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Sample records for chemistry inorganic

  1. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  2. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  3. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  4. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  5. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  6. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  7. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinJHClarkFRS

    1995-01-01

    The renaissance in Raman spectroscopy some 25-30 years ago had particular and immediate impact on Inorganic Chemistry,viz in areas such as the study of deeply coloued compounds,structural changes on change of state,equilibria,vapour phase band contour analysis,Raman band intensities and the nature of the chemical bond,metal-metal bonding,species in melts,identification of species in solution and of radicals by time-resolved techniques,in bioinorganic chemistry,and of linear-chain semiconductors.More recently,much attention has been directed at the quantitative level at the evaluation of geometric changes in molecules on excitation by resonance Raman spectroscopy.At the qualitative level Raman microscopy is now recognised to be the most effective technique for the identification of pigments-particularly the inorganic ones-on medieval manuscripts and especially of the components(down to grain sizes of -1 um)of pigment mixtures,It is thus a very important technique at the Arts/Science borderling in conservation science.

  8. Part 6: The Literature of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a list of resources on inorganic chemistry that includes general surveys, nomenclature, dictionaries, handbooks, compilations, and treatises. Selected for use by academic and student chemists. (DDR)

  9. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  10. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  11. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  12. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  13. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huheey, James; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching inorganic chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students to see that chemistry is a unified science. Contents include: (1) "Periodicity: A Chemical Calendar"; (2)…

  14. Diversity and Periodicity: An Inorganic Chemistry Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huheey, James

    This book is one in a series of Interdisciplinary Approaches to Chemistry (IAC) designed to help students discover that chemistry is a lively science and actively used to pursue solutions to the important problems of today. It is expected for students to see how chemistry takes place continuously all around and to readily understand the daily…

  15. Inorganic Chemistry: A Prestigious History and a Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-07-13

    "…︁Inorganic chemistry has evolved from fundamental studies to the forefronts of interdisciplinary research. What was considered to be impossible or elusive has now become feasible. While we still keep our identity as inorganic chemists, the sharp demarcation between the divisions of different subject disciplines or subdisciplines is no longer relevant …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Vivian W.-W. Yam.

  16. Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Graduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas; Ross, Paul; Roat, Rosette M.

    1998-06-01

    Inorganic chemistry faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) are offering an advanced, interdisciplinary, graduate course entitled "Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology". The course utilizes examples from bioinorganic chemistry to introduce advanced topics in synthesis, structural analysis, and analytical methods that are practiced by inorganic chemists. Emphasis is placed on the structure and function of trace and ultratrace transition metals in biological systems and on the use of metals for medicinal purposes. Instrumental techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography are explained in the detail necessary to familiarize students with their use for analysis of bioinorganic systems and their models. Students have take-home examinations during the term and write a term paper describing a metalloprotein whose X-ray structure data is listed in Brookhaven protein data base. The paper follows the same course pattern of classroom discussion of a bioinorganic system, concentrating on the coordination geometry and nearest neighbor contacts of the metal-binding site in the protein, substrate binding site, and relevance to the metalloprotein or enzyme function, mechanism of action of the enzyme or protein, spectroscopic studies on the metal-binding site, and model studies for the protein's metal-binding site. The instructors conclude that their basic goals for the course - introduction to advanced inorganic chemistry topics using bioinorganic examples with emphasis on primary literature sources and computer-assisted displays - are being accomplished.

  17. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  18. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  19. Inorganic Chemistry at the Undergraduate Level: Are We All on the Same Page?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesterfield, Les L.; Henrickson, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes and presents results of a national survey on undergraduate inorganic chemistry which asked faculty to describe the general layout of their undergraduate program and course content. Reveals both similarities in the structure of undergraduate inorganic chemistry programs across the country and diversity in content. (ASK)

  20. Student-Directed Explorations to Learn about Ligands in an Inorganic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Marion E.

    2004-01-01

    The student-directed explorations for learning various ligands and their impacts on the field of inorganic chemistry are discussed. Various themes can be adopted by the instructors, like ligand-of-the-week theme, while teaching inorganic chemistry to their students.

  1. Lecture Notes and Guidance for Course 21220 (Non-aqueous Inorganic Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The lecture notes contain the theoretical as well as the practical background material necessary for mastering the special laboratory techniques used in non-aqueous inorganic chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU).......The lecture notes contain the theoretical as well as the practical background material necessary for mastering the special laboratory techniques used in non-aqueous inorganic chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU)....

  2. Essential Trends in Inorganic Chemistry (by D. M. P. Mingos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reviewed By David A.

    2000-05-01

    The author has chosen to present his material in a distinctly different fashion from that of most inorganic chemistry textbook writers. Most texts are a mix of theory chapters and descriptive chapters, with the latter focusing on specific groups of elements. However, after a chapter laying out the quantum mechanical basis of the periodic table, Mingos has elected to organize the remaining chapters around vertical, horizontal, and diagonal relationships, or on isoelectronic and isostoichiometric relationships. I think this approach has worked remarkably well. Chapters 2-5 contain a wealth of information accompanied by clear, coherent discussions of the underlying principles that account for the observed trends and anomalies. Every serious inorganic chemist should have a copy of this text on his or her bookshelf. Chapter 1 is the least effective part of the book. Some of the quantum number notation is incorrect (m rather than ml , s rather than ms), some of the language is imprecise, and there are a few clear-cut errors. There is a nice discussion comparing the rmax of 2s and 2p vs 3s and 3p orbitals. However, most readers would be better served by the treatments in advanced inorganic texts such as those by Shriver or Huheey. Chapter 2 addresses vertical trends in the main-group elements. After discussing the influence of atomic size on atomic properties, Mingos describes and explains the second-row anomalies and the reversals in trends resulting from the addition of 3d and 4f subshells. He goes on to account for a variety of trends in the physical and chemical properties of main-group elements and their compounds. The chapter ends with tables summarizing a wide variety of properties, providing a wealth of information I have not seen presented in such a compact format anywhere else. Chapter 3 addresses the horizontal trends and diagonal relationships of the main-group elements. Among the highlights are discussions of the role of exchange energies in determining

  3. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  4. Modules for Introducing Organometallic Reactions: A Bridge between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic reactions have become increasingly important in the synthesis of organic molecules. A new approach has been developed to introduce organometallic chemistry, along with organic and inorganic chemistry, at the foundational level. This change highlights applications of organometallic chemistry that have dramatically…

  5. Modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers in predicting the structure and properties of inorganic chemistry compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursa'adah, Euis; Liliasari, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The focus of chemistry is learning about the composition, properties, and transformations of matters. Modeling skills are required to comprehend structure and chemical composition in submicroscopic size. Modeling skills are abilities to produce chemical structure and to explain it into the macroscopic phenomenon and submicroscopic representations. Inorganic chemistry is a study of whole elements in the periodic table and their compounds, except carbon compounds and their derivatives. Knowledge about the structure and properties of chemical substances is a basic model for students in studying inorganic chemistry. Furthermore, students can design and produce to utilize materials needed in their life. This research aimed to describes modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers. In order, they are able to determine and synthesize useful materials. The results show that students' modeling skills were in a low level and unable connecting skill categories, even the models of inorganic compounds common. These phenomena indicated that students only describe each element when they learn inorganic chemistry. So that it will make modeling skills of students low. Later, another researches are necessary to develop learning design of inorganic chemistry based on good modeling skills of students.

  6. Characterisation of the inorganic chemistry of surface waters in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huizenga, Jan Marten

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine a simple inorganic chemistry index that can be used for all surface waters in South Africa, in order to characterise the inorganic chemistry of surface waters. Water quality data collected up until 1999 from all sample monitoring stations (2 068 monitoring stations, 364 659 samples) in South Africa were transformed into an Excel dataset and subsequently quality screened using the stoichiometric charge balance, after which 196 570 (41%) of the wa...

  7. The use of chemistry for the synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1989-01-01

    The combination between inorganic and organic polymeric materials on nanometer scale depends strongly on methods for synthesizing inorganic polymeric networks suitable to the thermal stability of organic materials. The sol-gel process as a "soft-chemistry" method has been proved to be a proper tool for building up inorganic network with incorporated organic components. Examples for chemical synthesis and material applications are given.

  8. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  9. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  10. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  11. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  12. Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, H. Allen O.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins a...

  13. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  14. Studies of new inorganic species using relativistic quantum chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Patzschke, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the methods of relativistic quantum chemistry have been applied to a number of small systems containing heavy elements, for which relativistic effects are important. First, a thorough introduction of the methods used is presented. This includes some of the general methods of computational chemistry and a special section dealing with how to include the effects of relativity in quantum chemical calculations. Second, after this introduction the results obtained are prese...

  15. A Visually Attractive "Interconnected Network of Ideas" for Organizing the Teaching and Learning of Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Glen E.

    2014-01-01

    A visually attractive interconnected network of ideas that helps general and second-year inorganic chemistry students make sense of the descriptive inorganic chemistry of the main-group elements is presented. The eight network components include the periodic law, the uniqueness principle, the diagonal effect, the inert-pair effect, the…

  16. Application of ICT-based Learning Resources for University Inorganic Chemistry Course Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana M. Derkach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies expediency and efficiency of various ICT-based learning resources use in university inorganic chemistry course training, detects difference of attitudes toward electronic resources between students and faculty members, which create the background for their efficiency loss

  17. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry : The promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, B.; Casini, A.

    2014-01-01

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold co

  18. Arrow Pushing: A Rational, Participatory Approach to Teaching Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry at core consists of a vast array of molecules and chemical reactions. To master the subject, students must learn to think intelligently about this vast body of facts, a feat seldom accomplished in an introductory course. All too often, young undergraduate students perceive the field as an amorphous and illogical body of…

  19. Improving Student Achievement and Satisfaction by Adopting a Blended Learning Approach to Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neil A.; Bland, Will; Christie, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A blended learning approach to the teaching of a level 2 inorganic chemistry module is presented. Lectures were replaced by study packs, which were supported by formative on-line assessment delivered via Blackboard and a programme of 20 workshops. Learning activities written using the Lockwood format were included in the study pack to facilitate…

  20. A Wiki-Based Group Project in an Inorganic Chemistry Foundation Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    A semester-long group project that utilizes wiki sites to enhance collaboration was developed for a foundation course in inorganic chemistry. Through structured assignments, student groups use metal-based or metal-combating therapeutic agents as a model for applying and understanding course concepts; they also gain proficiency with scientific- and…

  1. A History of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry, American Chemical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailar, John C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry, from the founding of the American Chemical Society in 1876, the formation of the Division in 1957, and recent events. Includes tables listing officers of the Division and symposia titles at national meetings. (YP)

  2. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances. PMID:24983802

  3. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  4. The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S.

    1996-10-01

    The visualization of molecular and solid state chemical structures in three dimensions is a particularly difficult problem for students to overcome when the primary means of communication is the two-dimensional world of textbooks, blackboards, and overhead projector screens. Recent editions of popular textbooks in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry have included stereoviews of molecules to aid the student, and stereoviews of crystal structures have been used in inorganic chemistry publications for many years. These are powerful aids for visualizing complex molecules, but with the exception of the biochemistry text mentioned above, they are limited to single, static images generally in black and white. Molecular model kits are routinely used very effectively in organic chemistry but their utility in inorganic chemistry is limited to all but the most simple molecules encountered. Now that personal computers are generally accessible and multimedia tools are starting to make an appearance in chemistry lecture halls (1), we can make our inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry and crystallography lectures come alive with the aid of the computer-based resources, which are the essence of this project. As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing. We are also generating a library of high-quality graphic images of these same molecules and structures using Cerius2 package from Molecular Simulations. These include polyhedral representations of clusters and solid state structures (see Fig. 1). Figure 1. Representation of the user interface: the title page and an example of polyhedral and ball-and-stick representation of an octanuclear iron-oxo cluster. The

  5. Metalloporphyrins as Oxidation Catalysts: Moving toward "Greener" Chemistry in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rose A.; Stock, Anne E.; Zovinka, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Training future chemists to be aware of the environmental impact of their work is of fundamental importance to global society. To convince chemists to embrace sustainability, the integration of green chemistry across the entire chemistry curriculum is a necessary step. This experiment expands the reach of green chemistry techniques into the…

  6. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  7. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin.

  8. The relevance of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in inorganic materials chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivasan Natarajan; Partha Mahata; Debajit Sarma

    2012-03-01

    The metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have evolved to be an important family and a corner stone for research in the area of inorganic chemistry. The progress made since 2000 has attracted researchers from other disciplines to actively engage themselves in this area. This cooperative synergy of different scientific believes have provided important edge and spread to the chemistry of metal-organic frameworks. The ease of synthesis coupled with the observation of properties in the areas of catalysis, sorption, separation, luminescence, bioactivity, magnetism, etc., are a proof of this synergism. In this article, we present the recent developments in this area.

  9. Inorganic sulfur–nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J. Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S–N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical ...

  10. Desenvolvimento da Química Inorgânica no Brasil Development of Inorganic Chemistry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique E. Toma

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of Inorganic Chemistry in Brazil, including historical perspectives, scientific production (WEB-ISI data, international cooperation, teaching, literature and human resources, with particular emphasis on the last 25 years.

  11. Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H Allen O; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins and enzymes, which themselves are dynamic structures of rods and springs. He played a key role in helping Rosenberg to pave the road toward the clinic for the anticancer drug cisplatin. He believed that evolution is not just dependent on DNA, but also on the metallome. Organisms and the environment are one system: does DNA code directly for all the essential elements of life? PMID:26841789

  12. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  13. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  14. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials.

  15. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials. PMID:26936391

  16. Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karberg, N J; Pregitzer, K S; King, J S; Friend, A L; Wood, J R

    2005-01-01

    Global emissions of atmospheric CO(2) and tropospheric O(3) are rising and expected to impact large areas of the Earth's forests. While CO(2) stimulates net primary production, O(3) reduces photosynthesis, altering plant C allocation and reducing ecosystem C storage. The effects of multiple air pollutants can alter belowground C allocation, leading to changes in the partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) in the soil , chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) and the rate of mineral weathering. As this system represents a linkage between the long- and short-term C cycles and sequestration of atmospheric CO(2), changes in atmospheric chemistry that affect net primary production may alter the fate of C in these ecosystems. To date, little is known about the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on the inorganic C cycle in forest systems. Free air CO(2) and O(3) enrichment (FACE) technology was used at the Aspen FACE project in Rhinelander, Wisconsin to understand how elevated atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) interact to alter pCO(2) and DIC concentrations in the soil. Ambient and elevated CO(2) levels were 360+/-16 and 542+/-81 microl l(-1), respectively; ambient and elevated O(3) levels were 33+/-14 and 49+/-24 nl l(-1), respectively. Measured concentrations of soil CO(2) and calculated concentrations of DIC increased over the growing season by 14 and 22%, respectively, under elevated atmospheric CO(2) and were unaffected by elevated tropospheric O(3). The increased concentration of DIC altered inorganic carbonate chemistry by increasing system total alkalinity by 210%, likely due to enhanced chemical weathering. The study also demonstrated the close coupling between the seasonal delta(13)C of soil pCO(2) and DIC, as a mixing model showed that new atmospheric CO(2) accounted for approximately 90% of the C leaving the system as DIC. This study illustrates the potential of using stable isotopic techniques and FACE technology to examine long- and short

  17. Teaching Effectiveness of Integrating Task-based Approach into Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjiao; WEI; Yiru; WANG; Sen; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of students,the effectiveness of task-based approach in In-organic and Analytical Chemistry course were summarized.The strength and weak points of TBA were analyzed,and the specific suggestions for obtaining better effect were put forward.The result showed a satisfactory achievement and unexpected result in showing the effectiveness of this teaching model.Not only could this TBA enhance student’s overall knowledge of discipline but also cultivate students’ multi-dimensional competence:competence in searching literatures, communication and management,autonomous,co-operative and reflective learning,and competence in analyzing and problem-solving,as well as improving their language expression ability,and skills in using multi-media and internet technology into their academic course learning and research.The implication of this research on the classroom teaching practice will shed light on the future teaching reform of other courses in China.

  18. Electrochemistry of (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartua-Nieves, Elvin; Ocasio-Delgado, Yessenia; Rivera-Pagan, Jose; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry experiments on [60]fullerene, (C[subscript 60]), and (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], constitute an educational experiment for the inorganic chemistry laboratory with a primary objective to teach the chemical interpretation of a voltammogram, in…

  19. [60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

  20. Ruthenium Vinylidene and Acetylide Complexes. An Advanced Undergraduate Multi-technique Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Andrew M.; Deeble, Geoffrey J.; Hurst, Steph; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G.

    2001-02-01

    This experiment describes the isolation and characterization of complexes containing examples of two important monohapto ligands, namely vinylidene (C=CHR) and alkynyl (C ? CR) ligands. The former is a tautomer of acetylene that has minimal (10-10 s) existence as an uncomplexed molecule, providing an interesting example of the stabilization of reactive organic species at transition metals--an important motif in organometallic chemistry. The latter ligand affords complexes that have attracted a great deal of interest recently for their potentially useful electronic or optical properties, illustrating a major focus of contemporary organometallic chemistry, the search for useful materials. The particular strength of this experiment is in demonstrating the utility of a range of spectroscopic and analytical techniques in inorganic complex identification. The students observe unusual chemical shifts in the 13C NMR (vinylidene metal-bound carbon), meet heteronuclear NMR (31P), assign intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands in the UV-visible spectra, observe the utility of mass spectra in characterizing complexes of poly-isotopic transition metals, and are introduced to redox potentials (cyclic voltammetry).

