WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemistry industrial

  1. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  2. SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    RIZZUTO G.; BUCELLI F.; M. Sciaccaluga; AVATANEO O.

    2015-01-01

    Foundry Alfe Chem is an industrial reality working in the field of lubrication and chemical auxiliaries for industrial processes, which falls within the framework of the emerging and increasingly important «green chemistry». The goal of the company is to develop products that are more environmentally friendly by using raw materials from renewable sources; specifically, Foundry Alfe Chem has a program of self-sustainability that contemplates, for the foreseeable future, the direct production o...

  3. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  4. Provocative Opinion - Chemistry Careers in Industry: Accent the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brenda W.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates that students pursuing the study of chemistry be kept aware of the nature of chemistry outside the academic world. Methods include co-op programs with chemical industries, specific instruction in areas of industrial import, and laboratory work with an industrial flavor. (GS)

  5. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  6. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S

    2015-03-17

    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  7. Academia–Industry Symbiosis in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial “sponsoring” is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry’s point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry’s desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply “pure science” research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the “real world” at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate

  8. Industrial chemistry and chemoecology are linked together to realize a modern and sustainable chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Saling Peter

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Meeting society's needs without damaging the environment requires new ways of thinking. The link of industrial chemistry and chemoecology will be one of the key factors of sustainable development within the chemicals industry.

  9. Industrial chemistry and chemoecology are linked together to realize a modern and sustainable chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saling Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting society's needs without damaging the environment requires new ways of thinking. The link of industrial chemistry and chemoecology will be one of the key factors of sustainable development within the chemicals industry.

  10. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno

    2015-12-01

    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic.

  11. Workshop on: Chemistry of Metals in Medicine - The Industrial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    The Workshop was attended by 61 participants from 20 countries. Most of the speakers were industrialists and the Chairpersons and Discussion Leaders were academics. The area “Chemistry of Metals in Medicine” has the potential for producing innovative, high quality, and original research. This is a new and emerging area of biomedical chemistry. Small firms are already being established which are devoted to the new elemental medicine. Major pharmaceutical and healthcare industries too are becom...

  12. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  13. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  14. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  15. The changing role of chemistry in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion costs the U.S. electricity industry between five and ten billion dollars a year. In steam generating plants it is estimated that over half the forced outages are caused by corrosion, and in the U.S. industry, corrosion increases the cost of electricity more than it increases the cost of any other product, adding over 10% to its price. The total cost of corrosion to U.S. industry is in excess of dollar 276 billion annually, of which more than 30% could be prevented through the use of optimum corrosion management practices. In order to effectively deal with these issues it will require a coordinated approach throughout the industry, in which chemistry has a major role to play. Chemistry has effectively moved from being a problem to being a solution for materials and corrosion issues, and judging by the current advances and initiatives, will continue to do so. The window of opportunity to positively influence the entire industry is here. This will be especially challenging for us as chemists in Eskom, with an ageing fleet and lack of excess generating capacity. The spin-off of taking up this challenge to 'get our chemistry right' and take a quantum step forward would be a significant positive effect on the unit capability factor (UCF) and the forced loss rate (UCLF) for the Generation Division. This could, in turn, influence issues as far reaching as the cost of electricity for the South African consumer and when the construction of new generating plant is scheduled. (orig.)

  16. The Development and Implementation of Two Industrial Chemistry Case Studies for the Israeli High School Chemistry Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Miri; Ben-Zvi, Ruth; Hofstein, Avi

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of two case studies based on local chemical industries for the Israeli high school chemistry curriculum. Also includes two types of professional-development experiences. Contains 16 references. (DDR)

  17. 75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing...

  18. A School-Community Science Experience: Great Valley's Chemistry-Industry Awareness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapper, Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Chemistry-Industry Awareness Program, a community-related program implemented at Great Valley High School in Malvern, Pa., which provides opportunities and work experiences for second-year chemistry students that may aid in career decision making in chemistry-related occupations. (CS)

  19. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... guidance for industry 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information--Fermentation...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for...

