control of assembly, surface tailoring and, confinement conditions, thus giving birth to a new class of stimuli-responsive materials with modulable transport properties. As a guiding framework the emerging field of "gated nanochemistry" offers methodologies and tools for building up stimuli-sensitive porous architectures equipped with switchable entities whose transport properties can be triggered at will. The gated nanoscopic hybrid materials discussed here not only herald a new era in the integrative design of "smart" drug delivery systems, but also give the reader a perspective of