  1. 2004 Inorganic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference - July 18-23, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Clark

    2005-09-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Inorganic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference - July 18-23, 2004 was held at Salve Regina College, July 18-23, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 110 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  2. First implementation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the MOCAGE version R2.15.0 chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, J.; Josse, B.; Marécal, V.; Joly, M.; Hamer, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop a secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) module for the MOCAGE chemistry transport model developed at CNRM. The aim is to have a module suitable for running at different model resolutions and for operational applications with reasonable computing times. Based on the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic equilibrium module, the new version of the model is presented and evaluated at both the global and regional scales. The results show high concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols in the most polluted regions: Europe, Asia and the eastern part of North America. Asia shows higher sulfate concentrations than other regions thanks to emission reductions in Europe and North America. Using two simulations, one with and the other without secondary inorganic aerosol formation, the global model outputs are compared to previous studies, to MODIS AOD retrievals, and also to in situ measurements from the HTAP database. The model shows a better agreement with MODIS AOD retrievals in all geographical regions after introducing the new SIA scheme. It also provides a good statistical agreement with in situ measurements of secondary inorganic aerosol composition: sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. In addition, the simulation with SIA generally gives a better agreement with observations for secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia), in particular with a reduction of the modified normalized mean bias (MNMB). At the regional scale, over Europe, the model simulation with SIA is compared to the in situ measurements from the EMEP database and shows a good agreement with secondary inorganic aerosol composition. The results at the regional scale are consistent with those obtained from the global simulations. The AIRBASE database was used to compare the model to regulated air quality pollutants: particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Introduction of the SIA in MOCAGE provides a reduction in the PM2.5 MNMB of 0.44 on a

  3. Determining the Quantum Efficiency for Activation of an Organometallic Photoinitiator for Cationic Polymerization: An Experiment for the Physical or Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David M.; Mahar, Maura; Schnabel, R. Chris; Shah, Paras; Lees, Alistair J.; Jakubek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We present a new laboratory experiment on the photochemistry of organometallic [eta][superscript 5],[eta][superscript 6]-mixed-sandwich compounds, which is suitable for both the physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry laboratory. Specifically, students use 1,10-phenanthroline to trap the intermediate formed when…

  4. Practice on the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry for Pharmacy Students%药学专业无机化学教学探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲维清; 周长江; 林德昌

    2011-01-01

    无机化学是药学专业学生进入大学的第一门专业基础课,为了提高无机化学的教学质量,针对无机化学的特点,结合药学专业对学生的要求,从无机化学与中学化学知识之间的衔接、化学史知识在无机化学教学中的运用、无机化学知识与医药学科之间的联系、科研前沿对无机化学教学过程的渗透等方面进行了一些思考和改革,取得了较好的教学效果。%Inorganic Chemistry is the first professional foundation lesson of the first year undergraduate students of pharmacy specialty.To raise the teaching quality,we have carried out some practice and reform on the Inorganic Chemistry teaching program from the characteristics of Inorganic Chemistry, the request for the pharmacy student,the linkage of the knowledge between Inorganic Chemistry and the high school chemistry,the application of the history of chemistry in the teaching progress,the relationship of Inorganic Chemistry to the Medical and Pharmacy, and the pervasion of present research results of science and technology in Inorganic Chemistry teaching process, and have achieved some satisfying effects.

  5. Building of Inorganic Chemistry Virtual Lab%无机化学虚拟实验室的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴品昌; 史锐; 方德宇; 张晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Based on the modern education thought, supported by modern education technology, computer realtime simulation technology as the core, Using the aspects of the application software of computer and chemical as making tools, researching and developing software which is using virtual instrument and equipment for inorganic chemistry experiment designing and simulation, and then building a virtual lab of inorganic chemistry, to solve the problems in the practical teaching ,and to promote the reform of experimental teaching, establishing a new education model which is mainly with individual practice and information exchange.%以现代教育思想为依据,以现代教育技术为支撑,以计算机实时仿真技术为核心,利用计算机和化学方面的应用软件为制作工具,研发一套通过虚拟仪器进行无机化学实验设计和仿真的软件,进而建立无机化学虚拟实验室,来解决实际教学中遇到的问题,进而推进实验教学改革,建立以个体实践与信息交流为主的新型教育模式。

  6. Incorporating Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment into First-Year Inorganic Chemistry Major Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Marta; Paul, Jared J.; Roeder, Margaret H.

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the scientific community concerns itself with ideas of a sustainable future, very little of this interest and motivation has reached the classroom experience of the average chemistry major, and therefore, it is imperative to expose students to these ideas early in their careers. The focus of most undergraduate chemistry curricula…

  7. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  8. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables

  9. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J.A.

    1983-09-15

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables.

  10. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments (209At, 210At, 211At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  11. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  12. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...

  13. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364957

  14. The effect of variable discharge on the inorganic chemistry downstream of a waste water treatment plant, Boulder Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, R. C.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers investigating the effect of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on streams often assume that the magnitude of this effect is constant over time. However, discharge of WWTP effluent frequently follows a distinctive diel pattern. WWTP effluent discharge into Boulder Creek, Colorado, for example, varies by almost 200% over the course of a day. Due to this variation, downstream concentrations of chloride, boron and gadolinium (commonly used "conservative tracers") exhibit major changes over a 24-hour period. In order to determine how effluent discharge variability affects stream chemistry, we performed an evaluation of discharge and inorganic chemistry of the City of Boulder's WWTP and Boulder Creek upstream and downstream of the WWTP (representing a 5.4-km reach). Sodium bromide and Rhodamine WT were used to confirm that the same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream. The behavior of inorganic constituents fell into three distinct categories, showing conservative behavior, in-stream loss, or in-stream gain. Accounting for variable effluent discharge, the following inorganic constituents behaved conservatively: Cl, SO4, HCO3, F, B, Ba, Ca, Gd, K, Mg, Rb, Co, Cu, Mo, NO3, P and PO4, Sb, SiO2, Sr and Zn. Inorganic compounds which showed evidence of in-stream loss were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se, and Sn. For these elements, the typical pattern was an almost immediate loss: by the time the water had traveled to the first downstream sampling site, 2.3-km below the WWTP, in-stream reactions appeared to have ceased, and a constant flux was observed at all subsequent sites. We speculate that the near-immediate rates represent precipitation and/or adsorption caused by the change in pH and temperature of the mixing zone. Inorganic constituents that showed evidence of in-stream gain were: Al, As, Cd, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Re, Th, U, V, W, and all the rare-earth elements (except Gd). As with the in-stream loss group, most of the reactions occurred

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  16. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; McFiggans, Gordon B.; Palmer, Carl J.; Waite, Tim J.; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Woitsch, Sonja; Weiller, Markus; Abela, Rafael; Grolimund, Daniel; Potin, Philippe; Butler, Alison; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Feiters, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Brown algae of the Laminariales (kelps) are the strongest accumulators of iodine among living organisms. They represent a major pump in the global biogeochemical cycle of iodine and, in particular, the major source of iodocarbons in the coastal atmosphere. Nevertheless, the chemical state and biological significance of accumulated iodine have remained unknown to this date. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide, which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to be described in a living system. Upon oxidative stress, iodide is effluxed. On the thallus surface and in the apoplast, iodide detoxifies both aqueous oxidants and ozone, the latter resulting in the release of high levels of molecular iodine and the consequent formation of hygroscopic iodine oxides leading to particles, which are precursors to cloud condensation nuclei. In a complementary set of experiments using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in human blood cells. PMID:18458346

  17. Curriculum Reform and Practice of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry in Our Chemistry Department%浅谈我校化学专业无机及分析化学课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 刘鑫

    2011-01-01

    To foster the application talent as the goal, by carrying out non-woven professional occasion in our school, integrated inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry courses, establish "Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry ". Make a series of explorations in the integration of teaching resources, teaching content, updating teaching methods, the experimental system reform, strengthening practice and so on.%以培养应用性人才为目标,借我校开展非织造专业之际,整合无机化学及分析化学课程,建立《无机及分析化学课程》,在整合教学资源,优化教学内容,更新教学手段,改革实验体系,加强实践环节等方面进行了一系列的探索。

  18. The investigation of green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments%无机化学实验教学中的“绿色化”探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽红; 王娟

    2014-01-01

    针对无机化学授课对象多而广,所需试剂种类及用量庞大,产生的废气、废液、废渣等对环境具有危害的特点,通过整合优化实验内容,规范实验操作,采用微型实验、多媒体及网上虚拟实验室,合理收集及处理三废等方面的改革创新。将绿色化学的理念深入到无机化学实验的各个环节中,以初步实现无机化学实验教学的“绿色化”,培养学生的绿色意识。%In the process of teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments,massive and different kinds of chemical reagents must be used and the waste from the experiments is harmful to environment,so it is important to investigate green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments.Herein,a number of measures have been implemented to achieve the green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments.The investigation focuses on designing and optimizing experimental content,standardization of the experiment,microscale experiment,multimedia and internet virtual laboratory,and the innovation of collection and disposal of wastes.The aim is to permeate the concept of green chemistry into the teaching of inorganic chemistry experiments.

  19. Goldilocks and the three inorganic equilibria: how Earth's chemistry and life coevolve to be nearly in tune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, R E M

    2015-03-13

    Life and the chemical environment are united in an inescapable feedback cycle. The periodic table of the elements essential for life has transformed over Earth's history, but, as today, evolved in tune with the elements available in abundance in the environment. The most revolutionary time in life's history was the advent and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis which forced the environment towards a greater degree of oxidation. Consideration of three inorganic chemical equilibria throughout this gradual oxygenation prescribes a phased release of trace metals to the environment, which appear to have coevolved with employment of these new chemicals by life. Evolution towards complexity was chemically constrained, and changes in availability of notably Fe, Zn and Cu paced the systematic development of complex organisms. Evolving life repeatedly catalysed its own chemical challenges via the unwitting release of new and initially toxic chemicals. Ultimately, the harnessing of these allowed life to advance to greater complexity, though the mechanism responsible for translating novel chemistry to heritable use remains elusive. Whether a chemical acts as a poison or a nutrient lies both in the dose and in its environmental history. PMID:25666070

  20. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed.

  1. Beyond temperature: Clumped isotope signatures in dissolved inorganic carbon species and the influence of solution chemistry on carbonate mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna K.; Hill, Pamela S.; Eagle, Robert A.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Tang, Jianwu; Schauble, Edwin A.; Eiler, John M.; Zeebe, Richard E.; Uchikawa, Joji; Coplen, Tyler B.; Ries, Justin B.; Henry, Drew

    2015-10-01

    "Clumped-isotope" thermometry is an emerging tool to probe the temperature history of surface and subsurface environments based on measurements of the proportion of 13C and 18O isotopes bound to each other within carbonate minerals in 13C18O16O22- groups (heavy isotope "clumps"). Although most clumped isotope geothermometry implicitly presumes carbonate crystals have attained lattice equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamic equilibrium for a mineral, which is independent of solution chemistry), several factors other than temperature, including dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) speciation may influence mineral isotopic signatures. Therefore we used a combination of approaches to understand the potential influence of different variables on the clumped isotope (and oxygen isotope) composition of minerals. We conducted witherite precipitation experiments at a single temperature and at varied pH to empirically determine 13C-18O bond ordering (Δ47) and δ18O of CO32- and HCO3- molecules at a 25 °C equilibrium. Ab initio cluster models based on density functional theory were used to predict equilibrium 13C-18O bond abundances and δ18O of different DIC species and minerals as a function of temperature. Experiments and theory indicate Δ47 and δ18O compositions of CO32- and HCO3- ions are significantly different from each other. Experiments constrain the Δ47-δ18O slope for a pH effect (0.011 ± 0.001; 12 ⩾ pH ⩾ 7). Rapidly-growing temperate corals exhibit disequilibrium mineral isotopic signatures with a Δ47-δ18O slope of 0.011 ± 0.003, consistent with a pH effect. Our theoretical calculations for carbonate minerals indicate equilibrium lattice calcite values for Δ47 and δ18O are intermediate between HCO3- and CO32-. We analyzed synthetic calcites grown at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 50 °C with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase present. This enzyme catalyzes oxygen isotopic exchange between DIC species and is present in many natural systems. The two

  2. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed. PMID:27122112

  3. Advanced structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas C W

    2008-01-01

    An English edition of a textbook based on teaching at the final year undergraduate and graduate level. It presents structure and bonding, generalizations of structural trends, crystallographic data, as well as highlights from the recent literature.

  4. 思维导图在无机化学课程中的应用研究%Application of Mind Map in the Course of Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金芳

    2013-01-01

    This paperhas used Mind Manager 9 .1 software for the mind map drawing that in the case of inorganic chemistry in the typical"Festival"and "chapter" knowledge points ,based on the introduction of the mind map .Meanwhile ,it has put forward my own thinking aiming to provide some reference for the mind map’s application in the course of inorganic chemistry and chemistry specialty other professional courses .%在对思维导图作简介的基础上,以无机化学课程中典型“节”和“章”型的知识要点为案例,采用Mind Manager9.1软件开展思维导图绘制,研究思维导图在无机化学教学中的应用,同时提出自己的思考,旨在为思维导图在无机化学课程甚至化学专业其他专业课程中的应用提供一些借鉴。

  5. 《无机化学》教学改革的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of Inorganic Chemistry Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才灵; 潘勤鹤; 智霞

    2012-01-01

    当前,如何开展《无机化学》的教学改革与教学研究,进一步提高课程教学质量,已经成为《无机化学》重点课程建设的关键。为了提高整体教学质量,培养高素质创新型人才,本文介绍了针对教学内容、教学方法、考核手段等多方面进行的系列改革探索和相应的实践。%Nowadays, how to develop the teaching reform and research of inorganic chemistry, and further improve the class teaching quality, which had been become the key of constructing the key - course of inorganic chemistry. In this paper, we present our reforming exploration and practice for the teaching content, teaching method, assessment method and other aspects, to enhance the all and the one teaching quality, and bring up talents with higher quality.

  6. Heavy haze episodes in Beijing during January 2013: Inorganic ion chemistry and source analysis using highly time-resolved measurements from an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Wen; Bai, Zhipeng; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wenjie

    2016-02-15

    The heavy air pollution that occurred in Beijing in January of 2013 attracted intense attention around the world. During this period, we conducted highly time-resolved measurements of inorganic ions associated with PM2.5 at an urban site of Beijing, and investigated ion chemistry and potential sources. Hourly concentrations of Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) were measured. Peak concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were observed on the 10th-15th, 21st-24th, and the 26th-30th during this monitoring campaign. The percentages of SO4(2-) and NH4(+) in total ion concentration increased with the enhancement of PM2.5 concentrations, indicating that high concentrations of SO4(2-) and NH4(+) may play important roles in the formation of haze episodes. The ratio of [NO3(-)]/[SO4(2-)] was calculated, revealing that the sources of SO4(2-) would contribute more to the formation of PM2.5 than mobile sources. Diurnal variations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+) (SNA) exhibited a similar pattern, with high concentrations at night and low levels during the day, revealing that meteorological conditions, such as mixing layer height, relative humidity, were likely to be responsible for high levels of SNA at night. The roles of meteorological conditions were further discussed in the formation of secondary inorganic ions. Relative humidity and temperature played key roles and exhibited positive correlations with secondary inorganic ions. An aerosol inorganics simulation model showed that SNA existed mainly in the aqueous phase during the sampling period. Furthermore, potential sources were identified by applying positive matrix factorization model. Secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, coal combustion and biomass burning, as well as fugitive dust, were considered to be major contributors to total ions. PMID:26657378

  7. Host-guest chemistry for tuning colloidal solubility, self-organization and photoconductivity of inorganic-capped nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, Maryna I.; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2015-12-01

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host-guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 1011 Jones with a fast response (3 dB cut-off at 3 kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200 nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs.

  8. Host-guest chemistry for tuning colloidal solubility, self-organization and photoconductivity of inorganic-capped nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-12-09

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host-guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 10(11) Jones with a fast response (3 dB cut-off at 3 kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200 nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs.

  9. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  10. Uma proposta de síntese para o ensino integrado das disciplinas experimentais de química orgânica e inorgânica nos cursos de graduação A proposal of synthesis for the integrated teaching of organic and inorganic experimental chemistry in the undergraduate courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the layered compound VO(PO4(H2O2 and its use to oxidize 2-butanol to the ketone 2-butanone, is proposed as an experiment to integrate the organic and inorganic experimental undergraduate chemistry courses, in an atempt to overcome the observed disrupture between organic and inorganic chemistry.

  11. Thoughts on Teaching Reform of Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry in Polytechnic Colleges%理工院校中级无机化学教学改革思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇; 何颖; 邹立科; 路璐; 李玉龙; 王涛; 曾凤春; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    Improving comprehensive ability of the students is the aim of Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry education and teaching reform. Stimulating students’ enthusiasm and interest in class is the focus areas. Based on the actual teaching situation of polytechnic colleges, the thoughts on the teaching reform were carried out in teaching content, teaching method and evaluation system in the intermediate Inorganic Chemistry teaching process. The detailed reform measures included optimizing teaching contents, utilizing MOOC resources, bilingual teaching, and cultivating the exploring spirit of students. The aims were to improve education quality, strengthen the students’ initiative, and cultivate their ability and comprehensive quality.%提高学生的综合素质是中级无机化学教育、教学改革的方向,激发学生的学习热情和兴趣是教学过程中需要重点关注的地方。根据理工院校实际教学情况,介绍了在中级无机化学教学过程中对教学内容、教学方法及评价体系进行改革的一些做法,主要包括:优化教学内容、利用慕课资源、双语教学、培养探索精神等,目的在于提高教学质量,激发学生的学习兴趣,提高学生的能力和综合素质。

  12. Sol-Gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst: A Simple Experiment for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a laboratory course, undergraduate students were asked to use baker's yeast cells as biotemplate in preparing TiO[subscript 2] powders and to test the photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials. This laboratory experience, selected because of the important environmental implications of soft chemistry and photocatalysis, provides…

  13. Electronic Transitions as a Probe of Tetrahedral versus Octahedral Coordination in Nickel(II) Complexes: An Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Carlos A. L.; Carazza, Fernando

    1980-01-01

    Discusses procedures, theoretical considerations, and results of an experiment involving the preparation of a tetrahedral nickel(II) complex and its transformation into an octahedral species. Suggests that fundamental aspects of coordination chemistry can be demonstrated by simple experiments performed in introductory level courses. (Author/JN)

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Complexes: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavey, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories rarely involve lanthanide coordination chemistry. This is unfortunate in light of the ease with which many of these complexes are made and the interesting and instructive photophysical properties they entail. The forbidden nature of the 4f transitions associated with the lanthanides is overcome by incorporation of…

  15. Reforming Exploration on Experiment Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry%无机化学实验教学的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫循智; 李红英

    2012-01-01

      传统的无机化学实验教学方法,不利于培养学生的动手能力、创新思维及科学探究精神,为此,近年来菏泽学院化学化工系在无机化学实验课的教学上,从教学内容、教学方式、教学理念和考核方法等方面进行了改革探索。在实验内容上,适当增加综合性和设计性实验;实行开放式实验教学;将“绿色化学”思想贯穿于实验过程,培养学生的绿色环保意识;在实验课考核方法上,由原来的平时成绩占30%、期末笔试成绩占70%,改为平时成绩占70%、实验操作成绩占30%。通过上述改革探索,收到了良好的教学效果。%  The traditional teaching method of inorganic chemistry went against to cultivate undergraduate oper -ation ability, innovation ideation and scientific exploring spirit .Therefore, in recent years, the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in Heze University made some reforming exploration on experiment curriculum of inorganic chemistry from aspects:teaching content,teaching mode,teaching concept and examine means .On ex-periment content, added properly some all -around and design experiments;carried out open experiment teaching;impenetrated whole experiment process with “green chemistry”thinking, cultivated undergraduate consciousness a-bout green environment protecting;on examine means, changed primarily normal days achievement occuping 30%, final written examination achievement occuping 70% of overall achevement to normal days achievement occuping 70%, final operation examination achievement occuping 30%.Favourable teaching effect was obtained via reforma-tion experiment mentioned above .