  20. Some electroanalytical investigations into the cure chemistry of industrial sealants

    OpenAIRE

    Raftery, Declan Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This thesis represents a study of the cure chemistry of three contrasting adhesive technologies, applying a range of analytical approaches to gain further insight into the complex chemistry of adhesives. An introduction is given in chapter one into the general chemistry of adhesives and their analysis, with particular emphasis on anaerobic adhesives and the crucial role played by transition metals in the cure chemistry. In order to elucidate the role played by tertiary amines and saccahri...

  1. Overview on the history of organofluorine chemistry from the viewpoint of material industry

    OpenAIRE

    Okazoe, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Fluorine (from “le fluor”, meaning “to flow”) is a second row element of Group 17 in the periodic table. When bound to carbon it forms the strongest bond in organic chemistry to give organofluorine compounds. The scientific field treating them, organofluorine chemistry, started before elemental fluorine itself was isolated. Applying the fruits in academia, industrial organofluorine chemistry has developed over 80 years via dramatic changes during World War II. Nowadays, it provides various ma...

  2. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  3. The JMB Applied Chemistry Syllabus--the Place of Case Studies and Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, G.; Hughes, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes two novel topics in the JMB Applied Chemistry Core Syllabus. These are the social and economic aspects of chemical technology, involving the use of six case studies, and industrial processes. (Author/GS)

  4. An Industrial Chemistry Course that Optimizes the Value of Plant Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Plant tours, when emphasized appropriately and fully integrated into an industrial chemistry course, are very useful in motivating students and deepening their understanding of the chemical industry. Emphasis is placed on plant tours as it adds immediacy and a practical flavor to the course and is a good preparation for the graduates who move from…

  5. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... availability of a guidance for industry 169 entitled ``Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls... Federal Register of June 1, 2006 (71 FR 31194), FDA published the notice of withdrawal and revision of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly 2003D-0571) Guidance for Industry on...

  6. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of March 14, 2011 (76 FR 13629), FDA published the notice...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...

  7. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  8. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M

    2013-04-01

    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry. PMID:23394962

  9. Integrating Chemistry Laboratory Instrumentation into the Industrial Internet: Building, Programming, and Experimenting with an Automatic Titrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Nicole; Kholod, Yana; Kosenkov, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    This project is designed to improve physical chemistry and instrumental analysis laboratory courses for undergraduate students by employing as teaching tools novel technologies in electronics and data integration using the industrial Internet. The project carried out by upper-division undergraduates is described. Students are exposed to a complete…

  10. The Adaptation of The Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Scale into Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal TOSUN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Inventory instrument into Turkish. Firstly permission from the developers of the instrument was sought. Thereafter, the items of the instrument were translated into Turkish. The translation validity of the scale was examined by referring to the views of English and Turkish language experts. Once the final form of the scale had been derived, an English language expert translated the items of the scale from Turkish to English. The results obtained from this translation indicated that the Turkish scale closely approximated the original English scale. Thus the translation and language validity of the instrument had been insured. Regarding the content validity of the scale, chemistry teachers were asked to examine the scale. Besides the scale was administered to the 416 high school students and several reliability analyses have been conducted such as Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient (.78, Sperman Brown coefficient of correlation (.68 and Guttman split- half reliability coefficient (.64. According to these findings, Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Inventory is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in the concerned courses.

