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Sample records for chemistry laboratory part

  1. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  2. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  3. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  4. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Epidemiology of Accidents in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, Part 2. Accident Intervention Study, Legal Aspects, and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a chemistry laboratory accident intervention study conducted throughout the state of Colorado. Addresses the results of an initial survey of institutions of higher learning. Discusses some legal aspects concerning academic chemistry accidents. Provides some observations about academic chemistry laboratory accidents on the whole. (TW)

  7. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  8. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  9. [60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  11. Laboratory chemistry and stratospheric clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments on the chemistry of ice particles to study the role of HCl and ClONO2 from CFCs in stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica. It is found that gaseous HCl is scavenged with high efficiency by the ice and the gas phase chlorine nitrate may react with the HCL-containing ice to produce Cl2. Also, consideration is given ot the behavior of solid nitric acid trihydrate and sulfuric acid aerosols.

  12. Effects of Students' Pre- and Post-Laboratory Concept Maps on Students' Attitudes toward Chemistry Laboratory in University General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ziya; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scientific discussions based on student-constructed pre- and post-laboratory concept maps on students' attitudes toward chemistry laboratory in the university general chemistry. As part of instruction, during the first four laboratory sessions, students were taught how to construct and…

  13. Kinetics of Carbaryl Hydrolysis: An Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics is an important part of undergraduate environmental chemistry curricula and relevant laboratory exercises are helpful in assisting students to grasp concepts. Such exercises are also useful in general chemistry courses because students can see relevance to real-world issues. The laboratory exercise described here involves determination of…

  14. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  15. Argumentation in undergraduate chemistry laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joi Phelps

    To address the need for reform in undergraduate science education a new instructional model called Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) was developed and then implemented in a undergraduate chemistry course at a community college in the southeastern United States (Sampson, Walker, & Grooms, 2009; Walker, Sampson, & Zimmerman, in press). The ADI instructional model is designed to give a more central place to argumentation and the role of argument in the social construction of scientific knowledge. This research investigated the growth in the quality of the student generated arguments and the scientific argumentation that took place over the course of a semester. Students enrolled in two sections of General Chemistry I laboratory at the community college participated in this study. The students worked in collaborative groups of three or four. The students were given a variation of the same performance task three times during the semester in order to measure individual ability to use evidence and justify their choice of evidence with appropriate rationale. Five ADI investigations took place during the semester and the laboratory reports for each were collected from each student and the argument section of each report was scored. All the student groups were video recorded five times during the semester as they generated and evaluated arguments and the quality of the group argumentation was assessed using an instrument called the Assessment of Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom (ASAC) observation protocol. As time was the independent variable in this study a repeated measure ANOVA was used to evaluate the significance of student improvement in each area (argumentation, written argument and performance task) over the course of the semester (Trochim, 1999). In addition, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate how well the ASAC scores predicted individual scores on both the performance task and the written arguments (Green & Salkind, 2005). There was

  16. Titan: a laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    When we examine the atmospheres of the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the satellites in the outer solar system, comets, and even--through microwave and infrared spectroscopy--the cold dilute gas and grains between the stars, we find a rich organic chemistry, presumably abiological, not only in most of the solar system but throughout the Milky Way galaxy. In part because the composition and surface pressure of the Earth's atmosphere 4 x 10(9) years ago are unknown, laboratory experiments on prebiological organic chemistry are at best suggestive; but we can test our understanding by looking more closely at the observed extraterrestrial organic chemistry. The present Account is restricted to atmospheric organic chemistry, primarily on the large moon of Saturn. Titan is a test of our understanding of the organic chemistry of planetary atmospheres. Its atmospheric bulk composition (N2/CH4) is intermediate between the highly reducing (H2/He/CH4/NH3/H2O) atmospheres of the Jovian planets and the more oxidized (N2/CO2/H2O) atmospheres of the terrestrial planets Mars and Venus. It has long been recognized that Titan's organic chemistry may have some relevance to the events that led to the origin of life on Earth. But with Titan surface temperatures approximately equal to 94 K and pressures approximately equal to 1.6 bar, the oceans of the early Earth have no ready analogue on Titan. Nevertheless, tectonic events in the water ice-rich interior or impact melting and slow re-freezing may lead to an episodic availability of liquid water. Indeed, the latter process is the equivalent of a approximately 10(3)-year-duration shallow aqueous sea over the entire surface of Titan.

  17. Delivery to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of a picture acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera documents the delivery of soil to one of four Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cells on the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Approximately one cubic centimeter of this soil was then introduced into the cell and mixed with water for chemical analysis. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.

    Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.

  19. Selecting automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Lindeman, Neal I; Jarolim, Petr

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory automation proposes to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory operations, and may provide a solution to the quality demands and staff shortages faced by today's clinical laboratories. Several vendors offer automation systems in the United States, with both subtle and obvious differences. Arriving at a decision to automate, and the ensuing evaluation of available products, can be time-consuming and challenging. Although considerable discussion concerning the decision to automate has been published, relatively little attention has been paid to the process of evaluating and selecting automation systems. To outline a process for evaluating and selecting automation systems as a reference for laboratories contemplating laboratory automation. Our Clinical Chemistry Laboratory staff recently evaluated all major laboratory automation systems in the United States, with their respective chemistry and immunochemistry analyzers. Our experience is described and organized according to the selection process, the important considerations in clinical chemistry automation, decisions and implementation, and we give conclusions pertaining to this experience. Including the formation of a committee, workflow analysis, submitting a request for proposal, site visits, and making a final decision, the process of selecting chemistry automation took approximately 14 months. We outline important considerations in automation design, preanalytical processing, analyzer selection, postanalytical storage, and data management. Selecting clinical chemistry laboratory automation is a complex, time-consuming process. Laboratories considering laboratory automation may benefit from the concise overview and narrative and tabular suggestions provided.

  20. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  1. Environmental Chemistry in the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Thomas J.; Austin, Rachel N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of environmental chemistry and the use of laboratory exercises in analytical and general chemistry courses. Notes the importance of lab work in heightening student interest in coursework including problem-based learning in undergraduate curricula, ready adaptability of environmental coursework to existing curricula, and…

  2. Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this…

  3. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  4. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  5. Laboratory Investigations of Stratospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Paul H.; Nicovich, J. Michael; Stickel, Robert E.; Hynes, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    A final report for the NASA-supported project on laboratory investigations of stratospheric halogen chemistry is presented. In recent years, this project has focused on three areas of research: (1) kinetic, mechanistic, and thermochemical studies of reactions which produce weakly bound chemical species of atmospheric interest; (2) development of flash photolysis schemes for studying radical-radical reactions of stratospheric interest; and (3) photochemistry studies of interest for understanding stratospheric chemistry. The first section of this paper contains a discussion of work which has not yet been published. All subsequent chapters contain reprints of published papers that acknowledge support from this grant.

  6. Laboratory hemostasis: milestones in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2013-01-01

    Hemostasis is a delicate, dynamic and intricate system, in which pro- and anti-coagulant forces cooperate for either maintaining blood fluidity under normal conditions, or else will prompt blood clot generation to limit the bleeding when the integrity of blood vessels is jeopardized. Excessive prevalence of anticoagulant forces leads to hemorrhage, whereas excessive activation of procoagulant forces triggers excessive coagulation and thrombosis. The hemostasis laboratory performs a variety of first, second and third line tests, and plays a pivotal role in diagnostic and monitoring of most hemostasis disturbances. Since the leading targets of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine include promotion of progress in fundamental and applied research, along with publication of guidelines and recommendations in laboratory diagnostics, this journal is an ideal source of information on current developments in the laboratory technology of hemostasis, and this article is aimed to celebrate some of the most important and popular articles ever published by the journal in the filed of laboratory hemostasis.

  7. Biogeochemical processes in a clay formation in situ experiment: Part E - Equilibrium controls on chemistry of pore water from the Opalinus Clay, Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, F.J., E-mail: fjpearson@gmail.com [Ground-Water Geochemistry, 5108 Trent Woods Dr., New Bern, NC 28562 (United States); Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, B.P. 36009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Equilibrium models of water-rock reactions in clay rocks are reviewed. > Analyses of pore waters of the Opalinus Clay from boreholes in the Mont Terri URL, Switzerland, are tabulated. > Results of modelling with various mineral controls are compared with the analyses. > Best agreement results with calcite, dolomite and siderite or daphnite saturation, Na-K-Ca-Mg exchange and/or kaolinite, illite, quartz and celestite saturation. > This approach allows calculation of the chemistry of pore water in clays too impermeable to yield water samples. - Abstract: The chemistry of pore water (particularly pH and ionic strength) is an important property of clay rocks being considered as host rocks for long-term storage of radioactive waste. Pore waters in clay-rich rocks generally cannot be sampled directly. Instead, their chemistry must be found using laboratory-measured properties of core samples and geochemical modelling. Many such measurements have been made on samples from the Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Several boreholes in that URL yielded water samples against which pore water models have been calibrated. Following a first synthesis report published in 2003, this paper presents the evolution of the modelling approaches developed within Mont Terri URL scientific programs through the last decade (1997-2009). Models are compared to the composition of waters sampled during dedicated borehole experiments. Reanalysis of the models, parameters and database enabled the principal shortcomings of the previous modelling efforts to be overcome. The inability to model the K concentrations correctly with the measured cation exchange properties was found to be due to the use of an inappropriate selectivity coefficient for Na-K exchange; the inability to reproduce the measured carbonate chemistry and pH of the pore waters using mineral-water reactions alone was corrected by considering clay mineral equilibria. Re

  8. The Effect of Chemistry Laboratory Activities on Students' Chemistry Perception and Laboratory Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Cemil

    2017-01-01

    Chemistry lesson should be supported with experiments to understand the lecture effectively. For safety laboratory environment and to prevent laboratory accidents; chemical substances' properties, working principles for chemical substances' usage should be learnt. Aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of experiments which depend on…

  9. Theme-Based Bidisciplinary Chemistry Laboratory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Phyllis A.; Szczerbicki, Sandra K.

    1996-12-01

    A thematic approach to each of the two introductory chemistry laboratory sequences, general and organic chemistry, not only provides an element of cohesion but also stresses the role that chemistry plays as the "central science" and emphasizes the intimate link between chemistry and other science disciplines. Thus, in general chemistry the rubric "Environmental Chemistry" affords connections to the geosciences, whereas experiments on the topic of "Plant Assays" bridge organic chemistry and biology. By establishing links with other science departments, the theme-based laboratory experiments will satisfy the following multidisciplinary criteria: (i) to demonstrate the general applicability of core methodologies to the sciences, (ii) to help students relate concepts to a broader multidisciplinary context, (iii) to foster an attitude of both independence and cooperation that can transcend the teaching laboratory to the research arena, and (iv) to promote greater cooperation and interaction between the science departments. Fundamentally, this approach has the potential to impact the chemistry curriculum significantly by including student decision-making in the experimental process. Furthermore, the incorporation of GC-MS, a powerful tool for separation and identification as well as a state-of-the-art analytical technique, in the modules will enhance the introductory general and organic chemistry laboratory sequences by making them more instrument-intensive and by providing a reliable and reproducible means of obtaining quantitative analyses. Each multifaceted module has been designed to meet the following criteria: (i) a synthetic protocol including full spectral characterization of products, (ii) quantitative and statistical analyses of data, and (iii) construction of a database of results. The database will provide several concrete functions. It will foster the idea that science is a continuous incremental process building on the results of earlier experimentalists

  10. Investigating Student Perceptions of the Chemistry Laboratory and Their Approaches to Learning in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Spencer Granett

    This dissertation explores student perceptions of the instructional chemistry laboratory and the approaches students take when learning in the laboratory environment. To measure student perceptions of the chemistry laboratory, a survey instrument was developed. 413 students responded to the survey during the Fall 2011 semester. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in high school was related to several factors regarding their experiences in high school chemistry. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in college was also measured. Reasons students provided for the usefulness of the laboratory were categorized. To characterize approaches to learning in the laboratory, students were interviewed midway through semester (N=18). The interviews were used to create a framework describing learning approaches that students use in the laboratory environment. Students were categorized into three levels: students who view the laboratory as a requirement, students who believe that the laboratory augments their understanding, and students who view the laboratory as an important part of science. These categories describe the types of strategies students used when conducting experiments. To further explore the relationship between students' perception of the laboratory and their approaches to learning, two case studies are described. These case studies involve interviews in the beginning and end of the semester. In the interviews, students reflect on what they have learned in the laboratory and describe their perceptions of the laboratory environment. In order to encourage students to adopt higher-level approaches to learning in the laboratory, a metacognitive intervention was created. The intervention involved supplementary questions that students would answer while completing laboratory experiments. The questions were designed to encourage students to think critically about the

  11. The status of safety in the public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Sarah Louise Trotman

    Since laboratory-based science courses have become an essential element of any science curriculum and are required by the Mississippi Department of Education for graduation, the chemistry laboratories in the public high schools in Mississippi must be safe. The purpose of this study was to determine: the safety characteristics of a high school chemistry laboratory; the perceived safety characteristics of the chemistry laboratories in public high schools in Mississippi; the basic safety knowledge of chemistry teachers in public high schools in Mississippi, where chemistry teachers in Mississippi gain knowledge about laboratory safety and instruction; if public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi adhere to recommended class size, laboratory floor space per student, safety education, safety equipment, and chemical storage; and the relationship between teacher knowledge of chemistry laboratory safety and the safety status of the laboratory in which they teach. The survey instrument was composed of three parts. Part I Teacher Knowledge consisted of 23 questions concerning high school chemistry laboratory safety. Part II Chemistry Laboratory Safety Information consisted of 40 items divided into four areas of interest concerning safety in high school chemistry laboratories. Part III Demographics consisted of 11 questions relating to teacher certification, experience, education, and safety training. The survey was mailed to a designated chemistry teacher in every public high school in Mississippi. The responses to Part I of the survey indicated that the majority of the teachers have a good understanding of knowledge about chemistry laboratory safety but need more instruction on the requirements for a safe high school chemistry laboratory. Less than 50% of the responding teachers thought they had received adequate preparation from their college classes to conduct a safe chemistry laboratory. According to the responses of the teachers, most of their high school

  12. Furfural - from biomass to organic chemistry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota; Geris, Regina; Queiroz, Vinicius; Fascio, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this manuscript is provide to students of Chemistry and related areas an alternative experiment in which they can obtain a compound and learn to observe and interpret properties and predict organic structure by obtaining furfural from biomass. Furfural is an organic compound, obtained through acid hydrolysis of pentosans, commonly used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Students are guided to get furfural through extractive procedures and chemical reactions adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale. Characterization of furfural was done by chemical tests and physical properties. Identification was accomplished by a series of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. (author)

  13. Upper-Level Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Goals for Their Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reform undergraduate chemistry laboratory coursework typically focus on the curricula of introductory-level courses, while upper-level courses are bypassed. This study used video-stimulated recall to interview 17 junior- and senior- level chemistry majors after they carried out an experiment as part of a laboratory course. It is assumed…

  14. Understanding and Using the New Guided-Inquiry AP Chemistry Laboratory Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    To support teaching and learning in the advanced placement (AP) chemistry laboratory, the College Board published a laboratory manual, "AP Chemistry Guided-Inquiry Experiments: Applying the Science Practices," in 2013 as part of the redesigned course. This article provides a discussion of the rationale for the existence of the manual as…

  15. Effect of a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory on Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatli, Zeynep; Ayas, Alipasa

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that laboratory applications are of significant importance in chemistry education. However, laboratory applications have generally been neglected in recent educational environments for a variety of reasons. In order to address this gap, this study examined the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) on student achievement…

  16. Computer assisted instruction in the general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jerry C.

    This dissertation examines current applications concerning the use of computer technology to enhance instruction in the general chemistry laboratory. The dissertation critiques widely-used educational software, and explores examples of multimedia presentations such as those used in beginning chemistry laboratory courses at undergraduate and community colleges. The dissertation describes a prototype compact disc (CD) used to (a) introduce the general chemistry laboratory, (b) familiarize students with using chemistry laboratory equipment, (c) introduce laboratory safety practices, and (d) provide approved techniques for maintaining a laboratory notebook. Upon completing the CD portion of the pre-lab, students are linked to individual self-help (WebCT) quizzes covering the information provided on the CD. The CD is designed to improve student understanding of basic concepts, techniques, and procedures used in the general chemistry laboratory.

  17. Preanalytical quality in clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M Imteyaz; Ramesh, K L; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Haemolysis is usually caused by inadequate specimen collection or preanalytical handling and is suggested to be a suitable indicator of preanalytical quality. We investigated the prevalence of detectable haemolysis in all routine venous blood samples in OPDs and IPDs to identify differences in preanalytical quality. Haemolysis index (HI) values were obtained from a Vitros 5,1 in the routine clinical chemistry laboratory for samples collected in the outpatient department (OPD) collection centres, a hospital, and inpatient departments (IPD). Haemolysis was defined as a HI > or = 15 (detection limit). Samples from the OPD with the highest prevalence of haemolysis were 6.1 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0 - 9.2) more often haemolysed compared to the center with the lowest prevalence. Of the samples collected in primary health care, 10.4% were haemolysed compared to 31.1% in the IPDs (p = 0.001). A notable difference in haemolysed samples was found between the IPDs section staffed by emergency medicine physicians and the section staffed by primary health care physicians (34.8% vs. 11.3%, p = 0.001). The significant variation in haemolysis indices among the investigated units is likely to reflect varying preanalytical conditions. The HI is a valuable tool for estimation and follow-up of preanalytical quality in the health care laboratory.

  18. Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory - Improving a Practical for Academic Development Students. ... Analysis of data collected in 2001 shows that the changes made a significant impact on the effectiveness of the laboratory session. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.56 2003: 47-53 ...

  19. 46 CFR 188.10-11 - Chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry laboratory. 188.10-11 Section 188.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-11 Chemistry laboratory. This term includes...

  20. Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Heterogeneous Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, L. F.; Leu, M-T.

    1993-01-01

    In the laboratory, ice films formed by freezing from the liquid or more frequently by deposition from the vapor phase have been used to simulate stratospheric cloud surfaces for measurements of reaction and uptake rates. To obtain intrinsic surface reaction probabilities that can be used in atmospheric models, the area of the film surface that actually takes part in the reaction must be known. It is important to know not only the total surface area but also the film morphology in order to determine where and how the surface is situated and, thus, what fraction of it is available for reaction. Information on the structure of these ice films has been obtained by using several experimental methods. In the sections that follow, these methods will be discussed, then the results will be used to construct a working model of the ice films, and finally the model will be applied to an experimental study of HC1 uptake by H_2O ice.

  1. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  2. The Chemistry of Perfume: A Laboratory Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer L.; Rumbaugh, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    "The Chemistry of Perfume" is a lab-only course for nonscience majors. Students learn fundamental concepts of chemistry through the context of fragrance, a pervasive aspect of daily life. The course consists of laboratories pertaining to five units: introduction, extraction, synthesis, characterization, and application. The introduction unit…

  3. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  4. Measuring meaningful learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.

    The undergraduate chemistry laboratory has been an essential component in chemistry education for over a century. The literature includes reports on investigations of singular aspects laboratory learning and attempts to measure the efficacy of reformed laboratory curriculum as well as faculty goals for laboratory learning which found common goals among instructors for students to learn laboratory skills, techniques, experimental design, and to develop critical thinking skills. These findings are important for improving teaching and learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, but research is needed to connect the faculty goals to student perceptions. This study was designed to explore students' ideas about learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning was used as a guide for the data collection and analysis choices for this research. Novak's theory states that in order for meaningful learning to occur the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains must be integrated. The psychomotor domain is inherent in the chemistry laboratory, but the extent to which the cognitive and affective domains are integrated is unknown. For meaningful learning to occur in the laboratory, students must actively integrate both the cognitive domain and the affective domains into the "doing" of their laboratory work. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences within the context of conducting experiments in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the data generated by the MLLI were collected from multiple quantitative studies: a one semester study at one university, a one semester study at 15 colleges and universities across the United States, and a longitudinal study where the MLLI was administered 6 times during two years of general and organic chemistry laboratory courses. Results from

  5. A refuge for inorganic chemistry: Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after its opening in 1855, Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory became iconic as the most modern and best equipped laboratory in Europe. Although comparatively modest in size, the laboratory's progressive equipment made it a role model for new construction projects in Germany and beyond. In retrospect, it represents an intermediate stage of development between early teaching facilities, such as Liebig's laboratory in Giessen, and the new 'chemistry palaces' that came into existence with Wöhler's Göttingen laboratory of 1860. As a 'transition laboratory,' Bunsen's Heidelberg edifice is of particular historical interest. This paper explores the allocation of spaces to specific procedures and audiences within the laboratory, and the hierarchies and professional rites of passage embedded within it. On this basis, it argues that the laboratory in Heidelberg was tailored to Bunsen's needs in inorganic and physical chemistry and never aimed at a broad-scale representation of chemistry as a whole. On the contrary, it is an example of early specialisation within a chemical laboratory preceding the process of differentiation into chemical sub-disciplines. Finally, it is shown that the relatively small size of this laboratory, and the fact that after ca. 1860 no significant changes were made within the building, are inseparably connected to Bunsen's views on chemistry teaching.

  6. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  7. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  8. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991). This is the eighth annual report for the ACL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1989 (October 1988 through September 1989). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  11. A Laboratory Course in Technological Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory course taught at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom) which focuses on the preparation, properties, and applications of end-use products of the chemical industry. Outlines laboratory experiments on dyes, fibers, herbicides, performance testing, antioxidants, and surface active…

  12. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D. W.; Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.

    2000-06-15

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 (October 1998 through September 1999). This annual progress report, which is the sixteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.; Green, D. W.; Lindahl, P. C.

    1999-03-29

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 (October 1997 through September 1998). This annual progress report, which is the fifteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.; Green, D. W.; Lindahl, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 (October 1997 through September 1998). This annual progress report, which is the fifteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL

  16. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  17. The Relationships between University Students' Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…

  18. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  19. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495.......Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  20. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Progress report for FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996. This annual report is the thirteenth for the ACL. It describes effort on continuing and new projects and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The ACL operates in the ANL system as a full-cost-recovery service center, but has a mission that includes a complementary research and development component: The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory will provide high-quality, cost-effective chemical analysis and related technical support to solve research problems of our clients -- Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and others -- and will conduct world-class research and development in analytical chemistry and its applications. Because of the diversity of research and development work at ANL, the ACL handles a wide range of analytical chemistry problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but the ACL usually works with commercial laboratories if our clients require high-volume, production-type analyses. It is common for ANL programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. Thus, much of the support work done by the ACL is very similar to our applied analytical chemistry research.

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Covered are: analytical laboratory operations (ALO) sample receipt and control, ALO data report/package preparation review and control, single shell tank (PST) project sample tracking system, sample receiving, analytical balances, duties and responsibilities of sample custodian, sample refrigerator temperature monitoring, security, assignment of staff responsibilities, sample storage, data reporting, and general requirements for glassware

  2. Laboratory studies of stratospheric aerosol chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Mario J.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we summarize the results of the two sets of projects funded by the NASA grant NAG2-632, namely investigations of various thermodynamic and nucleation properties of the aqueous acid system which makes up stratospheric aerosols, and measurements of reaction probabilities directly on ice aerosols with sizes corresponding to those of polar stratospheric cloud particles. The results of these investigations are of importance for the assessment of the potential stratospheric effects of future fleets of supersonic aircraft. In particular, the results permit to better estimate the effects of increased amounts of water vapor and nitric acid (which forms from nitrogen oxides) on polar stratospheric clouds and on the chemistry induced by these clouds.

  3. Development of a Research-Oriented Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, L. M.; Polo, D. L.; Esperdy, K.

    2001-02-01

    We report the development of a research-oriented, senior-level laboratory course in inorganic chemistry, which is a requirement for chemistry majors who plan to receive the ACS-approved Bachelor of Science degree and is a recommended elective for other chemistry majors. The objective of this course is to give all students the advantage of a research experience in which questions stemming from the literature lead to the formulation of hypotheses, and answers are sought through experiment. The one-semester Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory is ideal for this purpose, since for most students it represents the last laboratory experience before graduation and can assume the role of "capstone" course--a course where students are challenged to recall previously learned concepts and skills and put them into practice in the performance of an individual, original research project. The medium chosen for this teaching approach is coordination chemistry, a branch of chemistry that involves the interaction of inorganic and organic compounds and requires the use of various synthetic and analytical methods. This paper presents an outline of the course organization and requirements, examples of activities performed by the students, and a critical evaluation of the first five years' experience.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. A Cost-Effective Two-Part Experiment for Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Christopher M.; Brown, Brenna A.; Wan, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This two-part laboratory experiment is designed to be a cost-effective method for teaching basic organic laboratory techniques (recrystallization, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, vacuum filtration, and melting point determination) to large classes of introductory organic chemistry students. Students are exposed to different…

  7. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    all students the opportunity to become proficient with Macintosh computers, which are used for data manipulation in some experiments. Another feature of the laboratory design is worthy of note. The experiments do not necessarily follow the topic chronologically as it is presented in the lecture. Instead, each cluster has a fairly extensive introduction, which summarizes the chemistry in that cluster. We had a reason in mind when we did this. In the past we have been content to cover the material in the lectures and to use the laboratory for confirmation of what the student had already learned. The results of laboratory experiments are known beforehand, and the students expect these results. An "unknown" given to the student merely allows the teacher to assess the student's lab technique and/or ability to calculate from the data a particular parameter of the unknown, such as its molar mass or its concentration. This, of course, is not the way science is done; the answers are not known before the experiment. In the normal course of scientific investigation, experiments are carried out to provide information needed for advancing knowledge, and not simply to confirm what is already known. In our design, ideally the students do the experiments to generate useful data. It is clear to them from the outset that there are no "correct answers." Data sampling and statistical analysis of the results are part of the experiments. In the course of developing these clusters, some questions arose that required further research. Several more advanced students have become involved in addressing these problems. One study on the "golden penny" demonstration resulted in a recent publication in this Journal (1). Student Evaluation of the Course An evaluation instrument was developed by two professors of the Psychology Department at Canisius College. It was administered at the end of each semester to all students taking General Chemistry. In addition, at the end of the second semester, the

  8. Analytical chemistry laboratory. Progress report for FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1996 through September 1997). This annual progress report is the fourteenth in this series for the ACL, and it describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  9. Collaboration and peer tutoring in chemistry laboratory education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized

  10. Biobased Organic Chemistry Laboratories as Sustainable Experiment Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Julian R.

    2016-01-01

    As nonrenewable resources deplete and educators seek relevant interdisciplinary content for organic chemistry instruction, biobased laboratory experiments present themselves as potential alternatives to petroleum-based transformations, which offer themselves as sustainable variations on important themes. Following the principles of green chemistry…

  11. Chemistry as the defining science: discipline and training in nineteenth-century chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2011-06-01

    The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemistry Graduate Teaching Assistants' Experiences in Academic Laboratories and Development of a Teaching Self-image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Todd Adam

    interaction of 1) prior experiences, 2) training, 3) beliefs about the nature of knowledge, 4) beliefs about the nature of laboratory work, and 5) involvement in the laboratory setting. Further GTAs' self-images are malleable and susceptible to change through their laboratory teaching experiences. Overall, this dissertation contributes to chemistry education by providing a model useful for exploring GTAs' development of a self-image in laboratory teaching. This work may assist laboratory instructors and coordinators in reconsidering, when applicable, GTA training and support. This work also holds considerable implications for how teaching experiences are conceptualized as part of the chemistry graduate education experience. Findings suggest that appropriate teaching experiences may contribute towards better preparing graduate students for their journey in becoming scientists.