  16. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  17. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  18. Approaching isomerism in organic and inorganic compounds: activity based on the use of problem situations during initial chemistry teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    osé Euzébio Simões Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought investigate: i the understanding of isomerism by future chemistry teachers during initial training; and ii the construction of isomer concepts after an approach centered on problem situations (SP’s. Two problem situations related to isomerism (historical context and medicinal applications were elaborated. A textual learning material developed for this purpose and concrete molecular models were used of system resources in the problem situation resolution process. Data were colleted using a questionnaire, field observation and semi-structured interview, and analyzed according to the ideas presented by Meirieu (1998. The two SP’s had obstacles, transposable to only a few of the nine groups that responded. Inadequate use of the isomer concept was observed in many of the responses considered scarcely satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

  19. Inorganic chemistry of water and bed sediment in selected tributaries of the south Umpqua River, Oregon, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.

    1999-01-01

    Ten sites on small South Umpqua River tributaries were sampled for inorganic constituents in water and streambed sediment. In aqueous samples, high concentrations (concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion continuous concentration for the protection of aquatic life) of zinc, copper, and cadmium were detected in Middle Creek at Silver Butte, and the concentration of zinc was high at Middle Creek near Riddle. Similar patterns of trace-element occurrence were observed in streambed-sediment samples.The dissolved aqueous load of zinc carried by Middle Creek along the stretch between the upper site (Middle Creek at Silver Butte) and the lower site (Middle Creek near Riddle) decreased by about 0.3 pounds per day. Removal of zinc from solution between the upper and lower sites on Middle Creek evidently was occurring at the time of sampling. However, zinc that leaves the aqueous phase is not necessarily permanently lost from solution. For example, zinc solubility is pH-dependent, and a shift between solid and aqueous phases towards release of zinc to solution in Middle Creek could occur with a perturbation in stream-water pH. Thus, at least two potentially significant sources of zinc may exist in Middle Creek: (1) the upstream source(s) producing the observed high aqueous zinc concentrations and (2) the streambed sediment itself (zinc-bearing solid phases and/or adsorbed zinc). Similar behavior may be exhibited by copper and cadmium because these trace elements also were present at high concentrations in streambed sediment in the Middle Creek Basin.

  20. 无机化学实验中探究性教学的探索%Exploration in the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祖新; 王爱民; 肖秀珍; 黄莎华; 程利平

    2016-01-01

    In the inorganic chemistry laboratory teaching, we use a series of ways to improve the teaching effects. Questions and scenario design are used when introducing some key knowledge points. Students are guided and encouraged to set up and carry out chemical experiments by themselves. By these approaches and the experimental results in the laboratory class, students can have a deep understanding of the related knowledge learned in the course.%在引入一些重要知识点时,教师通过提问、设计相关情景、设置悬念等方法,让学生自己设计并实施实验,在实验过程及结果中得到活的知识。应用在实验中得出的知识,解决一些问题,在整个过程中完善知识的构建。

  1. 无机化学实验教学的微课设计%Micro-lecture Design in Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 王晓红; 刘宗瑞; 段莉梅; 白锁柱

    2016-01-01

    微课是在信息化时代和新教学理念下提出的新型教学模式,能够突破课时、教室的限制,创建自主、开放的教学平台。针对目前无机化学实验教学中存在的问题,将微课应用于无机化学实验教学当中,能够有效地弥补传统课堂教学的不足,促进信息化教育发展。%A new teaching model micro-lecture is proposed in the background of information age and the new teaching design philosophy, it can fully relfect the subject status of the students in the education process, because it can breakthrough the restrictions of lessons and classroom and create an autonomous and open learning platform for students. The application of micro-lecture in the inorganic chemistry experiment teaching will effectively compensate the deifciency of traditional classroom teaching and promote the development educational information.

  2. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te

  3. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  4. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  5. Inorganic chemistry: Deconstructing water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah A.; Borovik, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    During photosynthesis, the oxygen-evolving complex oxidizes water to produce molecular oxygen. Now, a possible role for the calcium ion in this complex has been proposed based on the electrochemical properties of a series of synthetic heterometallic clusters.

  6. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  7. Exploration in Teaching Innovation of Element Part of Inorganic Chemistry in the Digital Age%数字时代下《无机化学》课程中元素化学的教学改革探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗世霞

    2014-01-01

    Based on educational characteristics of the digital age , the curriculum reform was conducting for the teaching characteristics of element part of Inorganic Chemistry and the problems in teaching process.The necessary information literacy for the teacher of inorganic chemistry in digital age was proposed , and the teaching reform of the elements chemistry was discussed from three perspectives of teaching content , teaching mode and teaching methods.%立足数字时代的教育特点,针对《无机化学》课程中元素化学部分的教学特点及其教学过程中存在的问题进行了课程改革,首先提出数字时代《无机化学》教师必备的信息素养,然后阐述了元素化学的教学内容、教学模式和教学手段三方面的教学改革。

  8. The ACS Inorganic Exam and Its Influence (?) on the Inorganic Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes results of a questionnaire asking if the ASC standarized test influences what is taught in inorganic chemistry courses. Chief controlling factors are indicated to be: (1) instructor's preference and (2) textbook content. Suggestions are given to enhance amount of inorganic chemistry in undergraduate curricula. (Author/JN)

  9. Study on How to Improve the Students' Learning Interest in Inorganic Chemistry of the Bological Engineering%生物工程专业学生学习无机化学兴趣培养的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红宇; 袁霖; 廖利香

    2013-01-01

    With the bological engineering specialty core courses"inorganic chemistry"as the research object, this paper studies how to improve the students' learning interest of the courses. The results show that the students' learning interest in inorganic chemistry can be enhanced by these ways as followed:emphasizing the function and position of the curriculum, teaching content associated with the past and the future, introducing knowledge of chemical history and chemist, training self study ability of the students in an orderly way step by step, answering the students' questions in time.%以生物工程专业基础必修课程“无机化学”为研究对象,探索如何提高学生学习该课程的兴趣。研究表明,通过强调该课程的作用和地位、教学内容要承前启后、适当介绍化学史和化学家事迹、循序渐进地培养学生的自学能力、及时答疑解惑等方式,可以提高学生的学习无机化学的兴趣。

  10. Guidance on students’ quick transformation of thought pattern in the experiment teaching of inorganic and analytical chemistry%无机-分析化学实验教学中引导学生思维方式快速转换研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝扶影; 徐华杰; 刘昭第; 姚向东; 孙林

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the experiment teaching status and experience of inorganic and analytical chemistry in our depart-ment, this article discussed how to perfect the unity of theoretical teaching and experimental teaching and how to strengthen curricu-lum model of the integration of inorganic chemistry experiment and analytical chemistry experiment. In the teaching of inorganic chemistry experiment, with the cooperation of the multimedia technology, we lay emphasis on cultivating students’ concept of“quantity” and integrate the qualitative and the quantitative methods to realize the seamless connection of inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry experiment. In this way, we can quickly guide the students to transform their thought pattern from inorganic chemistry to analytical chemistry.%结合本院的无机及分析化学实验教学状况及实践经验,阐述如何完善理论教学与实验教学的统一,强化将无机化学和分析化学实验融为一体的课程设置模式。在无机化学实验的教学中,结合多媒体技术,注重培养学生“量”的概念,融合定性与定量,实现无机与分析的无缝衔接,快速引导学生从无机到分析思维方式的转换。

  11. Dithiocarbamates as hazardous remediation agent: A critical review on progress in environmental chemistry for inorganic species studies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review and a wide range of applications of dithiocarbamates (DTCs in environmental samples. The characteristics of DTCs are reviewed with particular emphasis on inorganic speciation studies using state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation coupled with computational methods of analysis.

  12. Dithiocarbamates as hazardous remediation agent: A critical review on progress in environmental chemistry for inorganic species studies of 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kanchi; P. Singh; K. Bisetty

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a critical review and a wide range of applications of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) in environmental samples. The characteristics of DTCs are reviewed with particular emphasis on inorganic speciation studies using state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation coupled with computational methods of analysis.

  13. Exploration of Reform on Teaching Contents in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验教学内容改革的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏胜; 陈新华; 许志红; 王磊; 张万强

    2011-01-01

    Chemical experiment was one of the important contents in chemistry teaching.Inorganic chemistry experiment and analytical chemistry experiment were reformed on the teaching outline of the specialty of food science and engineering.The experimental contents were reasonably setted,which can arouse the students' learning interest,improve the experimental teaching effect and the experimental operating ability of students effectively.%化学实验是化学课程教学的重要内容之一。根据我校食品科学与工程专业教学大纲的要求,进行了无机化学实验和分析化学实验课程整合。通过合理安排实验内容,能够激发学生的学习兴趣,有效提高实验教学效果和学生的实验操作技能。

  14. Abstracts of the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the short communications of papers presented at the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry, of nuclear interest. The papers are classified in four areas: isotope chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physico-chemical. (E.G.)

  15. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the offline-coupled WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  16. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  17. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  18. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Dunbar, Michael [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Brown, Stephanie [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Nichols, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Winter, Anna [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hughes, Christopher [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Playle, Richard C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: rplayle@wlu.ca

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 {mu}M total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K {sub Hg-gill} = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K {sub Hg-NOM} = 18.0 with about 0.5 {mu}mol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  19. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  20. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  1. Discussion on Lean Concepts in Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry Experiment Teaching%浅析精益思想在无机及分析化学实验教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃利琴; 陈渊; 王荣芳; 陶萍芳

    2016-01-01

    According to the wastefulness action of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry courses and modernism Lean Management theory, it was advance advised that the waste time was decreased via optimizing the course contents and renewing teaching methods, the waste materiel was decreased via adjusting experimental project, using micro-scale experiment and new technique, the economic benefits were increased by popularizing green chemistry and debasing pollution costs, the safety and efficiency were insured by criterion experiment operation, the Lean Management atmosphere were consolidated by cultivating good consciousness and attainments, which enhanced the effect of experiment teaching.%从无机及分析化学实验教学中存在的浪费现象入手,导入现代精益管理理念,提出通过优化课程内容及更新教学方法来减少时间浪费;通过调整项目及使用新技术来减少物料浪费;通过推广绿色化学来提升经济效益;通过规范实验操作来确保安全高效;通过培养良好意识来巩固精益氛围,实现可持续教学。

  2. 如何通过无机化学教学引导学生自主学习%How to Guide Students' Independent Study Through the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗景; 周军

    2011-01-01

    无机化学是化学专业学生的第一门专业基础课程,通过该课程的教学培养学生的自主学习能力对学生在今后的专业课程学习有很大的帮助.教师应尊重学生在学习中的主体地位,同时利用教学内容和教学手段达到引导学生自主学习的目的.%Inorganic Chemistry is the first basic course for chemistry profession students. It's very helpful for learning professional courses in the future by teaching students the self-learning ability. Teachers should respect students' main body of learning. Meanwhile, make use of teaching content and teaching methods to achieve the purpose of guiding students independent study.

  3. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  4. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  5. Prominent Chemists Team Up to Review Frontiers in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a symposium which focused on the influence of inorganic chemistry on organic synthesis, the impact of organic chemistry on biochemistry and vice versa, chemical reaction dynamics, and advances in inorganic chemistry. Explains the purpose of the symposium was to illustrate the intellectual dynamism of modern chemistry. (MVL)

  6. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  7. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.)

  8. Natural radioactivity in, and inorganic chemistry of, ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey, 1983-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinski, Jane; Szabo, Zoltan; Zapecza, O.S.; Barringer, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in ground water of the Kirkwood- Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey was assessed during 1988-89. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system consists of quartz-sand formations overlain by a feldspar-rich quartz-sand formation, the Bridgeton Formation, that is heavily developed agriculturally. The sum of the concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) in 26 of 81 wells from which water samples were analyzed, and gross alpha-particle activity exceeded the MCL of 15 pCi/L in 5 of the 81 samples. The median concentrations of radon-222 and uranium were 280 pCi/L and 0.03 micrograms per liter, respectively. Water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system generally is dilute (median dissolved solids concentration, 55 milligrams per liter) and acidic (median pH, 4.90), but concentrations of major ions and acidity are higher in water from wells in areas where the Bridgeton Formation outcrop and agricultural land use are present than in areas where they are absent. Concentrations and activities of radionuclides also were greatest in these areas. Results of statistical analyses indicate that these relations are significant and nonrandom. The positive relation of radionuclide concentration or activity to the presence of geologic outcrop and agricultural land, and a similar relation of the concentration of inorganic constituents to the presence of geologic outcrop and agricultural land, indicate that geochemical processes enhance mobilization of radionuclides in these areas relative to areas where the Bridgeton Formation and agricultural land are absent. The sum of the ocncentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 most likely exceeds the MCL in ground-water samples with nitrate concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter.

  9. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  10. Expanding Mg-Zn hybrid chemistry: inorganic salt effects in addition reactions of organozinc reagents to trifluoroacetophenone and the implications for a synergistic lithium-magnesium-zinc activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-07-18

    Numerous organic transformations rely on organozinc compounds made through salt-metathesis (exchange) reactions from organolithium or Grignard reagents with a suitable zinc precursor. By combining X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this study sheds new light on the constitution of the organometallic species involved in this important synthetic tool. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of equimolar amounts of Grignard reagents (RMgX) and ZnCl(2) in THF led to the isolation of novel magnesium-zinc hybrids, [{(thf)(2)Mg(μ-Cl)(3)ZnR}(2)] (R=Et, tBu, nBu or o-OMe-C(6)H(4)), which exhibit an unprecedented structural motif in mixed magnesium-zinc chemistry. Furthermore, theoretical modelling of the reaction of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) reveals that formation of the mixed-metal compound is thermodynamically preferred to that of the expected homometallic products, RZnCl and MgCl(2). This study also assesses the alkylating ability of hybrid 3 towards the sensitive ketone trifluoroacetophenone, revealing a dramatic increase in the chemoselectivity of the reaction when LiCl is introduced as an additive. This observation, combined with recent related breakthroughs in synthesis, points towards the existence of a trilateral Li/Mg/Zn synergistic effect. PMID:21656589

  11. Chemistry of fog waters in California's Central Valley - Pt. 3: concentrations and speciation of organic and inorganic nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Zhang; Anastasio, C. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources

    2001-07-01

    Although organic nitrogen (ON) has been found to be a ubiquitous and significant component in wet and dry deposition, almost nothing is known about its concentration or composition in fog waters. To address this gap, we have investigated the concentration and composition of ON in fog waters collected in Davis, in California's Central Valley. Significant quantities of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were found in these samples, with a median concentration of 303{mu}M N (range=120-1630{mu}M N). DON typically represented approximately 16% of the total dissolved nitrogen (inorganic+organic) in Davis fog waters. The median concentration of nitrogen in free amino acids and alkyl amines was 16{mu}M N (range=3.8-120{mu}M N), which accounted for 3.4% of the DON in Davis fogs. Thus, although the absolute concentrations of free amino compounds were significant, they were only a minor component of the DON pool. Combined amino nitrogen (e.g., proteins and peptides) was present at higher concentrations and accounted for 6.1-29 per cent (median=16%) of DON. Overall, free and combined amino compounds typically accounted for a median value of 22% of DON in the fog waters. The high concentrations of DON found, and the fact that amino and other N-containing organic compounds can serve as nitrogen sources for microorganisms and plants, indicate that atmospheric ON compounds likely play an important role in nitrogen cycling in the Central Valley. In addition, due to the basicity of some N functional groups, ON compounds likely contribute to the previously observed acid buffering capacity of Central Valley fog waters. Finally, a comparison of fog waters with fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) collected from the same site during the same period of time indicated that the median concentrations (mol Nm{sup -3}-air) of total water-soluble ON, free amino nitrogen and total amino nitrogen were very similar in the fog water and PM{sub 2.5}. Given the high water solubility of many organic N

  12. 基于应用型人才培养的无机化学课程改革%The Curriculum Reform of Inorganic Chemistry Based on the Cultivation of Applied Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽

    2011-01-01

    With the cultivation of applied talents and the requirements of the cultivation plan as the starting points,this paper studies on the reform of the theory and experiment course of inorganic chemistry,aiming to help students effectively grasp the basic knowledge and basic experiment skills and to cultivate students' ability of self-learning,discovering and solving problems,hoping to benefit students learning of the courses followed and the cultivation of scientific research.%从培养应用型人才出发,针对广东药学院医药化工学院专业的特点和培养方案的要求,对无机化学理论和实验课程进行改革的研究。目的是使学生高效率地掌握基础理论知识和基本实验技能,培养学生的自学能力、发现问题及解决问题的能力,便于学生对后续课程的学习及科学研究意识的培养。

  13. Heavy air pollution episodes in Beijing during January 2013: inorganic ion chemistry and source analysis using Highly Time-Resolved Measurements in an urban site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy air pollution episodes occurred in Beijing in January 2013 attracted intensively attention around the whole world. During this period, the authors conducted highly time-resolved measurements of water soluble ions associated with PM2.5 at an urban site, and attempted to distinguish the ion chemistry and potential sources. In this study, hourly mean concentrations of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were measured during the air pollution episode in January 2013, and the ions were found to exist mainly in the form of (NH42SO4, NH4NO3, NaCl and KCl in aerosol particles by correlation and linear analysis. SO42− and NO3− were observed peak concentrations in 10–15, 18–20, 21–24, and 26–30 January during this monitoring campaign. The percentage of SO42− and NH4+ in total ions concentrations exhibited an increasing trend with the enhancement of PM2.5 concentration, indicating high concentrations of SO42− and NH4+ had played important roles in the formation of air pollution episodes. Ratio of [NO3−]/[SO42−] was calculated, finding the sources of SO42− would contribute more to the formation of PM2.5 than mobile sources. Diurnal variations of SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ were examined, and all of them exhibited similar pattern with high concentration in night and relative low level at daytime. Emission from coal combustion, remote transportation at night or impact of meteorological was likely to be responsible for the high level of SO42−, NH4+ andNO3−. Potential sources were identified by applying PMF. Secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, coal combustion and biomass burning, as well as fugitive dust were considered as the major contributors to total ions.