  11. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1−8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  12. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1–8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  13. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  14. PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Control Status: A Summary of Industry Initiatives, Experience and Trends Relative to the EPRI PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest revision of the EPRI Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines was issued in February 2009. The Guidelines continue to focus on minimizing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator tubes, as well as minimizing degradation of other major components / subsystems of the secondary system. The Guidelines provide a technically-based framework for a plant-specific and effective PWR secondary water chemistry program. With the issuance of Revision 7 of the Guidelines in 2009, many plants have implemented changes that allow greater flexibility on startup. For example, the previous Guidelines (Revision 6) contained a possible low power hold at 5% power and a possible mid power hold at approximately 30% power based on chemistry constraints. Revision 7 has established a range over which a plant-specific value can be chosen for the possible low power hold (between 5% and 15%) and mid power hold (between 30% and 50%). This has provided plants the ability to establish significant plant evolutions prior to reaching the possible power hold; such as establishing seal steam to the condenser, placing feed pumps in service, or initiating forward flow of heater drains. The application of this flexibility in the industry will be explored. This paper also highlights the major initiatives and industry trends with respect to PWR secondary chemistry; and outlines the recent work to effectively address them. These will be presented in light of recent operating experience, as derived from EPRI's PWR Chemistry Monitoring and Assessment (CMA) program (which contains more than 400 cycles of operating chemistry data). (authors)

  15. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  16. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te

  17. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  18. The Novel ''Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion'' and its Possible Industrial Realization as Predicted by Hadronic Mechanics and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we propose, apparently for the first time, a new type of controlled nuclear fusion called "intermediate" because occurring at energies intermediate between those of the ''cold'' and ''hot'' fusions, and propose a specific industrial realization. For this purpose: 1) We show that known limitations of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and special relativity cause excessive departures from the conditions occurring for all controlled fusions; 2) We outline the covering hadronic mechanics, hadronic chemistry and isorelativity specifically conceived, constructed and verified during the past two decades for new cleans energies and fuels; 3) We identify seven physical laws predicted by the latter disciplines that have to be verified by all controlled nuclear fusions to occur; 4) We review the industrial research conducted to date in the selection of the most promising engineering realization as well as optimization of said seven laws; and 5) We propose with construction details a specific {\\it hadron...

  19. Building the Interest of High School Students for Science--A PACT Ambassador Program to Investigate Soap Manufacturing and Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew; Geary, Nicholas; Hagaman, Karen; Munson, Anne; Sabo, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Describes a program for bringing industrial applications of technology into high schools to enhance students' perceptions of the chemical industry and industrial careers in chemistry. Ambassadors from the Proctor and Gamble Company and Miami University--Middletown helped students work through a typical product-development cycle for fabricating…

  20. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials with Live... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). DATES: Although...

  1. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic... submission of INDs for early clinical trials with live biotherapeutic products (LBPs). The guidance...

  2. Tropospheric Bromine Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  3. Processo químico industrial de extração de óleo vegetal: um experimento de química geral Chemical industrial process of vegetable oil extraction: an experiment for teaching general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vianna

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe an experimental procedure based on a chemical industrial process of soya-bean oil extraction applied in general chemistry for undergraduate students. The experiment was planned according to the Science, Technology and Society (STS approach to teach basic chemical concepts and provide grounding in the management of environmental care. The use of real life chemistry problems seems to salient the relevance of chemistry to our students and enhances their motivation to learn both the practical and theoretical components of the discipline.

  4. Chemistry of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes transplanted to an industrial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białońska, D; Dayan, F E

    2005-12-01

    Lichens produce a great number of secondary metabolites that participate in ecological interactions and respond to environmental changes. We examined the influence of heavy metal accumulations on lichen secondary metabolism. Thalli of Hypogymnia physodes were transplanted for 6 months to the Cracow-Silesia industrial region. Based on heavy metal accumulations in lichen, two of the investigated sites were classified as highly polluted. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn were found in lichens transplanted in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelter. Significant accumulations of Cr and Ni were detected in Hypogymnia transplanted near a chemical industry. Physodic, physodalic, hydroxyphysodic acids, and atranorin were identified and analyzed in extracts obtained from specimen samples. The most detrimental changes were observed in lichen transplanted into the vicinity of a chemical industry producing chromium, phosphor, and sulfur compounds that contained 340-fold higher Cr levels than control thalli. Decreases in the levels of physodic acid, hydroxyphysodic acid, and atranorin were detected, and one additional polar compound (probably product of degradation of lichen acids) appeared in the extract. The content of physodalic acid increased in every thalli sample transplanted, suggesting a possible role of this compound in defense against stress caused by accumulated pollutants. The levels of physodic acid decreased in thalli from both of the most polluted sites compared to those of the controls--but were not changed in thalli transplanted to less polluted sites. Our results illustrate that lichen compounds are sensitive to heavy metal accumulation and could be used as biomarkers in environmental studies. PMID:16365718