  13. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  14. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  15. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  17. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  18. Questioning Behavior of Students in the Inquiry Chemistry Laboratory: Differences between Sectors and Genders in the Israeli Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Rap, Shelley; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The present research is part of a longitude research study regarding the questioning behavior of students in the inquiry chemistry laboratory in Israel. We found that students who were involved in learning chemistry by the inquiry method ask more and higher-level questions. However, throughout the years, we have observed that differences between…

  19. Teaching a Chemistry MOOC with a Virtual Laboratory: Lessons Learned from an Introductory Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick J.; Agger, Jonathan R.; Anderson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the experience and lessons learned of running a MOOC in introductory physical chemistry. The course was unique in allowing students to conduct experimental measurements using a virtual laboratory constructed using video and simulations. A breakdown of the student background and motivation for taking the course is…

  20. Implementing a Student-Designed Green Chemistry Laboratory Project in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Schaller, Chris P.; McIntee, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    A multiweek organic chemistry laboratory project is described that emphasizes sustainable practices in experimental design. An emphasis on student-driven development of the project is meant to mirror the independent nature of research. Students propose environmentally friendly modifications of several reactions. With instructor feedback, students…

  1. Teaching and learning distillation in chemistry laboratory courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo H. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.

    This study investigates the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Using an interpretive cyclic research design, we collected and interpreted data, mainly in the form of observation notes and transcriptions of the discourse that takes place during laboratory courses. It was found that students experience numerous problems; these are described and interpreted. We summarize students' problems in four categories: (a) students use an independent component conception; (b) they have insufficient understanding of the properties of vapor; (c) they regard distillation from a physical point of view; and (d) they do not have a practical understanding of thermodynamics. The main origin of these problems was found to lie with the traditional curriculum structure. Lecture courses and textbooks treat distillation in a generalized and decontextualized way, whereas decisions in actual distillations are always based on contextual features. It was found that textbooks and teachers often do not discriminate carefully and explicitly among five different contexts for distillation: organic synthesis, chemical analysis, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and preparation of products. Students take the generalized concepts at face value and apply them to all distillations regardless of context. They cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical framework of a specific context.Received: 2 May 1994; Revised: 14 December 1994;

  2. Laboratory Sequence in Computational Methods for Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Jason A.; Wiser, Dawn C.

    2003-07-01

    A four-exercise laboratory sequence for introductory chemistry integrating hands-on, student-centered experience with computer modeling has been designed and implemented. The progression builds from exploration of molecular shapes to intermolecular forces and the impact of those forces on chemical separations made with gas chromatography and distillation. The sequence ends with an exploration of molecular orbitals. The students use the computers as a tool; they build the molecules, submit the calculations, and interpret the results. Because of the construction of the sequence and its placement spanning the semester break, good laboratory notebook practices are reinforced and the continuity of course content and methods between semesters is emphasized. The inclusion of these techniques in the first year of chemistry has had a positive impact on student perceptions and student learning.

  3. 46 CFR 194.05-5 - Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory. 194.05-5 Section....05-5 Chemicals in the chemistry laboratory. (a) Small working quantities of chemical stores in the chemistry laboratory which have been removed from the approved shipping container need not be marked or...

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  5. TUAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY: EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep TATLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The lab applications, which were started to be applied through mid 19th century, not only provide a new point of view but also bring about a new dimension to the lessons. At early times they were used to prove theoretical knowledge but lately they turned into environments where students freely discover knowledge as an individual or in groups. The activities that have come up with the recent form of labs substantially contributed to training ideal students for constructivist approach, who research, inquire, test, seek solutions, wear scientist shoes and deeply reason about the concept of concern. However, on the present stage of our educational system, these activities cannot be included in science lessons for several reasons. At that point virtual labs emerged as an alternative solution for the problems of the instruction in science courses. Thanks to virtual labs presenting different disciplines in a flexible manner, the interaction between the teacher and the learner become 7/24 independent from time and place. This article presents a study that provides insight in the appropriateness of Virtual and real laboratory applications on constructivist learning environment using interactive virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL development was used in academic year of 2009-2010 for a six week period. The sample of this quasi-experimental study was 90 students from three different 9th grade classrooms of an Anatolian Secondary school in the center of Trabzon city. The student groups were randomly attained as one experimental and two control groups. The data collection tools of the study were; questionnaire of teaching philosophy (QTP, Semi-structured interviews and unstructured observations. The results showed that virtual chemistry laboratory software was just as effective as real chemistry laboratory and it positively affected the facilitating of constructivist learning environment. It was determined that the students in experimental group conducted the

  6. Laboratory exercises to teach clinically relevant chemistry of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khalid A; Chelette, Candace T

    2014-03-12

    To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with laboratory exercises. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students' performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises.

  7. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.; Stetter, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  9. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

  10. Personal epistemological growth in a college chemistry laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen-Rocha, Linda S.

    The nature of this study was to explore changes in beliefs and lay a foundation for focusing on more specific features of reasoning related to personal epistemological and NOS beliefs in light of specific science laboratory instructional pedagogical practices (e.g., pre- and post-laboratory activities, laboratory work) for future research. This research employed a mixed methodology, foregrounding qualitative data. The total population consisted of 56 students enrolled in several sections of a general chemistry laboratory course, with the qualitative analysis focusing on the in-depth interviews. A quantitative NOS and epistemological beliefs measure was administered pre- and post-instruction. These measures were triangulated with pre-post interviews to assure the rigor of the descriptions generated. Although little quantitative change in NOS was observed from the pre-post NSKS assessment a more noticeable qualitative change was reflected by the participants during their final interviews. The NSKS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for amoral were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. However there was a more moderate change in the populations' broader epistemological beliefs (EBAPS) which was supported during the final interviews. The EBAPS results: the mean gain scores for the overall score and all dimensions, except for the source of ability to learn were found to be significant at p ≤ .05. The participants' identified the laboratory work as the most effective instructional feature followed by the post-laboratory activities. The pre-laboratory was identified as being the least effective feature. The participants suggested the laboratory work offered real-life experiences, group discussions, and teamwork which added understanding and meaning to their learning. The post-laboratory was viewed as necessary in tying all the information together and being able to see the bigger picture. What one cannot infer at this point is

  11. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  12. The management of clinical laboratories in Europe: a FESCC survey. Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari

    2002-03-01

    general management, the purchase of equipment and reagents and the education of technicians are in >90% the responsibility of the specialists in clinical chemistry. In most countries the majority of the specialists in clinical chemistry are members of the medical staff of the hospitals and have a position equivalent to the position of specialists in other medical disciplines. In some countries, however, it only holds true for the specialists with a medical background. In 79% of the countries the law regulates the profession of the specialists in clinical chemistry and in 60% of the countries the law regulates their position in the medical staff of the hospital. The advisory tasks to physicians, general practitioners and other users of laboratory tests are practised by >90% of the laboratories in 64% of the countries. Information is given directly to the patients by >90% of the laboratories in 30% of the countries. Only in a few countries laboratories give information to the public. The post-graduate training in clinical chemistry includes a managerial training in 58% of the countries, the study of information technology in 61% of the countries and an economy and/or a business administration study in 15% of the countries. In 27% of the countries no managerial education forms part of the post-graduate study in clinical chemistry. Harmonisation of the managerial aspects of the profession is one of the challenges for the European specialists in clinical chemistry. A European syllabus for post-graduate training could be helpful.

  13. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities on Drugs Analysis for High School Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I.; Sholichin, H.; Arifin, M.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory activity is an important part of chemistry learning, but cookbook instructions is still commonly used. However, the activity with that way do not improve students thinking skill, especially students creativity. This study aims to improve high school students creativity through inquiry-based laboratory on drugs analysis activity. Acid-base titration is used to be method for drugs analysis involving a color changing indicator. The following tools were used to assess the activity achievement: creative thinking test on acid base titration, creative attitude and action observation sheets, questionnaire of inquiry-based lab activities, and interviews. The results showed that the inquiry-based laboratory activity improving students creative thinking, creative attitude and creative action. The students reacted positively to this teaching strategy as demonstrated by results from questionnaire responses and interviews. This result is expected to help teachers to overcome the shortcomings in other laboratory learning.

  15. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: A National, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on laboratory learning points to the need to better understand what and how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was administered to general and organic chemistry students from 15 colleges and universities across the United States in order to measure the…

  16. Integration of Video-Based Demonstrations to Prepare Students for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Scaggs, Jonathan; Sheffield, Colin; McDougal, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consistent, high-quality introductions to organic chemistry laboratory techniques effectively and efficiently support student learning in the organic chemistry laboratory. In this work, we developed and deployed a series of instructional videos to communicate core laboratory techniques and concepts. Using a quasi-experimental design, we tested the…

  17. Comparable Educational Benefits in Half the Time: An Alternating Organic Chemistry Laboratory Sequence Targeting Prehealth Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sherri C.; Colabroy, Keri L.; Baar, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory is a mainstay in STEM education, promoting the development of critical thinking skills, dexterity, and scientific curiosity. The goals in the laboratory for nonchemistry, prehealth majors, though, could be distinguished from those for chemistry majors. In service courses such as organic chemistry, much laboratory time is often spent…

  18. Near-infrared laboratory spectroscopy of mineral chemistry: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Freek van der

    2018-03-01

    Spectroscopy is the science concerned with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced when materials interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation. Commercial infrared spectrometer were designed from the 1950's onward and found their way into the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In the 1970's and 1980's also natural sciences notably mineralogy and vegetation science started systematically to measure optical properties of leaves and minerals/rocks with spectrometers. In the last decade spectroscopy has made the step from qualitative observations of mineral classes, soil type and vegetation biomass to quantitative estimates of mineral, soil and vegetation chemistry. This resulted in geothermometers used to characterize metamorphic and hydrothermal systems and to the advent of foliar biochemistry. More research is still needed to bridge the gap between laboratory spectroscopy and field spectroscopy. Empirical studies of minerals either as soil or rock constituents (and vegetation parameters) derived from regression analysis of spectra against chemistry is important in understanding the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation and matter which in turn is important in the design of future satellite missions. Physics based models and retrievals are needed to operationalize these relationships and implement them in future earth observation missions as these are more robust and easy to transfer to other areas and data sets.

  19. Laboratory studies of ion-molecule reactions and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyano, Inosuke

    1989-01-01

    Several types of laboratory studies have been performed on ion-molecule reactions relevant to the formation of the interstellar molecules. Special emphasis is placed on the formation, structure, and reactivity of the C 3 H 3 + ions, which are believed to play a key role in interstellar chemistry. When these ions are produced by the reaction of C 3 H 4+ with C 3 H 4 in a beam-gas arrangement, their times-of-flight (TOF) show abnormally broad distributions regardless of the sources of the reactant C 3 H 4 + ion (photoionization of allene, propyne, the cyclopropene) and the nature of the neutral reactant, while all other product ions from the same reaction show sharp TOF distributions. On the other hand, all C 3 H 3 + ions produced by unimolecular decomposition of energetic C 3 H 4 + ions show sharp TOF distribution. The peculiarity of the C 3 H 3 + ions manifested in these and other experiments is discussed in conjunction with interstellar chemistry

  20. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Aparicio, G.; Cassaniti, P.

    1990-01-01

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author) [es

  1. Research and Teaching. From Verification to Guided Inquiry: What Happens When a Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum Changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pamela; Pentecost, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    How does the degree of inquiry-based laboratory instruction impact student performance and student perseverance in the laboratory portion of a first-semester general chemistry course? The implementation of a new

  2. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  3. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  4. Campus as a Living Laboratory for Sustainability: The Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Timothy; Middlecamp, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In the undergraduate curriculum, chemistry and sustainability connect easily and well. Topics in chemistry provide instructors with opportunities to engage students in learning about sustainability; similarly, topics in sustainability provide instructors with opportunities to engage students in learning chemistry. One's own college or university…

  5. Video Episodes and Action Cameras in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Eliciting Student Perceptions of Meaningful Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    A series of quantitative studies investigated undergraduate students' perceptions of their cognitive and affective learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. To explore these quantitative findings, a qualitative research protocol was developed to characterize student learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Students (N = 13)…

  6. Design of an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    The design oriented research described in this thesis aims at designing an realizing an electronic performance support system for food chemistry laboratory classes (labEPSS). Four design goals related to food chemistry laboratory classes were identified. Firstly, labEPSS should avoid extraneous

  7. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  8. Using Cluster Analysis to Characterize Meaningful Learning in a First-Year University Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective learning in the university chemistry laboratory. The MLLI was administered at the beginning and the end of the first semester to first-year university chemistry students to measure their expectations and experiences for learning in…

  9. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  10. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution. Key Words: Methane-Interstellar environments-Submarine hydrothermal systems-Titan-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 786-812.

  11. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D.; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G.; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J. Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution.

  12. Laboratory hematology in the history of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2013-01-01

    For the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), an historic overview of papers that the journal has published in the field of laboratory hematology (LH) is presented. All past volumes of CCLM were screened for papers on LH and these were categorized. Bibliographic data of these papers were also analyzed. CCLM published in total 387 LH papers. The absolute number of LH papers published annually showed a significant increase over the years since 1985. Also the share of LH papers demonstrated a steady increase (overall mean 5%, but mean 8% over the past 4 years). The most frequent category was coagulation and fibrinolysis (23.5%). Authors from Germany contributed the most LH papers to the journal (22.7%), followed by the Netherlands and Italy (16.3 and 13.2%, respectively). Recent citation data indicated that other publications cited LH review papers much more frequently than other types of papers. The history of the journal reflects the emergence and development of laboratory hematology as a separate discipline of laboratory medicine.

  13. New horizons for nuclear and radioanalytical chemistry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear and radiochemistry are reported to suffer from a worldwide depression in support in the academic curriculum. The visibility of nuclear research groups is weak in general as can be illustrated by the low citation impact factors of the nuclear science related journals. Moreover, the use of nuclear techniques over other techniques is often insufficiently justified. Although in many countries a shortage in radiochemists is forecasted to occur by the end of this decade -and ample jobs becoming available-, students in chemistry and physics seem to prefer a career in contemporary sciences such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and genomics. Much of the research in these sciences is related to organic compounds and biomolecules or deals with elements that seemingly have little or no opportunities to be studied using radionuclides and (nuclear) radiation. Laboratories operating nuclear analytical techniques therefore need to use their creativity finding ways for participation in the scientific areas that are booming at the beginning of the 21st century. It requires an open mind on the strengths and weaknesses of existing techniques, and a departure from traditional views on measurement, analysis and even sources for activation. The unique features of using radiotracers and activatable tracers need again to be explored. Some radiochemistry laboratories at large (national) research centers have already converted their traditional technique-oriented research into more problem-oriented research, combining nuclear and complimentary non-nuclear techniques. Smaller laboratories have fewer opportunities for such holistic approaches but there are still a variety of nuclear and radiochemical techniques that fruitfully can be applied in these sciences and which also may turn attention towards the potentials of nuclear research reactor facilities, (nuclear) radiation and radionuclides, contributing to the sustainability of nuclear analytical groups. Advances in radiation

  14. The effect of restructuring student writing in the general chemistry laboratory on student understanding of chemistry and on students' approach to the laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, James Andrew, II

    Many students encounter difficulties engaging with laboratory-based instruction, and reviews of research have indicated that the value of such instruction is not clearly evident. Traditional forms of writing associated with laboratory activities are commonly in a style used by professional scientists to communicate developed explanations. Students probably lack the interpretative skills of a professional, and writing in this style may not support students in learning how to develop scientific explanations. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is an inquiry-based approach to laboratory instruction designed in part to promote student ability in developing such explanations. However, there is not a convincing body of evidence for the superiority of inquiry-based laboratory instruction in chemistry. In a series of studies, the performance of students using the SWH student template in place of the standard laboratory report format was compared to the performance of students using the standard format. The standard reports had Title, Purpose, Procedure, Data & Observations, Calculations & Graphs, and Discussion sections. The SWH reports had Beginning Questions & Ideas, Tests & Procedures, Observations, Claims, Evidence, and Reflection sections. The pilot study produced evidence that using the SWH improved the quality of laboratory reports, improved student performance on a laboratory exam, and improved student approach to laboratory work. A main study found that SWH students statistically exhibited a better understanding of physical equilibrium when written explanations and equations were analyzed on a lecture exam and performed descriptively better on a physical equilibrium practical exam task. In another main study, the activities covering the general equilibrium concept were restructured as an additional change, and it was found that SWH students exhibited a better understanding of chemical equilibrium as shown by statistically greater success in overcoming the common

  15. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  16. Surveys of research in the Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazis, B.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Research reports are presented on reactive intermediates in condensed phase (radiation chemistry, photochemistry), electron transfer and energy conversion, photosynthesis and solar energy conversion, metal cluster chemistry, chemical dynamics in gas phase, photoionization-photoelectrons, characterization and reactivity of coal and coal macerals, premium coal sample program, chemical separations, heavy elements coordination chemistry, heavy elements photophysics/photochemistry, f-electron interactions, radiation chemistry of high-level wastes (gas generation in waste tanks), ultrafast molecular electronic devices, and nuclear medicine. Separate abstracts have been prepared. Accelerator activites and computer system/network services are also reported.

  17. Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Competencies in the Laboratory: A Cross-Grade Study in Solution Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F. O.

    2016-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for chemistry teacher candidates is to demonstrate certain laboratory skills. This article aims to determine and discuss the competencies of pre-service chemistry teachers in a chemistry laboratory context working with solution chemistry content. The participants in this study consisted of a group of pre-service chemistry…

  18. The Contribution of Constructivist Instruction Accompanied by Concept Mapping in Enhancing Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemistry in the Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Aydemir, Nurdane; Boz, Yezdan; Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Bektas, Oktay

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether a chemistry laboratory course called "Laboratory Experiments in Science Education" based on constructivist instruction accompanied with concept mapping enhanced pre-service chemistry teachers' conceptual understanding. Data were collected from five pre-service chemistry teachers at a university…

  19. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  20. Development and Use of Online Prelaboratory Activities in Organic Chemistry to Improve Students' Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jennifer L.; Al Mughalaq, Mohammad; Butler, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Online prelaboratory videos and quizzes were prepared for all experiments in CHEM 231, Organic Chemistry I Laboratory. It was anticipated that watching the videos would help students be better prepared for the laboratory, decrease their anxiety surrounding the laboratory, and increase their understanding of the theories and concepts presented.…

  1. Students' Perceptions of a Project-Based Organic Chemistry Laboratory Environment: A Phenomenographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Nikita L.; Nowak, Montana K.; Mooring, Suazette R.

    2017-01-01

    Students can perceive the laboratory environment in a variety of ways that can affect what they take away from the laboratory course. This qualitative study characterizes undergraduate students' perspectives of a project-based Organic Chemistry laboratory using the theoretical framework of phenomenography. Eighteen participants were interviewed in…

  2. Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

  3. The effects of total laboratory automation on the management of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Retrospective analysis of 36 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozi, Laszlo; Simson, Elkin; Ramanathan, Lakshmi

    2003-03-01

    Thirty-six years of data and history of laboratory practice at our institution has enabled us to follow the effects of analytical automation, then recently pre-analytical and post-analytical automation on productivity, cost reduction and enhanced quality of service. In 1998, we began the operation of a pre- and post-analytical automation system (robotics), together with an advanced laboratory information system to process specimens prior to analysis, deliver them to various automated analytical instruments, specimen outlet racks and finally to refrigerated stockyards. By the end of 3 years of continuous operation, we compared the chemistry part of the system with the prior 33 years and quantitated the financial impact of the various stages of automation. Between 1965 and 2000, the Consumer Price Index increased by a factor of 5.5 in the United States. During the same 36 years, at our institution's Chemistry Department the productivity (indicated as the number of reported test results/employee/year) increased from 10,600 to 104,558 (9.3-fold). When expressed in constant 1965 dollars, the total cost per test decreased from 0.79 dollars to 0.15 dollars. Turnaround time for availability of results on patient units decreased to the extent that Stat specimens requiring a turnaround time of productivity together with decreased operational cost. It enabled us to significantly increase our workload together with a reduction of personnel. In addition, stats are handled easily and there are benefits such as safer working conditions and improved sample identification, which are difficult to quantify at this stage.

  4. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1987 through March 31, 1988. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: (i) studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  5. An Investigation into the Relationship between Academic Risk Taking and Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner Sünkür, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between academic risk taking and chemistry laboratory anxiety using a relational scanning model. The research sample consisted of 127 undergraduate students (sophomores, juniors and seniors) in the Chemistry Teaching Department at Dicle University. This research was done in the spring semester of the 2012 to…

  6. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  7. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  8. Comparing Amide-Forming Reactions Using Green Chemistry Metrics in an Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennie, Michael W.; Roth, Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, upper-division undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry majors investigate amide-bond-forming reactions from a green chemistry perspective. Using hydrocinnamic acid and benzylamine as reactants, students perform three types of amide-forming reactions: an acid chloride derivative route; a coupling reagent promoted…

  9. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  10. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Isotopic Labeling with Sodium Borodeuteride in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonaas, Richard A.; Fitch, Richard W.; Noll, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    A microscale isotopic labeling experiment is described for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory course wherein half of the students use sodium borohydride (NaBH[subscript 4]) and the other half use sodium borodeuteride (NaBD[subscript 4]) to reduce acetophenone to 1-phenylethanol and then compare spectral data. The cost is reasonable, and…

  11. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  12. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  13. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  14. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more...... than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous...

  15. The status of electronic laboratory notebooks for chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Keith T

    2006-05-01

    Documenting an experiment in a way that ensures that the record can act as evidence to support a patent claim or to demonstrate compliance with the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) predicate rules, puts demands on an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) that are not trivial. The 1996 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) allowed notebook records that were generated outside of the US to be used to claim precedence in US patent claims. This agreement spurred interest in the development of ELNs in Europe. The pharmaceutical research process became dependent on computer systems during the latter part of the 1990s, and this also led to a wider interest in ELNs. More recently, the FDA began to encourage submissions in an all-electronic form, leading to great interest in the use of ELNs in development and manufacturing. As a result of these influences, the pharmaceutical industry is now actively pursuing ELN evaluations and implementations. This article describes some of the early efforts and the recent drivers for ELN adoption. The state of the ELN market in 2005 is also described.

  16. Thermal and chemical denaturation of Bacillus circulans xylanase: A biophysical chemistry laboratory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Richard; Gentile, Lisa

    2008-11-01

    A number of institutions have been, or are in the process of, modifying their biochemistry major to include some emphasis on the quantitative physical chemistry of biomolecules. Sometimes this is done as a replacement for part for the entire physical chemistry requirement, while at other institutions this is incorporated as a component into the traditional two-semester biochemistry series. The latter is the model used for biochemistry and molecular biology majors at the University of Richmond, whose second semester of biochemistry is a course entitled Proteins: Structure, Function, and Biophysics. What is described herein is a protein thermodynamics laboratory module, using the protein Bacillus circulans xylanase, which reinforces many lecture concepts, including: (i) the denatured (D) state ensemble of a protein can be different, depending on how it was populated; (ii) intermediate states may be detected by some spectroscopic techniques but not by others; (iii) the use and assumptions of the van't Hoff approach to calculate ΔH(o) , ΔS(o) , and ΔG(o) (T) for thermal protein unfolding transitions; and (iv) the use and assumptions of an approach that allows determination of the Gibb's free energy of a protein unfolding transition based on the linear dependence of ΔG(o) on the concentration of denaturant used. This module also requires students to design their own experimental protocols and spend time in the primary literature, both important parts of an upper division lab. Copyright © 2008 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cyclopentane combustion chemistry. Part I: Mechanism development and computational kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-23

    Cycloalkanes are significant constituents of conventional fossil fuels, in which they are one of the main contributors to soot formation, but also significantly influence the ignition characteristics below ∼900K. This paper discusses the development of a detailed high- and low-temperature oxidation mechanism for cyclopentane, which is an important archetypical cycloalkane. The differences between cyclic and non-cyclic alkane chemistry, and thus the inapplicability of acyclic alkane analogies, required the detailed theoretical investigation of the kinetics of important cyclopentane oxidation reactions as part of the mechanism development. The cyclopentyl+O reaction was investigated at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory in a time-dependent master equation framework. Comparisons with analogous cyclohexane or non-cyclic alkane reactions are presented. Our study suggests that beyond accurate quantum chemistry the inclusion of pressure dependence and especially that of formally direct kinetics is crucial even at pressures relevant for practical application.

  18. Cyclopentane combustion chemistry. Part I: Mechanism development and computational kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Mohamed, Samah; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Cycloalkanes are significant constituents of conventional fossil fuels, in which they are one of the main contributors to soot formation, but also significantly influence the ignition characteristics below ∼900K. This paper discusses the development of a detailed high- and low-temperature oxidation mechanism for cyclopentane, which is an important archetypical cycloalkane. The differences between cyclic and non-cyclic alkane chemistry, and thus the inapplicability of acyclic alkane analogies, required the detailed theoretical investigation of the kinetics of important cyclopentane oxidation reactions as part of the mechanism development. The cyclopentyl+O reaction was investigated at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory in a time-dependent master equation framework. Comparisons with analogous cyclohexane or non-cyclic alkane reactions are presented. Our study suggests that beyond accurate quantum chemistry the inclusion of pressure dependence and especially that of formally direct kinetics is crucial even at pressures relevant for practical application.

  19. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  20. A Research Module for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Multistep Synthesis of a Fluorous Dye Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Michael C; Raker, Jeffrey R; Kobilka, Brandon; Pohl, Nicola L B

    2014-01-14

    A multi-session research-like module has been developed for use in the undergraduate organic teaching laboratory curriculum. Students are tasked with planning and executing the synthesis of a novel fluorous dye molecule and using it to explore a fluorous affinity chromatography separation technique, which is the first implementation of this technique in a teaching laboratory. Key elements of the project include gradually introducing students to the use of the chemical literature to facilitate their searching, as well as deliberate constraints designed to force them to think critically about reaction design and optimization in organic chemistry. The project also introduces students to some advanced laboratory practices such as Schlenk techniques, degassing of reaction mixtures, affinity chromatography, and microwave-assisted chemistry. This provides students a teaching laboratory experience that closely mirrors authentic synthetic organic chemistry practice in laboratories throughout the world.

  1. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Andrew P. [PPPL; Bloom, Josh [PPPL; Albertson, Robert [PPPL; Gershman, Sophia [PPPL

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  2. Creative Report Writing in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Inspires Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henary, Maged; Owens, Eric A.; Tawney, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-based courses require students to compose reports based on the performed experiments to assess their overall understanding of the presented material; unfortunately, the sterile and formulated nature of the laboratory report disinterests most students. As a result, the outcome is a lower-quality product that does not reveal full…

  3. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  4. Exploring the Potential of Smartphones and Tablets for Performance Support in Food Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.; Hartog, R.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, mobile applications appear on the market that can support students in chemistry laboratory classes. In a multiple app-supported laboratory, each of these applications covers one use-case. In practice, this leads to situations in which information is scattered over different screens and

  5. Effect of Virtual Analytical Chemistry Laboratory on Enhancing Student Research Skills and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnik, Boris; Stozhko, Natalia; Pervukhina, Irina; Tchernysheva, Albina; Belysheva, Galina

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to determine the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on university student achievement. The article describes a model of a laboratory course that includes a virtual component. This virtual component is viewed as a tool of student pre-lab autonomous learning. It presents electronic resources designed for a virtual laboratory…

  6. Exploring the Potential of Smartphones and Tablets for Performance Support in Food Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Koos; Hartog, Rob; Beldman, Gerrit; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, mobile applications appear on the market that can support students in chemistry laboratory classes. In a multiple app-supported laboratory, each of these applications covers one use-case. In practice, this leads to situations in which information is scattered over different screens and written materials. Such a multiple app-supported…

  7. Solvent-Free Wittig Reaction: A Green Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sam H.; Angel, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Some Wittig reactions can be carried out by grinding the reactants in a mortar with a pestle for about 20 minutes, as per investigation. A laboratory experiment involving a solvent-free Wittig reaction that can be completed in a three-hour sophomore organic chemistry laboratory class period, are developed.