  14. Exploration and Practice of the Constructivism Teaching Theory in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Teaching%建构主义教学理论在无机及分析化学教学中的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小兰; 刘英菊

    2016-01-01

    在无机及分析化学的教学实践中,探讨了怎样结合无机及分析化学课程的特点运用建构主义教学理论。根据课程内容采取相应的教学模式,培养学生的自主学习能力,进一步提高教学质量,并促进创新人才的培养。%This article discusses about the application of constructivism teaching theory in inorganic and analytical chemistry teaching based on the characteristics of inorganic and analytical chemistry course. The teaching mode, independence of students and teaching quality are improved in this way.

  15. Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan

    The separation of compounds by inorganic/organic boundary is of less importance for the structure determination by diffraction methods. More important for the diffraction is how the atoms build up larger building units and the crystal itself. A molecular/non-molecular boundary is therefore relevant for the choice of a structure determination method. Non-molecular compounds - also called extended solids - are constructed by bonds that extend "infinitely" in three dimensions through a crystal. These non-molecular crystals usually crystallize with higher symmetries, and atoms often occupy special Wyckoff positions. A review of actual methodology is given first, and then highlights and pitfalls of structure determination from powder diffraction, its problems and their solutions are shown and discussed using selected examples.

  16. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  17. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  18. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  19. 无机及分析化学课堂互动模式的研究与实践%Research and Practice on Interaction Pattern of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奕春; 黄丽红; 卢秀莲

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between teachers and students is the foun-dation of the well-going of classroom teaching. To satisfy emo-tional needs of modern college students, and pursue better effects of classroom teaching, the change of teacher-student relationship, from the traditional"teaching and being-taught"to"leading and assisting", is needed. The process of classroom teaching needs the maintenance from both teachers and students. Teachers can lead well by enhancing the teaching ability, organizing teaching activities to cultivate students' sense of ownership,encouraging students to involve in the interaction of classroom teaching in or-der to play the"assisting"role. Based on the teaching practice of inorganic and analytical chemistry, this "leading and assisting"interaction pattern between teachers and students was discussed.%师生互动是维持课堂教学顺利进行的基础。为满足当今大学生的情感需求,追求更好的课堂教学效果,师生关系需要从传统的“教与被教”转变为“主导和辅助”的互动关系,课堂教学的进行需要师生双方的维护。教师需要提高自身教学水平来做好主导工作,并通过组织教学活动来培养起学生的主人翁意识,鼓励学生参与到课堂教学互动中,从而起到“辅助”作用。本文在无机及分析化学教学实践的基础上,对师生间的这种“主导和辅助”的互动模式进行了讨论。

  20. Shape control of inorganic nanoparticles from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Yang, Shuanglei; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic materials with controllable shapes have been an intensely studied subject in nanoscience over the past decades. Control over novel and anisotropic shapes of inorganic nanomaterials differing from those of bulk materials leads to unique and tunable properties for widespread applications such as biomedicine, catalysis, fuels or solar cells and magnetic data storage. This review presents a comprehensive overview of shape-controlled inorganic nanomaterials via nucleation and growth theory and the control of experimental conditions (including supersaturation, temperature, surfactants and secondary nucleation), providing a brief account of the shape control of inorganic nanoparticles during wet-chemistry synthetic processes. Subsequently, typical mechanisms for shape-controlled inorganic nanoparticles and the general shape of the nanoparticles formed by each mechanism are also expounded. Furthermore, the differences between similar mechanisms for the shape control of inorganic nanoparticles are also clearly described. The authors envision that this review will provide valuable guidance on experimental conditions and process control for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles with tunable shapes in the solution state.

  1. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  2. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  3. 生物类专业无机及分析化学教学改革研究——以淮南师范学院为例%On teaching reform of inorganic and analytical chemistry in the major of biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道富; 陈永红; 胡云虎

    2012-01-01

    无机及分析化学是生物类专业的学科基础课,课程的教学质量和学生的学习效果,对后续课程的学习有较大影响。为切实提高无机及分析化学的教学质量,在实际教学过程中,从构建新课程体系、精练教学内容、更新教学手段、应用网络资源等方面进行了一系列教学改革,取得了良好的效果。%Inorganic and analytical chemistry is discipline-based courses in the Major of Biology. Quality of teaching and students" learning effect has a great influence on the study of Follow-up courses. In order to improve the teaching quality of inorganic and analytical chemistry, a series of teaching reform was carried out in the practical teaching process, which includes building the new course system, concising teaching contents, updatin teaching method, and applying the network resources and so on. The result is that the better effect has been obtained.

  4. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  5. 一种新颖有机/无机杂化配位聚合物[(C7H18N)(Ag2I3)]n的合成、结构及量子化学计算%Novel Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Coordination Polymer [(C7H18N)(Ag2I3)]n: Synthesis, Crystallographic Structure and Quantum Chemistry Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩宏; 陈之荣; 黄长沧; 肖光参; 李俊篯; 张文选

    2005-01-01

    A one dimensional coordination polymer, [(C7H18N)(Ag2I3)]n((C7H18N)+=Methyltriethylammonium) has been successfully synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction method. Structure analysis shows that the compound consists of organic cations(Methyltriethylammonium) and inorganic anion chains (Ag2I3)n-.The inorganic moiety consists of AgI4 tetrahedron, which shares the same edges with adjacent AgI4 tetrahedrons to the crystal. Anion chains are surrounded by Methyltriethylammonium cations. Anion chains and cations are in combination with each other by static attracting forces in the crystal to form so-called organic-inorganic hybrid structure. According to the crystal structure data, quantum chemistry calculation with DFT on B3LYP level was used to reveal the electronic structure of title compound. CCDC: 254288.

  6. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery

  7. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Research is reported on: chemistry of coal liquefaction, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures, geosciences, high-temperature chemistry and thermodynamics of structural materials, chemistry of TRU elements and compounds, separations chemistry, electrochemistry, nuclear waste chemistry, chemical physics, theoretical chemistry, inorganic chemistry of hydrogen cycles, molten salt systems, and enhanced oil recovery. Separate abstracts were prepared for the sections dealing with coal liquefaction, TRU elements and compounds, separations, nuclear wastes, and enhanced oil recovery. (DLC)

  8. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  9. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  10. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  11. Renal clearable inorganic nanoparticles: a new frontier of bionanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbin Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While inorganic nanoparticles (NPs with tunable and diverse material properties open up unprecedented opportunities for novel biomedical technologies, translating these NPs into clinical practices has been severely hampered by the toxicity induced by their nonspecific accumulation in healthy tissues/organs. In the past few years, the emergence of renal clearable inorganic NPs has made it possible to address this long-term challenge. This review summarizes size, shape, surface chemistry and biodegradation considerations in the design of renal clearable inorganic NPs and their strengths over conventional non-renal clearable NPs and small-molecule contrast agents in tumor targeting. Finally, some materials chemistry challenges in the development of renal clearable inorganic NPs and their biomedical implications beyond tumor targeting are discussed.

  12. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  13. Exploration on the Teaching Reform of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment Course in Applied and Technical Universities%探讨应用技术型大学无机与分析化学实验课程教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2015-01-01

    针对目前大学无机及分析化学实验课程所存在的一些弊端,本文提出对教学内容改革的建议,使内容富有层次化.改革化学实验的环节,使实验预习、实验过程、课后辅导逐步形成一体化.改革化学教学模式以提升教学效果.对大学化学实验课程的实验环节、教学手段以及教学模式等三方面进行改革,培养学生用实事求是、严谨的态度对待化学实验课程教学,提高学生的实际动手操作能力、分析问题的能力.%In view of the shortcomings existing in the current col-lege inorganic and analytical chemistry experiment course, this paper proposes some suggestions on the reform of its teaching content, in order to make its content more diversified. The links of chemistry experiments should be reformed in order to gradually integrate the preparation, process and after counseling of experi-ments. The mode of chemistry teaching should be reformed to improve the teaching effect. Through the above reform, students' practical and rigorous attitude towards chemistry experiment course teaching can be cultivated, and their abilities of practical operation and problem analysis will also be improved.

  14. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  15. 2013 INORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (MARCH 3-8, 2013 - HOTEL GALVEZ, GALVESTON TX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.

    2012-12-08

    The 2013 Gordon Conference on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms will present cutting-edge research on the molecular aspects of inorganic reactions involving elements from throughout the periodic table and state-of-the art techniques that are used in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, metallobiochemistry, electron-transfer in energy reactions, polymerization, nitrogen fixation, green chemistry, oxidation, solar conversion, alkane functionalization, organotransition metal chemistry, and computational chemistry. The talks will cover themes of current interest including energy, materials, and bioinorganic chemistry. Sections cover: Electron-Transfer in Energy Reactions; Catalytic Polymerization and Oxidation Chemistry; Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Catalysts; Metal-Organic Chemistry and its Application in Synthesis; Green Energy Conversion;Organometallic Chemistry and Activation of Small Molecules; Advances in Kinetics Modeling and Green Chemistry; Metals in Biology and Disease; Frontiers in Catalytic Bond Activation and Cleavage.

  16. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  17. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  18. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  19. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results.

  1. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results

  2. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  3. Bulk synthesis of polymer-inorganic colloidal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, Adeline; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2010-12-21

    We describe a procedure to synthesize colloidal clusters with polyhedral morphologies in high yield (liter quantities at up to 70% purity) using a combination of emulsion polymerization and inorganic surface chemistry. We show that the synthesis initially used for silica-polystyrene hybrid clusters can be generalized to create clusters from other inorganic and polymer particles. We also show that high yields of particular morphologies can be obtained by precise control of the inorganic seed particle size, a finding that can be explained using a hard-sphere packing model. These clusters can be further chemically modified for a variety of applications. Introducing a cross-linker leads to colloidal clusters that can be index matched in an appropriate solvent, allowing them to be used for particle tracking or optical studies of colloidal self-assembly. Also, depositing a thin silica layer on these colloids allows the surface properties to be controlled using silane chemistry. PMID:21080658

  4. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  5. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research

  6. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  7. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics

  8. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics. (DLC)

  9. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  10. Chemical Principles Revisited: Some Aspects of Coordination Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews characteristics of coordination chemistry, the study of coordination compounds, a major focal point for the inorganic chemist. Provides a brief history regarding the Wernerian System and background information in modern coordination theory. (CS)

  11. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  12. 能力培养为核心的大学基础课教学模式的研究——以"无机及分析化学"课程为例%Research on the Teaching Model of College Foundation Courses with Ability Cultivation as the Core: A Case Study on "Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宁; 黄森; 王海强; 刘艳萍; 王文己

    2015-01-01

    本文通过"无机及分析化学"多年教学改革实践,研究探讨了大学基础课培养学生创新能力的模式,认为大学基础课教学改革重点在于学习习惯的培养,有目的培养学生独立精神和思考质疑的学习习惯,并建立了相应的教学模式.%Based on many years' practice of teaching reform on"Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry", we studied and explored the model of cultivating students' innovative ability in college foundation courses, holding that the key of college foundation courses teaching reform lies in the cultivation of learning habits and the targeted cultivation of students' independent spirit and learning habit of thinking and doubting, and we also established a teaching model accordingly.

  13. 基于职业导向的《无机及分析化学》基础课改革的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of the Reform Based onthe Career-oriented Basic CourseInorganic and Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹侃; 张爽

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry is an important specialized basic course of the biological and food specialty of vocational education, which plays a key supporting role in the students" cultivation of their vocational skills and professional qualities. Several rounds of exploration and practice of the career-oriented teaching reform which starts with the teaching content, teaching time, teaching methods and assessment methods will make students more adaptable to the requirements of the positions.%《无机及分析化学》是高职生物类及食品类专业的一门重要的专业基础课,对学生的职业技能和职业素养起到主要支撑作用。通过几轮基于职业导向的教学改革的探索与实践,分别从教学内容、教学时间、教学方法和考核方式入手,让学生能更加适应职业岗位的要求。

  14. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  15. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  16. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  17. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  18. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  19. The Study of Biological Inorganic Chemistry Problems in Translational Medicine%转化医学研究中的生物无机化学问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金超; 胡毅; 余四旺; 高愈希; 张海松

    2013-01-01

    Translational medicine is an emerging concept in the fields of biomedical research and healthcare since twenty-first century.It is a two-way process from the basic research to clinical application with direct feedbacks in between.It is not a new subject,but emphasizes a concept.It stems from an unmet need in clinical medicine.At present,translational medical research is mainly involved in the following areas:cancer,cardiovascular diseases,metabolic disorders,psychiatric disorders,diseases of the locomotor system,genetic diseases,organ transplantation,tissue engineering,disease diagnosis,drug research and development,personalized therapy,stem cell research,animal model studies and immunology etc.This article reviews the bioinorganic chemistry problems involved in the disease diagnosis,tissue engineering,individual therapy,drug research and development and disease mechanisms.Finally,the development of this new area and important issues to be studied are outlooked.%转化医学是进入21世纪以来国际生物医学及健康领域出现的新概念.它是基础研究到临床应用的双向过程,是临床实践与基础研究之间的循环式的研究体系,它不是一门新的学科,只是强调一种理念,是特定时代背景的产物.目前,转化医学研究主要涉及以下领域:肿瘤、心脑血管疾病、代谢疾病、精神疾病、运动系统疾病、遗传病、器官移植、组织工程、疾病诊断、药物研发、个体化治疗、干细胞研究、动物模型研究以及免疫学等.本文综述了在疾病诊断、组织工程领域、个体化治疗、新药研发以及发病机制中涉及到的生物无机化学问题.最后,展望了该新领域今后的发展方向和亟待研究的重要问题.

  20. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials for boron removal from aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    SANFELIU CANO, CRISTINA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The present PhD thesis is centred in the design (using concepts of supramolecular chemistry), synthesis and characterization of different hybrid organic-inorganic materials for boron removal from aqueous media. The interaction between boron and organic groups, polyols, used in the development of these new adsorbents is also studied. In the first part of the thesis it is presented a brief review of supramolecular chemistry concepts, chemistry of boron and also the main methods for bor...

  3. Great expectations: using an analysis of current practices to propose a framework for the undergraduate inorganic curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Barbara A; Smith, Sheila R; Stewart, Joanne L; Raker, Jeffrey R; Crane, Johanna L; Sobel, Sabrina G; Pesterfield, Lester L

    2015-09-21

    The undergraduate inorganic chemistry curriculum in the United States mirrors the broad diversity of the inorganic research community and poses a challenge for the development of a coherent curriculum that is thorough, rigorous, and engaging. A recent large survey of the inorganic community has provided information about the current organization and content of the inorganic curriculum from an institutional level. The data reveal shared "core" concepts that are broadly taught, with tremendous variation in content coverage beyond these central ideas. The data provide an opportunity for a community-driven discussion about how the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training's vision of a foundation and in-depth course for each of the five subdisciplines maps onto an inorganic chemistry curriculum that is consistent in its coverage of the core inorganic concepts, yet reflects the diversity and creativity of the inorganic community. The goal of this Viewpoint is to present the current state of the diverse undergraduate curriculum and lay a framework for an effective and engaging curriculum that illustrates the essential role inorganic chemistry plays within the chemistry community.

  4. Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry at Humboldt State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paselk, Richard A.; Zoellner, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a molecular modeling and computational chemistry (MM&CC) facility for undergraduate instruction and research at Humboldt State University. This facility complex allows the introduction of MM&CC throughout the chemistry curriculum with tailored experiments in general, organic, and inorganic courses as well as a new molecular modeling…

  5. Abstracts of the 1. Regional Meeting on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts from papers on Analytical, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry as well as on Physico-Chemistry are presented. Emphasis is given to the following subjects: use of nuclear techniques for chemical analysis, separation processes, studies about reaction kinetics and thermodynamic properties, radioisotopes production and applications, labelled compounds, electron-molecule collisions, construction of measuring instruments and data acquisition systems. (C.L.B.)

  6. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  7. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  8. Social Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Robert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This article is both an essay to propose social chemistry as a new scientific discipline, and a preface of the book Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. Environmental chemistry is a fast emerging discipline aiming at the understanding the fate of pollutants in ecosystems and at designing novel processes that are safe for ecosystems. Past pollution should be cleaned, future pollution should be predicted and avoided (Lichtfouse et al., 2005a). Such advices ...

  9. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  10. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  11. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Parimal; Priyadarsini, K. I.; Rao, B. S. M.

    2008-10-01

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 μs with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  12. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Parimal [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, B.S.M. [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)], E-mail: bsmr@chem.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-10-15

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 {mu}s with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  13. Good chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The subject matter in chemistry courses reflects almost nothing of the issues that chemists are interested in. It is important to formulate a set of topics - and a Medical College Admissions Test reflecting them - that would leave chemistry departments no choice but to change their teaching.

  14. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  15. Combustion chemistry - activities in the CHEK research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This presentation describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Programme. (orig.)