  5. Moving towards industrialization - the strategy behind the science and engineering of pyro-chemistry in Nexia solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyro-chemistry is a recognized dry separation process used for the partitioning of actinides from lanthanides and fission products to enable the recycle of actinides in a process that does not produce any aqueous waste streams. It is generally based upon electrochemical techniques using a molten chloride salt at temperatures commonly between 450 and 850 C degrees. Recently the technology has undergone a renaissance generating a drive to move forward. Nexia Solutions has been undertaking pyrochemical research and development since the mid 1990's for potential deployment in Advanced Fuel Cycles for spent nuclear fuel and legacy waste management in the UK. The main focus of the programme has been the provision of a strong fundamental science programme to underpin industrialization, which has been borne from Nexia Solutions' experience in supporting operations in fuel manufacture, power generation and reprocessing plant. Nexia Solutions proposes to focus on the following themes: -) direct electrochemical reduction of oxides in order to produce a metallic feedstock, -) electrorefining to separate specific elements, -) product processing to produce actinides in an appropriate form to recycle, -) salt clean-up and recycle, and -) waste forms for fission products and other waste streams, for example cladding. Nexia Solutions also proposes an industrial programme to be deliberately focused on 3 areas: 1) molten salts dynamics rig, development and deployment at pilot scale, 2) direct electrochemical reduction of oxides, and 3) scale-up. In order to take the overall programme forward, Nexia Solutions aims to utilize its state of the art facilities situated at Sellafield. (A.C.)

  6. Organocatalysis: Key Trends in Green Synthetic Chemistry, Challenges, Scope towards Heterogenization, and Importance from Research and Industrial Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Rajjak Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purports to review catalysis, particularly the organocatalysis and its origin, key trends, challenges, examples, scope, and importance. The definition of organocatalyst corresponds to a low molecular weight organic molecule which in stoichiometric amounts catalyzes a chemical reaction. In this review, the use of the term heterogenized organocatalyst will be exclusively confined to a catalytic system containing an organic molecule immobilized onto some sort of support material and is responsible for accelerating a chemical reaction. Firstly, a brief description of the field is provided putting it in a green and sustainable perspective of chemistry. Next, research findings on the use of organocatalysts on various inorganic supports including nano(porousmaterials, nanoparticles, silica, and zeolite/zeolitic materials are scrutinized in brief. Then future scope, research directions, and academic and industrial applications will be outlined. A succinct account will summarize some of the research and developments in the field. This review tries to bring many outstanding researches together and shows the vitality of the organocatalysis through several aspects.

  7. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  8. Incorporating a Soap Industry Case Study to Motivate and Engage Students in the Chemistry of Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    The global trend of the declining interest in chemistry education is a major concern. Over the last few decades, significant efforts and improvements have been made in various areas of chemistry education research to increase student motivation and engagement based on classroom and laboratory practices. However, little research has been conducted…