  8. Spectroscopy 101: A Practical Introduction to Spectroscopy and Analysis for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Lucas A.; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Garg, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory that provides an introduction to various spectroscopic techniques is reported. Whereas organic spectroscopy is most often learned and practiced in the context of reaction analyses, this laboratory experiment allows students to become comfortable with [superscript 1]H NMR, [superscript 13]C NMR, and IR…

  9. Investigating the Viability of a Competency-Based, Qualitative Laboratory Assessment Model in First-Year Undergraduate Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Reyne; Thickett, Stuart C.; Bissember, Alex C.

    2018-01-01

    In chemistry curricula, both the role of the laboratory program and the method of assessment used are subject to scrutiny and debate. The ability to identify clearly defined competencies for the chemistry laboratory program is crucial, given the numerous other disciplines that rely on foundation-level chemistry knowledge and practical skills. In…

  10. Analysis of the Effect of Sequencing Lecture and Laboratory Instruction on Student Learning and Motivation Towards Learning Chemistry in an Organic Chemistry Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhira, Deblina

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic chemistry concepts in the laboratory can positively affect student performance, learning new chemistry concepts and building motivation towards learning chemistry in the lecture. In this study, quantitative methods were employed to assess differences in student performance, learning, and motivation in an organic chemistry…

  11. Cross-disciplinary thermoregulation and sweat analysis laboratory experiences for undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines [chemistry (CHEM) and exercise physiology (EPHE)] combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis. Twenty-eight senior BSc Kinesiology (EPHE) students and 42 senior BSc CHEM students participated as part of their mutually exclusive, respective courses. The effectiveness of this laboratory environment was evaluated qualitatively using written comments collected from all students as well as from formal focus groups conducted after the CD laboratory with a representative cohort from each class (n = 16 CHEM students and 9 EPHE students). An open coding strategy was used to analyze the data from written feedback and focus group transcripts. Coding topics were generated and used to develop five themes found to be consistent for both groups of students. These themes reflected the common student perceptions that the CD experience was valuable and that students enjoyed being able to apply academic concepts to practical situations as well as the opportunity to interact with students from another discipline of study. However, students also reported some challenges throughout this experience that stemmed from the combination of laboratory groups from different disciplines with limited modification to the design of the original, pre-CD, learning environments. The results indicate that this laboratory created an effective learning opportunity that fostered student interest and enthusiasm for learning. The findings also provide information that could inform subsequent design and implementation of similar CD experiences to enhance engagement of all students and improve instructor efficacy.

  12. Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Course of action analysis has demonstrated that laboratory ... Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). ... samples with their corresponding request slips and any errors .... Frequent changes of health care.

  13. Part I: Virtual laboratory versus traditional laboratory: Which is more effective for teaching electrochemistry? Part II: The green synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian C.

    The role of the teaching laboratory in science education has been debated over the last century. The goals and purposes of the laboratory are still debated and while most science educators consider laboratory a vital part of the education process, they differ widely on the purposes for laboratory and what methods should be used to teach laboratory. One method of instruction, virtual labs, has become popular among some as a possible way of capitalizing on the benefits of lab in a less costly and more time flexible format. The research regarding the use of virtual labs is limited and the few studies that have been done on General Chemistry labs do not use the virtual labs as a substitute for hands-on experiences, but rather as a supplement to a traditional laboratory program. This research seeks to determine the possible viability of a virtual simulation to replace a traditional hands-on electrochemistry lab in the General Chemistry II course sequence. The data indicate that for both content knowledge and the development of hands-on skills the virtual lab showed no significant difference in overall scores on the assessments, but that an individual item related to the physical set-up of a battery showed better scores for the hands-on labs over the virtual labs. Further research should be done to determine if these results are similar in other settings with the use of different virtual labs and how the virtual labs compare to other laboratories using different learning styles and learning goals. One often cited purpose of laboratory experiences in the context of preparing chemists is to simulate the experiences common in chemical research so graduate experience in a research laboratory was a necessary part of my education in the field of laboratory instruction. This research experience provided me the opportunity, to complete an organic synthesis of aurones using a deep eutectic solvent. These solvents show unique properties that make them a viable alternative to ionic

  14. Students' perceptions of academic dishonesty in a chemistry classroom laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, Dawn Irene

    Academic dishonesty has been an important issue in the classroom for as long as the classroom has been in use. Most reports pertain to exams, homework, and plagiarism of term papers but, one area that has not been studied extensively is that of the classroom laboratory. My work focuses on three guiding questions: (1) What are students' perceptions toward academic dishonesty in a laboratory based class? (2) What distinction if any do students make between this type of academic dishonesty compared to dishonesty that may occur in a research laboratory? (3) How if at all do these perceptions change with age and/or research experience? Four major assertions come from this work. The first is that students do not think that what they do in the classroom laboratory is science and consequently do not treat the classroom laboratory differently than any other academic class. Additionally, they make a clear distinction between what happens in a class lab and what happens in a research or industrial lab. Consequently, students perceive there to be a significant difference in dishonesty between those two settings. Finally, this distinction is not as pronounced in graduate students and is seen as an element of maturity. In the process of determining the above assertions, students perceptions on the nature of science were revealed and are also discussed. These beliefs have direct relevance to students' perceptions of dishonesty in both lab atmospheres.

  15. Integration of Computational Chemistry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Brian J.; Hill, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in software and hardware have promoted the use of computational chemistry in all branches of chemical research to probe important chemical concepts and to support experimentation. Consequently, it has become imperative that students in the modern undergraduate curriculum become adept at performing simple calculations using computational…

  16. Hydrochemical investigation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Compilation of groundwater chemistry data in the Mizunami Group and the Toki Granite. Fiscal year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Kazuki; Munemoto, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Aosai, Daisuke; Inui, Michiharu

    2016-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the effect on excavating and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2014. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method, analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described. (author)

  17. Hydrochemical investigation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Compilation of groundwater chemistry data in the Mizunami group and the Toki granite. Fiscal year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Kazuki; Kato, Toshihiro; Munemoto, Takashi; Kubota, Mitsuru; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Aosai, Daisuke; Inui, Michiharu

    2017-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the effect of excavation and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2015. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method and analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described. (author)

  18. Hydrochemical investigation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Compilation of groundwater chemistry data in the Mizunami group and the Toki granite. Fiscal year 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Kazuaki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Munemoto, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Masuda, Kaoru; Aosai, Daisuke; Inui, Michiharu

    2014-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry to understand the effect on excavating and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2013. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method, analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described. (author)

  19. Hydrochemical investigation at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Compilation of groundwater chemistry data in Mizunami group and Toki granite. Fiscal year 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Kazuaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Shingu, Shinya; Masuda, Kaoru; Aosai, Daisuke; Inui, Michiharu

    2014-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been investigating groundwater chemistry on excavating and maintenance of underground facilities as part of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project in Mizunami, Gifu, Japan. In this report, we compiled data of groundwater chemistry obtained at the MIU in the fiscal year 2012. In terms of ensuring traceability of data, basic information (e.g. sampling location, sampling time, sampling method, analytical method) and methodology for quality control are described. (author)

  20. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  1. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  2. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  3. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 1, Administrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Covered are: analytical laboratory operations (ALO) sample receipt and control, ALO data report/package preparation review and control, single shell tank (PST) project sample tracking system, sample receiving, analytical balances, duties and responsibilities of sample custodian, sample refrigerator temperature monitoring, security, assignment of staff responsibilities, sample storage, data reporting, and general requirements for glassware.

  4. Pharmaceutical process chemistry: evolution of a contemporary data-rich laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Stéphane; Thomson, Nicholas M

    2015-03-20

    Over the past 20 years, the industrial laboratory environment has gone through a major transformation in the industrial process chemistry setting. In order to discover and develop robust and efficient syntheses and processes for a pharmaceutical portfolio with growing synthetic complexity and increased regulatory expectations, the round-bottom flask and other conventional equipment familiar to a traditional organic chemistry laboratory are being replaced. The new process chemistry laboratory fosters multidisciplinary collaborations by providing a suite of tools capable of delivering deeper process understanding through mechanistic insights and detailed kinetics translating to greater predictability at scale. This transformation is essential to the field of organic synthesis in order to promote excellence in quality, safety, speed, and cost efficiency in synthesis.

  5. The Influence of Collaborative Learning on Student Attitudes and Performance in an Introductory Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Zimmaro, Dawn M.

    2002-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of collaborative learning on student attitudes and performance in an introductory chemistry laboratory. Two sections per semester for three semesters were randomly designated as either a control section or an experimental section. Students in the control section performed most labs individually, while those in the experimental section performed all labs in groups of four. Both quantitative and qualitative measures were used to evaluate the impact of collaborative learning on student achievement and attitudes. Grades did not differ between the two sections, indicating that collaborative learning did not affect short-term student achievement. Students seemed to develop a more positive attitude about the laboratory and about chemistry in the collaborative learning sections as judged from their classroom evaluations of the teacher, the course, and the collaborative learning experience. The use of collaborative learning in the laboratory as described in this paper therefore may provide a means of improving student attitudes toward chemistry.

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  7. Radiation chemistry at the Metallurgical Laboratory, Manhattan Project, University of Chicago (1942-1947) and the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (1947-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The events in radiation chemistry which occurred in the Manhattan Project Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory during World War II are reviewed. Research programmes from then until the present day are presented, with emphasis on pulse radiolysis studies. (UK)

  8. Water chemistry and phytoplankton field and laboratory procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.O.; Simmons, M.S. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this manual is to serve as a guide for persons using these techniques in water quality studies and as a written record of the methods used in this laboratory at this time. It is anticipated that the manual will be updated frequently as new methods are added and the present ones are further refined. The present methods are all used routinely and have been in regular use for a year or longer. This manual is specifically written as a guide for the collection and analysis of lake water samples from the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, all of the analytical methods are easily adapted for laboratory culture or small lake studies. The descriptions contained in this manual are designed primarily as users guides oriented to the equipment available at the Great Lakes Research Division, and as most of the methods are taken from the literature, the reader is referred to the original articles for a more detailed discussion of the methods.

  9. Laboratory studies of nitrate radical chemistry - application to atmospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noremsaune, Ingse

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies atmospheric chemistry and tries in particular to fill gaps in the data base of atmospheric reactions. It studies the nitrate radical reactions with chloroethenes and with but-2-yne (2-butyne). The mechanisms and rate coefficients for the NO{sub 3}-initiated degradation of the chloroethenes and 2-butyne were investigated by means of the static reaction chamber and the fast flow-discharge technique. The reactions between the nitrate radical and the chloroethenes were studied at atmospheric pressure in a reaction chamber with synthetic air as bath gas. FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy) spectroscopy was used to follow the reactions and to identify the products. Products were observed for the reactions with (E)-1,2-dichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, although the absorption bands are weak. The alkyl peroxynitrate and nitrate compounds form very strong and characteristic absorption bands. The rate coefficients for the reactions between NO{sub 3} and the chloroethenes were investigated at room temperature by three different methods. The results are given in tables. 132 refs., 44 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. "No one does this for fun": Contextualization and process writing in an organic chemistry laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Andrea

    This study investigated the introduction of curriculum innovations into an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. Pre-existing experiments in a traditional course were re-written in a broader societal context. Additionally, a new laboratory notebook methodology was introduced, using the Decision/Explanation/Observation/Inference (DEOI) format that required students to explicitly describe the purpose of procedural steps and the meanings of observations. Experts in organic chemistry, science writing, and chemistry education examined the revised curriculum and deemed it appropriate. The revised curriculum was introduced into two sections of organic chemistry laboratory at Columbia University. Field notes were taken during the course, students and teaching assistants were interviewed, and completed student laboratory reports were examined to ascertain the impact of the innovations. The contextualizations were appreciated for making the course more interesting; for lending a sense of purpose to the study of chemistry; and for aiding in students' learning. Both experts and students described a preference for more extensive connections between the experiment content and the introduced context. Generally, students preferred the DEOI method to journal-style laboratory reports believing it to be more efficient and more focused on thinking than stylistic formalities. The students claimed that the DEOI method aided their understanding of the experiments and helped scaffold their thinking, though some students thought that the method was over-structured and disliked the required pre-laboratory work. The method was used in two distinct manners; recursively writing and revising as intended and concept contemplation only after experiment completion. The recursive use may have been influenced by TA attitudes towards the revisions and seemed to engender a sense of preparedness. Students' engagement with the contextualizations and the DEOI method highlight the need for

  11. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O.

    2009-01-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  12. Laboratory Activity Worksheet to Train High Order Thinking Skill of Student on Surface Chemistry Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonata, B.; Nasrudin, H.

    2018-01-01

    A worksheet has to be a set with activity which is help students to arrange their own experiments. For this reason, this research is focused on how to train students’ higher order thinking skills in laboratory activity by developing laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture. To ensure that the laboratory activity worksheet already contains aspects of the higher order thinking skill, it requires theoretical and empirical validation. From the data analysis results, it shows that the developed worksheet worth to use. The worksheet is worthy of theoretical and empirical feasibility. This conclusion is based on the findings: 1) Assessment from the validators about the theoretical feasibility aspects in the category is very feasible with an assessment range of 95.24% to 97.92%. 2) students’ higher thinking skill from N Gain values ranges from 0.50 (enough) to 1.00 (high) so it can be concluded that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture is empirical in terms of worth. The empirical feasibility is supported by the responses of the students in very reasonable categories. It is expected that the laboratory activity worksheet on surface chemistry lecture can train students’ high order thinking skills for students who program surface chemistry lecture.

  13. Use of Laboratory Data to Model Interstellar Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Gianfranco; Roser, J. E.; Manico, G.; Pirronello, V.

    2006-01-01

    Our laboratory research program is about the formation of molecules on dust grains analogues in conditions mimicking interstellar medium environments. Using surface science techniques, in the last ten years we have investigated the formation of molecular hydrogen and other molecules on different types of dust grain analogues. We analyzed the results to extract quantitative information on the processes of molecule formation on and ejection from dust grain analogues. The usefulness of these data lies in the fact that these results have been employed by theoreticians in models of the chemical evolution of ISM environments.

  14. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.

  15. Secondary School Chemistry Teacher's Current Use of Laboratory Activities and the Impact of Expense on Their Laboratory Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Livermore, Robin A.

    2018-01-01

    In the United States with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)'s emphasis on learning science while doing science, laboratory activities in the secondary school chemistry continues to be an important component of a strong curriculum. Laboratory equipment and consumable materials create a unique expense which chemistry teachers and schools…

  16. Tracer chemistry in the laboratory and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, F.S.

    1994-01-01

    The steady bombardment of the Earth's atmosphere by cosmic radiation induces numerous radioactive species in the atmosphere of which the best known are 14 C and T. Others of interest include 7 Be, 10 Be, and several isotopes of chlorine. The eventual formation of 14 CO 2 and its subsequent significance for archaeological dating were brilliantly established by Willard Libby in the 1940s. However, the initial reactions of nascent 14 C in a mixture of N 2 and O 2 produce 14 CO, as shown first in the lab. and then in the atmosphere. Because cosmic ray production rates are essentially constant in a given location, the observed concentration of 14 CO provides an excellent tool for studying the removal process, oxidation by HO to form 14 CO 2 . Because 14 CO 2 becomes incorporated into all living biological species, other molecules become labeled with 14 C as well, including 14 CH 4 . Measurement of the 14 C radioactivity of such molecules in the atmosphere allows apportionment of sources between biological and fossil fuel origins. Tritium atoms are also formed by cosmic radiation, and can subsequently be incorporated into the chemical forms HT and HTO. Although most T atoms from cosmic radiation are found as HTO, the much higher specific radioactivity of HT provides interesting insights into atmospheric processes. Lab. studies furnish important clues for understanding the atmospheric routes. The differences in radioactive half-lives cause the terrestrial locations of cosmic ray induced 7 Be and 10 Be to be primarily the atmosphere and the oceans, respectively. In a comparable manner, the chemistry of atmospheric radiochlorine divides between the very long-lived 36 Cl and three isotopes with half-lives less than an hour, 34m Cl, 38 Cl and 39 Cl

  17. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  18. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  19. First Year Chemistry Laboratory Courses for Distance Learners: Development and Transfer Credit Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Brewer,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In delivering chemistry courses by distance, a key challenge is to offer the learner an authentic and meaningful laboratory experience that still provides the rigour required to continue on in science. To satisfy this need, two distance general chemistry laboratory courses appropriate for Bachelor of Science (B.Sc. students, including chemistry majors, have been recently developed at Thompson Rivers University. A constructive alignment process was employed which clearly mapped learning outcomes and activities to appropriate assessment tools. These blended laboratory courses feature custom, home experimental kits and combine elements of online and hands-on learning. The courses were designed for flexible continuous enrollment and provide online resources including tutor support, instructional videos, lab report submission, and student evaluation. The assessment of students includes laboratory reports, safety quizzes, reflective journaling, digital photo documentation, and invigilated written and online practical exams. Emphasizing the quality and rigour in these distance laboratory learning experiences allowed both courses to be accepted for B.Sc. transfer credit by other institutions, an important criterion for students. This paper will outline the design and development process of these new blended laboratory courses, their course structures and assessments, and initial student results.

  20. Development of an Assessment Tool to Measure Students' Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory necessitates an understanding of students' perspectives of learning. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning states that the cognitive (thinking), affective (feeling), and psychomotor (doing) domains must be integrated for meaningful learning to occur. The psychomotor domain is the…

  1. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  2. Incorporating Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences into Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Melissa A.; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    A continuous effort within an undergraduate university setting is to improve students' learning outcomes and thus improve students' attitudes about a particular field of study. This is undoubtedly relevant within a chemistry laboratory. This paper reports the results of an effort to introduce a problem-based learning strategy into the analytical…

  3. Stepwise Inquiry into Hard Water in a High School Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisako, Mami; Nishikawa, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Masayoshi; Harada, Kana S.; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the design of a learning program to introduce complexometric titration as a method for determining water hardness in a high school chemistry laboratory. Students are introduced to the different properties and reactions of hard water in a stepwise manner so that they gain the necessary chemical knowledge and conceptual…

  4. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  5. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  6. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  7. Analytical capabilities and services of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.; Crawford, R.

    1978-01-01

    This comprehensive guide to the analytical capabilities of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's General Chemistry Division describes each analytical method in terms of its principle, field of application, and qualitative and quantitative uses. Also described are the state and quantity of sample required for analysis, processing time, available instrumentation, and responsible personnel

  8. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  9. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  10. Visualizing Molecular Chirality in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Maia; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Hartley, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Although stereochemistry is an important topic in second-year undergraduate organic chemistry, there are limited options for laboratory activities that allow direct visualization of macroscopic chiral phenomena. A novel, guided-inquiry experiment was developed that allows students to explore chirality in the context of cholesteric liquid crystals.…

  11. Virtual Laboratory in the Role of Dynamic Visualisation for Better Understanding of Chemistry in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herga, Nataša Rizman; Cagran, Branka; Dinevski, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding chemistry includes the ability to think on three levels: the macroscopic level, the symbolic level, and the level of particles--sub-microscopic level. Pupils have the most difficulty when trying to understand the sub-microscopic level because it is outside their range of experience. A virtual laboratory enables a simultaneous…

  12. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  13. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  14. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  15. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  16. Peer Mentor Program for the General Chemistry Laboratory Designed to Improve Undergraduate STEM Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkaci, Fehmi; Braun, Timothy F.; Gublo, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an undergraduate peer mentor program that can overlay an existing general chemistry laboratory and is designed to improve STEM student retention. For the first four freshman cohorts going through the program, year-to-year retention improved by a four-year average of 20% for students in peer-mentored…

  17. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  18. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  19. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  20. Using Green Chemistry Principles as a Framework to Incorporate Research into the Organic Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy E.; Gurney, Rich; Soltzberg, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accepted pedagogical value of integrating research into the laboratory curriculum, this approach has not been widely adopted. The activation barrier to this change is high, especially in organic chemistry, where a large number of students are required to take this course, special glassware or setups may be needed, and dangerous…

  1. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  2. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  3. Research in the Laboratory of Supramolecular Chemistry: functional nanostructures, sensors, and catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Kay

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes research activities in the Laboratory of Supramolecular Chemistry (LCS) at the EPFL. Three topics will be discussed: a) the construction of functional nanostructures by multicomponent self-assembly processes, b) the development of chemosensors using specific receptors or ensembles of crossreactive sensors, and c) the investigation of novel synthetic procedures with organometallic catalysts.

  4. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  5. Developing and Implementing a Simple, Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Laboratory in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klara, Kristina; Hou, Ning; Lawman, Allison; Wu, Liheng; Morrill, Drew; Tente, Alfred; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2014-01-01

    A simple, affordable hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell laboratory was developed through a collaborative effort between faculty and undergraduate students at Brown University. It has been incorporated into the introductory chemistry curriculum and successfully implemented in a class of over 500 students per academic year for over 3…

  6. Formalizing the First Day in an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using a Studio-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Christina G.; Cody, Jeremy; Smith, Darren; Swartzenberg, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A novel studio-based lab module that incorporates student-centered activities was designed and implemented to introduce second-year undergraduate students to the first-semester organic chemistry laboratory. The "First Day" studio module incorporates learning objectives for the course, lab safety, and keeping a professional lab notebook.

  7. Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geris, Regina; Santos, Nadia Alessandra Carmo dos; Amaral, Bruno Andrade; Maia, Isabelle de Souza; Castro, Vinicius Dourado; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas. (author)

  8. Implementation of Argument-Driven Inquiry as an Instructional Model in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadayifci, Hakki; Yalcin-Celik, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) as an instructional model in a general chemistry laboratory course. The study was conducted over the course of ten experimental sessions with 125 pre-service science teachers. The participants' level of reflective thinking about the ADI activities, changes in their science…

  9. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  10. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  11. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  12. Educational laboratory experiments on chemistry in a nuclear engineering school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, E.

    1982-01-01

    An educational laboratory experiment on radiochemistry was investigated by students in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Most of them are not chemical engineers, but electrical and mechanical engineers. Therefore, the educational experiment was designed for them by introducing a ''word experiment'' in the initial stage and by reducing the chemical procedure as far as possible. It began with calculations on a simple solvent extraction process-the ''word experiment''--followed by the chemical separation of 144 Pr from 144 Ce with tri-n-butyl phosphate in a nitric acid system and then measurement of the radioactive decay and growth of the separated 144 Pr and 144 Ce, respectively. The chemical procedure was explained by the phenomenon but not by the mechanism of chelation. Most students thought the experiment was an exercise in solvent extraction or radiochemical separation rather than a radioactive equilibrium experiment. However, a pure chemist considered it as a sort of physical experiment, where the chemical procedure was used only for preparation of measuring samples. Another experiment, where 137 Cs was measured after isolation with ammonium phosphomolybdate, was also investigated. The experiment eliminated the need for students who were not chemists to know how to use radioactive tracers. These students appreciated the realization that they could understand the radioactivity in the environmental samples in a chemical frame of reference even though they were not chemists

  13. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  14. Focusing on the Hard parts: A Biomechanics Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Orbe, Kristina; Flynn, Daniel; Habdas, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at both upper-division Biology and Physics majors, this laboratory exercise introduces students to the ingenious ways in which organisms vary the composition and form of support and defensive structures such as bone and shell to maximize their strength while minimizing the energetic cost needed to produce…

  15. Project-Based Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Using EPA Methods to Guide Student Method Development for Pesticide Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…

  16. An approach to quality and performance control in a computer-assisted clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undrill, P E; Frazer, S C

    1979-01-01

    A locally developed, computer-based clinical chemistry laboratory system has been in operation since 1970. This utilises a Digital Equipment Co Ltd PDP 12 and an interconnected PDP 8/F computer. Details are presented of the performance and quality control techniques incorporated into the system. Laboratory performance is assessed through analysis of results from fixed-level control sera as well as from cumulative sum methods. At a simple level the presentation may be considered purely indicative, while at a more sophisticated level statistical concepts have been introduced to aid the laboratory controller in decision-making processes. PMID:438340

  17. Effect of virtual analytical chemistry laboratory on enhancing student research skills and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bortnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine the effect of a virtual chemistry laboratory on university student achievement. The article describes a model of a laboratory course that includes a virtual component. This virtual component is viewed as a tool of student pre-lab autonomous learning. It presents electronic resources designed for a virtual laboratory and outlines the methodology of e-resource application. To find out how virtual chemistry laboratory affects student scientific literacy, research skills and practices, a pedagogical experiment has been conducted. Student achievement was compared in two learning environments: traditional – in-class hands-on – learning (control group and blended learning – online learning combined with in-person learning (experimental group. The effectiveness of integrating an e-lab in the laboratory study was measured by comparing student lab reports of the two groups. For that purpose, a set of 10 criteria was developed. The experimental and control student groups were also compared in terms of test results and student portfolios. The study showed that the adopted approach blending both virtual and hands-on learning environments has the potential to enhance student research skills and practices in analytical chemistry studies.

  18. How tests of lubricating and transformer oils became part of power plant chemistry in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils based on refined crude oil are used in nearly all power station components, such as gear, turbines, hydraulic stations, feed pumps and transformers. The function of these components totally depends on the condition of the oils and their properties. Seen from this point one may wonder why examination and evaluation of oils did not become part of the power station chemistry within the ELSAM utility area until during the middle of the eighties. We started to examine the properties of lubricating oils at the time when several steam turbines experienced serious problems with formation of deposits in their hydraulic control circuits. This work was intensified in connection with the significant number of CHPs and wind turbines erected within the Danish electricity sector during the past 10 years or so. The majority of the CHPs are natural gas fired turbines or motors, equipment which severely stresses the lubricating oil. In collaboration with KEMA, the Netherlands, we have carried through with a large examination of lubricating oils in gas turbines and we have found suitable oil types. The objectives of our work with lubricating and transformer oils have been to link together the laboratory measurements with operational experience. Only by doing this is it possible to utilize the laboratory measurements in a correct way. It must be remembered that the main part of all oil specifications concerns the properties of new oils. Only very little is published about the requirements concerning used oils. (EG)

  19. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMurray, Janet

    2010-07-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re-registration are presented as an Appendix at the end of the article.

  20. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: Code of Conduct, Version 2--2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMurray, Janet

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Européen des Professions Libérales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008.