  16. First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Sheila D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the methods that have been developed to blend descriptive chemistry and principles in a first-year chemistry course. The key is active teaching of the subject using the periodic table as a template. Inorganic chemistry is taught using a group approach: developing trends that help teaching and learning become obvious if all elements of…

  17. Structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts

    CERN Document Server

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic oxysalts are chemical compounds that contain oxygen - the most abundant element in the Earth's core. This book is the first systematic survey of structures of inorganic oxysalts considered from the viewpoint of modern scientific methods of description and visualisation of complex atomic arrangements.

  18. Inorganic nanoparticles engineered to attack bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen P; Wang, Lei; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics were once the golden bullet to constrain infectious bacteria. However, the rapid and continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) among infectious microbial pathogens has questioned the future utility of antibiotics. This dilemma has recently fueled the marriage of the disparate fields of nanochemistry and antibiotics. Nanoparticles and other types of nanomaterials have been extensively developed for drug delivery to eukaryotic cells. However, bacteria have very different cellular architectures than eukaryotic cells. This review addresses the chemistry of nanoparticle-based antibiotic carriers, and how their technical capabilities are now being re-engineered to attack, kill, but also non-lethally manipulate the physiologies of bacteria. This review also discusses the surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles with small ligand molecules, polymers, and charged moieties to achieve drug loading and controllable release.

  19. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  20. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  1. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  2. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  5. 在农科无机及分析化学教学中应用任务教学法的成效与思考%Teaching Effectiveness of Integrating Task-based Approach into In-organic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天娇; 王艺儒; 黄森

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of students, the effectiveness of task-based approach (TBA) in In-organic and Analytical Chemistry course were summarized. The strength and weak points of TBA were analyzed, the specific suggestions for obtaining better effect were put forward. The result showed a satisfactory achievement and unexpected result in showing the effectiveness of this teaching model. Not only could this TBA enhance students' overall knowledge of discipline but also cultivate students' multi-dimensional competences; competence in searching literatures, communication and management, autonomous, co-operative and reflective learning, and competence in analyzing and problem-solving, as well as improving their language expression ability, and skills in using multi-medium and internet technology into their academic course learning and research. The implication of this research on the classroom teaching practice will shed light on the future teaching reform of other courses in China.%从学生学习者的角度对农科无机及分析化学教学中应用任务教学法的效果进行了总结,分析了任务教学法的利与弊、得与失,提出了应用任务教学法获得更好效果的具体建议.任务教学法在农科无机及分析化学教学的应用实践表明,任务教学法的应用受到了学生的广泛欢迎,极大地调动了学生学习的积极性、参与性和创造性,提高了学生查阅文献能力、交际能力、组织能力、语言表达能力、制作PPT的能力和分析问题解决问题能力,是对传统教学法和多媒体教学法对学生能力培养缺失的补充.

  6. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  7. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...... indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principle inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared....... Concentrations of most inorganic ions are largely identical between active and dehydrated groups of R. coronifer, suggesting that this tardigrade does not lose large quantities of inorganic ions during dehydration. The large osmotic and ionic gradients maintained by both limno-terrestrial and marine species...

  9. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  10. Reticular chemistry for clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar

    2009-03-01

    Linking molecular building blocks by strong bonds to make networks (Reticular Chemistry) has yielded a number of new classes of materials such as metal-organic frameworks, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and covalent organic frameworks. These are new classes of porous materials in which inorganic 'joints' are linked by organic 'struts' to give extended structures with surface areas greater than 5000 m2/g. Their ultra-high surface area is useful in storing hydrogen and natural gas, and for capturing carbon dioxide. Recently we have shown that MOFs can be quite effective as air purification and capture of harmful gases. This presentation will highlight the milestones and future prospects of this new field

  11. Inorganic nutrients, sulfide and oxygen profiles from R/V KNORR in the Black Sea from 19880514 to 19880725 (NODC Accession 9400101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection contains inorganic nutrient chemistry, sulfide and oxygen data collected during cruises 2 through 5 of the 1988 Black Sea Oceanographic...

  12. Superspace crystallography: a key to the chemistry and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Basílio Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the recent advances in the field of modulated molecular and inorganic crystals with an emphasis on the links between incommensurability, intermolecular and interatomic interactions and, wherever possible, the properties of the materials. The importance of detailed knowledge on the modulated structure for understanding the crystal chemistry and the functional properties of modulated phases is shown using selected examples of incommensurate modulations in organic molecular compounds and inorganic complex oxides.

  13. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  14. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lowe's new edition assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry. It can serve as a primary text in quantum chemistry courses, and enables students and researchers to comprehend the current literature. This third edition has been thoroughly updated and includes numerous new exercises to facilitate self-study and solutions to selected exercises.* Assumes little initial mathematical or physical sophistication, developing insights and abilities in the context of actual problems* Provides thorough treatment

  15. 12. 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 12th 'Tihany' symposium on radiation chemistry was held in Zalakaros in the organization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry. The scientific program of the Symposium will cover all the major disciplines of both basic and applied radiation chemistry. The topics were the fundamental processes in radiation chemistry, the different irradiations ways, radiolysis of inorganic and organic systems, nanoscale and the macromolecular systems. Also could be seen presentations in the subject of the food irradiation, the environmental protection, biomedical materials radiation, about the resistant materials, the radiation sterilization and the dosimetry. (S.I.)

  16. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the mycotoxin research group are discussed. This includes the isolation and structure determination of mycotoxins, plant products, the biosyntheris of mycotoxins, the synthesis and characteristics of steroids, the synthesis and mechanistic aspects of heterocyclic chemistry and the functionality of steroids over long distances. Nmr spectra and mass spectroscopy are some of the techniques used

  17. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  18. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.

    2005-01-01

    The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased de...

  19. Multi length-scale characterisation inorganic materials series

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the first five volumes in the Inorganic Materials Series focused on particular classes of materials (synthesis, structures, chemistry, and properties), it is now very timely to provide complementary volumes that introduce and review state-of-the-art techniques for materials characterization. This is an important way of emphasizing the interplay of chemical synthesis and physical characterization. The methods reviewed include spectroscopic, diffraction, and surface techniques that examine the structure of materials on all length scales, from local atomic structure to long-range crystall

  20. Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Pechkova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.

  1. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  2. Organometallic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkin, James K.; M.L.H. Green; Dr. M. L. H. Green

    1982-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic chemistry is a rapidly expanding field, which has an important relationship to industrial problems of petrochemical catalysis. This thesis describes studies of fundamental organometallic reaction processes, such as C-H and C-C bond formation and cleavage, and investigations of the structure and bonding of organometallic compounds. A number of techniques were used to pursue these studies, including synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and semi-em...

  3. Disk Chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals wit...

  4. Interstellar chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species o...

  5. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  6. Interannual stability of organic to inorganic carbon production on a coral atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Albright, Rebecca; Hosfelt, Jessica; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Rivlin, Tanya; Sesboüé, Marine; Wolfe, Kennedy; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Ocean acidification has the potential to adversely affect marine calcifying organisms, with substantial ocean ecosystem impacts projected over the 21st century. Characterizing the in situ sensitivity of calcifying ecosystems to natural variability in carbonate chemistry may improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of ocean acidification. We explore the potential for intensive temporal sampling to isolate the influence of carbonate chemistry on community calcification rates of a coral reef and compare the ratio of organic to inorganic carbon production to previous studies at the same location. Even with intensive temporal sampling, community calcification displays only a weak dependence on carbonate chemistry variability. However, across three years of sampling, the ratio of organic to inorganic carbon production is highly consistent. Although further work is required to quantify the spatial variability associated with such ratios, this suggests that these measurements have the potential to indicate the response of coral reefs to ongoing disturbance, ocean acidification, and climate change.

  7. Inorganic Fullerenes, Onions, and Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew P. E.

    2004-01-01

    Buckminsterfullerene, which is in the shape of a soccer-ball was first discovered in 1985, has many applications as a good lubricant, or as a new superconductor. The synthesis of these inorganic fullerenes involves a great deal of interdisciplinary research between physicists, material scientists, engineers and chemists from various fields.

  8. Expanding coordination chemistry from protein to protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghamitra, Nusrat J M; Ueno, Takafumi

    2013-05-14

    Bioinorganic chemistry is of growing importance in the fields of nanomaterial science and biotechnology. Coordination of metals by biological systems is a crucial step in intricate enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and biomineralization. Although such systems employ protein assemblies as molecular scaffolds, the important roles of protein assemblies in coordination chemistry have not been systematically investigated and characterized. Many researchers are joining the field of bioinorganic chemistry to investigate the inorganic chemistry of protein assemblies. This area is emerging as an important next-generation research field in bioinorganic chemistry. This article reviews recent progress in rational design of protein assemblies in coordination chemistry for integration of catalytic reactions using metal complexes, preparation of mineral biomimetics, and mechanistic investigations of biomineralization processes with protein assemblies. The unique chemical properties of protein assemblies in the form of cages, tubes, and crystals are described in this review.

  9. Mass spectrometry. [in organic ion and biorganic chemistry and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Cox, R. E.; Derrick, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the present status of mass spectrometry in the light of pertinent recent publications spanning the period from December 1971 to January 1974. Following an initial survey of techniques, instruments, and computer applications, a sharp distinction is made between the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions and analytical applications in biorganic chemistry and medicine. The emphasis is on the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions at the expense of inorganic, organometallic, and surface ion chemistry. Biochemistry and medicine are chosen because of their contemporary importance and because of the stupendous contributions of mass spectroscopy to these fields in the past two years. In the review of gas-phase organic ion chemistry, special attention is given to studies making significant contributions to the understanding of ion chemistry.

  10. A Tiny Adventure: The Introduction of Problem Based Learning in an Undergraduate Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dylan P.; Woodward, Jonathan R.; Symons, Sarah L.; Davies, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Year 1 of the chemistry degree at the University of Leicester has been significantly changed by the integration of a problem based learning (PBL) component into the introductory inorganic/physical chemistry module, "Chemical Principles". Small groups of 5-6 students were given a series of problems with real world scenarios and were then given the…

  11. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  12. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... container in the change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside the container. (vi) The... readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is a poison, you should wash your hands thoroughly... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1910.1018 Section 1910.1018...

  14. Stereoisomerism in Coordination Chemistry: A Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo, Maria Fe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experimental procedure to acquaint inorganic chemistry students with stereochemical concepts using tris-(2,3-butanediamine)cobalt(III). Notes two isomeric forms exist and both form metal chelates. Separation is accomplished by chromatography and analysis is by NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Provides spectra of isomers. (MVL)

  15. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak;

    2013-01-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion...... indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principle inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared......+) and F(-) are only slightly concentrated (×2-10). An anion deficit of ~120 mEq 1(-1) in M. tardigradum and H. crispae indicates the presence of unidentified ionic components in these species. Body fluid osmolality ranges from 361±49 mOsm kg(-1) in R. coronifer to 961±43 mOsm kg(-1) in H. crispae...

  16. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  17. Combustion chemistry. Activities in the CHEC research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, K.; Johnsson, J.E.; Glarborg, P.; Frandsen, F.; Jensen, A.; Oestberg, M. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The combustion chemistry in the oxidation of fossil fuels and biofuels determines together with mixing and heat transfer the required size of a furnace, the emission of gaseous pollutants, and the formation of ash and deposits on surfaces. This paper describes technologies for solid fuels combustion and gives a summary of the fuels, the pollutant chemistry and the inorganic chemistry in combustion processes. Emphasis is put on the work carried out in the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control Research Programme). (au) 173 refs.

  18. MPS/CAS Cooperation on Solid State Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jingtai; Rüdiger Kniep

    2004-01-01

    @@ The cooperation between Zhao Jingtai and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids was initiated immediately after the research field Inorganic Chemistry (headed by Rüdiger Kniep) started its work in Dresden. The first contact was established when Zhao Jingtai came from the Xiamen University as a Max Planck fellow. At that time, the chemistry of the intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals was chosen as a topic of joint investigations with Yuri Grin. Later, the solid state chemistry of the borophosphates was added to the program of concerted research in the group of Zhao Jingtai and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids.

  19. Scientometric Dimensions of Innovation Communication Productivity of the Chemistry Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Surwase, Ganesh; Anil Sagar, *; Lalit Mohan; Gaderao, C. R.; Anil Kumar; Kalyane, V. L.; Prakasan, E.R.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2005-01-01

    Scientrometric analysis of 1733 papers published by the teams comprising total of 926 participating scientists at Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) during 1970-1999 in the domains: Radiation & Photochemistry and Chemical Dynamics (649), Solid State Studies (558), Inorganic, Structural and Materials Chemistry (460) and Theoretical Chemistry (66) were analysed for yearwise productivity, authorship pattern and collaboration. The highest number of publicationsin a year we...

  20. Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, M.L.; Ferris, L.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Chemistry Division conducts basic and applied chemical research on projects important to DOE`s missions in sciences, energy technologies, advanced materials, and waste management/environmental restoration; it also conducts complementary research for other sponsors. The research are arranged according to: coal chemistry, aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures, geochemistry, chemistry of advanced inorganic materials, structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials, chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds, chemical and structural principles in solvent extraction, surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis, photolytic transformations of hazardous organics, DNA sequencing and mapping, and special topics.

  1. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  2. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  3. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  4. Trace Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  5. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  6. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  7. Teaching Inorganic Photophysics and Photochemistry with Three Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: A Computer-Based Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Claudio; Terenzi, Alessio; Barone, Giampaolo; Salassa, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Among computational methods, DFT (density functional theory) and TD-DFT (time-dependent DFT) are widely used in research to describe, "inter alia," the optical properties of transition metal complexes. Inorganic/physical chemistry courses for undergraduate students treat such methods, but quite often only from the theoretical point of…

  8. Biomineralization of unicellular organisms: an unusual membrane biochemistry for the production of inorganic nano- and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerlein, Edmund

    2003-02-10

    With evolution, Nature has ingeniously succeeded in giving rise to an impressive variety of inorganic structures. Every organism that synthesizes biogenic minerals does so in a form that is unique to that species. This biomineralization is apparently biologically controlled. It is thus expected that both the synthesis and the form of every specific biogenic mineral is genetically determined and controlled. An investigation of the mechanism of biomineralization has only become possible with the development of modern methods in molecular biology. Unicellular organisms such as magnetic bacteria, calcareous algae, and diatoms, all of which are amongst the simplest forms of life, are particularly suited to be investigated by these methods. Crystals and composites of proteins and amorphous inorganic polymers are formed as complex structures within these organisms; these structures are not known in conventional inorganic chemistry.

  9. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance. PMID:27573146

  10. Inorganic nanofluorides and related nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Sergei V; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Tkatchenko, E A; Fedorov, Pavel P [Laser Materials and Technologies Research Centre, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-31

    The properties and prospects of application of fluoride nanoparticles are discussed. Pyrohydrolysis is considered as the key process determining the chemistry and technology of fluorides; its role increases on going to the nanosize region. The physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of fluoride nanoparticles, one- and two-dimensional nanoobjects as well as approaches to the preparation of nanocomposites (glass ceramics, heterovalent solid solutions with defect clusters, eutectoid composites, etc.) are analysed. Nanotechnology techniques used to produce heterogeneous nanoobjects are outlined.

  11. Inorganic nanofluorides and related nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergei V.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Tkatchenko, E. A.; Fedorov, Pavel P.

    2006-12-01

    The properties and prospects of application of fluoride nanoparticles are discussed. Pyrohydrolysis is considered as the key process determining the chemistry and technology of fluorides; its role increases on going to the nanosize region. The physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of fluoride nanoparticles, one- and two-dimensional nanoobjects as well as approaches to the preparation of nanocomposites (glass ceramics, heterovalent solid solutions with defect clusters, eutectoid composites, etc.) are analysed. Nanotechnology techniques used to produce heterogeneous nanoobjects are outlined.

  12. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

  13. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  14. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the Use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which…

  15. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. Textbook for the medical professions and nursing training centres. 7. rev. ed. Physik, Strahlenkunde und Chemie. Eine Einfuehrung in diese Naturwissenschaften. Studienbuch fuer Angehoerige der Heilberufe und Krankenpflegeschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (HP).

  16. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  17. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  18. Chemistry of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task is concerned primarily with the fundamental chemistry of the actinide and fission product elements. Special efforts are made to develop research programs in collaboration with researchers at universities and in industry who have need of national laboratory facilities. Specific areas currently under investigation include: (1) spectroscopy and photochemistry of actinides in low-temperature matrices; (2) small-angle scattering studies of hydrous actinide and fission product polymers in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents; (3) kinetic and thermodynamic studies of complexation reactions in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions; and (4) the development of inorganic ion exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide separations. Recent results from work in these areas are summarized here

  19. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  2. Corals concentrate dissolved inorganic carbon to facilitate calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Nicola; Cohen, Itay; Finch, Adrian A; Erez, Jonathan; Tudhope, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    The sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) used to produce scleractinian coral skeletons are not understood. Yet this knowledge is essential for understanding coral biomineralization and assessing the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs. Here we use skeletal boron geochemistry to reconstruct the DIC chemistry of the fluid used for coral calcification. We show that corals concentrate DIC at the calcification site substantially above seawater values and that bicarbonate contributes a significant amount of the DIC pool used to build the skeleton. Corals actively increase the pH of the calcification fluid, decreasing the proportion of DIC present as CO2 and creating a diffusion gradient favouring the transport of molecular CO2 from the overlying coral tissue into the calcification site. Coupling the increases in calcification fluid pH and [DIC] yields high calcification fluid [CO3(2-)] and induces high aragonite saturation states, favourable to the precipitation of the skeleton.

  3. Advanced Tomography Techniques For Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, James E.; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tomography using electrons and x-rays has pushed our understanding of the micro- and nanoscale spatial organization for biological, organic and inorganic materials. While significant impact has already been realized from tomography applications, new advanced methods are quickly expanding the versatility of this approach to better link structure, composition and function of complex 3D assemblies across multiple scales. In this article we highlight several frontiers where new developments in tomography are empowering all new science across biology, chemistry and physics. The 5 articles that appear in this MRS Bulletin Issue describe in detail these latest developments in analytical electron tomography, atomic resolution electron tomography, advanced recording schemes in scanning transmission electron (STEM) tomography, cryo-STEM tomography of whole cells, and multiscale correlative tomography.