  9. Proceedings of the 13. International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam : steam, water and hydrothermal systems : physics and chemistry meeting the needs of the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremaine, P.R. [ed.] [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada); Hill, P.G. [ed.] [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Irish, D.E. [ed.] [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Balakrishnan, P.V. [eds.] [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    This international conference focused on the physical and chemical properties of water, steam and aqueous systems. More than 140 presentations from nearly 200 scientists presented work in applied research in physics and chemistry of hydrothermal systems which are of particular importance to the thermal power industry. This year the conference expanded into new areas of pure and applied research related to water and aqueous solutions at temperature and pressure extremes. This application is useful to electric power cycle chemistry and other industrial technologies that involve the use of high-temperature and supercritical steam. The areas of basic science that were included were: spectroscopy, calorimetry, potentiometry, PVT measurements, molecular simulation studies of water, and solvated species in high-temperature or supercooled water. The areas of application were: power cycle chemistry, high-temperature aqueous technologies that apply to new steam cycles, use of high-temperature water and supercritical steam in chemical and metallurgical processes, supercritical destruction of toxic wastes, and hydrothermal geochemistry and hydrometallurgy. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Journal of Business Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Business Chemistry examines issues associated with leadership and management for chemists and managers working in chemical research or industry. This journal is devoted to improving and developing the field of Business Chemistry. The Journal of Business Chemistry publishes peer-reviewed papers (including case studies) and essays. Areas for possible publication in include: leadership issues in the chemical and biochemical industry, such as teamwork, team building, mentoring, coa...

  11. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  12. Sustainable Chemistry, the Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT(R)) Reactor and GREENSCOPE: Innovation and Industrial Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical industry faces environmental, social and health challenges that are common across all economic sectors. From worker exposure to toxic substances, to product design and use, to the cost and handling of waste disposal, the industry must overcome numerous complex hurdle...

  13. Organometallic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkin, James K.; M.L.H. Green; Dr. M. L. H. Green

    1982-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic chemistry is a rapidly expanding field, which has an important relationship to industrial problems of petrochemical catalysis. This thesis describes studies of fundamental organometallic reaction processes, such as C-H and C-C bond formation and cleavage, and investigations of the structure and bonding of organometallic compounds. A number of techniques were used to pursue these studies, including synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and semi-em...

  14. Studies on Sediment Chemistry of River Yamuna with Special Reference to Industrial Effluents in Yamuna Nagar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malhotra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on sediment chemistry and water quality index of river Yamuna was conducted to understand the overall quality of river. Three sampling stations were selected: Station Y1 at the upstream of the river before the influx of effluents, Station Y2 at the point of influx and Station Y3 at 5 kilometres downstream from station Y2. The results showed the increasing values of pH, alkalinity, chloride and organic matter from station Y1 to Y2. Calculation of water quality index also categories station Y2 in bad or severely polluted zone.The correlation statisticsshowed the significant positive correlation between chloride and pH whereas significant negative correlation between organic matter and water quality index. The present work revealed the effect of Maskaranala’s effluents on the overall chemistry of sediments of river Yamuna.

  15. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  16. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  17. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  18. Career Options in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

  19. The Chemistry of Hydrogenation of Oils and Fats and their Applicability in Industry [A Hidrogenação de Óleos e Gorduras e suas Aplicações Industriais

    OpenAIRE

    David M. M. Pinho; Paulo A. Z. Suarez

    2013-01-01

    The industrial process of a large number of goods commercialized in Brazil and in the World, such as fuels, foods, fine chemicals and polymers, involves at least one hydrogenation step. By using hydrogenation the physical and chemical properties of chemical compounds are modified, making possible their utilization in the formulation of industrial products. In this article the hydrogenation reaction is discussed in terms of its basic aspects as well as its applications in the oil-chemistry ind...