  1. Minimum Analytical Chemistry Requirements for Pit Manufacturing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, Ming M.; Leasure, Craig S.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is one of several capabilities necessary for executing the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Analytical chemistry capabilities reside in the Chemistry Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility and Plutonium Facility (TA-55). These analytical capabilities support plutonium recovery operations, plutonium metallurgy, and waste management. Analytical chemistry capabilities at both nuclear facilities are currently being configured to support pit manufacturing. This document summarizes the minimum analytical chemistry capabilities required to sustain pit manufacturing at LANL. By the year 2004, approximately$16 million will be required to procure analytical instrumentation to support pit manufacturing. In addition,$8.5 million will be required to procure glovebox enclosures. An estimated 50% increase in costs has been included for installation of analytical instruments and glovebox enclosures. However, no general and administrative (G and A) taxes have been included. If an additional 42.5/0 G and A tax were to be incurred, approximately$35 million would be required over the next five years to prepare analytical chemistry to support a 50-pit-per-year manufacturing capability by the year 2004

  2. The effectiveness of computer-generated 3D animations in inquiry chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Rachel Morgan

    It has been shown that students need a molecular-level understanding of substances in order to comprehend chemistry. For solid structures, atomic-level understanding requires students to learn additional and different concepts than for other states of matter. To aid understanding, animations were created to model unit cell structures and depict the properties of unit cells. In order to determine if these animations are helpful to students, they were tested during a laboratory exercise in which students had previously been using model kits and images from textbooks to learn about solid structures. Students evaluated in this study were from two lecture sections of general chemistry, one that routinely used animations during lecture and one that used a more traditional lecture format that did not include animations or models. Twelve laboratory sections of these lectures, taught by six different instructors each teaching two sections, were chosen for participation. One section for each instructor was given the animations as an optional tool for completing the laboratory assignment, which consisted of questions about unit cells and crystal structures. The results of the study indicate that students who looked at the animations performed significantly better on the assignment. For the control group, students who routinely viewed multiple representations of chemistry in lecture performed significantly better on the lab assignment than students in the lecture section where chemistry concepts were only presented on the chalkboard and overhead projector. Students in the traditional lecture section also had significantly less appreciation for the model kits used in the laboratory than students in the other lecture section. Observations of students in the lab combined with statistical results led to the revision of the solid structures investigation. Additional animations were created and inserted into the module that covered areas where students indicated more help was needed

  3. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. 50th anniversary of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine--a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession.

  5. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  6. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no.19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1985 through March 31, 1986. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 86-051. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  7. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (no. 20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1986 through March 31, 1987. The latest report, for 1985, is JAERI-M 87-046. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  8. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1980 through March 31, 1981. The latest report, for 1980, is JAERI-M 9214. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  9. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1981 through March 31, 1982. The latest report, for 1981, is JAERI-M 9856. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  10. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1978 through March 31, 1979. The latest report, for 1978, is JAERI-M 7949. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  11. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1983 through March 31, 1984. The latest report, for 1983, is JAERI-M 83-199. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  12. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique.

  13. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique

  14. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1979 through March 31, 1980. The latest report, for 1979, is JAERI-M 8569. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  15. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1975 through March 31, 1976. The latest report, for 1975, is JAERI-M 6260. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and drafting. (auth.)

  16. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 18)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1984 through March 31, 1985. The latest report, for 1984, is JAERI-M 84-239. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations; polymerization under the irradiation of electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  17. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1976 through March 31, 1977. The latest report, for 1976, is JAERI-M 6702. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (auth.)

  18. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (no. 16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1982 through March 31, 1983. The latest report, for 1982, is JAERI-M 82-192. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide, water and methane; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  19. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (no. 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1977 through March 31, 1978. The latest report, for 1977, is JAERI-M 7355. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: studies on reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers, degradation, cross-linking, and grafting. (author)

  20. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (No. 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    This report describes research activities in Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the one year period from April 1, 1974 through March 31, 1975. The major research field covers the following subjects: studies related to reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; polymerization studies under the irradiation of high dose rate electron beams; modification of polymers; fundamental studies on polymerization, degradation, crosslinking, and grafting. (auth.)

  1. Error identification in a high-volume clinical chemistry laboratory: Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib; Ghani, Farooq; Shakeel, Shahid; Raheem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Imran

    2015-07-01

    Quality indicators for assessing the performance of a laboratory require a systematic and continuous approach in collecting and analyzing data. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of errors utilizing the quality indicators in a clinical chemistry laboratory and to convert errors to the Sigma scale. Five-year quality indicator data of a clinical chemistry laboratory was evaluated to describe the frequency of errors. An 'error' was defined as a defect during the entire testing process from the time requisition was raised and phlebotomy was done until the result dispatch. An indicator with a Sigma value of 4 was considered good but a process for which the Sigma value was 5 (i.e. 99.977% error-free) was considered well controlled. In the five-year period, a total of 6,792,020 specimens were received in the laboratory. Among a total of 17,631,834 analyses, 15.5% were from within hospital. Total error rate was 0.45% and of all the quality indicators used in this study the average Sigma level was 5.2. Three indicators - visible hemolysis, failure of proficiency testing and delay in stat tests - were below 5 on the Sigma scale and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these processes. Using Six Sigma metrics quality in a clinical laboratory can be monitored more effectively and it can set benchmarks for improving efficiency.

  2. Exploring the Potential of Smartphones and Tablets for Performance Support in Food Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Koos; Hartog, Rob; Beldman, Gerrit; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, mobile applications appear on the market that can support students in chemistry laboratory classes. In a multiple app-supported laboratory, each of these applications covers one use-case. In practice, this leads to situations in which information is scattered over different screens and written materials. Such a multiple app-supported laboratory will become awkward with the growth of the number of applications and use cases. In particular, using and switching between applications is likely to induce extraneous cognitive load that can easily be avoided. The manuscript describes the design of a prototype smartphone web app (LabBuddy) designed to support students in food chemistry laboratory classes. The manuscript describes a case study ( n = 26) of the use of a LabBuddy prototype in such a laboratory class. Based on the evaluation of this case study, design requirements for LabBuddy were articulated. LabBuddy should work on HTML5 capable devices, independent of screen size, by having a responsive layout. In addition, LabBuddy should enable a student using LabBuddy to switch between devices without much effort. Finally, LabBuddy should offer an integrated representation of information.

  3. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  4. Evaluating laboratory key performance using quality indicators in Alexandria University Hospital Clinical Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mostafa M; Zaki, Adel; Hossam, Nermine; Aboul-Ela, Yasmin

    2014-12-01

    The performance of clinical laboratories plays a fundamental role in the quality and effectiveness of healthcare. To evaluate the laboratory performance in Alexandria University Hospital Clinical Laboratories using key quality indicators and to compare the performance before and after an improvement plan based on ISO 15189 standards. The study was carried out on inpatient samples for a period of 7 months that was divided into three phases: phase I included data collection for evaluation of the existing process before improvement (March-May 2012); an intermediate phase, which included corrective, preventive action, quality initiative and steps for improvement (June 2012); and phase II, which included data collection for evaluation of the process after improvement (July 2012-September 2012). In terms of the preanalytical indicators, incomplete request forms in phase I showed that the total number of received requests were 31 944, with a percentage of defected request of 33.66%; whereas in phase II, there was a significant reduction in all defected request items (Plaboratories.

  5. Groundwater chemistry, storage and dynamics in parts of Jigawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fractures in the fresh basement are inte certain depth. Wright and Burgess weathering profile grade for the basement rocks of Kano State; they identified three water .... Flame photometer was used to analysed the. Cations in the laboratory. One litre Plastic containers were used for the collection of water samples in the field.

  6. Chemistry, Courtrooms, and Common Sense. Part I: Negligence and Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J. Ric

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are concepts involved in legal liability for laboratory accidents. The focus of this article is on negligence, duty, and responsibility issues. Highlighted are the basis of a lawsuit, negligent tort, duty and breech of duty, and cause and harm. Thirty-one cases are cited. (CW)

  7. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for instrumental analytical chemistry lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurweni, Wibawa, Basuki; Erwin, Tuti Nurian

    2017-08-01

    The framework for teaching and learning in the 21st century was prepared with 4Cs criteria. Learning providing opportunity for the development of students' optimal creative skills is by implementing collaborative learning. Learners are challenged to be able to compete, work independently to bring either individual or group excellence and master the learning material. Virtual laboratory is used for the media of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry (Vis, UV-Vis-AAS etc) lectures through simulations computer application and used as a substitution for the laboratory if the equipment and instruments are not available. This research aims to design and develop collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures, to know the effectiveness of this design model adapting the Dick & Carey's model and Hannafin & Peck's model. The development steps of this model are: needs analyze, design collaborative-creative learning, virtual laboratory media using macromedia flash, formative evaluation and test of learning model effectiveness. While, the development stages of collaborative-creative learning model are: apperception, exploration, collaboration, creation, evaluation, feedback. Development of collaborative-creative learning model using virtual laboratory media can be used to improve the quality learning in the classroom, overcome the limitation of lab instruments for the real instrumental analysis. Formative test results show that the Collaborative-Creative Learning Model developed meets the requirements. The effectiveness test of students' pretest and posttest proves significant at 95% confidence level, t-test higher than t-table. It can be concluded that this learning model is effective to use for Instrumental Analytical Chemistry lectures.

  8. Effectiveness of Podcasts Delivered on Mobile Devices as a Support for Student Learning during General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Mason, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry instructors in teaching laboratories provide expert modeling of techniques and cognitive processes and provide assistance to enrolled students that may be described as scaffolding interaction. Such student support is particularly essential in laboratories taught with an inquiry-based curriculum. In a teaching laboratory with a high…

  9. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  10. A comparison of two microscale laboratory reporting methods in a secondary chemistry classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lance Michael

    This study attempted to determine if there was a difference between the laboratory achievement of students who used a modified reporting method and those who used traditional laboratory reporting. The study also determined the relationships between laboratory performance scores and the independent variables score on the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test, chronological age in months, gender, and ethnicity for each of the treatment groups. The study was conducted using 113 high school students who were enrolled in first-year general chemistry classes at Pueblo South High School in Colorado. The research design used was the quasi-experimental Nonequivalent Control Group Design. The statistical treatment consisted of the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Analysis of Covariance. Based on the GALT, students in the two groups were generally in the concrete and transitional stages of the Piagetian cognitive levels. The findings of the study revealed that the traditional and the modified methods of laboratory reporting did not have any effect on the laboratory performance outcome of the subjects. However, the students who used the traditional method of reporting showed a higher laboratory performance score when evaluation was conducted using the New Standards rubric recommended by the state. Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed traditional laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables. On the contrary, there was no significant relationship between the criterion variable student laboratory performance outcome of individuals who employed modified laboratory reporting methods and the composite set of predictor variables.

  11. Basic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories: ACTILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K; Konashi, K; Fujii, T; Uehara, A; Nagasaki, S; Ohtori, N; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S

    2010-01-01

    Basic research in actinide chemistry and physics is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. Actinides, especially minor actinides of americium and curium, need to be handled in special facilities with containment and radiation shields. To promote and facilitate actinide research, close cooperation with the facilities and sharing of technical and scientific information must be very important and effective. A three-year-program B asic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories , ACTILAB, was started to form the basis of sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. In this program, research on actinide solid-state physics, solution chemistry and solid-liquid interface chemistry is made using four main facilities in Japan in close cooperation with each other, where basic experiments with transuranium elements can be made. The 17 O-NMR measurements were performed on (Pu 0.91 Am 0.09 )O 2 to study the electronic state and the chemical behaviour of Am and Cm ions in electrolyte solutions was studied by distribution experiments.

  12. Effectiveness of Student-Generated Video as a Teaching Tool for an Instrumental Technique in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy T.; Box, Melinda C.; Eguren, Kristen E.; Parker, Thomas A.; Saraldi-Gallardo, Victoria M.; Wolfe, Michael I.; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia instruction has been shown to serve as an effective learning aid for chemistry students. In this study, the viability of student-generated video instruction for organic chemistry laboratory techniques and procedure was examined and its effectiveness compared to instruction provided by a teaching assistant (TA) was evaluated. After…

  13. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  14. Nanoparticle Synthesis, Characterization, and Ecotoxicity: A Research-Based Set of Laboratory Experiments for a General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaris, Zoe N.; Freitas, Daniel N.; Mac, Karen; Gerner, Kyle T.; Nameth, Catherine; Wheeler, Korin E.

    2017-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were developed to introduce first-year chemistry students to nanoscience through a green chemistry approach. Students made and characterized the stability of silver nanoparticles using two different methods: UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. They then assessed the ecotoxicity of silver…

  15. Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

  16. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  17. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  18. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  19. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  20. Groundwater chemistry, storage and dynamics in parts of Jigawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sedimentary (Chad formation) and Basement complex rocks in parts of Jigawa State were investigated for groundwater suitability for drinking, efficiency in water transmission and storage using aquifer properties derived from pumping test data using the Cooper and Jacob straight line method for single well tests.

  1. Towars a chemical reagents and residues management at the teaching laboratories of the Chemistry School of the Universidad Nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Benavides Benavides; Xinia Vargas González; Gustavo Chaves Barboza; José Ángel Rodríguez Corrales

    2016-01-01

    The academic activities carried out at the School of Chemistry make indispensable to develop actions oriented toward the consolidation of a reagent and residue management system, especially in the teaching laboratories. The project “Management of reagents and residues in the teaching laboratories of the School of Chemistry” works under the Green Chemistry values which designs products and chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and production of dangerous substances, to benefit th...

  2. Application of failure mode and effects analysis in a clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hongmin; Ding, Siyi; Liu, Qin

    2015-08-25

    Timely delivery of correct results has long been considered as the goal of quality management in clinical laboratory. With increasing workload as well as complexities of laboratory testing and patient care, the traditional technical adopted like internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA) may not enough to cope with quality management problems for clinical laboratories. We applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, to reduce errors associated with the process beginning with sample collection and ending with a test report in a clinical chemistry laboratory. Our main objection was to investigate the feasibility of FMEA in a real-world situation, namely the working environment of hospital. A team of 8 people (3 laboratory workers, 2 couriers, 2 nurses, and 1 physician) from different departments who were involved in the testing process were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible clinical chemistry laboratory failures based on three aspects: the severity of the outcome (S), the likeliness of occurrence (O), and the probability of being detected (D). These three parameters were multiplied to calculate risk priority numbers (RPNs), which were used to prioritize remedial measures. Failure modes with RPN≥200 were deemed as high risk, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications that were put, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. A total of 33 failure modes were identified. Many of the failure modes, including the one with the highest RPN (specimen hemolysis) appeared in the pre-analytic phase, whereas no high-risk failure modes (RPN≥200) were found during the analytic phase. High-priority risks were "sample hemolysis" (RPN, 336), "sample delivery delay" (RPN, 225), "sample volume error" (RPN, 210), "failure to release results in a timely manner" (RPN, 210), and "failure to identify or report critical results" (RPN, 200). The

  3. Part I: Virtual Laboratory versus Traditional Laboratory: Which Is More Effective for Teaching Electrochemistry? Part II: The Green Synthesis of Aurones Using a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the teaching laboratory in science education has been debated over the last century. The goals and purposes of the laboratory are still debated and while most science educators consider laboratory a vital part of the education process, they differ widely on the purposes for laboratory and what methods should be used to teach…

  4. PHENOMENOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO STUDY LEARNING IN THE TERTIARY LEVEL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Sandi-Urena

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread notion amongst chemistry educators that the laboratory is essential to learn chemistry, it is often a neglected area of teaching and, arguably, of educational research. Research has typically focused on secondary education, single institutions, and isolated interventions that are mostly assessed quantitatively. It has also honed in on compartmentalised features instead of searching understanding of broader aspects of learning through experimentation. This paper contends there is a gap in subject specific, tertiary level research that is comprehensive and learning-centred instead of fragmented and instruction-based. A shift in focus requires consideration of methodological approaches that can effectively tackle the challenges of researching complex learning environments. This paper reckons qualitative approaches, specifically phenomenology, are better suited for this purpose. To illustrate this potential, it summarises an exemplar phenomenological study that investigated students’ experience of change in instructional style from an expository (traditional laboratory program to one that was cooperative and project-based (reformed. The study suggests the experience was characterised by a transition from a learning environment that promoted mindless behaviour to one in which students were mindfully engaged in their learning. Thus, this work puts forth the use of Mindfulness Theory to investigate and support design of laboratory experiences.

  5. Students' Perception of Self-Efficacy Following Medicinal Chemistry Skills Laboratory Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Roche, Victoria F; Qi, Yongyue

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To analyze student perceptions of self-efficacy in meeting medicinal chemistry course related educational outcomes and skills following a medicinal chemistry skills laboratory. Methods. Four activities were implemented in a pharmacy skills laboratory (PSL) for second-year pharmacy students. Students (n=121) worked individually on exercises for three of the four activities. Pre/post-laboratory surveys on self-efficacy were administered. The McNemar test was performed to evaluate students' self-efficacy above 70% related to course outcomes before and after the exercises in each activity. An independent t test was conducted to compare the mean of students' responses on meeting course outcomes based on the 70% anchor for the perspective confidence on meeting course outcomes. Results. The post-PSL scores on all self-efficacy questions improved. The majority of students reported skill development in all exercises. Students and clinical faculty qualitative responses indicated they felt exercises were effective. Conclusion. A PSL can serve as a valuable opportunity to address course related educational outcomes and specific skill development and can help students assess their self-efficacy in meeting them.

  6. Evolved stars as complex chemical laboratories - the quest for gaseous chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    At the end of their life, most stars lose a large fraction of their mass through a stellar wind. The stellar winds of evolved (super)giant stars are the dominant suppliers for the pristine building blocks of the interstellar medium (ISM). Crucial to the understanding of the chemical life cycle of the ISM is hence a profound insight in the chemical and physical structure governing these stellar winds.These winds are really unique chemical laboratories in which currently more than 70 different molecules and 15 different dust species are detected. Several chemical processes such as neutral-neutral and ion-molecule gas-phase reactions, dust nucleation and growth, and photo-processes determine the chemical content of these winds. However, gas-phase and dust-nucleation chemistry for astronomical environments still faces many challenges. One should realize that only ˜15% of the rate coefficients for gas-phase reactions considered to occur in (inter/circum)stellar regions at temperatures (T) below 300K have been subject to direct laboratory determinations and that the temperature dependence of the rate constants is often not known; only ˜2% have rate constants at Tgrant, we are now in the position to solve some riddles involved in understanding the gas-phase chemistry in evolved stars. In this presentation, I will demonstrate the need for accurate temperature-dependent gas-phase reaction rate constants and will present our new laboratory equipment built to measure the rate constants for species key in stellar wind chemistry. Specifically, we aim to obtain the rate constants of reactions involving silicon- and sulphur bearing species and HCCO for 30

  7. Autoverification in a core clinical chemistry laboratory at an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Krasowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs, delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ′absurd′ (physiologically improbable values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%, albumin (99.8%, and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%. The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda, mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig M monoclonal

  8. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993) are described. The research activities were conducted under the two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  9. Routine operation of an Elliott 903 computer in a clinical chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, L. G.; Simpson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Experience gained in the last four years concerning the capabilities and limitations of an 8K Elliott 903 (18-bit word) computer with magnetic tape backing store in the routine operation of a clinical chemistry laboratory is described. Designed as a total system, routine operation has latterly had to be confined to data acquisition and process control functions, due primarily to limitations imposed by the choice of hardware early in the project. In this final report of a partially successful experiment the opportunity is taken to review mistakes made, especially at the start of the project, to warn potential computer users of pitfalls to be avoided. PMID:4580240

  10. An analytical chemistry laboratory's experiences under Department of Energy Order 5633.3 - a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) order 5633.3, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, initiated substantial changes to the requirements for operations involving nuclear materials. In the opinion of this author, the two most significant changes are the clarification of and the increased emphasis on the concept of graded safeguards and the implementation of performance requirements. Graded safeguards recognizes that some materials are more attractive than others to potential adversary actions and, thus, should be afforded a higher level of integrated safeguards effort. An analytical chemistry laboratory, such as the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), typically has a small total inventory of special nuclear materials compared to, for example, a production or manufacturing facility. The NBL has a laboratory information management system (LIMS) that not only provides the sample identification and tracking but also incorporates the essential features of MC ampersand A required of NBL operations. As a consequence of order 5633.3, NBL had to modify LIMS to accommodate material attractiveness information for the logging process, to reflect changes in the attractiveness as the material was processed through the laboratory, and to enable inventory information to be accumulated by material attractiveness as the material was processed through the laboratory, and to enable inventory information to be accumulated by material attractiveness codes

  11. Student Perceptions of Chemistry Laboratory Learning Environments, Student-Teacher Interactions and Attitudes in Secondary School Gifted Education Classes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Quek Choon; Wong, Angela F. L.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the chemistry laboratory classroom environment, teacher-student interactions and student attitudes towards chemistry among 497 gifted and non-gifted secondary-school students in Singapore. The data were collected using the 35-item Chemistry Laboratory Environment Inventory (CLEI), the 48-item Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) and the 30-item Questionnaire on Chemistry-Related Attitudes (QOCRA). Results supported the validity and reliability of the CLEI and QTI for this sample. Stream (gifted versus non-gifted) and gender differences were found in actual and preferred chemistry laboratory classroom environments and teacher-student interactions. Some statistically significant associations of modest magnitude were found between students' attitudes towards chemistry and both the laboratory classroom environment and the interpersonal behaviour of chemistry teachers. Suggestions for improving chemistry laboratory classroom environments and the teacher-student interactions for gifted students are provided.

  12. Opportunities for Laboratory Opacity Chemistry Studies to Facilitate Characterization of Young Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark; Freedman, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal emission spectra of young giant planets is shaped by the opacity of atoms and molecules residing in their atmospheres. While great strides have been made in improving the opacities of important molecules, particularly NH3 and CH4, at high temperatures, much more work is needed to understand the opacity and chemistry of atomic Na and K. The highly pressure broadened fundamental band of Na and K in the optical stretches into the near-infrared, strongly influencing the shape of the Y and K spectral bands. Since young giant planets are bright in these bands it is important to understand the influences on the spectral shape. Discerning gravity and atmospheric composition is difficult, if not impossible, without both good atomic opacities as well as an excellent understanding of the relevant atmospheric chemistry. Since Na and K condense at temperatures near 500 to 600 K, the chemistry of the condensation process must be well understood as well, particularly any disequilibrium chemical pathways. Comparisons of the current generation of sophisticated atmospheric models and available data, however, reveal important shortcomings in the models. We will review the current state of observations and theory of young giant planets and will discuss these and other specific examples where improved laboratory measurements for alkali compounds have the potential of substantially improving our understanding of these atmospheres.

  13. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaneka, Wadzanai P; Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F; Munjoma, Marshall W; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Hakim, James G

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  14. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadzanai P Samaneka

    Full Text Available Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods.A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively.A total of 769 adults (54% males aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges.Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.

  15. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  16. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  17. Prepare, Do, Review: A Model Used to Reduce the Negative Feelings towards Laboratory Classes in an Introductory Chemistry Undergraduate Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Dino; Wong, Lawrence; Maisey, Shannan; Clemons, Tristan D.

    2017-01-01

    Student feelings towards the laboratory component of an introductory chemistry unit were evaluated in an action research study, over a three-year period at the University of Western Australia. In 2013 we found that the percentage of students with negative feelings towards the laboratory increased over the duration of a semester. In 2014 we…

  18. An Investigation of Zimbabwe High School Chemistry Students' Laboratory Work-Based Images of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Holtman, Lorna; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Kolsto, Stein D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the proximal and distal images of the nature of science (NOS) that A-level students develop from their participation in chemistry laboratory work. We also explored the nature of the interactions among the students' proximal and distal images of the NOS and students' participation in laboratory work. Students' views of the…

  19. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research

  20. Exploring students' perceptions and performance on predict-observe-explain tasks in high school chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapally, Praveen

    This study sought to understand the impact of gender and reasoning level on students' perceptions and performances of Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) laboratory tasks in a high school chemistry laboratory. Several literature reviews have reported that students at all levels have not developed the specific knowledge and skills that were expected from their laboratory work. Studies conducted over the last several decades have found that boys tend to be more successful than girls in science and mathematics courses. However, some recent studies have suggested that girls may be reducing this gender gap. This gender difference is the focal point of this research study, which was conducted at a mid-western, rural high school. The participants were 24 boys and 25 girls enrolled in two physical science classes taught by the same teacher. In this mixed methods study, qualitative and quantitative methods were implemented simultaneously over the entire period of the study. MANOVA statistics revealed significant effects due to gender and level of reasoning on the outcome variables, which were POE performances and perceptions of the chemistry laboratory environment. There were no significant interactions between these effects. For the qualitative method, IRB-approved information was collected, coded, grouped, and analyzed. This method was used to derive themes from students' responses on questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Students with different levels of reasoning and gender were interviewed, and many of them expressed positive themes, which was a clear indication that they had enjoyed participating in the POE learning tasks and they had developed positive perceptions towards POE inquiry laboratory learning environment. When students are capable of formal reasoning, they can use an abstract scientific concept effectively and then relate it to the ideas they generate in their minds. Thus, instructors should factor the nature of students' thinking abilities into their

  1. A guide to defining the competence required of a consultant in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beastall, Graham; Kenny, Desmond; Laitinen, Paivi; ten Kate, Joop

    2005-01-01

    A definition has been agreed for the most senior professional (consultant) in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. A model job description for a consultant has been determined, which is intended to act as a toolkit to assist employing authorities and professional bodies to define the role of individual consultant posts. A total of 86 competences for a consultant have been designated and expressed in the form of simple generic proficiency standards. These competences have been allocated to six broad areas: clinical [13]; scientific [15]; technical [12]; communication [12]; management and leadership [20]; professional autonomy and accountability [14]. The competences are intended to be illustrative rather than definitive and to enable the duties of any consultant post to be defined. Assessment of competence is likely to entail consideration of qualifications, registration status, continuing professional development and performance review. The project is intended as a guide to European societies of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The guide should be capable of local interpretation to encourage a greater degree of commonality in the role of the consultant whilst protecting national identity. The guide should stimulate international understanding and collaboration and contribute to an overall improvement in the quality of practice.

  2. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timzing Miri-Dashe

    Full Text Available Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women.Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05.Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  3. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Monday Tokdung Nenbammun; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash'le

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (pchemistry parameters between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study (p0.05). Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  4. Impact of Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory on Conceptual Comprehension of Turkish Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Sekerci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of argumentation in the chemistry laboratory on conceptual comprehension of students. This research follows a triangulation design, categorized under mixed-method design variations, which include both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The research is conducted with 91 first grade university students studying in two different classes of the Department of Science Education, Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty at the Ataturk University, located in eastern Turkey. One class was randomly designated as the experimental group, with another as the control group. Research data was collected via a General Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (GCLCT containing 33 items, a test containing ten open-ended items, a semi-structured interview form, and a written feedback form, all designed by the researchers. Data from the GCLCT were analyzed through predictive statistics method, while data from the open-ended questions, semi-structured interview and written feedback form were analyzed through the descriptive analysis method. It is concluded from this research, that there is statistically significant difference between the GCLC post-test averages of the experimental and control groups. It was found that when compared to the control group, the proportion of experimental group students who answered the GCLC post-test items correctly is higher. In addition to this, the proportion of students who demonstrated misconceptions were higher in the control group students compared to the experimental group. It is concluded by this research, that argumentation provides more effective results in terms of comprehension of fundamental chemistry concepts, when compared to a traditional approach.

  5. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  6. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  7. Reducing cognitive load in the chemistry laboratory by using technology-driven guided inquiry experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacz, Frank, Jr.