  4. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    bridge the gap between conventional textbooks on the subject, and the research literature as published in scientific journals. Many researchers working today in the field of materials science and technology have a background that may not have equipped them with sufficient chemical knowledge in order......The synthesis of high quality material is an essential step in the process of obtaining meaningful information about the material’s properties, and therefore, is an important link between physics and chemistry. Semiconductors; superconductors; solid-electrolytes; glasses; pigments; dielectric......, ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  5. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  6. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  7. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  8. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into: Analytical spectroscopy (optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, inorganic mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry), inorganic and radiochemistry (transuranium and activation analysis, low-level radiochemical analysis, inorganic analysis, radioactive materials analysis, special projects), organic chemistry (organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis, special projects, organic analysis, ORNL/UT research program), operations (quality assurance/quality control, environmental protection, safety, analytical improvement, training, radiation control), education programs, supplementary activities, and presentation of research results. Tables are included for articles reviewed or refereed for periodicals, analytical service work, division manpower and financial summary, and organization chart; a glossary is also included.

  10. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  11. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  12. Online simulation of classical inorganic analysis - interactive, self instructive simulations give more lab-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    and this has lead to the development of self-instructing, interactive PC-based learning resources closely related to an actual, running course in introductory inorganic chemistry [8]. Such a development is rather time consuming, but since the first experience was positive [8] it was considered worthwhile......Laboratory exercises, investigations, and experiments are invariably included in university chemistry teaching. The learning of empirical facts, chemical procedures and methods in chemistry depends heavily on the experience, which may be obtained from such teaching activities [1]. Experimental work...... (and in university programmes it often isn’t), but rather to give them experience with chemicals and methods, a computer-based laboratory simulation may function as a cheap and fast extension of student lab time. Virtual investigations seem to be a promising kind of tool [6,7,8] for several reasons...

  13. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  14. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  15. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  16. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  17. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  18. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  19. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  20. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  1. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  2. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  3. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  4. Inorganic protocells: Gated access to microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Christine D.

    2013-06-01

    A pH-responsive inorganic membrane has been devised that acts as a gatekeeper for the transport of charged solutes into and out of its interior volume. This behaviour was further used to regulate an enzymatic reaction.

  5. Inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to application of inorganic sorbents for concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The elaboration of method is conducted under controlled concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from 1.00 til 0.01 mg/l.

  6. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  8. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited

  9. New approaches to chemical reaction mechanisms by means of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since active species generated during radiolysis can be used as oxidative or reductive regents of various organic and inorganic compounds, radiation chemistry has been applied to wide range of research fields. We have studied charge-delocalization process in molecular systems, properties of intermediates in the excited states, mechanism of light emitting device, photo-catalyst for degradation of toxic compounds and so on by means of radiation chemistry. In the present paper, we summarize our recent research results. (author)

  10. Organization of a cognitive activity of students when teaching analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    А. Tapalova; O. Suleimenova

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative analysis allows using basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry for the solution of practical problems, disclosure the chemism of the processes that are fundamental for  the methods of analysis. Systematic qualitative analysis develops analytical thinking, establishes a scientific style of thinking of students.Сhemical analysis requires certain skills and abilities and develops the general chemical culture of the future teachers оn chemistry. The result can be evaluated i...

  11. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  12. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  13. Philosophy of Chemistry or Philosophy with Chemistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry deserves more philosophical attention not so much to do justice to a long-neglected science or to enhance its cultural prestige, but to undermine a number of taken-for-granted assumptions about scientific rationality and more importantly to diversify our metaphysical views of nature and reality. In brief, this paper does not make the case for a philosophy of chemistry. It rather urges philosophers of science to listen to chemists and discuss what they learn from them. Because over t...

  14. Alkoxide routes to Inorganic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, George H [ORNL

    2007-12-01

    An all alkoxide solution chemistry utilizing metal 2-methoxyethoxide complexes in 2-methoxyethanol was used to deposit thin-films of metal oxides on single-crystal metal oxide substrates and on biaxially textured metal substrates. This same chemistry was used to synthesize complex metal oxide nanoparticles. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to study precursor solutions of the alkaline niobates and tantalates. Film crystallization temperatures were determined from x-ray diffraction patterns of powders derived from the metal oxide precursor solutions. Film structure was determined via x-ray diffraction. Film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Epitaxial thin-films of strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBT) and strontium bismuth niobate (SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}, SBN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] magnesium oxide (MgO) buffered with lanthanum manganate (LaMnO{sub 3}, LMO). Epitaxial thin films of LMO were deposited on single crystal [100] MgO via Rf-magnetron sputtering and on single crysal [100] lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial thin-films of sodium potassium tantalate (na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}TaO{sub 3}, NKT), sodium potassium niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}, NKN) and sodium potassium tantalum niobate (Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}, NKTN) were deposited on single crystal [1 0 0] lanthanum aluminate and [1 0 0] MgO substrates (NKT and NKN) and biaxially textured metal substrates via the chemical solution deposition technique. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKT, NKN and NKTN was observed on LAO and Ni-5% W. Epitaxial growth of thin-films of NKN and the growth of c-axis aligned thin-films of NKT was observed on MgO. Nanoparticles of SBT, SBN, NKT and NKN were synthesized in reverse micelles from alkoxide precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron

  15. From coordination chemistry to biological chemistry of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tamas

    2013-11-01

    The paper gives a review on the importance of distribution of Al in biological fluids, primarily in the lights of the works of the author in Al chemistry. It starts with studies of interactions of Al(III) with small biomolecules, such as aliphatic and aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids, and inorganic and organic phosphates. A significant part of this review deals with the problems of description of the biospeciation of Al(III) in serum, where besides the thermodynamic conditions the role of time is also considered in the case of this sluggish metal ion. The Al(III) complexes of the other large group of biomolecules, proteins and their building blocks (oligo)peptides and amino acids are also discussed, where the role of the type of the side chain donors and the extent of preorganisation are considered in the efficiency of metal ion binding. The application of low molecular mass chelator molecules in restoring the dysfunctioning metal ion (including Al(III)) homeostasis in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed in the paper.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  17. Journal of Business Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Business Chemistry examines issues associated with leadership and management for chemists and managers working in chemical research or industry. This journal is devoted to improving and developing the field of Business Chemistry. The Journal of Business Chemistry publishes peer-reviewed papers (including case studies) and essays. Areas for possible publication in include: leadership issues in the chemical and biochemical industry, such as teamwork, team building, mentoring, coa...

  18. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Villaveces; Guillermo Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...

  19. The Chemistry Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry at the Collège de France has received particular attention over the last few years. After the departures of Profs Jean-Marie Lehn and Jacques Livage, new ambition for developing this discipline has led to the creation of several Chairs: Prof. Marc Fontecave’s Chair of Chemistry of Biological Processes in 2008, Prof. Clément Sanchez’ Chair of Chemistry of Hybrid Materials in 2011, and the Chair of Chemistry of Materials and Energy, which Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon has held since 2014....

  20. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  1. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  2. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  3. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  4. Oysters produce an organic-inorganic adhesive for intertidal reef construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Jeremy R; Hight, Lauren M; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2010-09-15

    Coastal ecosystems rely upon oyster reefs to filter water, provide protection from storms, and build habitat for other species. From a chemistry perspective, few details are available to illustrate how these shellfish construct such extensive reef systems. Experiments presented here show that oysters generate a biomineralized adhesive material for aggregating into large communities. This cement is an organic-inorganic hybrid and differs from the surrounding shells by displaying an alternate CaCO(3) crystal form, a cross-linked organic matrix, and an elevated protein content. Emerging themes and unique aspects are both revealed when comparing oyster cement to the adhesives of other marine organisms. The presence of cross-linked proteins provides an analogy to mussel and barnacle adhesives whereas the high inorganic content is exclusive to oysters. With a description of oyster cement in hand we gain strategies for developing synthetic composite materials as well as a better understanding of the components needed for healthy coastal environments.

  5. Inorganic Janus particles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent developments regarding the synthesis and design of Janus nanoparticles, they have attracted increased scientific interest due to their outstanding properties. There are several combinations of multicomponent hetero-nanostructures including either purely organic or inorganic, as well as composite organic–inorganic compounds. Janus particles are interconnected by solid state interfaces and, therefore, are distinguished by two physically or chemically distinct surfaces. They may be, for instance, hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other, thus, creating giant amphiphiles revealing the endeavor of self-assembly. Novel optical, electronic, magnetic, and superficial properties emerge in inorganic Janus particles from their dimensions and unique morphology at the nanoscale. As a result, inorganic Janus nanoparticles are highly versatile nanomaterials with great potential in different scientific and technological fields. In this paper, we highlight some advances in the synthesis of inorganic Janus nanoparticles, focusing on the heterogeneous nucleation technique and characteristics of the resulting high quality nanoparticles. The properties emphasized in this review range from the monodispersity and size-tunability and, therefore, precise control over size-dependent features, to the biomedical application as theranostic agents. Hence, we show their optical properties based on plasmonic resonance, the two-photon activity, the magnetic properties, as well as their biocompatibility and interaction with human blood serum.

  6. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  7. Solventless and One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II) Phthalocyanine Complex: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Sharma, Chetna; Sidhwani, Indu Tucker

    2011-01-01

    With the growing awareness of green chemistry, it is increasingly important for students to understand this concept in the context of laboratory experiments. Although microwave-assisted organic synthesis has become a common and invaluable technique in recent years, there have been few procedures published for microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis…

  8. Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Synthetic Applications for Rapid Assembly of Nanomaterials and Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magic of microwave (MW) heating technique, termed as the Bunsen burner of the 21th Century, has emerged as valuable alternative in synthesis of organics, polymers, inorganics, and nanomaterials. Important innovations in MW-assisted chemistry now enable chemists to prepare cat...

  9. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorgan

  10. Organoactinide chemistry: synthesis, structure, and solution dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis considers three aspects of organoactinide chemistry. In chapter one, a bidentate phosphine ligand was used to kinetically stabilize complexes of the type Cp2MX2. Ligand redistribution processes are present throughout the synthetic work, as has often been observed in uranium cyclopentadienyl chemistry. The effects of covalent M-L bonding on the solution and solid state properties of U(III) coordination complexes are considered. In particular, the nature of the more subtle interaction between the metal and the neutral ligand are examined. Using relative basicity data obtained in solution, and solid state structural data (and supplemented by gas phase photoelectron measurements), it is demonstrated that the more electron rich U(III) centers engage in significant U → L π-donation. Trivalent uranium is shown to be capable of acting either as a one- or two-electron reducing agent toward a wide variety of unsaturated organic and inorganic molecules, generating molecular classes unobtainable via traditional synthetic approaches, as well as offering an alternative synthetic approach to molecules accessible via metathesis reactions. Ligand redistribution processes are again observed, but given the information concerning ligand lability, this reactivity pattern is applied to the synthesis of pure materials inaccessible from redox chemistry. 214 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Organoactinide chemistry: synthesis, structure, and solution dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.G.

    1985-12-01

    This thesis considers three aspects of organoactinide chemistry. In chapter one, a bidentate phosphine ligand was used to kinetically stabilize complexes of the type Cp/sub 2/MX/sub 2/. Ligand redistribution processes are present throughout the synthetic work, as has often been observed in uranium cyclopentadienyl chemistry. The effects of covalent M-L bonding on the solution and solid state properties of U(III) coordination complexes are considered. In particular, the nature of the more subtle interaction between the metal and the neutral ligand are examined. Using relative basicity data obtained in solution, and solid state structural data (and supplemented by gas phase photoelectron measurements), it is demonstrated that the more electron rich U(III) centers engage in significant U ..-->.. L ..pi..-donation. Trivalent uranium is shown to be capable of acting either as a one- or two-electron reducing agent toward a wide variety of unsaturated organic and inorganic molecules, generating molecular classes unobtainable via traditional synthetic approaches, as well as offering an alternative synthetic approach to molecules accessible via metathesis reactions. Ligand redistribution processes are again observed, but given the information concerning ligand lability, this reactivity pattern is applied to the synthesis of pure materials inaccessible from redox chemistry. 214 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. 三峡水库坝前水体水化学及溶解无机碳时空分布特征%Temporal and spatial variation of water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotope characterization in Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴起鑫; 韩贵琳; 唐杨

    2012-01-01

    Water samples upstream the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) were collected in July (summer) and December 2009 (winter) to determine the basic chemical and physical parameters, concentrations of major ions, and contents and isotopic values ( 813Cmc ) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The results showed that the stratification of water temperature, pH, EC and dissolved oxygen has not been detected in the water column. The chemical composition of studied water samples in Three Gorges Reservoir was characterized by the dominance of Ca2 ~ and HCO3- , which is mainly controlled by weathering of carbonate rocks due to the widespread of these rocks in the upper Yangtze River catchment. Compared with the data in 2003 when the Three Gorges Dam was not fully completed, the concentrations of major ions and DIC in 2009 were not significantly varied. The ~13Cmc values of the water samples in summer were lower than those in winter, and didn't show significant variation with the increase of water depth, which is similar to the characteristics of natural rivers but different from the other reservoirs and lakes. At the present study, the hydrochemical characteristics of waters in the main river channel of Three Gorges Reservoir exhibited the feature of natural river rather than traditional reservoir.%以三峡水库坝前水体为研究对象,分析了三峡水库蓄水至145m和172m水位时坝前垂向水体基本物理化学参数、主量元素、溶解无机碳(DIC)含量及其碳同位素(δ13CDIC)分布特征.研究结果表明,无论夏季还是冬季,坝前水体均没有出现水温分层现象,pH、电导、溶解氧也没有发生分层现象.坝前水体水化学组成主要受碳酸盐岩风化的控制,主量元素、溶解无机碳含量和三峡大坝截流前相比没有发生明显的变化.水体δ13CDIC值夏季(丰水期)低于冬季(枯水期),在垂向上变化不明显,与水库、湖泊δ13CDIC的时空变化特征相异而

  13. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  14. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  15. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  16. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  17. Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping’an Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.

  18. Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of bromine in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic bromine precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main bromine gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic bromine compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic bromine species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the

  19. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  20. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  1. Career Options in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  2. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  3. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  4. Inorganic caesium lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, GE; Paterno', GM; Sutton, RJ; Zampetti, A.; Haghighirad, A; Cacialli, F.; Snaith, H.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of perovskite solar cell research has focused on organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites. Herein, we present working inorganic CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells for the first time. CsPbI3 normally resides in a yellow non-perovskite phase at room temperature, but by careful processing control and development of a low-temperature phase transition route we have stabilised the material in the black perovskite phase at room temperature. As such, we have fabricated solar cell dev...

  5. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  6. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Villaveces

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

  7. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  8. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  9. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  10. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  11. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  12. SCIENCE AND EDUCATION ACTUALITY AT THE SOIL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY FACULTY: THE 90-TH ANNI-VERSARY OF KUBAN STATE AGRARIAN UNI-VERSITY Актуальность науки и образования на факультете агрохимии и почвоведения: 90-летию Кубанского ГАУ

    OpenAIRE

    Sheudghen A. H.; Onishchenko L. M.; Terpelets V. I.; Kaigorodova E. A.; Dotsenko S. P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the memory of the staff of teachers, academicians and students of soil science and agricultural chemistry faculty, who have worked and stud-ied in years of its establishment. It has materials from the history of the oldest Kuban State Agrarian University de-partments’: soil science, agricultural chemistry, inorganic and analytical chemistry, organic chemistry

  13. SCIENCE AND EDUCATION ACTUALITY AT THE SOIL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY FACULTY: THE 90-TH ANNI-VERSARY OF KUBAN STATE AGRARIAN UNI-VERSITY Актуальность науки и образования на факультете агрохимии и почвоведения: 90-летию Кубанского ГАУ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheudghen A. H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the memory of the staff of teachers, academicians and students of soil science and agricultural chemistry faculty, who have worked and stud-ied in years of its establishment. It has materials from the history of the oldest Kuban State Agrarian University de-partments’: soil science, agricultural chemistry, inorganic and analytical chemistry, organic chemistry

  14. Laboratory projects using inquiry-based learning: an application to a practical inorganic course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports how laboratory projects (LP coupled to inquiry-based learning (IBL were implemented in a practical inorganic chemistry course. Several coordination compounds have been successfully synthesised by students according to the proposed topics by the LP-IBL junction, and the chemistry of a number of metals has been studied. Qualitative data were collected from written reports, oral presentations, lab-notebook reviews and personal discussions with the students through an experimental course with undergraduate second-year students at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia during the last 5 years. Positive skills production was observed by combining LP and IBL. Conceptual, practical, interpretational, constructional (questions, explanations, hypotheses, communicational, environmental and application abilities were revealed by the students throughout the experimental course.

  15. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  16. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  17. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  18. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  1. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  2. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  3. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  5. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  6. Reactivity Network: Secondary Sources for Inorganic Reactivity Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Provides an eclectic annotated bibliography of secondary sources for inorganic reactivity information of interest to reactivity network review authors and to anyone seeking information about simple inorganic reactions in order to develop experiments and demonstrations. Gives 119 sources. (MVL)

  7. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  8. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  9. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  10. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1982. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  11. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1981. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  12. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  13. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1965. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  14. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  15. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  16. Preparation, Properties and Application of Polymeric Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 刘艳; 唐小真

    2003-01-01

    Six preparation methods for polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites and their respective mechanisms and features are reviewed. The extraordinary properties of polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites are discussed,and their potential applications are evaluated.

  17. Comparison of tropospheric chemistry schemes for use within global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Emmerson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Methane and ozone are two important climate gases with significant tropospheric chemistry. Within chemistry-climate and transport models this chemistry is simplified for computational expediency. We compare the state of the art Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM with six tropospheric chemistry schemes (CRI-reduced, GEOS-CHEM and a GEOS-CHEM adduct, MOZART, TOMCAT and CBM-IV that could be used within composition transport models. We test the schemes within a box model framework under conditions derived from a composition transport model and from field observations from a regional scale pollution event. We find that CRI-reduced provides much skill in simulating the full chemistry, yet with greatly reduced complexity. We find significant variations between the other chemical schemes, and reach the following conclusions. 1 The inclusion of a gas phase N2O5+H2O reaction in some schemes and not others is a large source of uncertainty in the inorganic chemistry. 2 There are significant variations in the calculated concentration of PAN between the schemes, which will affect the long range transport of reactive nitrogen in global models. 3 The representation of isoprene chemistry differs hugely between the schemes, leading to significant uncertainties on the impact of isoprene on composition. 4 Night-time chemistry is badly represented with significant disagreements in the ratio of NO3 to NOx. Resolving these four issues through further investigative laboratory studies will reduce the uncertainties within the chemical schemes of global tropospheric models.