    The chemistry laboratory is an integral component of the learning experience for students enrolled in college-level general chemistry courses. Science education research has shown that guided inquiry investigations provide students with an optimum learning environment within the laboratory. These investigations reflect the basic tenets of constructivism by engaging students in a learning environment that allows them to experience what they learn and to then construct, in their own minds, a meaningful understanding of the ideas and concepts investigated. However, educational research also indicates that the physical plant of the laboratory environment combined with the procedural requirements of the investigation itself often produces a great demand upon a student's working memory. This demand, which is often superfluous to the chemical concept under investigation, creates a sensory overload or extraneous cognitive load within the working memory and becomes a significant obstacle to student learning. Extraneous cognitive load inhibits necessary schema formation within the learner's working memory thereby impeding the transfer of ideas to the learner's long-term memory. Cognitive Load Theory suggests that instructional material developed to reduce extraneous cognitive load leads to an improved learning environment for the student which better allows for schema formation. This study first compared the cognitive load demand, as measured by mental effort, experienced by 33 participants enrolled in a first-year general chemistry course in which the treatment group, using technology based investigations, and the non-treatment group, using traditional labware, investigated identical chemical concepts on five different exercises. Mental effort was measured via a mental effort survey, a statistical comparison of individual survey results to a procedural step count, and an analysis of fourteen post-treatment interviews. Next, a statistical analysis of achievement was

  8. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 2. Recording and Retaining Raw Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Libera, Agata E.; Pires, Amanda; Tellarini, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of how "raw data" is defined, recorded, and retained in the laboratory record is essential to the chemist employed in the laboratory compliant with the Good Laboratory Practices regulations. This article is intended to provide an understanding by drawing upon examples taken from the modern pharmaceutical analysis…

  9. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  10. Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene: a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Rodrigo; Cabral, Marilia Gabriela B.; Aquino, Rafael B. de; Cristiano, Claudia M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. (author)

  11. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  12. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  13. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Enhancing the Student Experiment Experience: Visible Scientific Inquiry Through a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dermot; O'Reilly, John; McGarr, Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Practical work is often noted as a core reason many students take on science in secondary schools (high schools). However, there are inherent difficulties associated with classroom practical work that militate against scientific inquiry, an approach espoused by many science educators. The use of interactive simulations to facilitate student inquiry has emerged as a complement to practical work. This study presents case studies of four science teachers using a virtual chemistry laboratory (VCL) with their students in an explicitly guided inquiry manner. Research tools included the use of the Inquiry Science Implementation Scale in a `talk-aloud' manner, Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol for video observations, and teacher interviews. The findings suggest key aspects of practical work that hinder teachers in adequately supporting inquiry and highlight where a VCL can overcome many of these difficulties. The findings also indicate considerations in using the VCL in its own right.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of the "Teaching as a Chemistry Laboratory Graduate Teaching Assistant" Program on Cognitive and Psychomotor Verbal Interactions in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, A.; O'Dwyer, A.; Mannix-McNamara, P.; Leahy, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Designing and evaluating teacher development programs for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) who teach in the laboratory is a prominent feature of chemistry education research. However, few studies have investigated the impact of a GTA teacher development program on the verbal interactions between participating GTAs and students in the…

  16. Feasibility study for automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch, National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch of the National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, Colorado, is explored. The goals of the chemistry laboratory are defined, and instrumental methods and other tasks to be automated are described. Five optional automation systems are proposed to meet these goals and the options are evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. The instruments to be automated include (1) a Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 403, (2) Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 306, (3) Technicon AutoAnalyzer II, (4) Mettler electronic balance, and a (5) Jarrell-Ash ICP emission spectrometer

  17. EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: version 3 - 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerah, Simone; McMurray, Janet; Bousquet, Bernard; Baum, Hannsjorg; Beastall, Graham H; Blaton, Vic; Cals, Marie-Josèphe; Duchassaing, Danielle; Gaudeau-Toussaint, Marie-Françoise; Harmoinen, Aimo; Hoffmann, Hans; Jansen, Rob T; Kenny, Desmond; Kohse, Klaus P; Köller, Ursula; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Linget, Christine; Lund, Erik; Nubile, Giuseppe; Opp, Matthias; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinon, Georges; Queralto, José M; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Szekeres, Thomas; Vidaud, Michel; Wallinder, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The syllabus is not primarily meant to be a training guide, but on the basis of the overview given (common minimal programme), national societies should formulate programmes that indicate where knowledge and experience is needed. The main points of this programme are: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. The aim of this version of the syllabus is to be in accordance with the Directive of Professional Qualifications published on 30 September 2005. To prepare the common platforms planned in this directive, the disciplines are divided into four categories: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory

  18. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 3. Implementing Good Laboratory Practice in the Analytical Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Pires, Amanda; Fazzino, Lisa; Fransen, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratories submitting experimental results to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in support of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) nonclinical laboratory studies must conduct such work in compliance with the GLP regulations. To consistently meet these requirements, lab managers employ a "divide…

  19. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  20. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  1. Drug Synthesis and Analysis on a Dime: A Capstone Medicinal Chemistry Experience for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streu, Craig N.; Reif, Randall D.; Neiles, Kelly Y.; Schech, Amanda J.; Mertz, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative, research-based experiences have shown tremendous potential as effective pedagogical approaches. Pharmaceutical development is an exciting field that draws heavily on organic chemistry and biochemistry techniques. A capstone drug synthesis/analysis laboratory is described where biochemistry students synthesize azo-stilbenoid compounds…

  2. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  3. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  4. The Cyclohexanol Cycle and Synthesis of Nylon 6,6: Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly; Arena, Anthony F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-term synthesis project that incorporates many of the principles of green chemistry is presented for the undergraduate organic laboratory. In this multistep scheme of reactions, students react, recycle, and ultimately convert cyclohexanol to nylon 6,6. The individual reactions in the project employ environmentally friendly methodologies, and…

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  6. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  7. Appropriating Scientific Vocabulary in Chemistry Laboratories: A Multiple Case Study of Four Community College Students with Diverse Ethno-Linguistic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cink, Ruth B.; Song, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how college students with diverse ethno-linguistic backgrounds used chemistry vocabulary as a way to look at their discursive identities and cultural border crossings during first semester general chemistry laboratories. The data were collected in two major forms: video-taped laboratory observations and…

  8. Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Using a Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyst System: A Green, Catalytic Oxidation Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J.; Hoover, Jessica M.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2013-01-01

    Modern undergraduate organic chemistry textbooks provide detailed discussion of stoichiometric Cr- and Mn-based reagents for the oxidation of alcohols, yet the use of such oxidants in instructional and research laboratories, as well as industrial chemistry, is increasingly avoided. This work describes a laboratory exercise that uses ambient air as…

  9. Analysis of Copper-Bearing Rocks and Minerals for Their Metal Content Using Visible Spectroscopy: A First Year Chemistry Laboratory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry and introductory chemistry students were presented with a laboratory exploration for the determination of the mass percent of copper in rock and mineral samples. They worked independently in the laboratory, which involved multiple lab (pipetting, preparing standard solutions by quantitative dilution, recording visible spectra…

  10. The letter, the dictionary and the laboratory: translating chemistry and mineralogy in eighteenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret, Patrice

    2016-04-01

    Eighteenth-century scientific translation was not just a linguistic or intellectual affair. It included numerous material aspects requiring a social organization to marshal the indispensable human and non-human actors. Paratexts and actors' correspondences provide a good observatory to get information about aspects such as shipments and routes, processes of translation and language acquisition (dictionaries, grammars and other helpful materials, such as translated works in both languages), texts acquisition and dissemination (including author's additions and corrections, oral presentations in academic meetings and announcements of forthcoming translations). The nature of scientific translation changed in France during the second half of the eighteenth century. Beside solitary translators, it also happened to become a collective enterprise, dedicated to providing abridgements (Collection académique, 1755-79) or enriching the learned journals with full translations of the most recent foreign texts (Guyton de Morveau's 'Bureau de traduction de Dijon', devoted to chemistry and mineralogy, 1781-90). That new trend clearly had a decisive influence on the nature of the scientific press itself. A way to set up science as a social activity in the provincial capital of Dijon, translation required a local and international network for acquiring the linguistic and scientific expertise, along with the original texts, as quickly as possible. Laboratory results and mineralogical observations were used to compare material facts (colour, odour, shape of crystals, etc.) with those described in the original text. By providing a double kind of validation - with both the experiments and the translations - the laboratory thus happened to play a major role in translation.

  11. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry. 9. Metal ions and complexes. Part A: Cobalt, rhodium, iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M Z; Ross, A B

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order.

  12. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  13. Laboratory studies of low temperature rate coefficients: The atmospheric chemistry of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of the research are to measure low temperature laboratory rate coefficients for key reactions relevant to the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. These reactions are, for example, C2H + H2, CH4, C2H2, and other hydrocarbons which need to be measured at low temperatures, down to approximately 150 K. The results of this work are provided to NASA specialists who study modeling of the hydrocarbon chemistry of the outer planets. The apparatus for this work consists of a pulsed laser photolysis system and a tunable F-center probe laser to monitor the disappearance of C2H. A low temperature cell with a cryogenic circulating fluid in the outer jacket provides the gas handling system for this work. These elements have been described in detail in previous reports. Several new results are completed and the publications are just being prepared. The reaction of C2H with C2H2 has been measured with an improved apparatus down to 154 K. An Arrhenius plot indicates a clear increase in the rate coefficient at the lowest temperatures, most likely because of the long-lived (C4H3) intermediate. The capability to achieve the lowest temperatures in this work was made possible by construction of a new cell and addition of a multipass arrangement for the probe laser, as well as improvements to the laser system.

  14. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  15. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  16. Laboratory studies on tropospheric iodine chemistry: bridging the atomic, molecular and particle scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Martin, J.; Saunders, R. W.; Blitz, M. A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Plane, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    High mixing ratios of the iodine oxides IO and OIO have been observed in the polar, mid-latitude and tropical marine boundary layer (MBL). The impact of the iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the MBL is well documented. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the bursts of new particles measured in coastal regions are produced by the biogenic emission of iodine containing precursors, followed by the photochemical production and condensation of iodine oxide vapours. Airborne measurements of particle growth rates show that these particles can reach significant sizes where they can contribute to the regional aerosol loading, thus suggesting a potential impact on climate on a regional or global scale. Within the frame of the INSPECT project (INorganic Secondary Particle Evolution, Chemistry and Transport) we wish to understand at a fundamental level the tendency for the iodine oxides formed from IO and OIO recombination to condense into particles. Elemental analysis of iodine oxide particles (IOP) made in the laboratory shows that they have the empirical formula I2O5. The major question is how this happens: through formation of I2O5 in the gas phase, followed by polymerization, or by condensation of various IxOy to form amorphous iodine oxides, which subsequently rearrange to I2O5. We are studying the gas phase photochemistry leading to nucleation of IOP, their growth kinetics, aspects of their heterogeneous chemistry, and their properties as ice condensation nuclei. In order to bridge the molecular and the particle scales, a wide variety of techniques are being used, including CRDS, ARAS, LIF, UV-VIS spectroscopy, PI-TOF-MS and mobility particle size scanning. The results obtained so far provide new and interesting insights to the problem. From the gas phase point of view, a unit iodine atom quantum yield from OIO photolysis has been now established across its strong visible spectral bands. This result implies a short lifetime of OIO and explains why in

  17. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12-Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments using a UV-VIS spectrometer to identify food colorings and to measure the pH of soft drinks. The first laboratory component uses locations and shapes of visible absorption peaks as a means of identifying dyes while the second portion uses the spectrometer for determining pH. (PVD)

  18. Technical basis for hydrogen-water chemistry: Laboratory studies of water chemistry effects on SCC [stress-corrosion-cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Soppet, W.K.

    1986-10-01

    The influence of different impurities, viz., oxyacids and several chloride salts, on the stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated in constant-extension-rate-tensile (CERT) tests in 289 0 C water at a low dissolved-oxygen concentration ( 0 C in low-oxygen environments with and without sulfate at low concentrations. In these experiments, the crack growth behavior of the materials was correlated with the type and concentration of the impurities and the electrochemical potentials of Type 304 SS and platinum electrodes in the simulated hydrogen-water chemistry environments. The information suggests that better characterization of water quality, through measurement of the concentrations of individual species (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Cu 2+ , etc.) coupled with measurements of the corrosion and redox potentials at high temperatures will provide a viable means to monitor and ultimately improve the performance of BWR system materials

  19. The use of computer-aided learning in chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Brian Robert Tracy

    This research involves developing and implementing computer software for chemistry laboratory instruction. The specific goal is to design the software and investigate whether it can be used to introduce concepts and laboratory procedures without a lecture format. This would allow students to conduct an experiment even though they may not have been introduced to the chemical concept in their lecture course. This would also allow for another type of interaction for those students who respond more positively to a visual approach to instruction. The first module developed was devoted to using computer software to help introduce students to the concepts related to thin-layer chromatography and setting up and running an experiment. This was achieved through the use of digitized pictures and digitized video clips along with written information. A review quiz was used to help reinforce the learned information. The second module was devoted to the concept of the "dry lab". This module presented students with relevant information regarding the chemical concepts and then showed them the outcome of mixing solutions. By these observations, they were to determine the composition of unknown solutions based on provided descriptions and comparison with their written observations. The third piece of the software designed was a computer game. This program followed the first two modules in providing information the students were to learn. The difference here, though, was incorporating a game scenario for students to use to help reinforce the learning. Students were then assessed to see how much information they retained after playing the game. In each of the three cases, a control group exposed to the traditional lecture format was used. Their results were compared to the experimental group using the computer modules. Based upon the findings, it can be concluded that using technology to aid in the instructional process is definitely of benefit and students were more successful in

  20. Incorporating Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment into First-Year Inorganic Chemistry Major Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Marta; Paul, Jared J.; Roeder, Margaret H.

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the scientific community concerns itself with ideas of a sustainable future, very little of this interest and motivation has reached the classroom experience of the average chemistry major, and therefore, it is imperative to expose students to these ideas early in their careers. The focus of most undergraduate chemistry curricula…

  1. Peer Learning as a Tool to Strengthen Math Skills in Introductory Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srougi, Melissa C.; Miller, Heather B.

    2018-01-01

    Math skills vary greatly among students enrolled in introductory chemistry courses. Students with weak math skills (algebra and below) tend to perform poorly in introductory chemistry courses, which is correlated with increased attrition rates. Previous research has shown that retention of main ideas in a peer learning environment is greater when…

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Calixarene Tetraethers: An Exercise in Supramolecular Chemistry for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbert, Stefan L.; Hoh, Bradley D.; Dulak, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment for an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry lab, students tetraalkylate tertbutylcalix[4]arene, a bowl-shaped macrocyclic oligophenol, and examine the supramolecular chemistry of the tetraether product by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Complexation with a sodium ion reduces the conformational…

  3. Annual reports of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 23, 24, 25)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during three year period from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1992 are described. The latest report. for 1988, is JAERI-M 91-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, polymerization and modification of polymers by electron beam, and electron beam dosimetry. (author) 77 refs

  4. Peer Teaching in the Food Chemistry Laboratory: Student-produced Experiments, Peer and Audio Feedback and Integration of Employability

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the author’s experience over the last several years of implementing an alternative Food Chemistry laboratory practical for a group of third-year BSc Nutraceuticals students. The initial main objectives were to prepare students for the more independent final-year research project; to incorporate innovative approaches to feedback; and to integrate key employability skills into the curriculum. These were achieved through building the skills required to ultimately allow stude...

  5. An analysis of laboratory activities found in "Applications In Biology/Chemistry: A Contextual Approach to Laboratory Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Sandra Sue

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine whether the material found in ABC promotes scientific inquiry through the inclusion of science process skills, and to quantitatively determine the type (experimental, comparative, or descriptive) and character (wet-lab, paper and pencil, model, or computer) of laboratory activities. The research design allowed for an examination of the frequency and type of science process skills required of students in 79 laboratory activities sampled from all 12 units utilizing a modified 33-item laboratory analysis inventory (LAI) (Germane et al, 1996). Interrater reliability for the science process skills was completed on 19 of the laboratory activities with a mean score of 86.1%. Interrater reliability for the type and character of the laboratory, on the same 19 laboratory activities, was completed with mean scores of 79.0% and 96.5%, respectively. It was found that all laboratory activities provide a prelaboratory activity. In addition, the science process skill category of student performance is required most often of students with the skill of learning techniques or manipulating apparatus occurring 99% of the time. The science process skill category observed the least was student planning and design, occurring only 3% of the time. Students were rarely given the opportunity to practice science process skills such as developing and testing hypotheses through experiments they have designed. Chi-square tests, applied at the .05 level of significance, revealed that there was a significant difference in the type of laboratory activities; comparative laboratory activities appeared more often (59%). In addition the character of laboratory activities, "wet-lab" activities appeared more often (90%) than any of the others.

  6. Participation in BCR - certifications by the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Nuclear Sciences, University of Gent, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Dyg, S.; Dams, R.; Griepink, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry assisted in the certification of 31 environmental and food reference materials issued by the BCR (Bureau of Reference Materials of the European Communities). The efforts spent can be translated into the following statistics: the 10 most frequently certified elements assisted by the Gent Laboratory are As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn. They cover 70% of the certification work. The Gent Laboratory cooperated in 74% of the latter. There are 21 more major and trace elements certified, some in a single product only. Activation analysis was the main analytical technique applied by the Gent Laboratory. In many instances radiochemical separations were involved. (orig.)

  7. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  8. IFCC primary reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C. Part 9: reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on Reference Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Gerhard; Klauke, Rainer; Canalias, Francesca; Bossert-Reuther, Steffen; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Jørgensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2011-09-01

    Abstract This paper is the ninth in a series dealing with reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C and the certification of reference preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The concept of reference procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes; Part 2. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of creatine kinase; Part 3. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of lactate dehydrogenase; Part 4. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase; Part 5. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase; Part 6. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of γ-glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of four reference materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase at 37 °C; Part 8. Reference procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of α-amylase. The procedure described here is derived from the previously described 30 °C IFCC reference method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 1.

  9. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  10. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  11. Proto-2, an ALICE detector prototype, part of the STAR experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Proto-2, an LAICE detector prototype, overcame its prototype status to become a real part of the SDTAR, epxeriment at the US Brookhaven National Laboratory. After more than two years across the ocean, it has just arrived back at CERN.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  13. Testing the Vibrational Theory of Olfaction: A Bio-Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Using Hooke's Law and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthyala, Rajeev S.; Butani, Deepali; Nelson, Michelle; Tran, Kiet

    2017-01-01

    Sense of smell is one of the important senses that enables us to interact with our environment. The molecular basis of olfactory signal transduction is a fascinating area for organic chemistry educators to explore in terms of developing undergraduate laboratory activities at the interface of chemistry and biology. In this paper, a guided-inquiry…

  14. The Effect of Laboratory Training Model of Teaching and Traditional Method on Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Skills-Components of Achievement, Total Achievement and Retention Level in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeleh, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at finding the effectiveness of the Laboratory Training Model of Teaching (LTM) and comparing it with the traditional methods of teaching chemistry to seventh standard students. It strived to determine whether the (LTM) method in chemistry would be significantly more effective than the Traditional method in respect to the…

  15. The Efficacy of Problem-based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, AL

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking ability of students in both the treatment and control groups were evaluated before and at the end of the implementation of the programme, using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In addition, changes in students' self-regulated learning skills using the Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) and their self-evaluation proficiency were evaluated. Analysis of covariance showed that the creative thinking ability of the treatment group had improved statistically significantly after the PBL course (p effect on creative thinking ability. The SRLIS test showed that students in the treatment group used self-regulated learning strategies more frequently than students in the comparison group. According to the results of the self-evaluation, students became more positive and confident in problem-solving and group work as the semester progressed. Overall, PBL was shown to be an effective pedagogical instructional strategy for enhancing chemistry students' creative thinking ability, self-regulated learning skills and self-evaluation.

  16. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K Amukele

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests.Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total: two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results.Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal, was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results.Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  17. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Sokoll, Lori J; Pepper, Daniel; Howard, Dana P; Street, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones) could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests. Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total): two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results. Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program) performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic) CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal), was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results. Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  18. Thermally-Induced Chemistry and the Jovian Icy Satellites: A Laboratory Study of the Formation of Sulfur Oxyanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Here we present new results on thermally-induced reactions at 50-100 K in solid H2O-SO2 mixtures, reactions that take place without the need for a high-radiation environment. We find that H2O and SO2 react to produce sulfur Oxyanions, such as bisulfite, that as much as 30% of the SO2 can be consumed through this reaction, and that the products remain in the ice when the temperature is lowered, indicating that these reactions are irreversible. Our results suggest that thermally-induced reactions can alter the chemistry at temperatures relevant to the icy satellites in the Jovian system.

  19. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  20. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  1. Effect of the Level of Inquiry on Student Interactions in Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of our exploratory study was to investigate differences in college chemistry students' interactions during lab experiments with different levels of inquiry. This analysis was approached from three major analytic dimensions: (i) functional analysis; (ii) cognitive processing; and (iii) social processing. According to our results,…

  2. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  3. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  4. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  5. Independent Synthesis Projects in the Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories: Bridging the Gap between Student and Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Valerie A.; Kendall, Beatrice Lin

    2017-01-01

    Science educators strive to teach students how to be well-rounded scientists with the ability to problem solve, anticipate errors, and adapt to unexpected roadblocks. Traditional organic chemistry experiments seldom teach these skills, no matter how novel or contemporary the subject material. This paper reports on the success of a quarter-long…

  6. [Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 1: occurrence, chemistry and toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of phytotoxins which are present in more than 6000 plant species. The disease seneciosis in farm animals represents the severe poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plants of the genus Senecio. This form of poisoning has been known since the end of the 19th century in Germany, the USA, Canada and New Zealand, and is mainly caused by Senecio jacobaea and related Senecio spp. in farm animals, including poultry. Animal poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is of worldwide importance. In Germany poisoning of horses and cattle by Senecio jacobaea, which was earlier named Schweinsberg disease, is of renewed relevance for veterinary medicine. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. The ultimate cause is the formation of toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the liver, and their covalent binding to nucleic acids and proteins leading to liver cirrhosis. Because many pyrrolizidine alkaloids possess mutagenic, and a few also carcinogenic properties, European and international authorities are concerned about possible residue levels in food of animal origin. The review addresses in its first part several aspects, being the occurrence, the chemistry, and the toxicology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as animal intoxications by poisonous plants. In the second part (46) clinical characteristics of animal seneciosis, the therapeutic interventions, the significant species differences and a critical assessment of so-called nontoxic amounts of Senecio plants in animal fodder with reference to cumulative lethal toxin doses are presented.

  7. The Titan Haze Simulation Experiment: Latest Laboratory Results and Dedicated Plasma Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Raymond, Alexander; Mazur, Eric; Salama, Farid

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present the latest results on the gas and solid phase analyses in the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment. The THS experiment, developed at NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility is a unique experimental platform that allows us to simulate Titan’s complex atmospheric chemistry at Titan-like temperature (200 K) by cooling down N2-CH4-based mixtures in a supersonic expansion before inducing the chemistry by plasma.Gas phase: The residence time of the jet-accelerated gas in the active plasma region is less than 4 µs, which results in a truncated chemistry enabling us to control how far in the chain of reactions the chemistry is processing. By adding heavier molecules in the initial gas mixture, it is then possible to study the first and intermediate steps of Titan’s atmospheric chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry and comparison to Cassini CAPS data [1]. A new model was recently developed to simulate the plasma chemistry in the THS. Calculated mass spectra produced by this model are in good agreement with the experimental THS mass spectra, confirming that the short residence time in the plasma cavity limits the growth of larger species [2].Solid phase: Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the effect of the initial gas mixture on the morphology of the THS Titan aerosol analogs as well as on the level and nature of the nitrogen incorporation into these aerosols. A comparison to Cassini VIMS observational data has shown that the THS aerosols produced in simpler mixtures, i.e., that contain more nitrogen and where the N-incorporation is in isocyanide-type molecules instead of nitriles, are more representative of Titan’s aerosols [3]. In addition, a new optical constant facility has been developed at NASA Ames that allows us to determine the complex refractive indices of THS Titan aerosol analogs from NIR to FIR (0.76-222 cm-1). The facility and preliminary results

  8. Evaluation of analytical errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory: a 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact ...

  9. The Expectations of Teachers and Students Who Visit a Non-Formal Student Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Nicole; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Non-formal student laboratory environments for primary and secondary school science education have become a major trend in the German educational arena in recent years. These non-formal student laboratory environments are thought to offer unique experimental learning experiences that often cannot be realized in daily school routines. The biggest…

  10. Piloting Blended Strategies to Resolve Laboratory Capacity Issues in a First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Shayna; Hayes, Jack; Pfaff, Annalise; Satterfield, Emmalou T.; Skyles, Amy; Woelk, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory capacity is an issue that has plagued education for more than a century. New buildings, late night classes, and virtual laboratories have offered transitory relief at great expense. Missouri University of Science and Technology is employing blended strategies to increase capacity and student success. Blended strategies expand learning…

  11. Green Chemistry Decision-Making in an Upper-Level Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Landon J. G.; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Golmakani, Mehrnaz; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    A self-directed independent synthesis experiment was developed for a third-year undergraduate organic laboratory. Students were provided with the CAS numbers of starting and target compounds and devised a synthetic plan to be executed over two 4.5 h laboratory periods. They consulted the primary literature in order to develop and carry out an…

  12. The future of hospital laboratories. Position statement from the Royal Belgian Society of Clinical Chemistry (RBSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Michel R; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    To face the economic pressures arising from the current socio-economic conjuncture, hospital laboratories are endangered by an increasing trend towards the outsourcing of clinical laboratory tests to external (mega-) laboratories. This should allow hospitals to meet their economic requirements, but with an increased risk of loss of medical quality and, mid- to long-term, loss of cost effectiveness of healthcare at the national level. To anticipate current developments (economical and technological) that inevitably will affect the future of laboratory medicine, hospital laboratories should be proactive and enhance efficiency, reduce costs by consolidation, integrate into regional networks, and form alliances or partnerships. To create additional value, the core competency of laboratory professionals must be refocused to provide medical knowledge services (consultative support to clinicians) related to in vitro diagnostic testing. To integrate cost-efficiency with medical quality, implementation of a matricial organization - operational vs. biomedical level - could be an interesting approach. This integrated structure should create total quality of laboratory testing, managing the entire medical diagnostic cycle from the pre-preanalytical to post-postanalytical phase.

  13. Chemical Analysis of Soils: An Environmental Chemistry Laboratory for Undergraduate Science Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks, Jr.; Manock, John J.; Skrabal, Stephen A.; Stehman, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise for undergraduate science students in which they evaluate soil samples for various parameters related to suitability for crop production and capability for retention of contaminants. (Contains 18 references.) (WRM)

  14. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  15. Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, part 2: Effects on chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, P. A.; Gong, W.; Hogrefe, C.; Zhang, Y.; Curci, G.; Žabkar, R.; Milbrandt, J.; Im, U.; Balzarini, A.; Baró, R.; Bianconi, R.; Cheung, P.; Forkel, R.; Gravel, S.; Hirtl, M.; Honzak, L.; Hou, A.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Langer, M.; Moran, M. D.; Pabla, B.; Pérez, J. L.; Pirovano, G.; San José, R.; Tuccella, P.; Werhahn, J.; Zhang, J.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-08-01

    Fully-coupled air-quality models running in ;feedback; and ;no-feedback; configurations were compared against each other and observation network data as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the ;no-feedback; mode, interactions between meteorology and chemistry through the aerosol direct and indirect effects were disabled, with the models reverting to climatologies of aerosol properties, or a no-aerosol weather simulation, while in the ;feedback; mode, the model-generated aerosols were allowed to modify the models' radiative transfer and/or cloud formation processes. Annual simulations with and without feedbacks were conducted for domains in North America for the years 2006 and 2010, and for Europe for the year 2010. Comparisons against observations via annual statistics show model-to-model variation in performance is greater than the within-model variation associated with feedbacks. However, during the summer and during intense emission events such as the Russian forest fires of 2010, feedbacks have a significant impact on the chemical predictions of the models. The aerosol indirect effect was usually found to dominate feedbacks compared to the direct effect. The impacts of direct and indirect effects were often shown to be in competition, for predictions of ozone, particulate matter and other species. Feedbacks were shown to result in local and regional shifts of ozone-forming chemical regime, between NOx- and VOC-limited environments. Feedbacks were shown to have a substantial influence on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations: North American simulations incorporating both feedbacks resulted in summer average isoprene concentration decreases of up to 10%, while European direct effect simulations during the Russian forest fire period resulted in grid average isoprene changes of -5 to +12.5%. The atmospheric transport and chemistry of large emitting sources such as plumes from forest fires and large cities

  16. Hydrogen chloride heterogeneous chemistry on frozen water particles in subsonic aircraft plume. Laboratory studies and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persiantseva, N.V.; Popovitcheva, O.B.; Rakhimova, T.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Heterogeneous chemistry of HCl, as a main reservoir of chlorine content gases, has been considered after plume cooling and ice particle formation. The HCl, HNO{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5} uptake efficiencies by frozen water were obtained in a Knudsen-cell flow reactor at the subsonic cruise conditions. The formation of ice particles in the plume of subsonic aircraft is simulated to describe the kinetics of gaseous HCl loss due to heterogeneous processes. It is shown that the HCl uptake by frozen water particles may play an important role in the gaseous HCl depletion in the aircraft plume. (author) 14 refs.

  17. Hydrogen chloride heterogeneous chemistry on frozen water particles in subsonic aircraft plume. Laboratory studies and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persiantseva, N V; Popovitcheva, O B; Rakhimova, T V [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    Heterogeneous chemistry of HCl, as a main reservoir of chlorine content gases, has been considered after plume cooling and ice particle formation. The HCl, HNO{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5} uptake efficiencies by frozen water were obtained in a Knudsen-cell flow reactor at the subsonic cruise conditions. The formation of ice particles in the plume of subsonic aircraft is simulated to describe the kinetics of gaseous HCl loss due to heterogeneous processes. It is shown that the HCl uptake by frozen water particles may play an important role in the gaseous HCl depletion in the aircraft plume. (author) 14 refs.

  18. Technical report on levels of electromagnetic fields created by Linky meters. Part 1: laboratory measurements; Part 2: laboratory additional measurements; Part 3: field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The first part of this study reports measurements of electromagnetic radiations induced by remote-metering reading devices present in new power meters and using the Power-Line Communication (PLC or, in French, CPL) technology, such as the Linky meter. After a recall of legislation regarding exposure to electromagnetic waves, this first part present the two tested meters (Linky of first and third generation, G1 and G3), the performed tests, measurements devices and method. It more precisely reports investigations performed on these both meters, and a comparison with other home appliances. The second part reports additional measurements performed with both meters according to the same methodology, but with the use of a new electric field probe which allows more precise measurements. Maximum electric and magnetic fields have been measured. The third part reports field measurements performed with the same methodology but in dwellings equipped with Linky meters of first generation (G1). Exposure levels have been measured at the vicinity of meters and in other parts of the dwelling

  19. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction.

  20. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 22. April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1988 through March 31, 1989. The latest report, for 1987, is JAERI-M 90-054. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects : (i) studies on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  1. Computational Chemistry Laboratory: Calculating the Energy Content of Food Applied to a Real-Life Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiric, Dora; Tribe, Lorena; Soriano, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory, students calculated the nutritional value of common foods to assess the energy content needed to answer an everyday life application; for example, how many kilometers can an average person run with the energy provided by 100 g (3.5 oz) of beef? The optimized geometries and the formation enthalpies of the nutritional components…

  2. The Equilibrium Constant for Bromothymol Blue: A General Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Using Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Doyle, Robert; Gross, Erin; Mattson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly undergraduate laboratory experiment is described in which students use visible spectroscopy to determine a numerical value for an equilibrium constant, K[subscript c]. The experiment correlates well with the lecture topic of equilibrium even though the subject of the study is an acid-base…

  3. Developing Critical Thinking Skills Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N. S.; Sadler-McKnight, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory approach is a teaching and learning tool which combines writing, inquiry, collaboration and reflection, and provides scaffolding for the development of critical thinking skills. In this study, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking skills of…

  4. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  5. Radiation chemistry in the nuclear power reactor environment: from laboratory study to practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the work carried out at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in underlying and applied radiation chemical research performed to optimise the processes occurring in the four aqueous systems in and around the core. The aqueous systems subject to radiolysis in CANDU reactors are Heat Transport System, Moderator, Liquid Zone Controls and End Shields.

  6. Mini-Journal Inquiry Laboratory: A Case Study in a General Chemistry Kinetics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningfeng; Wardeska, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    The mini-journal curriculum for undergraduate science laboratories mirrors the format of scientific literature and helps students improve their learning through direct scientific practices. The lab embodies the essential features of scientific inquiry and replaces the traditional "cookbook" lab to engage students in active learning. A case study…

  7. A Green Multicomponent Reaction for the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: The Aqueous Passerini Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Matthew M.; DeBoef, Brenton

    2009-01-01

    Water is the ideal green solvent for organic reactions. However, most organic molecules are insoluble in it. Herein, we report a laboratory module that takes advantage of this property. The Passerini reaction, a three-component coupling involving an isocyanide, aldehyde, and carboxylic acid, typically requires [similar to] 24 h reaction times in…

  8. Incorporation of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry into the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarikos, Dimitrios G.; Patel, Sagir; Lister, Andrew; Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical tool for detection, identification, and quantification of many volatile organic compounds. However, many colleges and universities have not fully incorporated this technique into undergraduate teaching laboratories despite its wide application and ease of use in organic…

  9. Evaluating Learning Outcomes in Introductory Chemistry Using Virtual Laboratories to Support Inquiry Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Cecile R.

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., future economic viability is being challenged by an increasing inability to replace retiring engineers and scientists through the year 2020 due to declines in learner motivation and proficiency in science. The expository laboratory appears to be linked with non-engagement and is one possible contributing factor to this problem…

  10. The EC4 European syllabus for post-graduate training in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine: version 4--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špaňár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities.

  11. Application of sigma metrics for the assessment of quality control in clinical chemistry laboratory in Ghana: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, Justice; Gyekye, Seth A; Owiredu, William K B A; Ephraim, Richard K D; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Amoah, Samuel; Simpong, David L; Arthur, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Sigma metrics provide a uniquely defined scale with which we can assess the performance of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the internal quality control (QC) in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Cape Cost Hospital (UCC) using the six sigma metrics application. We used commercial control serum [normal (L1) and pathological (L2)] for validation of quality control. Metabolites (glucose, urea, and creatinine), lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (AST)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and total protein were assessed. Between-day imprecision (CVs), inaccuracy (Bias) and sigma values were calculated for each control level. Apart from sodium (2.40%, 3.83%), chloride (2.52% and 2.51%) for both L1 and L2 respectively, and glucose (4.82%), cholesterol (4.86%) for L2, CVs for all other parameters (both L1 and L2) were >5%. Four parameters (HDL-C, urea, creatinine and potassium) achieved sigma levels >1 for both controls. Chloride and sodium achieved sigma levels >1 for L1 but sigma levels 1 for L2. Glucose and ALP achieved a sigma level >1 for both control levels whereas TG achieved a sigma level >2 for both control levels. Unsatisfactory sigma levels (six sigma levels for the laboratory.

  12. SITE 94. Modelling of groundwater chemistry at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emren, A.T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In this report a model is described, which has been able to give agreement between observed and modelled values for more than ten element concentrations (including pH and pE values). The model makes use of a number of steady state waters which are mixed naturally after which the mixtures react with minerals in the fractures. The end member waters are supposed to have been present in the fracture system during a time interval which is long enough for the rock groundwater system to have reached a steady state. Some elements, e.g. chlorine, is modelled as conservative (inert with respect to the rock). Most element concentrations cannot be explained from mixing alone. Rather reactions with the fracture walls have to be taken into account. The situation is complicated by the fact that a system comprised of groundwater and a number of fracture minerals may violate Gibb`s phase rule. In such a system, no global equilibrium state exists, and thus the water can never reach equilibrium with respect to all the fracture minerals. The end member waters eventually formed can be expected to be in a steady state condition rather than equilibrium with respect to the fracture minerals. It should be noted that such a steady state is not an equilibrium state. Rather, the water chemistry has to fluctuate as a result of spatial variability in the local mineral set. In most cases when an end member water is sampled, a large number of local waters are mixed causing the fluctuations to cancel out. The CRACKER is a program which has been developed to handle this complicated chemical situation. It couples chemistry and transport, using elaborate chemical modelling in combination with a simplified transport model. The program simulates chemical reactions of groundwater flowing through a plane fracture. The simulation results show that although the end member waters are far from equilibrium with respect to most of the minerals, they are in a steady state with respect to the rock. The chemistry

  13. SITE 94. Modelling of groundwater chemistry at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emren, A.T.

    1999-02-01

    In this report a model is described, which has been able to give agreement between observed and modelled values for more than ten element concentrations (including pH and pE values). The model makes use of a number of steady state waters which are mixed naturally after which the mixtures react with minerals in the fractures. The end member waters are supposed to have been present in the fracture system during a time interval which is long enough for the rock groundwater system to have reached a steady state. Some elements, e.g. chlorine, is modelled as conservative (inert with respect to the rock). Most element concentrations cannot be explained from mixing alone. Rather reactions with the fracture walls have to be taken into account. The situation is complicated by the fact that a system comprised of groundwater and a number of fracture minerals may violate Gibb's phase rule. In such a system, no global equilibrium state exists, and thus the water can never reach equilibrium with respect to all the fracture minerals. The end member waters eventually formed can be expected to be in a steady state condition rather than equilibrium with respect to the fracture minerals. It should be noted that such a steady state is not an equilibrium state. Rather, the water chemistry has to fluctuate as a result of spatial variability in the local mineral set. In most cases when an end member water is sampled, a large number of local waters are mixed causing the fluctuations to cancel out. The CRACKER is a program which has been developed to handle this complicated chemical situation. It couples chemistry and transport, using elaborate chemical modelling in combination with a simplified transport model. The program simulates chemical reactions of groundwater flowing through a plane fracture. The simulation results show that although the end member waters are far from equilibrium with respect to most of the minerals, they are in a steady state with respect to the rock. The chemistry

  14. Laboratory Anion Chemistry: Implications for the DIBs, and a Potential Formation Mechanism for a Known Interstellar Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, B.; Barckholtz, C.; Stepanovic, M.; Bierbaum, V.; Snow, T.

    2002-01-01

    Due to recent interest in molecular anions as possible interstellar species, we have carried out several laboratory studies of anion chemistry. The reactions of the series C(sub n)(sup -); and C(sub n)H(sup -) with H and H2 were studied to address the viability of such species in the diffuse interstellar medium and to address their ability to be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). These same molecules were also reacted with N and O to show possible heteroatomic products. C(sub m)N(sup - was a particularly stable product from the reaction of C(sub n)(sup -) + N. C3N(sup -) was further reacted with H to study chemistry that could produce HC3N, a known interstellar species. The reactions were done in a flowing afterglow selected ion flow tube apparatus (FA-SIFT). The anions were generated in an electron impact or cold cathode discharge source and the anion of interest was then selected by a quadrupole mass filter. The selected ion was then reacted with the atomic or molecular species in the flow tube and products were detected by another quadrupole. While the C(sub n)(sup -) species do not appear to be viable DIB carriers, their possible presence could provide a mechanism for the formation of known heteroatomic neutral molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM).

  15. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  16. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project's open-quotes Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.close quotes

  17. On-line computer system applied in a nuclear chemistry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banasik, Z.; Kierzek, J.; Parus, J.; Zoltowski, T.; Zalewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    A PDP-11/45 based computer system used in a radioanalytical chemical laboratory is described. It is mainly concerned with spectrometry of ionizing radiation and remote measurement of physico-chemical properties. The objectives in mind when constructing the hardware inter-connections and developing the software of the system were to minimize the work of the electronics and computer personnel and to provide maximum flexibility for the users. For the hardware interfacing, 3 categories of equipment are used: - LPS-11 Laboratory Peripheral System - CAMAC system with CA11F-P controller - interfaces from instrument manufacturers. Flexible operation has been achieved by using a 3-level programming structure: - data transfer by assembly language programs - data formatting using bit operations in FORTRAN - data evaluation by procedures written in FORTRAN. (Auth.)

  18. The physics and chemistry of dusty plasmas: A laboratory and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical work on dusty plasmas was conducted in three areas: collective effects in a dusty plasma, the role of dusty plasmas in cometary atmospheres, and the role of dusty plasmas in planetary atmospheres (particularly in the ring systems of the giant planets). Laboratory investigations consisted of studies of dust/plasma interactions and stimulated molecular excitation and infrared emission by charged dust grains. Also included is a list of current publications.

  19. Evaluation of analytical errors in a clinical chemistry laboratory: a 3 year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyi, As; Laing, Ef; Ephraim, Rk; Asibey, Of; Sadique, Ok

    2015-01-01

    Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified.

  20. Model analysis of secondary organic aerosol formation by glyoxal in laboratory studies: the case for photoenhanced chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Andrew J; Woo, Joseph L; McNeill, V Faye

    2014-10-21

    The reactive uptake of glyoxal by atmospheric aerosols is believed to be a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Several recent laboratory studies have been performed with the goal of characterizing this process, but questions remain regarding the effects of photochemistry on SOA growth. We applied GAMMA (McNeill et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 8075-8081), a photochemical box model with coupled gas-phase and detailed aqueous aerosol-phase chemistry, to simulate aerosol chamber studies of SOA formation by the uptake of glyoxal by wet aerosol under dark and irradiated conditions (Kroll et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2005, 110 (D23), 1-10; Volkamer et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 1907-1928; Galloway et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2009, 9, 3331- 306 3345 and Geophys. Res. Lett. 2011, 38, L17811). We find close agreement between simulated SOA growth and the results of experiments conducted under dark conditions using values of the effective Henry's Law constant of 1.3-5.5 × 10(7) M atm(-1). While irradiated conditions led to the production of some organic acids, organosulfates, and other oxidation products via well-established photochemical mechanisms, these additional product species contribute negligible aerosol mass compared to the dark uptake of glyoxal. Simulated results for irradiated experiments therefore fell short of the reported SOA mass yield by up to 92%. This suggests a significant light-dependent SOA formation mechanism that is not currently accounted for by known bulk photochemistry, consistent with recent laboratory observations of SOA production via photosensitizer chemistry.

  1. Authentic Learning Enviroment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-09-01

    It is recognized that a need exists to move from the passive learning styles that have characterized chemistry courses to an active style in which students participate and assume responsibility for their learning (1 - 5). In addition, it is argued that course reform should be linked to authentic student achievement, so that students can actively experience the feelings of practicing professionals (6). Course experiments where such changes have been introduced have proven successful but the number of examples of such changes is limited in the higher level courses or courses with large enrollments (7 - 11). In this paper, a one-semester introductory analytical chemistry course is described that accomplishes this goal by the use of open-ended laboratories, cooperative learning, and spreadsheet programs. The course uses many of the ideas described by Walters (7). It is offered at the upperclass level to nonmajors and at the freshman level to students with solid chemistry backgrounds from high school. Typically there are 90 students, who are divided into 5 sections. A teaching assistant is assigned to each section. The course has two 4-hour laboratories and two or three lectures each week (depending on whether it is the upperclass or freshman course). The heart of the course changes is the use of open-ended laboratory experiments in the last half of the course. A sample group project is to have the students develop a mixture of acid-base indicators that can serve as a spectroscopic pH meter. These projects are enhanced by dividing the students into teams of four who take charge of all aspects of accomplishing the projects' goals. Since there are many skills required to make these projects work, the first half of the course is spent developing the individual conceptual, computational, laboratory, problem solving, and group skills so students are prepared for the last half. These changes have markedly improved the student attitudes towards each other and towards learning

  2. The revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory services as determined using activity-based costing (ABC) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Kasaw; Abiy, Zenegnaw; Desta, Kassu

    2015-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth of health care cost aggravates the frequently low priority and less attention given in financing laboratory services. The poorest countries have the highest out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of income. Higher charges might provide a greater potential for revenue. If fees raise quality sufficiently, it can enhance usage. Therefore, estimating the revenue generated from laboratory services could help in capacity building and improved quality service provision. Panel study design was used to determine revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology services at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model was used to determine the true cost of tests performed from October 2011 to December 2011 in the hospital. The principle of Activity-based Costing is that activities consume resources and activities consumed by services which incur the costs and hence service takes the cost of resources. All resources with costs are aggregated with the established casual relationships. The process maps designed was restructured in consultation with the senior staffs working and/or supervising the laboratory and pretested checklists were used for observation. Moreover, office documents, receipts and service bills were used while collecting data. The amount of revenue collected from services was compared with the cost of each subsequent test and the profitability or return on investment (ROI) of services was calculated. Data were collected, entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software program and Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences version 19 (SPSS). Paired sample t test was used to compare the price and cost of each test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. A total of 25,654 specimens were analyzed during 3 months of regular working hours. The total numbers of clinical chemistry and hematology tests performed during

  3. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  4. Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 1000 0 C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO 2 than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>750 0 C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed

  5. New electronics stuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Su Il

    2003-04-01

    The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.

  6. Colloid and surface chemistry a laboratory guide for exploration of the nano world

    CERN Document Server

    Bucak, Seyda

    2013-01-01

    Scientific Research The research processEthics in Science Design of Experiments Fundamentals of Scientific Computing, Nihat Baysal Recording Data: Keeping a Good Notebook Presenting Data: Writing a Laboratory ReportReferencesCharacterization Techniques Surface Tension Measurements, Seyda BucakViscosity/Rheological Measurements, Patrick UnderhillElectrokinetic Techniques, Marek KosmulskiDiffraction (XRD), Deniz RendeScattering, Ulf OlssonMicroscopy, Cem Levent Altan and Nico A.J.M. SommerdijkColloids and Surfaces Experiment 1: SedimentationExperiment 2: Determination of Critical Micelle Concent

  7. Incorporating spectroscopy and measurement technology into the high school chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Emily Ann

    Science and technology are becoming increasingly important in maintaining a healthy economy at home and a competitive edge on the world stage, though that is just one facet affected by inadequate science education in the United States. Engaging students in the pursuit of knowledge and giving them the skills to think critically are paramount. One small way to assist in achieving these goals is to increase the quality and variety of technology-rich activities conducted in high school classrooms. Incorporating more laboratory measurement technology into high schools may incite more student interest in the processes and practices of science and may allow students to learn to think more critically about their data and what it represents. The first objective of the work described herein was to determine what measurement technology is being used in schools and to what extent, as well as to determine other teacher needs and preferences. Second, the objective was to develop a new program to provide incoming freshmen (or rising seniors) with measurement technology training they did not receive in high school, and expose them to new research and career opportunities in science. The final objective was to create a technology-rich classroom laboratory activity for use in high schools.

  8. Laboratory Formation of Fullerenes from PAHs: Top-down Interstellar Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Linnartz, Harold; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Interstellar molecules are thought to build up in the shielded environment of molecular clouds or in the envelope of evolved stars. This follows many sequential reaction steps of atoms and simple molecules in the gas phase and/or on (icy) grain surfaces. However, these chemical routes are highly inefficient for larger species in the tenuous environment of space as many steps are involved and, indeed, models fail to explain the observed high abundances. This is definitely the case for the C60 fullerene, recently identified as one of the most complex molecules in the interstellar medium. Observations have shown that, in some photodissociation regions, its abundance increases close to strong UV-sources. In this Letter we report laboratory findings in which C60 formation can be explained by characterizing the photochemical evolution of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sequential H losses lead to fully dehydrogenated PAHs and subsequent losses of C2 units convert graphene into cages. Our results present for the first time experimental evidence that PAHs in excess of 60 C-atoms efficiently photo-isomerize to buckminsterfullerene, C60. These laboratory studies also attest to the importance of top-down synthesis routes for chemical complexity in space.

  9. LABORATORY FORMATION OF FULLERENES FROM PAHS: TOP-DOWN INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Linnartz, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Interstellar molecules are thought to build up in the shielded environment of molecular clouds or in the envelope of evolved stars. This follows many sequential reaction steps of atoms and simple molecules in the gas phase and/or on (icy) grain surfaces. However, these chemical routes are highly inefficient for larger species in the tenuous environment of space as many steps are involved and, indeed, models fail to explain the observed high abundances. This is definitely the case for the C 60 fullerene, recently identified as one of the most complex molecules in the interstellar medium. Observations have shown that, in some photodissociation regions, its abundance increases close to strong UV-sources. In this Letter we report laboratory findings in which C 60 formation can be explained by characterizing the photochemical evolution of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sequential H losses lead to fully dehydrogenated PAHs and subsequent losses of C 2 units convert graphene into cages. Our results present for the first time experimental evidence that PAHs in excess of 60 C-atoms efficiently photo-isomerize to buckminsterfullerene, C 60 . These laboratory studies also attest to the importance of top-down synthesis routes for chemical complexity in space

  10. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin

    2013-01-31

    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  11. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains." © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Automated Radioanalytical Chemistry: Applications For The Laboratory And Industrial Process Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Farawila, Anne F.; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-01-01

    The identification and quantification of targeted α- and β-emitting radionuclides via destructive analysis in complex radioactive liquid matrices is highly challenging. Analyses are typically accomplished at on- or off-site laboratories through laborious sample preparation steps and extensive chemical separations followed by analysis using a variety of detection methodologies (e.g., liquid scintillation, alpha energy spectroscopy, mass spectrometry). Analytical results may take days or weeks to report. When an industrial-scale plant requires periodic or continuous monitoring of radionuclides as an indication of the composition of its feed stream, diversion of safeguarded nuclides, or of plant operational conditions (for example), radiochemical measurements should be rapid, but not at the expense of precision and accuracy. Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed and characterized a host of automated radioanalytical systems designed to perform reproducible and rapid radioanalytical processes. Platforms have been assembled for (1) automation and acceleration of sample analysis in the laboratory and (2) automated monitors for monitoring industrial scale nuclear processes on-line with near-real time results. These methods have been applied to the analysis of environmental-level actinides and fission products to high-level nuclear process fluids. Systems have been designed to integrate a number of discrete sample handling steps, including sample pretreatment (e.g., digestion and valence state adjustment) and chemical separations. The systems have either utilized on-line analyte detection or have collected the purified analyte fractions for off-line measurement applications. One PNNL system of particular note is a fully automated prototype on-line radioanalytical system designed for the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, WA, USA. This system demonstrated nearly continuous destructive analysis of the soft β-emitting radionuclide 99Tc in nuclear

  13. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  14. Trends in laboratory test volumes for Medicare Part B reimbursements, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahangian, Shahram; Alspach, Todd D; Astles, J Rex; Yesupriya, Ajay; Dettwyler, William K

    2014-02-01

    Changes in reimbursements for clinical laboratory testing may help us assess the effect of various variables, such as testing recommendations, market forces, changes in testing technology, and changes in clinical or laboratory practices, and provide information that can influence health care and public health policy decisions. To date, however, there has been no report, to our knowledge, of longitudinal trends in national laboratory test use. To evaluate Medicare Part B-reimbursed volumes of selected laboratory tests per 10,000 enrollees from 2000 through 2010. Laboratory test reimbursement volumes per 10,000 enrollees in Medicare Part B were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (Baltimore, Maryland). The ratio of the most recent (2010) reimbursed test volume per 10,000 Medicare enrollees, divided by the oldest data (usually 2000) during this decade, called the volume ratio, was used to measure trends in test reimbursement. Laboratory tests with a reimbursement claim frequency of at least 10 per 10,000 Medicare enrollees in 2010 were selected, provided there was more than a 50% change in test reimbursement volume during the 2000-2010 decade. We combined the reimbursed test volumes for the few tests that were listed under more than one code in the Current Procedural Terminology (American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois). A 2-sided Poisson regression, adjusted for potential overdispersion, was used to determine P values for the trend; trends were considered significant at P reimbursement volumes were electrolytes, digoxin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lithium, with volume ratios ranging from 0.27 to 0.64 (P reimbursement volumes were meprobamate, opiates, methadone, phencyclidine, amphetamines, cocaine, and vitamin D, with volume ratios ranging from 83 to 1510 (P reimbursement volumes increased for most of the selected tests, other tests exhibited statistically significant downward trends in annual reimbursement volumes. The observed

  15. Sigma metrics as a tool for evaluating the performance of internal quality control in a clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Vinodh; Mohan, Thuthi

    2018-01-01

    Six Sigma is one of the most popular quality management system tools employed for process improvement. The Six Sigma methods are usually applied when the outcome of the process can be measured. This study was done to assess the performance of individual biochemical parameters on a Sigma Scale by calculating the sigma metrics for individual parameters and to follow the Westgard guidelines for appropriate Westgard rules and levels of internal quality control (IQC) that needs to be processed to improve target analyte performance based on the sigma metrics. This is a retrospective study, and data required for the study were extracted between July 2015 and June 2016 from a Secondary Care Government Hospital, Chennai. The data obtained for the study are IQC - coefficient of variation percentage and External Quality Assurance Scheme (EQAS) - Bias% for 16 biochemical parameters. For the level 1 IQC, four analytes (alkaline phosphatase, magnesium, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol) showed an ideal performance of ≥6 sigma level, five analytes (urea, total bilirubin, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of sigma level and for level 2 IQCs, same four analytes of level 1 showed a performance of ≥6 sigma level, and four analytes (urea, albumin, cholesterol, and potassium) showed an average performance of sigma level. For all analytes sigma level, the quality goal index (QGI) was 1.2 indicated inaccuracy. This study shows that sigma metrics is a good quality tool to assess the analytical performance of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Thus, sigma metric analysis provides a benchmark for the laboratory to design a protocol for IQC, address poor assay performance, and assess the efficiency of existing laboratory processes.