  18. Materials of the yearly scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society - Torun`93: chemistry of new materials; Materialy z dorocznego zjazdu naukowego - Torun`93: chemia nowych materialow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Scientific conference accompanied the assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1993 in Torun. The conference has been divided into 12 sections and 4 symposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The general view on scientific progress has been presented during the plenary session. Then proceedings have performed in specialist sessions on: contemporary methods in organic chemistry chemistry, chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers, coordination chemistry state-of-the-art prospects, absorption and absorbents, new chemical technologies of organic compounds, new chemical technologies of inorganic compounds, environment protection, new methods in analytical chemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics, crystallochemistry, history of chemistry and didactics, new substances in health protection, membranes and membrane techniques, electroactive organic compounds, zeolites - material properties.

  19. Chemistry at large

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy. K.M. Sanders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  20. Chemistry for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  1. Bringing chemistry to life

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Michael; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry allows a wide variety of biomolecules to be specifically labeled and probed in living cells and whole organisms. Here we discuss the history of bioorthogonal reactions and some of the most interesting and important advances in the field.

  2. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  3. Magnetism in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  4. Beauty in chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Atkins

    2006-01-01

    Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  5. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  6. Chemistry at large

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jeremy K. M.

    2007-01-01

    A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  7. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  8. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  9. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  10. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  11. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  12. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  13. Impact of surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  14. Principles of Chemistry (by Michael Munowitz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Reviewed By Jeffrey

    2000-05-01

    At a time when almost all general chemistry textbooks seem to have become commodities designed by marketing departments to offend no one, it is refreshing to find a book with a unique perspective. Michael Munowitz has written what I can only describe as a delightful chemistry book, full of conceptual insight, that uses a novel and interesting pedagogic strategy. This is a book that has much to recommend it. This is the best-written general chemistry book I have ever read. An editor with whom I have worked recently remarked that he felt his job was to help authors make their writing sing. Well, the writing in Principles of Chemistry sings with the full, rich harmonies and creative inventiveness of the King's Singers or Chanticleer. Here is the first sentence of the introduction: "Central to any understanding of the physical world is one discovery of paramount importance, a truth disarmingly simple yet profound in its implications: matter is not continuous." This is prose to be savored and celebrated. Principles of Chemistry has a distinct perspective on chemistry: the perspective of the physical chemist. The focus is on simplicity, what is common about molecules and reactions; begin with the microscopic and build bridges to the macroscopic. The author's perspective is clear from the organization of the book. After three rather broad introductory chapters, there are four chapters that develop the quantum mechanical theory of atoms and molecules, including a strong treatment of molecular orbital theory. Unlike many books, Principles of Chemistry presents the molecular orbital approach first and introduces valence bond theory later only as an approximation for dealing with more complicated molecules. The usual chapters on descriptive inorganic chemistry are absent (though there is an excellent chapter on organic and biological molecules and reactions as well as one on transition metal complexes). Instead, descriptive chemistry is integrated into the development of

  15. "Rinse and trickle": a protocol for TEM preparation and investigation of inorganic fibers from biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Capella, Silvana; Rinaudo, Caterina; Belluso, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define a sample preparation protocol that allows inorganic fibers and particulate matter extracted from different biological samples to be characterized morphologically, crystallographically and chemically by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). The method does not damage or create artifacts through chemical attacks of the target material. A fairly rapid specimen preparation is applied with the aim of performing as few steps as possible to transfer the withdrawn inorganic matter onto the TEM grid. The biological sample is previously digested chemically by NaClO. The salt is then removed through a series of centrifugation and rinse cycles in deionized water, thus drastically reducing the digestive power of the NaClO and concentrating the fibers for TEM analysis. The concept of equivalent hydrodynamic diameter is introduced to calculate the settling velocity during the centrifugation cycles. This technique is applicable to lung tissues and can be extended to a wide range of organic materials. The procedure does not appear to cause morphological damage to the fibers or modify their chemistry or degree of crystallinity. The extrapolated data can be used in interdisciplinary studies to understand the pathological effects caused by inorganic materials. PMID:27151190

  16. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Córdova, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32-, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C-C and C-O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  17. Common inorganic ions are efficient catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nozière

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, inorganic ammonium ions, NH4+, and carbonate ions, CO32−, are reported for the first time as catalysts for organic reactions in atmospheric aerosols and other natural environments at the Earth's surface. These reactions include the formation of C–C and C–O bonds by aldol condensation and acetal formation, and reveal a new aspect of the interactions between organic and inorganic materials in natural environments. The catalytic properties of inorganic ammonium ions, in particular, were not previously known in chemistry. The reactions were found to be as fast in tropospheric ammonium sulfate composition as in concentrated sulfuric acid. The ubiquitous presence and large concentrations of ammonium ions in tropospheric aerosols would make of ammonium catalysis a main consumption pathway for organic compounds in these aerosols, while acid catalysis would have a minor contribution. In particular, ammonium catalysis would account quantitatively for the aging of carbonyl compounds into secondary ''fulvic'' compounds in tropospheric aerosols, a transformation affecting the optical properties of these aerosols. In general, ammonium catalysis is likely to be responsible for many observations previously attributed to acid catalysis in the troposphere.

  18. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  19. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  20. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistry students in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialists of the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) into the world of the chemical applications. Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, other

  1. Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  2. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  3. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel; Weaver, Jonathan; Binks, Bernard; Mann, Stephen.

    2013-01-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covale...

  4. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  5. Application of inorganic scintillator for neutron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Niki, N; Nakayama, S; Fushimi, K

    2003-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor institution, the neutron monitoring is indispensable in order to find an unusual neutron event which may be the signal of an accident or damage of a reactor. In this work, the possibility of a neutron monitor by means of an inorganic scintillator was researched. The detection efficiency and the intrinsic background of GSO scintillator and its sensitivity for neutrons have been studied.

  6. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    In-Yup Jeon; Jong-Beom Baek

    2010-01-01

    Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organ...

  7. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties. PMID:21271042

  8. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices. PMID:27093096

  9. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  10. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  11. Common Inorganic Salts Catalyze the Transformations of Organic Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noziere, B.; Dziedzic, P.; Cordova, A.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation reports the discovery that inorganic salts that are ubiquitous in atmospheric aerosols are efficient catalysts for the transformations of organic compounds in these aerosols, by reactions such as aldol condensation or acetal formation.1 For some of these salts, these catalytic properties were not even known in chemistry.2 Kinetic and product studies of these reactions will be presented for carbonyl compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, and glyoxal,1,3 and compared with previously known catalysts such as the recently discovered amino acids.4,5 These studies show that these salts make the reactions as fast in typical tropospheric aerosols as in concentrated sulfuric acid. These reactions produce secondary "fulvic" compounds that absorb light in the near UV and visible and would affect the optical properties of aerosols.1,5 They would also account for the depletion of glyoxal recently reported in Mexico city.3 Thus, while acid catalysis is several orders of magnitudes too slow to be significant in tropospheric aerosols, this work identifies new processes that should be ubiquitous in these aerosols and important for atmospheric chemistry. Refs. 1Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Common inorganic ions catalyze chemical reactions of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols, Submitted, 2008. 2 Noziere, B., Cordova, A., A novel catalyst for aldol condensation reaction, patent pending 02/10/2007. 3Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., Cordova, A., Products and kinetics of the liquid-phase reaction of glyoxal catalyzed by inorganic ions, Submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008. 4Noziere, B., and Cordova, A., A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Amino Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde in Aqueous and Salt Solutions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 112, 2827, 2008. 5Noziere, B., Dziedzic, P., and Cordova, A., The Formation of Secondary Light-Absorbing "fulvic-like" Oligomers: A Common Process in Aqueous and Ionic Atmospheric Particles?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34

  12. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  13. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International Nuclear System Engineering, MS-K 575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C. [International Nuclear System Engineering, MS-K 575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted.

  14. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  15. An EPR Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, R. A.; Waldeck, D. H.

    2000-11-01

    An experiment that illustrates the principles of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory is described. Students measure the value of g for DPPH and use it to determine the value of g for two inorganic complexes, Cu(acac)2 and VO(acac)2. The students use two instruments: an instructional device that illustrates the principles of EPR and a commercial Varian E4 spectrometer. This approach allows an elucidation of the principles of the method and provides experience with a more sophisticated research-grade instrument.

  16. Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is gaining attention as a thin film deposition method, uniquely suitable for depositing uniform and conformal films on complex three-dimensional topographies. The deposition of a film of a given material by ALD relies on the successive, separated, and self-terminating gas-solid reactions of typically two gaseous reactants. Hundreds of ALD chemistries have been found for depositing a variety of materials during the past decades, mostly for inorganic materials but lately also for organic and inorganic-organic hybrid compounds. One factor that often dictates the properties of ALD films in actual applications is the crystallinity of the grown film: Is the material amorphous or, if it is crystalline, which phase(s) is (are) present. In this thematic review, we first describe the basics of ALD, summarize the two-reactant ALD processes to grow inorganic materials developed to-date, updating the information of an earlier review on ALD [R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005)], and give an overview of the status of processing ternary compounds by ALD. We then proceed to analyze the published experimental data for information on the crystallinity and phase of inorganic materials deposited by ALD from different reactants at different temperatures. The data are collected for films in their as-deposited state and tabulated for easy reference. Case studies are presented to illustrate the effect of different process parameters on crystallinity for representative materials: aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, zinc oxide, titanium nitride, zinc zulfide, and ruthenium. Finally, we discuss the general trends in the development of film crystallinity as function of ALD process parameters. The authors hope that this review will help newcomers to ALD to familiarize themselves with the complex world of crystalline ALD films and, at the same time, serve for the expert as a handbook-type reference source on ALD processes and film crystallinity.

  17. Identification of Copper(II) Complexes in Aqueous Solution by Electron Spin Resonance: An Undergraduate Coordination Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background, procedures, and results are provided for an experiment which examines, through electron spin resonance spectroscopy, complex species formed by cupric and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate ions in aqueous solutions. The experiment is illustrative of several aspects of inorganic and coordination chemistry, including the identification of species…

  18. A Simplified Model to Predict the Effect of Increasing Atmospheric CO[subscript 2] on Carbonate Chemistry in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlee, Brian J.; Janebo, Maria; Jahn, Ginger

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater is reviewed and used to predict the potential effect of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In agreement with more detailed treatments, we find that calcium carbonate (aragonite) may become unsaturated in cold surface seawater by the year 2100 C.E., resulting in the destruction…

  19. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  20. Introductory quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on quantum chemistry is primarily intended for university students at the senior undergraduate level. It serves as an aid to the basic understanding of the important concepts of quantum mechanics introduced in the field of chemistry. Various chapters of the book are devoted to the following : (i) Waves and quanta, (ii) Operator concept in quantum chemistry, (iii) Wave mechanics of some simple systems, (iv) Perturbation theory, (v) Many-electron atoms and angular momenta (vi) Molecular orbital theory and its application to the electronic structure of diatomic molecules, (vii) Chemical bonding in polyatomic molecules and (viii) Chemical applications of Hellmann-Feynman theorem. At the end of each chapter, a set of problems is given and the answers to these problems are given at the end of the book. (A.K.)

  1. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  2. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  3. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  4. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  5. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  6. Revisiting 30 years of Biofunctionalization and Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro; De La Fuente, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles.

  7. Chemistry of inorganic arsenic in soils: kinetics of arsenic adsorption-desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Naidu, R

    2009-04-01

    The influence of ionic strength, index cations and competing anions on arsenate (As(V)) adsorption-desorption kinetics was studied in an Alfisol soil. A flow-through reactor system similar to that developed by Carski and Sparks (Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:1114-1116, 1985) was constructed for the experiments. Arsenate adsorption kinetics for all the treatments were initially fast with 58-91% of As(V) adsorbed in the first 15 min. Beyond 15 min, As(V) adsorption continued at a slower rate for the observation period of the experiments. Changes in the solution composition had differing effects on the cumulative amount of As(V) adsorbed by the soil. Ionic strength and different index cations had little effect on the amount of As(V) adsorbed, while the presence of phosphate decreased the amount of As(V) adsorbed from 169 to 89 and 177 to 115 g As(V) microg(-1) in 0.03 M sodium nitrate and 0.01 M calcium nitrate, respectively. Considerably less As(V) was desorbed than was adsorbed, with only between 2 to 17% of the adsorbed As(V) desorbed. The presence of phosphate increased the amount of As(V) desorbed by 17%, but other changes in the solution ionic strength or index cation had little effect on the amount of As(V) desorbed. PMID:19101807

  8. Department of Inorganic Chemistry - Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Robert; Wrabetz, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    A History of the Fritz-Haber-Institut B How to reach the Institute C Preface D Internal Structure EMiscellaneous F Instrumentation G Understanding Catalysis H Scientific Progress I FHI Library / Publications J Patents K Guest-Lecturers L External Funds M Teaching Activities N Long Night of Science O Practical Courses P Notes

  9. Department of Inorganic Chemistry - Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Robert; Wrabetz, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    A History of the Fritz-Haber-Institut B How to reach the Institute C Preface D Internal Structure E Mission F Vision G Strategy of Research H Scientific Process I FHI Library / Publications J Patents K Guest-Lecturers L External Funds M Teaching Activities N Practical Courses O Long Night of Science P Notes

  10. Department of Inorganic Chemistry - Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A History of the Fritz-Haber-Institut B How to reach the Institut C Preface D Internal Structure E Mission F Vision G Strategy of Research H Scientific Progress I FHI Library / Publications J Patents K Guest-Lecturers L External Funds M Teaching Activities N Long Night of Science O Practical Courses P Notes

  11. Department of Inorganic Chemistry - Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Robert; Wrabetz, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    A History of the Fritz-Haber-Institut B How to reach the Institute C Preface D Internal Structure E Miscellaneous F Instrumentation H Scientific Progress I FHI Library / Publication J Patents K Guest-Lectures L External Funds M Teaching Courses N Practical Courses O Long Night of Science P Notes

  12. On the Inclusion of Inorganic Chemical Reactivity in High School Chemistry: The Reactivity Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, E. K.

    1989-01-01

    Reports the function of the Reactivity Network which is to translate reactivity data from the primary literature into some 30 reviews for high school teachers and curriculum developers and to disseminate that information nationwide. Discusses a needs assessment done for the project. (MVL)

  13. Consistent descriptions of metal–ligand bonds and spin-crossover in inorganic chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is today the unchallenged tool for routinely obtaining molecular information on chemical stability, reactivity, and electronic structure across the Periodic Table. The chemical bond is the fundamental unit of molecular structure and reactivity, and thus, large...

  14. Dense inorganic membranes - studies on transport properties, defect chemistry and catalytic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshof, ten Johan Evert

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen separation with dense oxide membranes may be an attractive method for the production of oxygen from air. Another possible application is the direct supply of oxygen in membrane reactors for the (partial) oxidation of hydrocarbons. The driving force for oxygen permeation through dense mixed io

  15. Determination of the local chemistry of iron in inorganic and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Clair C. [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.c.calvert@sheffield.ac.uk; Brown, Andy [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [LEMAS Centre, Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The systematic EELS analysis of a series of naturally occurring, synthetic and biological samples has provided a framework from which Fe valence of unknown materials can be determined and the relative ratios of the valences present can be calculated. The quantification of the relative ratios of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} is possible via the fitting of Gaussian or Voigt (with 89.3% Gaussian contribution) line profiles to the Fe L{sub 3}-edge. The ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe is determined from the areas under the fitted peaks. The method is robust and has an error in the range of <10% on Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe for samples with >2 atom% Fe. We present applications of this method including the investigation of polaron hopping in calcic amphibole, the quantification of Fe{sup 3+}/{sigma}Fe in clay minerals from deep water sediments, quantification of Fe valence in human liver tissue and the determination of Fe valence in airborne particulate matter.

  16. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube-Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites: An Instructional Experiment in Nanomaterials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Miguel; Salgueirino, Veronica; Perez-Lorenzo, Moises; Correa-Duarte, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment is described to introduce advanced undergraduate students to an exciting area of nanotechnology that incorporates nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes to produce systems that have valuable technological applications. The synthesis of such material has been easily achieved through a simple three-step procedure. Students explore…

  17. Revisiting 30 years of Biofunctionalization and Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João eConde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles.

  18. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  19. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    João eConde; Dias, Jorge T.; Valeria eGrazú; Maria eMoros; Baptista, Pedro V; de la Fuente, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the ...

  20. Application of the Covalent Bond Classification Method for the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Malcolm L. H.; Parkin, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    The Covalent Bond Classification (CBC) method provides a means to classify covalent molecules according to the number and types of bonds that surround an atom of interest. This approach is based on an elementary molecular orbital analysis of the bonding involving the central atom (M), with the various interactions being classified according to the…

  1. Inorganic chemistry: Direct syntheses from pure liquid SO3 and from trivalent and pentavalent nitrogen derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, B.; Heubel, J.

    1977-01-01

    From pure liquid SO3 direct synthesis reactions were carried out with N2O5, NO2Cl, NOCl which yielded N2O54SO3, 3SO3, 2SO3-NO2Cl2SO3-NOCl2SO3 and NOCl2SO3, the latter being obtained for the first time in the pure state. In all cases the crystallized product was obtained by separating the constituents of the mixture and then going through a single viscous liquid phase.

  2. Analysis and interpretation of Viking inorganic chemistry data (Mars data analysis program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    Soil samples gathered by the Viking Lander from the surface of Mars were analyzed. The Martian fines were lower in aluminum, iron, sulfur, and chlorine than typical terrestrial continental soils or lunar mare fines. Sample variabilities were as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart) implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition.