  16. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  17. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  18. Developing and Implementing Lab Skills Seminars, a Student-Led Learning Approach in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory: Mentoring Current Students While Benefiting Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Kalyani; Dani, Vivek D.; John, Matthew; Restivo, Wanda; Mikhaylichenko, Svetlana; Dalili, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the successful adaptation of certain components of peer-led team learning (PLTL) as well as service learning principles into our initiative: lab skills seminars (LSS). These seminars were organized for large, second year organic chemistry laboratory courses. Prior to LSS, the only help available for students was traditional…

  19. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornes, Michael P.; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée; Grankvist, Kjell; Guimarães, João T.; Ibarz, Mercedes; Kovalevskaya, Svetlana; Kristensen, Gunn Bb; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and

  20. Ligand-Free Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reactions Using an Inexpensive Aqueous Palladium Source: A Synthetic and Computational Exercise for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J.; Bowman, Matthew D.; Esselman, Brian J.; Byron, Stephen D.; Kreitinger, Jordan; Leadbeater, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive procedure for introducing the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction into a high-enrollment undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The procedure employs an aqueous palladium solution as the catalyst and a range of para-substituted aryl bromides and arylboronic acids as substrates. The coupling reactions proceed…

  1. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  2. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  3. Determining the Antifungal Agent Clioquinol by HPLC, the Not so Pure Preparation: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Hobika, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    The case study approach provides students with a better appreciation of how scientists solve problems and conduct themselves in the "real world". When applied to the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, this approach also challenges critical thinking skills and creativity in ways "cook book" experiments very often do not. This…

  4. Determination of the Acid Dissociation Constant of a Phenolic Acid by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: An Experiment for the Upper Level Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboh, Ghada

    2018-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment for the upper level analytical chemistry laboratory is described. The students consider the effect of mobile-phase composition and pH on the retention times of ionizable compounds in order to determine the acid dissociation constant, K[subscript a], of a phenolic acid. Results are analyzed…

  5. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  6. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  7. A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Concept Mapping Enhanced Laboratory Experience on Turkish High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Coll, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    The research reported here consists of the introduction of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities combined with concept mapping. The purpose of this intervention was to enhance student understanding of acid-base chemistry for tenth grade students' from two classes in a Turkish high school. An additional aim was to enhance…

  8. Introducing NMR to a General Chemistry Audience: A Structural-Based Instrumental Laboratory Relating Lewis Structures, Molecular Models, and [superscript 13]C NMR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Curtis R.; Pfeiffer, William F.; Thomas, Alyssa C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a first-year general chemistry laboratory that uses NMR spectroscopy and model building to emphasize molecular shape and structure. It is appropriate for either a traditional or an atoms-first curriculum. Students learn the basis of structure and the use of NMR data through a cooperative learning hands-on laboratory…

  9. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude – apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix – constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305 nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype repository differs from a real storage in that it is drained. For example, this makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype repository compared with a real storage. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and one of the specific aims is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype repository. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside and outside the Prototype in 2009. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed in the following sampling points in the Prototype repository: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10006, KBU10008, KFA01 and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e., the biovolume), cultivable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), autotrophic acetogens (AA) and in some cases iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). Cultivation methods were also compared with qPCR molecular techniques to evaluate these before next year's decommission of the Prototype repository. The collected pore water from the Prototype repository was subject to chemistry analysis (as many analyses were conducted as the amount of water allowed). In addition, groundwater from two borehole sections in the rock surrounding the Prototype was analysed regarding its gas composition, microbiology and redox. Chemistry data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype repository were compared with the pore water

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype Repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydmark, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The Prototype repository is an international project to build and study a full-scale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The Prototype repository differs from a real storage in that it is drained. For example, this makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype repository compared with a real storage. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and one of the specific aims is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype repository. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside and outside the Prototype in 2009. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed in the following sampling points in the Prototype repository: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10006, KBU10008, KFA01 and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e., the biovolume), cultivable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), autotrophic acetogens (AA) and in some cases iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). Cultivation methods were also compared with qPCR molecular techniques to evaluate these before next year's decommission of the Prototype repository. The collected pore water from the Prototype repository was subject to chemistry analysis (as many analyses were conducted as the amount of water allowed). In addition, groundwater from two borehole sections in the rock surrounding the Prototype was analysed regarding its gas composition, microbiology and redox. Chemistry data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype repository were compared with the pore water chemistry

  12. Laboratory Studies of Low Temperature Rate Coefficients: The Atmospheric Chemistry of the Outer Planets and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Denis

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory measurements have been carried out to determine low temperature chemical rate coefficients of ethynyl radical (C2H) for the atmospheres of the outer planets and their satellites. This effort is directly related to the Cassini mission which will explore Saturn and Titan. A laser-based photolysis/infrared laser probe setup was used to measure the temperature dependence of kinetic rate coefficients from approx. equal to 150 to 350 K for C2H radicals with H2, C2H2, CH4, CD4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10, neo-C5H12, C3H4 (methylacetylene and allene), HCN, and CH3CN. The results revealed discrepancies of an order of magnitude or more compared with the low temperature rate coefficients used in present models. A new Laval nozzle, low Mach number supersonic expansion kinetics apparatus has been constructed, resulting in the first measurements of neutral C2H radical kinetics at 90 K and permitting studies on condensable gases with insufficient vapor pressure at low temperatures. New studies of C 2H with acetylene have been completed.

  13. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acid-base equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Suss, Matthew E; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We present elements of electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry relevant to microfluidic electrokinetics experiments. In Part I of this two-paper series, we presented a review and introduction to the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry. Here, we first summarize the coupling between acid-base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both infinite and finite dilution. We then discuss the effects of electrode reactions on microfluidic electrokinetic experiments and derive a model for pH changes in microchip reservoirs during typical direct-current electrokinetic experiments. We present a model for the potential drop in typical microchip electrophoresis device. The latter includes finite element simulation to estimate the relative effects of channel and reservoir dimensions. Finally, we summarize effects of electrode and electrolyte characteristics on potential drop in microfluidic devices. As a whole, the discussions highlight the importance of the coupling between electromigration and electrophoresis, acid-base equilibria, and electrochemical reactions.

  14. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes studies on the chemical and physical behavior of the [sup 218]Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and its dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are to determine the formation rates of [center dot]OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay, to examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO[sub 2] ethylene, and H[sub 2]S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H[sub 2]O and NH[sub 3] in determining the particle size, to measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and to measure the neutralization rate of [sup 218]Po[sub x][sup +] in O[sub 2] at low radon concentrations. Tasks of the exposure studies in occupied indoor spaces are to initiate measurements of the activity size distributions in actual homes with occupants present so that the variability of the indoor activity size distributions can be assessed with respect to indoor aerosol sources and general lifestyle variations of the occupants, to initiate a prospective study of the utility of measurement of deposited [sup 210]Pb embedded in glass surfaces as a measure of the long-term, integrated exposure of the population to radon, and to develop the methodology to determine the hygroscopicity of the indoor aerosol so that the changes in deposition efficiency of the radioactive indoor aerosol with hygroscopic growth in the respiratory tract can be assessed.

  15. Hydrolysis of Laboratory Made Tholins in Aqueous Solutions: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine; Somogyi, Á.; Lunine, J.; Smith, M.

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory experiments that simulate the reactions occurring in Titan's thick nitrogen-methane atmosphere produce complex organic precipitates known as tholins. Tholins have the general formula CxHyNz, and are spectrally similar to Titan's haze. When placed in liquid water, specific water soluble compounds in the tholins have been shown to produce oxygenated organic species with activation energies in the range of 60 ± 10 kJ mol-1 and half-lives between 0.3 and 17 days at 273 K (Neish et al. 2008). Oxygen incorporation into such materials - a necessary step towards the formation of biological molecules - is therefore fast compared to the freezing of impact melts and cryolavas on Titan. The rates quoted above are for reactions occurring in pure liquid water. The composition of impact melts and lavas on Titan are not likely to be pure water, but rather contain a few percent ammonia. Tobie et al. (2005) predict that Titan has a subsurface water layer with an ammonia concentration of 14 wt. % in the present era. The presence of ammonia would likely change the reaction rates and yields of the hydrolysis reactions of tholins. We have therefore extended our work to include the measurement of tholin hydrolysis rate coefficients in ammonia-water solutions. In this work, tholins were synthesized from a 0.98 N2/0.02 CH4 atmosphere in a high voltage AC flow discharge reactor, and dissolved in a 13 wt. % ammonia-water solution. Rates were determined by monitoring intensity changes of select species over time using high resolution FT-ICR MS. Comparisons between rates of similar species observed at different pH will be presented. This work was supported by the NASA Exobiology Program. C. Neish was supported by an NSERC Postgraduate Scholarship.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1992 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3, Atmospheric and climate research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempf, R.E. [ed.

    1993-04-01

    Within the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs are part of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD). One of the central missions of the division is to provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. This information is vital to the definition and implementation of a sound national energy strategy. This volume reports on the progress and status of all OHER atmospheric science and climate research projects at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the ESD, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) continues DOE`s long-term commitment to study the continental and oceanic fates of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and laboratory studies in the ACP emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program continues to apply basic research on density-driven circulations and on turbulent mixing and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer to the micro- to mesoscale meteorological processes that affect air-surface exchange and to emergency preparedness at DOE and other facilities. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM), the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP), and Quantitative Links programs to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program.

  17. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest.

  18. The Buffer and Backfill Handbook. Part 1: Definitions, basic relationships and laboratory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland

    2002-04-01

    Part 1 of this Handbook is focused on description of fundamental issues of soil physical and chemical arts and on soil mechanical definitions and relationships. Part 2 comprises a material data basis including also preparation and field testing methods. Part 3 provides a collection of physical and mathematical models and examples of how they can and should be applied. The present document, which has been prepared by Geodevelopment AB in co-operation with Scandia Consult AB and Clay Technology AB, Sweden, and with TVO, Finland, makes up Part 1. Most of the data and information emanate from the work that Geodevelopment AB and Clay Technology AB have performed for SKB but a number of results from experiments made in and for other organizations have been included as well. A significant number of experimental procedures and ways of characterizing buffers and backfills are included. The experience from the comprehensive international Stripa Project, concerning both systematic material investigations in the laboratory and the full-scale field experiments, has contributed significantly to this report. However, similar and additional information gained from later work in SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and from NAGRA and also from other waste-isolation projects have helped to make this document of assumed international interest

  19. Laboratory simulation of interstellar grain chemistry and the production of complex organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Valero, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 15 years considerable progress in observational techniques has been achieved in the middle infrared (5000 to 500 cm(-1), 2 to 20 microns m), the spectral region most diagnostic of molecular vibrations. Spectra of many different astronomical infrared sources, some deeply embedded in dark molecular clouds, are now available. These spectra provide a powerful probe, not only for the identification of interstellar molecules in both the gas solid phases, but also of the physical and chemical conditions which prevail in these two very different domains. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory ices one can determine the composition and abundance of the icy materials frozen on the cold (10K) dust grains present in the interior of molecular clouds. These grains and their ice mantles may well be the building blocks from which comets are made. As an illustration of the processes which can take place as an ice is irradiated and subsequently warmed, researchers present the infrared spectra of the mixture H2O:CH3OH:CO:NH3:C6H14 (100:50:10:10:10). Apart from the last species, the ratio of these compounds is representative of the simplest ices found in interstellar clouds. The last component was incorporated into this particular experiment as a tracer of the behavior of a non-aromatic hydrocarbon. The change in the composition that results from ultraviolet photolysis of this ice mixture using a UV lamp to simulate the interstellar radiation field is shown. Photolysis produces CO, CO2, CH4, HCO, H2CO, as well as a family of moderately volatile hydrocarbons. Less volatile carbonaceous materials are also produced. The evolution of the infrared spectrum of the ice as the sample is warmed up to room temperature is illustrated. Researchers believe that the changes are similar to those which occur as ice is ejected from a comet and warmed up by solar radiation. The warm-up sequence shows that the nitrile or iso-nitrile bearing compound

  20. The chemistry of the X-7 (organic) loop coolant part I, May 1960 to April 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.

    1966-01-01

    The report describes in detail the X-7 coolant chemistry from the start of loop operation in May 1960 to April 1965. During this period the coolant was Santowax OM containing a nominal 30% high boilers or high molecular weight decomposition products. During the first few months of operation it became apparent that there wa.s a serious problem in the fouling of fuel element heat transfer surfaces. This was overcome by continuous purification of the coolant by Attapulgus clay and filters. Since clay purification has been in use, the fouling rate has been less than 0.2 μg.cm -2 .h -1 (10 μm per year), the target value for successful operation of an organic cooled power reactor. Control of the fouling promoter chlorine has been accomplished by completely excluding it from the vicinity of the loop. Any which does get into the coolant is removed by a bed of Mg ribbon and Pd pellets. Since such a bed has been in use, the Cl content of the coolant has been less than 3 ppm. Also given in this report are: (a) a brief history of the loop since its inception in 1959. (b) the effect of the clay column on the coolant chemistry. (c) a complete description of the current purification, degas and make-up circuits, (d) a summary of the coolant chemistry during all fuel irradiations. (author)

  1. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. CAFE utilizes the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and is the first model of its kind to incorporate a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.

  2. Theoretical Hammett Plot for the Gas-Phase Ionization of Benzoic Acid versus Phenol: A Computational Chemistry Lab Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Blake E.

    2013-01-01

    Computational chemistry undergraduate laboratory courses are now part of the chemistry curriculum at many universities. However, there remains a lack of computational chemistry exercises available to instructors. This exercise is presented for students to develop skills using computational chemistry software while supplementing their knowledge of…

  3. Development, Implementation, and Assessment of General Chemistry Lab Experiments Performed in the Virtual World of Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Fowler, Debra; Macik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Virtual worlds are a potential medium for teaching college-level chemistry laboratory courses. To determine the feasibility of conducting chemistry experiments in such an environment, undergraduate students performed two experiments in the immersive virtual world of Second Life (SL) as part of their regular General Chemistry 2 laboratory course.…

  4. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 29. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The annual research activities of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI, during the fiscal year 1995, are reported. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed description of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, photochemical separation of stable isotopes, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma-ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facility is also included. In October 1995, the Osaka Laboratory was dissolved into the Kansai Research Establishment which was newly inaugurated to promote advanced photon research. Therefore, this is the final issue of the annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry. (author)

  5. Quantitative x-ray diffraction analyses of samples used for sorption studies by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being investigated to determine its suitability to host our nation's first geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of an effort to determine how radionuclides will interact with rocks at Yucca Mountain, the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (INC) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has conducted numerous batch sorption experiments using core samples from Yucca Mountain. In order to understand better the interaction between the rocks and radionuclides, we have analyzed the samples used by INC with quantitative x-ray diffraction methods. Our analytical methods accurately determine the presence or absence of major phases, but we have not identified phases present below ∼1 wt %. These results should aid in understanding and predicting the potential interactions between radionuclides and the rocks at Yucca Mountain, although the mineralogic complexity of the samples and the lack of information on trace phases suggest that pure mineral studies may be necessary for a more complete understanding. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Bringing research into a first semester organic chemistry laboratory with the multistep synthesis of carbohydrate-based HIV inhibitor mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of incorporating research experiences into laboratory courses have been well documented, yet examples of research projects designed for the first semester introductory organic chemistry lab course are extremely rare. To address this deficiency, a Carbohydrate-Based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Inhibitor project consisting of a synthetic scheme of four reactions was developed for and implemented in the first semester organic lab. Students carried out the synthetic reactions during the last 6 of 10 total labs in the course, generating carbohydrate-based dimeric target molecules modeled after published dimers with application in HIV therapy. The project was designed to provide a research experience through use of literature procedures for reactions performed, exploration of variation in linker length in the target structure, and synthesis of compounds not previously reported in the scientific literature. Project assessment revealed strong student support, indicating enhanced engagement and interest in the course as a direct result of the use of scientific literature and the applications of the synthesized carbohydrate-based molecules. Regardless of discussed challenges in designing a research project for the first semester lab course, the finding from data analysis that a project implemented in the first semester lab had significantly greater student impact than a second semester project should provide motivation for development of additional research projects for a first semester organic course. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3was a function of the concentration of NO3−ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local......Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation...

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part B, Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA.

  10. Curation of Laboratory Experimental Data as Part of the Overall Data Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Frey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The explosion in the production of scientific data in recent years is placing strains upon conventional systems supporting integration, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of data and thus constraining the whole scientific process. Support for handling large quantities of diverse information can be provided by e-Science methodologies and the cyber-infrastructure that enables collaborative handling of such data. Regard needs to be taken of the whole process involved in scientific discovery. This includes the consideration of the requirements of the users and consumers further down the information chain and what they might ideally prefer to impose on the generators of those data. As the degree of digital capture in the laboratory increases, it is possible to improve the automatic acquisition of the ‘context of the data’ as well as the data themselves. This process provides an opportunity for the data creators to ensure that many of the problems they often encounter in later stages are avoided. We wish to elevate curation to an operation to be considered by the laboratory scientist as part of good laboratory practice, not a procedure of concern merely to the few specialising in archival processes. Designing curation into experiments is an effective solution to the provision of high-quality metadata that leads to better, more re-usable data and to better science.

  11. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  12. Pedagogical progeniture or tactical translation? George Fordyce's additions and modifications to William Cullen's philosophical chemistry--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Georgette

    2014-08-01

    This paper compares the affinity theories and the associated affinity diagrams of William Cullen (1710-1790) and George Fordyce (1736-1802), exploring in particular one episode that took place during the brief hiatus between Fordyce's student years at Edinburgh University and the start of his own pedagogical career in London. This investigation complements that contained in Part I of this paper, which compared the chemistry courses given by Cullen and Fordyce, demonstrating that the knowledge originally imparted to Fordyce by Cullen in his Edinburgh lectures was augmented and translated by Fordyce for his own pedagogical purposes. Part II offers greater insight into the flow of knowledge between Fordyce and Cullen. Their correspondence suggests that the relationship between master and student transmuted into something more complicated after Fordyce left Edinburgh, while the model of knowledge transmission between the two can be seen to be more collaborative than might be expected.

  13. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  14. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  15. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of the "Tennis Ball" Dimer and Subsequent Encapsulation of Methane. An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Fraser; Palmer, Liam C.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2001-11-01

    While important to the biological and materials sciences, noncovalent interactions, self-folding, and self-assembly often receive little discussion in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. The synthesis and NMR characterization of a molecular "tennis ball" in an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory is a simple and effective way to introduce the relevance of these concepts. In appropriate solvents, the monomer dimerizes through a seam of eight hydrogen bonds with encapsulation of a guest molecule and symmetry reminiscent of a tennis ball. The entire experiment can be completed in three lab periods, however large-scale synthetic preparation of the starting monomer by a teaching assistant would reduce the laboratory to a single lab period for NMR studies.

  16. Comparison of the corrosion potential for stainless steel measured in-plant and in laboratory during BWR normal water chemistry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molander, A.; Pein, K.; Tarkpea, P.; Takagi, Junichi; Karlberg, G.; Gott, K.

    1998-01-01

    To obtain reliable crack growth rate date for stainless steel in BWR environments careful laboratory simulation of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the plant the BWR normal water chemistry environment contains hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and hydrogen. However, in crack growth rate experiments in laboratories, the environment is normally simulated by adding 200 ppb oxygen to the high temperature water. Thus, as hydrogen peroxide is a more powerful oxidant than oxygen, it is to be expected that a lower corrosion potential will be measured in the laboratory than in the plant. To resolve this issue this work has been performed. In-plant and laboratory measurements have often been performed with somewhat different equipment, due to the special requirements concerning in-plant measurements. In this work such differences have been avoided and two identical sets of equipment for electrochemical measurements were built and used for measurements in-plant in a Swedish BWR and in high purity water in the laboratory. The host plant was Barsebaeck 1. Corrosion potential monitoring in-plant was performed under both NWC (Normal Water Chemistry) and HWC (Hydrogen Water Chemistry) conditions. This paper is, however, focused on NWC conditions. This is due to the fact, that the total crack growth obtained during a reactor cycle, can be determined by NWC conditions, even for plants running with HWC due to periodic stops in the hydrogen addition for turbine inspections or failure of the dosage or hydrogen production equipment. Thus, crack growth data for NWC is of great importance both for BWRs operating with HWC and NWC. Measurements in-plant and in the laboratory were performed during additions of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to the autoclave systems. The corrosion potentials were compared for various conditions in the autoclaves, as well as versus in-plant in-pipe corrosion potentials. (J.P.N.)

  17. Development and Implementation of Inquiry-Based and Computerized-Based Laboratories: Reforming High School Chemistry in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Nitza; Dori, Yehudit Judy; Hofstein, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Reforms in science education in general and in chemistry education in particular have been introduced in many countries since the beginning of the 21st Century. Similarly, at this time in Israel both the content and pedagogy of the chemistry curriculum in high schools were reformed. New content and pedagogical standards emerged, fostering…

  18. Azeotropic Preparation of a "C"-Phenyl "N"-Aryl Imine: An Introductory Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Coyle, David J.; Cannon, Kevin C.; Mathers, Robert T.; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Tierney, John

    2016-01-01

    Imines are important in biological chemistry and as intermediates in organic synthesis. An experiment for introductory undergraduate organic chemistry is presented in which benzaldehyde was condensed with "p"-methoxyaniline in toluene to give 4-methoxy-"N"-(phenylmethylene)benzenamine. Water was removed by azeotropic…

  19. Implementation of picoSpin Benchtop NMR Instruments into Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories through Spectral Analysis of Fischer Esterification Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearty, Kasey L.; Sharp, Joseph T.; Meehan, Emma K.; Wallace, Doyle R.; Jackson, Douglas M.; Morrison, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    [Superscript 1]H NMR analysis is an important analytical technique presented in introductory organic chemistry courses. NMR instrument access is limited for undergraduate organic chemistry students due to the size of the instrument, price of NMR solvents, and the maintenance level required for instrument upkeep. The University of Georgia Chemistry…

  20. Peer-teaching in the food chemistry laboratory: student-produced experiments, peer and audio feedback, and integration of employability skills

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Lisa Dunne

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the author’s experience over the last several years of implementing an alternative Food Chemistry laboratory practical model for a group of third-year BSc Nutraceuticals students. The initial main objectives were to prepare students for the more independent final-year research project; to incorporate innovative approaches to feedback; and to integrate key employability skills into the curriculum. These were achieved through building the skills required to ultimately allow...

  1. A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF CASE BASED LEARNING FOR PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS AN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alpat, Sibel Kılınç; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu; Özbayrak, Özge; Alpat, Şenol

    2011-01-01

    It is aimed to analyze the change of the pre-service science teachers‘ attitudes towards chemistry laboratories using case-based learning, an active learning method, in this research. This research is an semiexperimental study with a control group. The sample of this research was originated by the second-year students (N=61) of the department of science education in Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Buca Education. In the first stage of the research, a case about the experiment of determinin...

  2. Atmospheric impact of the 1783–1784 Laki eruption: Part I Chemistry modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stevenson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from the first chemistry-transport model study of the impact of the 1783–1784 Laki fissure eruption (Iceland: 64°N, 17°W upon atmospheric composition are presented. The eruption released an estimated 61 Tg(S as SO2 into the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The model has a high resolution tropopause region, and detailed sulphur chemistry. The simulated SO2 plume spreads over much of the Northern Hemisphere, polewards of ~40°N. About 70% of the SO2 gas is directly deposited to the surface before it can be oxidised to sulphuric acid aerosol. The main SO2 oxidants, OH and H2O2, are depleted by up to 40% zonally, and the lifetime of SO2 consequently increases. Zonally averaged tropospheric SO2 concentrations over the first three months of the eruption exceed 20 ppbv, and sulphuric acid aerosol reaches ~2 ppbv. These compare to modelled pre-industrial/present-day values of 0.1/0.5 ppbv SO2 and 0.1/1.0 ppbv sulphate. A total sulphuric acid aerosol yield of 17–22 Tg(S is produced. The mean aerosol lifetime is 6–10 days, and the peak aerosol loading of the atmosphere is 1.4–1.7 Tg(S (equivalent to 5.9–7.1 Tg of hydrated sulphuric acid aerosol. These compare to modelled pre-industrial/present-day sulphate burdens of 0.28/0.81 Tg(S, and lifetimes of 6/5 days, respectively. Due to the relatively short atmospheric residence times of both SO2 and sulphate, the aerosol loading approximately mirrors the temporal evolution of emissions associated with the eruption. The model produces a reason-able simulation of the acid deposition found in Greenland ice cores. These results appear to be relatively insensitive to the vertical profile of emissions assumed, although if more of the emissions reached higher levels (>12 km, this would give longer lifetimes and larger aerosol yields. Introducing the emissions in episodes generates similar results to using monthly mean emissions, because the atmospheric lifetimes are similar to the repose periods

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydmark, Sara

    2011-06-01

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were therefore

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Prototype repository. Analyses of microorganisms, gases, and water chemistry in buffer and backfill, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydmark, Sara [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The prototype repository (hereafter, 'Prototype') is an international project to build and study a fullscale model of the planned Swedish final repository for spent nuclear fuel. However, the Prototype differs from a real storage in that it is drained, which makes the swelling pressure lower in the Prototype than in a real storage facility. The heat from the radioactive decay is simulated by electrical heaters. The project is being conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in crystalline rock at a depth of approximately 450 m. A monitoring programme is investigating the evolution of the water chemistry, gas, and microbial activity at the site, and a specific aim is to monitor the microbial consumption of oxygen in situ in the Prototype. This document describes the results of the analyses of microbes, gases, and chemistry inside the Prototype in 2010. Hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and ethene were analysed at the following sampling points in the Prototype: KBU10001, KBU10002, KBU10004, KBU10008, and KFA04. Where the sampling points in the Prototype delivered pore water, the water was analysed for amount of ATP (i.e. the biovolume), culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB), sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). The pore water collected from the Prototype was subject to as many chemical analyses as the amount of water allowed. Chemical analyses were also performed on pore water from two additional sampling points, KBU10005 and KBU10006. Chemical data from a previous investigation of the groundwater outside the Prototype were compared with the pore water chemistry. The improved sampling and analysis protocols introduced in 2007 worked very well. The International Progress Report (IPR) 08-01 (Eriksson 2008) revealed that many of the hydrochemical sampling points differ greatly from each other. The 16 sampling points were

  5. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  6. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid-base equilibria and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We review fundamental and applied acid-base equilibrium chemistry useful to microfluidic electrokinetics. We present elements of acid-base equilibrium reactions and derive rules for pH calculation for simple buffers. We also present a general formulation to calculate pH of more complex, arbitrary mixtures of electrolytes, and discuss the effects of ionic strength and temperature on pH calculation. More practically, we offer advice on buffer preparation and on buffer reporting. We also discuss "real world" buffers and likely contamination sources. In particular, we discuss the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on buffer systems, namely, the increase in ionic strength and acidification of typical electrokinetic device buffers. In Part II of this two-paper series, we discuss the coupling of acid-base equilibria with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems.

  7. The role of European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase in standardization and harmonization of the preanalytical phase in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Labor......Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry...... and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) was established to lead in standardization and harmonization of preanalytical policies and practices at a European level. One of the key activities of the WG-PRE is the organization of the biennial EFLM-BD conference on the preanalytical...... summarises the work that has and will be done in these areas. The goal of this initiative is to ensure the EFLM WG-PRE produces work that meets the needs of the European laboratory medicine community. Progress made in the identified areas will be updated at the next preanalytical phase conference and show...

  8. Pedagogical progeniture or tactical translation? George Fordyce's additions and modifications to William Cullen's philosophical chemistry--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Georgette

    2014-02-01

    This article contributes to a growing body of research on the dissemination, dispersion or diffusion of scientific knowledge via pedagogical networks. By examining students' handwritten lecture notes, I compare the eighteenth-century chemistry lectures given by William Cullen (1710-1790) at Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities with those of his one-time student George Fordyce (1736-1802), in London, at first privately and then as part of the medical education of physicians at St. Thomas's Hospital. Part I examines the broad structure of Cullen's and Fordyce's courses, comparing both course content and pedagogical approaches to ask how far knowledge flowed directly 'downstream,' and the extent to which it was transformed, translated or transmuted in the process of transmission. Part II (forthcoming) will approach the affinity theories of Cullen and Fordyce in greater depth, revealing the dynamics of knowledge transfer. The results shed light on the transmission of knowledge and skills between master and student, and reflect on whether Fordyce can be better described as Cullen's pedagogical progeny, or less straightforwardly as a tactical translator.

  9. Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitric- Glycolic Flowsheet Chemical Process Cell Chemistry: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-06

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from 2011 to 2016. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlation models to predict these values from measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge or simulant composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Previous work on these correlations was documented in a technical report covering data from 2011-2015. This current report supersedes this previous report. Further refinement of the models as additional data are collected is recommended.

  10. Measuring Heterogeneous Reaction Rates with ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Evaluate Chemical Fates in an Atmospheric Environment: A Physical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Maron, Marta K.; Mach, Mindy; Dwebi, Iman; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure heterogeneous liquid/gas reaction kinetics (ozone-oleic acid and ozone-phenothrin) using a flow reactor coupled to an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. The experiment is specially designed for an upper-level undergraduate Physical…

  11. Changes in the Chemistry of Groundwater Reacted with CO2: Comparison of Laboratory Results with the ZERT Field Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Abedini, Atosa A.; Beers, Sarah; Thomas, Burt

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ZERT program, sediments from two wells at the ZERT site, located in Bozeman, Montana, USA were reacted with a solution having the composition of local groundwater. A total of 50 water samples were collected from 7 containers placed for 15 days in a glove box with one atmosphere of CO2 to investigate detailed changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic compounds, and to compare these with changes observed in groundwater at the ZERT site following CO2 injection. Laboratory results included rapid changes in pH (8.6 to 5.7), alkalinity (243 to 1295 mg/L as HCO3), electrical conductance (539 to 1822 μS/cm), Ca (28 to 297 mg/L), Mg (18 to 63 mg/L), Fe (5 to 43 μg/L) and Mn (2 to 837 μg/L) following CO2 injection. These chemical changes, which are in general agreement with those obtained from sampling the ZERT monitoring wells, could provide early detection of CO2 leakage into shallow groundwater. Dissolution of calcite, some dolomite and minor Mn-oxides, and desorption/ion exchange are likely the main geochemical processes responsible for the observed changes.

  12. Accreditation of medical laboratories in Croatia--experiences of the Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital "Merkur", Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegar-Mestrić, Zlata; Nazor, Aida; Perkov, Sonja; Surina, Branka; Kardum-Paro, Mirjana Mariana; Siftar, Zoran; Sikirica, Mirjana; Sokolić, Ivica; Ozvald, Ivan; Vidas, Zeljko

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003 when the international norm for implementation of quality management in medical laboratories (EN ISO 15189, Medical laboratories--Particular requirements for quality and competence) was established and accepted, accreditation has become practical, generally accepted method of quality management and confirmation of technical competence of medical laboratories in the whole world. This norm has been translated into Croatian and accepted by the Croatian Institute for Norms as Croatian norm. Accreditation is carried out on voluntary basis by the Croatian Accreditation Agency that has up to now accredited two clinical medical biochemical laboratories in the Republic of Croatia. Advantages of accredited laboratory lie in its documented management system, constant improvement and training, reliability of test results, establishing users' trust in laboratory services, test results comparability and interlaboratory (international) test results acceptance by adopting the concept of metrological traceability in laboratory medicine.

  13. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NOx emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200 nm band was found to be ∼ 1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper...... are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude...

  14. High Purity Germanium Detector as part of Health Canada's Mobile Nuclear Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Bouchard, Claude; Rollings, John; Boudreau, Marc-Oliver; McCutcheon- Wickham, Rory; Bergman, Lauren [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, AL6302D, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the event of a nuclear emergency on Canadian soil, Health Canada has designed and equipped two Mobile Nuclear Labs (MNLs) which can be deployed near a radiological accident site to provide radiological measurement capabilities. These measurements would help public authorities to make informed decisions for radiation protection recommendations. One of the MNLs has been outfitted with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector within a lead castle, which can be used for identification as well as quantification of gamma emitting radioisotopes in contaminated soil, water, and other samples. By spring 2014, Health Canada's second MNL will be equipped with a similar detector to increase sample analysis capacity and also provide redundancy if one of the detectors requires maintenance. The Mobile Nuclear Lab (MNL) with the HPGe detector has been successfully deployed in the field for various exercises. One of these field exercises was a dirty bomb scenario where an unknown radioisotope required identification. A second exercise was an inter-comparison between the measurements of spiked soil and water samples, by two field teams and a certified laboratory. A third exercise was the deployment of the MNL as part of a full scale nuclear exercise simulating an emergency at a Canadian nuclear power plant. The lessons learned from these experiences will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  16. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  17. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 28). April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995) are described. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  18. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 28). April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1994 (April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995) are described. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author).

  19. Employment of mobile devices in chemistry education

    OpenAIRE

    Švehla, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on the use of mobile devices in chemistry education. Describes various mobile devices, including different operating systems and technology and shows huge potential that these devices bring to education. It also includes an overview of existing educational programs with a chemical theme on mobile devices. Part of this work was to create a custom supportive program Chemical helper for mobile devices, which can be used in chemistry education, laboratory and also i...

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 2: Environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This 1993 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US DOE describes research in environment and health conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The report is divided into four parts, each in a separate volume. This part, Volume 2, covers Environmental Sciences. The research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of subsurface and terrestrial systems as a basis for both managing these critical resources and addressing environmental problems such as environmental restoration and global change. There are sections on Subsurface Science, Terrestrial Science, Technology Transfer, Interactions with Educational Institutions, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development.

  1. Teaching chemistry and other sciences to blind and low-vision students through hands-on learning experiences in high school science laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supalo, Cary Alan

    2010-11-01

    Students with blindness and low vision (BLV) have traditionally been underrepresented in the sciences as a result of technological and attitudinal barriers to equal access in science laboratory classrooms. The Independent Laboratory Access for the Blind (ILAB) project developed and evaluated a suite of talking and audible hardware/software tools to empower students with BLV to have multisensory, hands-on laboratory learning experiences. This dissertation focuses on the first year of ILAB tool testing in mainstream science laboratory classrooms, and comprises a detailed multi-case study of four students with BLV who were enrolled in high school science classes during 2007--08 alongside sighted students. Participants attended different schools; curricula included chemistry, AP chemistry, and AP physics. The ILAB tools were designed to provide multisensory means for students with BLV to make observations and collect data during standard laboratory lessons on an equivalent basis with their sighted peers. Various qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments were used to determine whether the hands-on experiences facilitated by the ILAB tools had led to increased involvement in laboratory-goal-directed actions, greater peer acceptance in the students' lab groups, improved attitudes toward science, and increased interest in science. Premier among the ILAB tools was the JAWS/Logger Pro software interface, which made audible all information gathered through standard Vernier laboratory probes and visually displayed through Logger Pro. ILAB tools also included a talking balance, a submersible audible light sensor, a scientific talking stopwatch, and a variety of other high-tech and low-tech devices and techniques. While results were mixed, all four participating BLV students seemed to have experienced at least some benefit, with the effect being stronger for some than for others. Not all of the data collection instruments were found to reveal improvements for all

  2. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  3. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  4. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  5. Laboratory and project based learning in the compulsory course Biological Chemistry enhancing collaboration and technical communication between groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Bysted, Anette; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe how changes of laboratory training and project based learning were implemented in order to train the students in making a study design, basic laboratory skills, handling of data, technical communication, collaboration and presentation....

  6. Clays as mineral dust aerosol: An integrated approach to studying climate, atmospheric chemistry, and biogeochemical effects of atmospheric clay minerals in an undergraduate research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C. D.; Crane, C. C.; Harris, K. J.; Thompson, C. E.; Miles, M. K.; Weingold, R. M.; Bucuti, T.

    2011-12-01

    Entrained mineral dust aerosol accounts for 45% of the global annual atmospheric aerosol load and can have a significant influence on important environmental issues, including climate, atmospheric chemistry, cloud formation, biogeochemical processes, visibility, and human health. 70% of all mineral aerosol mass originating from Africa consists of layered aluminosilicates, including illite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite clays. Clay minerals are a largely neglected component of mineral aerosol, yet they have unique physiochemical properties, including a high reactive surface area, large cation exchange capacities, small particle sizes, and a relatively large capacity to take up adsorbed water, resulting in expansion of clay layers (and a larger reactive surface area for heterogeneous interactions) in some cases. An integrated laboratory research approach has been implemented at Hendrix College, a Primarily Undergraduate Institution, in which undergraduate students are involved in independent and interdisciplinary research projects that relate the chemical aging processes (heterogeneous chemistry) of clay minerals as a major component of mineral aerosol to their effects on climate (water adsorption), atmospheric chemistry (trace gas uptake), and biogeochemistry (iron dissolution and phytoplankton biomarker studies). Preliminary results and future directions will be reported.

  7. Peer-teaching in the food chemistry laboratory: student-produced experiments, peer and audio feedback, and integration of employability skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lisa Dunne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the author’s experience over the last several years of implementing an alternative Food Chemistry laboratory practical model for a group of third-year BSc Nutraceuticals students. The initial main objectives were to prepare students for the more independent final-year research project; to incorporate innovative approaches to feedback; and to integrate key employability skills into the curriculum. These were achieved through building the skills required to ultimately allow students working in groups to research, design and run a laboratory for their class. The first year of the project involved innovative approaches to feedback, including weekly feedback sessions, report checklists and audio feedback podcasts. Student evaluation after one year suggested the case group felt more prepared for final-year research projects and work placement owing to the redesign of the laboratory assessment. This, together with general positive feedback across several indicators, was proof of concept, and was a foundation for an improved model. The improvements related to the organisation and management of the project, but the same pedagogical approach has been retained. The second year saw the introduction of a more rigorous and easier to manage peer evaluation though use of the online Comprehensive Assessment for Team-Member Effectiveness (CATME tool. The most recent revision has included a Project Wiki hosted on Blackboard to facilitate the organisation, communication, assessment and feedback of student-generated resources.More recently, the final-year students who had participated in the peer-teaching Food Chemistry labs when in third year have been evaluated. This evaluation took place following their research projects, and suggests that the peer-teaching model better prepared them for these activities, compared to traditional laboratories.

  8. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Scientific and Technology Part II : Nuclear Chemistry; Process Technology and Radioactive Waste Management; Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Endang-Supartini

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) for monitoring the research activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment. This proceeding is the second part from two part which published in series. There are 61 articles which have separated index

  9. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  10. U3Si2 behavior in H2O environments: Part II, pressurized water with controlled redox chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. T.; Migdisov, A.; Wood, E. Sooby; Grote, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent interest in U3Si2 as an advanced light water reactor fuel has driven assessment of numerous properties, but characterization of its response to H2O environments is sparse in available literature. The behavior of U3Si2 in H2O containing atmospheres is investigated and presented in a two-part series of articles. This work examines the behavior of U3Si2 following exposure to pressurized H2O at temperatures from 300 to 350 °C. Testing was performed using two autoclave configurations and multiple redox conditions. Use of solid state buffers to attain a controlled water chemistry is also presented as a means to test actinide-bearing systems. Buffers were used to vary the hydrogen concentration between 1 and 30 parts per million H2. Testing included UN, U3Si5, and UO2. Both UN and U3Si5 were found to rapidly pulverize in less than 50 h at 300 °C. Uranium dioxide was included as a control for the autoclave system, and was found to be minimally impacted by exposure to pressurized water at the conditions tested for extended time periods. Testing of U3Si2 at 300 °C found reasonable stability through 30 days in 1-5 ppm H2. However, pulverization was observed following 35 days. The redox condition of testing strongly affected pulverization. Characterization of the resulting microstructures suggests that the mechanism responsible for pulverization under more strongly reducing conditions differs from that previously identified. Hydride formation is hypothesized to drive this transition. Testing performed at 350 °C resulted in rapid pulverization of U3Si2 in under 50 h.

  11. A Framework for Understanding Student Nurses' Experience of Chemistry as Part of a Health Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddey, Kerrie; de Berg, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-seven first-year nursing students, divided across six focus groups formed on the basis of their past chemistry experience, were interviewed about their chemistry experience as a component of a Health Science unit. Information related to learning and academic performance was able to be established from student conversations resulting in…

  12. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body......) 0.86-1.02] for all pregnancies and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.13) for first pregnancies. A healthy worker effect was found for the laboratory technicians working with the work processes under study. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not suggest that laboratory work in Denmark at present impairs female fecundity....

  13. Implementation of a Proposed Model of a Constructivist Teaching-Learning Process – A Step Towards an Outcome Based Education in Chemistry Laboratory Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Paz B. Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study implemented the proposed model of a constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the extent by which the students manifested the institutional learning outcomes which include competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration. It also investigated if there was an improvement in the learning outcomes after the implementation of the constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the students’ acceptance of the constructivist teaching-learning process. Towards the end a plan of action was proposed to enhance the students’ manifestation of the institutional learning outcomes. It made use of the qualitative- quantitative method particularly the descriptive design. The results of the study revealed that the students manifest competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration as they accept positively the constructivist teaching-learning process in their chemistry laboratory subject. It can be deduced from the findings that the constructivist teaching-learning process improved the learning outcomes of the students. The use of the proposed plan of action is recommended for an effective chemistry laboratory instruction.

  14. The Potential of Non-Formal Laboratory Environments for Innovating the Chemistry Curriculum and Promoting Secondary School Level Students Education for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Garner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing skills and attitudes among students in terms of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD requires that educators address issues of sustainability in both formal and non-formal education. However, up to now, ESD seems to have been insufficiently implemented in secondary science education in many countries in general, and in high school chemistry learning in particular. A lack of suitable experiments, coupled with missing teaching and learning materials and insufficient teacher professional development have been identified as the reasons for this gap. This paper describes a project of innovation and research in the field of ESD for secondary school chemistry education. Within the project, both half- and full-day learning environments have been developed for non-formal, laboratory-based learning of secondary level students at the university. The research-based development focuses on teaching-learning modules which link formal and non-formal learning. The pedagogy employed is both learner-centered and inquiry-based. All the modules focus on sustainability issues in chemistry-related contexts. Data was collected by questionnaires from teachers and students both prior to and after the visit of the non-formal learning environment. Likert-items were analyzed statistically and the evaluation of the open-ended questions was done by Qualitative Content Analysis. An overview of the project, a case from the non-formal laboratory setting, and findings from accompanying research and evaluation are discussed in this paper. Potential impacts on teacher professional development and curriculum innovation are also outlined.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ``Physical and Technological Research.`` The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 4: Physical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.

    1994-08-01

    Part 4 of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research includes those programs funded under the title ''Physical and Technological Research.'' The Field Task Program Studies reported in this document are grouped by budget category. Attention is focused on the following subject areas: dosimetry research; and radiological and chemical physics

  17. Part I. Analyzing the distribution of gas law questions in chemistry textbooks. Part II. Chlorine-35 NQR spectra of group 1 and silver dichloromethanesulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Gabriel

    Part I. Two studies involving the gas law questions in eight high school and Advanced Placement/college chemistry textbooks were performed using loglinear analysis to look for associations among six variables. These variables included Bloom's Taxonomy (higher-order, lower-order), Book Type (high school, college), Question Format (multiple-choice, problem, short answer), Question Placement (in-chapter, end-of-chapter, test bank), Representation (macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and Arkansas Science Standard (conceptual, mathematical; gas laws, pressure conversion, stoichiometry). The first study, involving the conceptual gas law questions, found the Book Type and Question Placement variables had the biggest impact, each appearing in 5 of the 11 significant associations. The second study, involving the mathematical gas law questions, found the Question Placement had the biggest impact, appearing in 7 of the 11 significant associations, followed by Book Type and the Arkansas Science Standard variables, which appeared in 5 of the 11 significant associations. These studies showed that compared to the high school books, college books have fewer multiple-choice questions (compared to short-answer and problem questions), fewer in-chapter questions (compared to end-of-chapter and test bank questions), fewer questions in the chapters and more questions at the end of the chapters and fewer multiple-choice questions in and at the end of the books and more multiple-choice questions in the test banks. Part II. The dichloromethanesulfonate salts of several +1 charged cations, M+Cl2CHSO3 - (M = Li, Na, K, Rb Ag, Cs Tl) were synthesized and studied by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). Dichloromethanesulfonic acid was prepared by the methanolysis of dichloromethanesulfonyl chloride, which was neutralized with the metal carbonates to produce the corresponding metal dichloromethanesulfonate salts. This study completed the NQR investigation of the family of chloroacetates

  18. Effects of water chemistry and fluid dynamics on wall thinning behavior. Part 1. Development of FAC model focused on water chemistry and composition of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Domae, Masafumi; Ohta, Joji; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Inada, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), which is one of the important subjects at fossil and nuclear power plans, is caused by the accelerated dissolution of protective oxide film due to the turbulent flow. The influence factors on FAC such as water chemistry, material, and fluid dynamics are closely related to the oxide property so that the risk of FAC can be reduced by the suitable control of water chemistry. There are some FAC models and evaluation codes of FAC rate. Some of them are used in wall thinning management of nuclear power plant in some country. Nevertheless, these FAC codes include many empirical parameters so that some uncertainty to evaluate the synergistic effectiveness of factors are the controversial point for the application of FAC code to wall thinning management in Japanese nuclear power plant. In this study, a FAC model that can evaluate the effect of temperature, NH3 concentration, chromium content, and dissolved oxygen concentration on FAC rate was developed by considering the diffusion of dissolved species. The critical dissolved oxygen concentration, which can inhibit FAC, was also calculated by this model. (author)

  19. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs

  20. Chemistry of sustainability-Part I: Carbon dioxide as an organic synthon and Part II: Study of thermodynamics of cation exchange reactions in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Ajay A.

    Sustainability is an important part of the design and development of new chemical and energy conversion processes. Simply put sustainability is the ability to meet our needs without sacrificing the ability of the next generations to meet theirs. This thesis describes our efforts in developing two orthogonal strategies for the fixation of CO2 by utilizing high energy intermediates which are generated via oxidative or reductive processes on common organic substrates and of thermochemical measurements of cation exchange reactions which will aid the development of new materials relevant for energy conversion and storage. The first chapter lays a background for the challenges and opportunities for the use of CO2 in organic synthesis. The rapidly growing field of continuous flow processing in organic synthesis is introduced, and its importance in the development of sustainable chemical conversions is highlighted. The second chapter describes the development of a novel route to alpha-amino acids via reductive carboxylation of imines. A mechanistic proposal is presented and the reaction is shown to proceed through the intermediacy of alpha-amino alkyl metal species. Possible strategies for designing catalytic and enantioselective variants of the reaction are presented. The third chapter describes the development of a catalytic oxidative carboxylation of olefins to yield cyclic carbonates. The importance of flow chemistry and membrane separation is demonstrated by allowing the combination of mutually incompatible reagents in a single reaction sequence. While the use of carbon dioxide for synthesis of organic fine chemicals is not expected to help reduce the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, or tackle climate change, it certainly has the potential to reduce our dependence on non-sustainable carbon feedstocks, and help achieve a carbon neutral chemical life cycle. Having described the use of carbon dioxide and flow chemistry for sustainable chemical conversion, the fourth

  1. Mortality responses in bracon hebetor (say) (braconidae: hymenoptera) against some new chemistry and conventional insecticides under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.R.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, S.; Sahi, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    Toxicity of some new chemistry and conventional insecticides, at different dose rates recommended for field use against Spodoptera litura, and 10% above and below the recommended dose were determined against the adults of a larval parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). Amongst the conventional insecticides, profenofos (Curacron 50EC), chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 40EC), methomyl (Lannate 40SP) and thiodicarb (Larvin 80DP) were selected, while from the new chemistry insecticides, lufenuron (Match 5EC), abamectin (Agrimec 1.8EC), emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 1.9EC), spinosad (Tracer 24SC), indoxacarb (Steward 15EC) and methoxyfenozide (Runner 24SC) were used. The higher dose rate of chlorpyrifos gave 100% mortality in the test insect after 24 hours of application, while at lower and recommended dose rates 100% mortality was recorded after 36 hours of application. Similarly, 100% mortality was also recorded in the adults treated with higher doses of profenofos, recommended and higher dose rate of methomyl and the higher dose rate of thiodicarb after 36hours of application. Mean while, insecticide treatments with emamectin benzoate, abamectin, spinosad, indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide, at different doses, were ranked slightly harmful to harmful after 48 hours of their application. (author)

  2. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  3. Recent advances in H-phosphonate chemistry. Part 1. H-phosphonate esters: synthesis and basic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowski, Michal; Kraszewski, Adam; Stawinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This review covers recent progress in the preparation of H-phosphonate mono- and diesters, basic studies on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects of this class of phosphorus compounds, and their fundamental chemistry in terms of transformation of P-H bonds into P-heteroatom bonds. Selected recent applications of H-phosphonate derivatives in basic organic phosphorus chemistry and in the synthesis of biologically important phosphorus compounds are also discussed.

  4. The European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine syllabus for postgraduate education and training for Specialists in Laboratory Medicine: version 5 - 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassam, Nuthar; Lake, Jennifer; Dabrowska, Milena; Queralto, Jose; Rizos, Demetrios; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Baum, Hannsjörg; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; O'Mullane, John; Homšak, Evgenija; Charilaou, Charis; Ohlson, Mats; Rako, Ivana; Vitkus, Dalius; Kovac, Gustav; Verschuure, Pauline; Racek, Jaroslav; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Wieringa, Gilbert

    2018-06-05

    Although laboratory medicine practise varies across the European Union's (EU) member states, the extent of overlap in scope is such that a common syllabus describing the education and training associated with high-quality, specialist practise can be identified. In turn, such a syllabus can help define the common set of skills, knowledge and competence in a Common Training Framework (CTF) for non-medical Specialists in Laboratory Medicine under EU Directive 2013/55/EU (The recognition of Professional Qualifications). In meeting the requirements of the directive's CTF patient safety is particularly enhanced when specialists seek to capitalise on opportunities for free professional migration across EU borders. In updating the fourth syllabus, the fifth expands on individual discipline requirements, new analytical techniques and use of statistics. An outline structure for a training programme is proposed together with expected responsibilities of trainees and trainers; reference is provided to a trainee's log book. In updating the syllabus, it continues to support national programmes and the aims of EU Directive 2013/55/EU in providing safeguards to professional mobility across European borders at a time when the demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing in the face of a disparity in their distribution across Europe. In support of achieving a CTF, the syllabus represents EFLM's position statement for the education and training that underpins the framework.

  5. Application of Sigma Metrics Analysis for the Assessment and Modification of Quality Control Program in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sahar; Mustansar, Tazeen

    2017-03-01

    Sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of a process as a rate of Defects-Per-Million opportunities. In clinical laboratories, sigma metric analysis is used to assess the performance of laboratory process system. Sigma metric is also used as a quality management strategy for a laboratory process to improve the quality by addressing the errors after identification. The aim of this study is to evaluate the errors in quality control of analytical phase of laboratory system by sigma metric. For this purpose sigma metric analysis was done for analytes using the internal and external quality control as quality indicators. Results of sigma metric analysis were used to identify the gaps and need for modification in the strategy of laboratory quality control procedure. Sigma metric was calculated for quality control program of ten clinical chemistry analytes including glucose, chloride, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, albumin, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, protein and creatinine, at two control levels. To calculate the sigma metric imprecision and bias was calculated with internal and external quality control data, respectively. The minimum acceptable performance was considered as 3 sigma. Westgard sigma rules were applied to customize the quality control procedure. Sigma level was found acceptable (≥3) for glucose (L2), cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, direct bilirubin and creatinine at both levels of control. For rest of the analytes sigma metric was found control levels (8.8 and 8.0 at L2 and L3, respectively). We conclude that analytes with the sigma value quality control procedure. In this study application of sigma rules provided us the practical solution for improved and focused design of QC procedure.

  6. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang

    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  7. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  8. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  9. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1983-04-01

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  10. Preparation of (+)-α-terpineol from (+)-limonene: monoterpenes with pleasant odor in a project for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptistella, Lucia Helena Brito; Imamura, Paulo Mitsuo; Melo, Leandro Vilela de; Castello, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    A synthesis of (+)-α-terpineol from (+)-limonene was proposed as a project for undergraduate organic laboratory course. Terpineol is a useful flavor and fragrance compound, and several aspects of this preparation are suited for experimental organic classes, including basic techniques for extraction and analyses of essential oils, different reaction types and the possibility of a high degree of student interest. (author)

  11. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  12. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  13. Assembly of a Modular Fluorimeter and Associated Software: Using LabVIEW in an Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, W. Russ; Massey, Melissa; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory activity for an upper-level undergraduate course in instrumental analysis has been created around LabVIEW. Students learn rudimentary programming and interfacing skills during the construction of a fluorimeter assembled from common modular components. The fluorimeter consists of an inexpensive data acquisition module, LED light…

  14. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  15. A Microscale Approach to Chemical Kinetics in the General Chemistry Laboratory: The Potassium Iodide Hydrogen Peroxide Iodine-Clock Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattsangi, Prem D.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale laboratory for teaching chemical kinetics utilizing the iodine clock reaction is described. Plastic pipets, 3 mL volume, are used to store and deliver precise drops of reagents and the reaction is run in a 24 well plastic tray using a total 60 drops of reagents. With this procedure, students determine the rate of reaction and the…

  16. Mass Spectral Investigation of Laboratory Made Tholins and Their Reaction Products: Implications to Tholin Surface Chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpad; Smith, M. A.

    2006-09-01

    The success of the Huygens mission does not overshadow the importance of laboratory simulations of gas-phase and surface reactions that might occur in Titan's atmosphere and surface, respectively. We present here our latest results on chemical reactions (hydrolysis, peroxidation and hydrogenation) of laboratory made tholins obtained by FT-ICR mass spectrometry. The laboratory synthesis of tholins has been described in our earlier papers [1,2]. Overall, we conclude that our laboratory tholins are reactive materials that undergo fast hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction. Thus, if the tholin on Titan's surface resemble our laboratory made tholins, it can be considered as a potential starting material for several synthetic processes that can provide organic compounds of pre-biotic interest. Hydrolysis reactions occur with rate constants of 2-10 hour-1 at room temperature. Formal water addition to several species of CxHyNz has been observed by detecting the formation of CxHy+2NzO species. MS/MS fragmentation of the oxygen containing ions leads to the loss of water, ammonia, HCN, acetonitrile, etc. This suggests that tholin hydrolysis may occur in temporary melted ponds of water/ammonia ice on Titan. Peroxidation, which can be considered as a very harsh oxidation, leads to mono-, and multiple oxygenated compounds within a few minutes. The MS/MS fragmentation of these compounds suggests the presence of organic amides and, presumably, amino acid like compounds. Hydrogenation leads to compounds in which the originally present carbon-carbon or carbon-nitrogen double and triple bonds are saturated. H/D exchange experiments show different kinetics depending on the degree of unsaturation/saturation and the number of N atoms. [1] Sarker, N.; Somogyi, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Smith, M. A. Astrobiology, 2003, 3, 719-726. [2] Somogyi, A.; Oh, C-H.; Lunine, J. I.; Smith, M. A. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 16, 850-859.

  17. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  18. Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene: a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes; Sintese de cristais liquidos derivados do nitroazobenzeno: uma proposta de sintese multi-etapas aplicada as aulas de quimica organica experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, Rodrigo; Cabral, Marilia Gabriela B.; Aquino, Rafael B. de; Cristiano, Claudia M.Z., E-mail: rcristiano@quimica.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. (author)

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 2, Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes progress in environmental sciences research conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Office of Health and Environmental Research in FY 1988. Research is directed toward developing a fundamental understanding of processes controlling the long-term fate and biological effects of fugitive chemicals and other stressors resulting from energy development. The PNL research program continues to make important contributions to the resolution of important national environmental problems. The research, focused principally on subsurface contaminant transport and detection and management of human-induced changes in biological systems, forms the basis for defining and quantifying processes that affect humans and the environment at the regional and global levels. Each research project forms a component in an integrated laboratory- intermediated scale field approach designed to examine multiple phenomena at increasing levels of complexity. This approach is providing system-level insights into critical environmental processes. Strong university liaisons now in existence are being markedly expanded so that PNL resources and the specialized technical capabilities in the university community can be more efficiently integrated. Building on PNL technical strengths in geochemistry, environment microbiology, hydrodynamics, and statistical ecology, research in the environmental sciences is in an exciting phase, and new investments have been made in molecular sciences, chemistry, biotechnology, use of remote imagery, and theoretical ecology. The section on exploratory research provides unique insight into the value of these investments and into the future of PNL environmental sciences programs.

  20. The Effects of Problem Based Scenarios on 9th Grade Students’ Attitudes towards Chemistry, Laboratory Anxiety, and Perceptions of Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Özgür Karataş

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Students were expected to construct knowledge, to criticize and to generate new ideas. PISA results in science field are disappointing. Turkish students’ performance on the questions that requires higher order thinking and problem solving skills is very poor. This indicates that learning environment should be redesigned to fulfill these lacking skills. Scenario based learning is one of the approaches that promotes problem solving skills by enabling active involvement of students into solving everyday problems. The purpose of this study is to examine effects of the problem based scenarios with worksheets on 9th grade students’ attitudes towards chemistry, laboratory anxiety, and problem solving perceptions. Pre- and post-test comparison with t-test showed that there is no significant difference before and after the treatment for none of the variables even though scores were higher after the treatment. On the other hand, data from observations and students interviews implied positive effect of the treatment.