  3. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest-mire communities dominated by glossopterid and noeggerathiopsid gymnosperms. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photochemical Upconversion: A Physical or Inorganic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduates Using a Conventional Fluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Bryn M.; Castellano, Felix N.

    2013-01-01

    Photochemical upconversion is a regenerative process that transforms lower-energy photons into higher-energy light through two sequential bimolecular reactions, triplet sensitization of an appropriate acceptor followed by singlet fluorescence producing triplet-triplet annihilation derived from two energized acceptors. This laboratory directly…

  5. Exercises in Inorganic Chemistry at Course "Nature and Techniques I - Water"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The course is newly establised one aimed at public school teachers in order to stimulate increased interests for science amongst the pupils. The exercises comprise determination of pH, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate and total hardness, executed partly by chemical experiments and partly by means...

  6. Inorganic chemistry. A synthetic Mn₄Ca-cluster mimicking the oxygen-evolving center of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Chen, Changhui; Dong, Hongxing; Shen, Jian-Ren; Dau, Holger; Zhao, Jingquan

    2015-05-01

    Photosynthetic splitting of water into oxygen by plants, algae, and cyanobacteria is catalyzed by the oxygen-evolving center (OEC). Synthetic mimics of the OEC, which is composed of an asymmetric manganese-calcium-oxygen cluster bound to protein groups, may promote insight into the structural and chemical determinants of biological water oxidation and lead to development of superior catalysts for artificial photosynthesis. We synthesized a Mn4Ca-cluster similar to the native OEC in both the metal-oxygen core and the binding protein groups. Like the native OEC, the synthetic cluster can undergo four redox transitions and shows two magnetic resonance signals assignable to redox and structural isomerism. Comparison with previously synthesized Mn3CaO4-cubane clusters suggests that the fourth Mn ion determines redox potentials and magnetic properties of the native OEC.

  7. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  8. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  9. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  10. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  11. Chemistry in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

  12. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  13. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma

    2011-01-01

    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  14. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  15. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  16. Cloud chemistry on Jupiter

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, B. E.; Prather, M. J.; W. B. Rossow

    1987-01-01

    Aqueous chemistry on Uranus affects the atmospheric abundances of NH3 and H2S below the methane cloud base. Here a complete thermochemical equilibrium model for the H2O-NH3-H2S system is presented. Inclusion of H2S increases the aqueous removal of NH3 to 20-30 percent, but aqueous chemistry alone cannot account for the depletion of NH3 in the 150-200-K region of the atmosphere required to fit microwave observations. Formation of NH4SH clouds can account for the observed depletion provided the...

  17. Computational organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author highlights the tremendous impact that density functional theory has had on computational chemistry over the last decade. This robust and efficient theoretical technique (for which John Pople and Walter Kohn were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1998) has opened up many new possibilities for chemists, allowing to study large systems with a degree of reliability hitherto uncontemplated. Examples which illustrate how both density functional theory and hybrid method have been successfully used in solving difficult problems in quantum chemistry of catalysis are briefly discussed

  18. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  19. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  20. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  1. An Integrated Curriculum for First- and Second-Year Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettich, T. R.; Bailey, David N.; Frank, Forrest J.; Frick, Jeffrey A.

    1996-07-01

    The chemistry department at Illinois Wesleyan University is revising its freshman and sophomore sequence as outlined earlier in this Journal (1). Key features of this innovation are the integration of organic and inorganic chemical concepts throughout the first two years of the curriculum, the incorporation of modern instrumentation into lecture and laboratory beginning the first semester, and the matching of topic development to student ability throughout the two-year sequence. We believe the proposed curriculum has unique advantages in comparison to the traditional, the organic first, and the two-cycle approaches. A student whose only college-level experience with molecular science is traditional general chemistry sees a very isolated view of the subject: a view long on theory and quantitative problem solving, but short on those qualitative skills, life science applications, and hands-on use of advanced chemical instrumentation typically found in organic chemistry. Those programs that put organic first, either as a full year or as part of a two-cycle approach, have the advantage of introducing new topics to college freshmen with an adequate high school chemistry background. But merely shuffling the order of the first four traditional semesters of college chemistry simply exchanges one set of problems for another. Segregating inorganic and organic topics according to semesters means that the most advanced inorganic (or organic) chemical concepts are usually presented in the second semester (or possibly the third semester with a two-cycle approach). Even very capable students who successfully complete such a four-semester program will often view chemistry as disjointed; that is, the sophomore organic chemistry class is seen neither as a logical continuation of nor as a development based upon the first year's experience. The first two years of college chemistry are perceived by most students, and often treated by faculty, as distinct entities. The two courses are

  2. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  3. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, N.O.Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  4. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. Textbook for the medical professions and nursing training centres. 8. rev. ed. Physik, Strahlenkunde und Chemie. Eine Einfuehrung in diese Naturwissenschaften. Studienbuch fuer Angehoerige der Heilberufe und Krankenpflegeschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (orig./HP) With 104 figs., 51 tabs.

  5. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  6. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO3 +6M HNO3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  7. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  8. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  9. Some Reactions of Recoil Atoms in Solid Inorganic Phosphorus Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with our interest in the recoil chemistry of radiophosphorus it was considered worthwhile to investigate systems in which tritium recoils can be produced and subsequently react with inorganic anions of phosphorus. One purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility for tritium recoils to replace (''displace'') either an oxygen or a hydrogen atom bound to phosphorus. For instance, oxygen replacement in an orthophosphate ion (PO4)-3 could lead to a (TPO3)-2 ion (phosphite), hydrogen replacement in hypophosphite could lead to (HTPO2). A number of lithium salts of orthophosphoric, phosphorous and hypophosphorous acid were irradiated with neutrons, the nuclear reaction Li6 (n, α)H3 serving as the source for the energetic tritium atoms. Through a step-wise oxidation procedure tritium bound to phosphorus was converted into HTO and radio-assayed by means of liquid scintillation counting. The results indicate that replacement of oxygen by tritium in orthophosphates is highly unlikely. When phosphites and hypophosphites are the target material, an appreciable percentage of the tritium recoils end up bound to phosphorus. The second purpose of this investigation was to determine to what extent the labelling of the tripolyphosphate - P32 anion, formed by recoiling P32 particles in a number of crystalline phosphates, deviates from a uniform distribution. A number of phosphates were irradiated with neutrons. The tripolyphosphate - P32 formed was separated by precipitation as the tris (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) salt. By means of a step-wise degradation into orthophosphate the distribution of the P32 among the two possible positions in the anion was measured. One result of this study is that when anhydrous orthophosphates are the target material, there is as predicted, a strong preference for the tripolyphosphate - P32 formed to be labelled at the centre. These and other results are discussed in the light of current concepts of ''hot

  10. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  11. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  12. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  13. Metaphorical Models in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Bhusan, Nalini

    1995-01-01

    What happens when students of chemistry fail to recognize the metaphorical status of certain models and interpret them literally? Suggests that such failures lead students to form perceptions of phenomena that can be misleading. Argues that the key to making good use of metaphorical models is a recognition of their metaphorical status. Examines…

  14. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  16. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  17. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  18. Chromatin chemistry goes cellular.

    OpenAIRE

    W. Fischle; D. Schwarzer; Mootz, H.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing post-translational modifications of histone proteins as they occur within chromatin is challenging due to their large number and chemical diversity. A major step forward has now been achieved by using split intein chemistry to engineer functionalized histones within cells.

  19. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  20. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  1. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  2. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  3. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  4. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  5. Inorganic-organic composites by sol-gel techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1990-01-01

    The sol-gel process opens the possibility of combining inorganic and organic units to new hybrid polymers. Organic units can be used for structural modification of the inorganic backbone, for creating new functions within an inorganic network and for building up organic polymeric chains. The materials show interesting perspectives with respect to structural (surface hardness, strength) and functional properties (e.g. diffusion, photocuring, incorporation of dyes, optical properties). A review...

  6. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  7. Predictors of General Chemistry Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsogomonyan, Ardas; Loftus, Drew

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry pretest scores, high school chemistry grades and, to a greater extent, math SAT scores were useful predictors of college general chemistry grades. Regression analysis of all these predictors combined was used to construct an expectancy table which is being used to identify and advise underprepared students. (BB)

  8. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF)

  9. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  10. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  11. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  12. Zinc and cadmium. 4; Transition metal chemistry review 1984. Pt. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakternieks, D. (Deakin University, Geelong (Australia). Department of Chemical and Analitical Sciences)

    1990-02-01

    This review of the inorganic and coordination chemistry of zinc and cadmium covers material which appeared in volumes 102 and 103 of Chemical Abstracts. Zinc and cadmium are treated together and, as was the case last year, much of the reported chemistry is routine and has not been reported in detail. Rigorous classification of ligands continues to be a difficulty for compounds containing several different potential donor atoms and the reader may need to refer to more than one section. Although the scopeof this review does not encompass bio-inorganic in general, some more interesting aspects of application of {sup 113}Cd probes for biological systems have veen included this year. (author). 164 refs.; 9 schemes.

  13. HOW AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO DEALING WITH PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Emanuele Gessa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex heterogeneous system whose physical, chemical and biological properties regulate interactions with the chemical species which reach its surface. Soil chemistry is an essential tool for understanding and predicting these interactions. Soil is able to immobilize and transform organic and inorganic molecules by different mechanisms, such as complexing and redox reactions. This behaviour gives soil detoxifying capacities towards pollutants which accumulate in the environment. Pollution by heavy metals is regulated by their solubility in soil solution which in turn depends on soil pH and redox properties and metal speciation. Organic and inorganic colloidal soil fractions can promote the immobilisation, degradation, and diffusion of organic molecules such as agrochemicals, solvents, hydrocarbons and other chemicals which reach the soil by anthropic activities. Predicting the fate of xenobiotics in soil, water, air, and plant ecosystems, the recycling of biomass and the decontamination of polluted soils are of major concern to soil chemistry.

  14. Fog water chemistry in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Xiang; Yang, Chenyu; Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Jianmin; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-08-01

    With the aim of understanding the fog chemistry in a Chinese megacity, twenty-six fog water samples were collected in urban Shanghai from March 2009 to March 2010. The following parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), ten inorganic major ions ( SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, F -, Cl -, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, NH4+) and four major organic acids (CH 3COO -, HCOO -, CO42-, MSA). The total ionic concentration (TIC) and EC of fog samples were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those often found in Europe, North America and other Asian countries. Pollutants were expected to be mainly from local sources, including factories, motor vehicle emissions and civil construction. Non-local sources such as moderate- and long-range transport of sea salt also contributed to pollution levels in fog events as indicated by back trajectory analysis. The pH of the fog water collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.68 to 6.58; acidic fogs represented about 30.8% of the total fog events during this period. The fog water was characterized by high concentrations of SO42- (20.0% of measured TIC), NO3- (17.1%), NH4+ (28.3%) and Ca 2+ (14.4%). SO42- and NO3-, the main precursors of fog acidity, were related to burning fossil fuels and vehicle emissions, respectively. NH4+, originating from the scavenging of gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, and Ca 2+, originating from the scavenging of coarse particles, acted as acid neutralizers and were the main cause for the relatively high pH of fogs in Shanghai. The ratio of ( SO42- + NO3-)/( NH4+ + Ca 2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of the fog water. A high ratio of NO3-/ SO42- and low ratio of HCOO -/CH 3COO - were consistent with large contributions from vehicular emissions that produce severe air pollution in megacities.

  15. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    inorganic complexants are expected to be carbonate/bicarbonate and hydroxide. There are also organic complexants in TRU waste with the potential to strongly influence actinide solubility. (3) Intrinsic and pseudo-actinide colloid formation - Many actinide species in their expected oxidation states tend to form colloids or strongly associate with non actinide colloids present (e.g., microbial, humic and organic). In this context, the relative importance of actinides, based on the TRU waste inventory, with respect to the potential release of actinides from the WIPP, is greater for plutonium and americium, and to less extent for uranium and thorium. The most important oxidation states for WIPP-relevant conditions are III and IV. We will present an update of the literature on WIPP-specific data, and a summary of the ongoing research related to actinide chemistry in the WIPP performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science (ACRSP) team located in Carlsbad, NM [Reed 2007, Lucchini 2007, and Reed 2006].

  16. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorganic building blocks is the targeted functionalization of ligands, either prior to or, less conventionally, after the metallation step. Ligand functionalization enables the immobilization of the tran...

  17. Career-Oriented Performance Tasks in Chemistry: Effects on Students' Critical Thinking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Allen A.; Sheryl Lyn C. Monterola; Punzalan, Amelia E.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of career-oriented performance task (COPT) approach against the traditional teaching approach (TTA) in enhancing students’ critical thinking skills. Specifically, it sought to find out if students exposed to COPT have higher critical thinking skills than those students exposed to the traditional teaching approach (TTA). COPT approach aims to integrate career-oriented examples and inquiry-based activities in general inorganic chemistry. The s...

  18. HOW AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO DEALING WITH PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Emanuele Gessa; Sonia Blasioli; Ilaria Braschi

    2010-01-01

    Soil is a complex heterogeneous system whose physical, chemical and biological properties regulate interactions with the chemical species which reach its surface. Soil chemistry is an essential tool for understanding and predicting these interactions. Soil is able to immobilize and transform organic and inorganic molecules by different mechanisms, such as complexing and redox reactions. This behaviour gives soil detoxifying capacities towards pollutants which accumulate in the environment. Po...

  19. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  20. V-I-B-G-Y-O-R of chemistry: A journey from micro to macro world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik R. Patel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The word ‘colour’ originates from chemistry. The seven different colours V: Violet, I: Indigo, B: Blue, G: Green, Y: Yellow, O: Orange and R: Red unite to form a single colour which is totally white and fragmentation of this white colour through prism again gives the spectrum of seven colours having different wavelength ($ which is in visible range (400-750nm. The colourful chemistry plays a role within the visible range in small scale to large scale. There is not a single element in the world, which is free from chemistry. This is embedded throughout the world in high extent. Either it is biochemistry or photochemistry or physical chemistry or organic chemistry or bioorganic chemistry or inorganic chemistry or analytical chemistry or combinatorial chemistry or environmental chemistry or computational chemistry or supramolecular chemistry or nanochemistry, each and everything is related with chemical science. Even physics is also based on the properties of matter, which also plays the role of chemistry: light, magnetism, electricity all are enlightened with the electronic behavior of the elements of periodic table. Light is free energy of photons, which is the multiplication of h (h: Max Plank’s constant and : Wave number this can do the phosphorescence and fluorescence. It can also do the photolysis as well as photosynthesis, the destructive as well as creative matters! Material chemistry is build up by the chemical bonding between the elements of the building block. This bonding could be broken by the chemical reaction to form some another compound by four parameters: reactants, reagents, +ve or _ve heat and time. This can be done in laboratory and in environment also. There are huge number of chemical compounds in the world which are used as fine chemicals, reagents, drugs, pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, dyes, petrochemicals, pesticides, explosives, household appliances, domestic purpose, metallurgy and so many things. This chemistry is

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  3. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  4. Chemistry space–time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Einstein identified so clearly, space and time are intimately related. We discuss the relationship between time and Euclidean space using spectroscopic and radioastronomical studies of interstellar chemistry as an example. Given the finite speed of light, we are clearly studying chemical reactions occurring tens of thousands of years ago that may elucidate the primordial chemistry of this planet several billion years ago. We also explore space of a different kind – chemical space, with many more dimensions than the four we associate as space–time. Vast chemical spaces also need very efficient (computational methods for their exploration to overcome this ‘curse of dimensionality’. We discuss methods by which the time to explore these new spaces can be very substantially reduced, opening the discovery useful new materials that are the key to our future.

  5. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  6. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  7. Radiation chemistry of oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Primary investigations have been conducted at the end of the 1950th years in the area of radiation chemistry of the oils, the physical-chemical properties of crude oil have been investigated the influence of ionizing rays. This report by M. Malikzadeh is about the results of investigations carried out in the field of development of radiation chemistry. The power of the radiation dose and temperature-thermal effect of the collapse of Phentadekan -Oil, and oil fractions (200-400 degrees Celsium, 230-310 degrees Celsium) of radiation-thermal separation of olefins - Conversion of hydrogen from the transormation of black oil, bitumen and tar Kinetics of the above-mentioned processes was studied, the technical-economic indicators of the products were determined

  8. Supramolecular chemistry and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIQUE E. TOMA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular chemistry deals with the association of several chemical species, in an organized way and according to well defined purposes. Based on a molecular engineering approach, supramolecular structures can be designed from pre-formed building blocks, providing a promising route from chemistry to molecular nanotechnology. New supramolecular systems have been assembled in our laboratory with the use of bridging unities such as tetrapyridylporphyrins, porphyrazines and polypyrazines, connecting transition metal complexes and clusters. These systems display a very exciting electrochemical and catalytic behavior, and interact with DNA, generating ¹O2 and leading to efficient oxidative clivage for photodynamic terapy applications. Molecular interfaces have been developed, exhibiting photocurrent response in the presence of visible-UV light, and rectifying properties in the presence of electroactive species. Successful applications of the supramolecular species in chemical and bio-sensors have been developed.

  9. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  10. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... that affect soil processes are the same in tropical soils as in temperate region soils, but because of high temperature year round and occurrence in very stable landscapes, some (but not all) tropical soils possess special composition and properties. These features are highlighted in the book, and general...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  11. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  12. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  13. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  14. Art and Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Philippe Walter’s teaching, which he delivered as holder of the Liliane Bettencourt Annual Chair of Technological Innovation, was completed with two lectures on “practical work” to deal with a real case. The conditions and challenges of interdisciplinary research combining analytical chemistry, art history and archaeology were thus discussed in relation to specific works. The Holy Family, Constantin Abraham (1785-1855) by Raphaël (aka), Sanzio Raffaello (1483-1520), hard porcelain, Sèvres, C...

  15. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D.; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five ma...

  16. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  17. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  18. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  19. Radioanalytical chemistry in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Publications from Denmark in the field of radioanalytical chemistry are presented in 2 groups, one involving neutron activation and similar techniques, and one for other radioanalytical work. Altogether 258 references including books are given for the period 1936-1977, and the overall doubling time is 5.2 years. A significant deviation from a purely exponential growth was caused by the Second World War. (author)

  20. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving ma...