  20. Effects of wastewater from a cassava industry on soil chemistry and crop yield of lopsided oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Rogério Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the Arenito soil of the Cidade Gaúcha county, Northwest Paraná in Brazil, in which 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 m³ ha-1 of wastewater were applied onto soil and the crop yield and soil chemistry were investigated for lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. plants. The crop yield from the control was 2818 kg ha-1 contrasting 3629 kg ha-1 when 300 m³ ha-1 of cassava wastewater were applied, and potassium, after haversting, was the only nutrient found in a higher concentration in the soil profile.A utilização dos cursos de água, como drenos naturais de resíduos agroindústrias, tem contribuído para sua eutrofização principalmente como fonte de nitrogênio, fósforo e destacadamente potássio. Com o propósito de evitar o despejo deste resíduo, nos cursos de água naturais e pensando em otimizar os custos de fertilização e irrigação de culturas, realizou-se este experimento no Campus do Arenito da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, no município de Cidade Gaúcha, com a cultura da aveia preta, avaliando-se os efeitos dos níveis de água residuária (0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 m³ha-1 como também os efeitos residuais da sua aplicação no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a influência da aplicação de diferentes níveis de água residuária de fecularia de mandioca na produção de aveia preta, bem como seu efeito residual nas propriedades químicas do solo. a aplicação de água residuária de fecularia de mandioca, proporcionou acréscimos na produtividade da cultura da aveia, obtendo-se a produtividade de 3629 kg ha-1 para o nível de 300 m³ ha-1 e 2818 kg ha-1 na testemunha quando se analisaram os valores dos elementos encontrados nas camadas, somente o potássio apresentou acréscimos nas camadas, sendo que os demais apresentaram redução.

  1. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  2. Monitoramento atmosférico passivo de SO2, NO2 e O3 em áreas urbanas e de influência industrial como prática de química ambiental para alunos de graduação Atmospheric passive monitoring of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban areas and in those under industrial influence as an environmental chemistry experiment for undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia P. Campos; Lícia P. S. Cruz; Eagles M. Alves; Tatiane S. Santos; Adriano D. Silva; Ana C. C. dos Santos; Lima, Angelo M. V.; Carine S. Paixão; Daniele C. M. B. Santos; Denise S. Brandão; Elisângela J. S. Andrade; José I. Moreira Jr.; Karla C. S. Conceição; Márcia de S. Ramos; Maria C. G. Pontes

    2006-01-01

    This study is a result of undergraduate student participation in the Environmental Chemistry discipline provided by the Chemistry Institute/UFBA. The students were involved in the development of passive samplers, a project of the LAQUAM (Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory). The students' residences and other neighborhoods were used to create a passive sampling network, allowing the measurement of atmospheric levels of pollutants in urban areas and in those under industrial influenc...

  3. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  4. Introducing Chemistry Students to the "Real World" of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E.; Cosser, Ronald C.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Kaye, Perry T.; Klein, Rosalyn; Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Lobb, Kevin; Nyokong, Tebello; Sewry, Joyce D.; Tshentu, Zenixole R.; van der Zeyde, Tino; Watkins, Gareth M.

    2010-01-01

    A majority of chemistry graduates seek employment in a rapidly changing chemical industry. Our attempts to provide the graduates with skills in entrepreneurship and the ability to understand and communicate with their chemical engineering colleagues, in addition to their fundamental knowledge of chemistry, are described. This is done at…

  5. An Exhibition on Everyday Chemistry. Communicating Chemistry to the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucko, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses a recent addition to the Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago) known as "Everyday Chemistry." This permanent exhibit on modern chemistry incorporates demonstrations of chemical reactions in ways intended to enhance public understanding. Describes the six cases in the exhibit and the automated aspects of their demonstrations. (TW)

  6. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  7. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  8. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  9. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  10. Present address of cutting-edge chemistry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This introduces the research center, company and chemistry department with excellent results. This book lists the name of those, which are organic molecule design laboratory by Sunmun university, intelligence Nano technology research center by Biotechnology, Ewha university, Nano chemistry laboratory by Department of chemistry, Yonsei university, science education research center by Haying university, solid chemistry laboratory by Department of Nano science, Ewha university, the center of innovation of chemistry industry with R and D by LG chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Sogang university, Department of Chemistry, Busan university and Department of Chemistry, Dankook university.

  11. Industry-Oriented Doctorate Established.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes an industry-related program at the University of Texas (Arlington) leading to a Doctorate of Science in Applied Chemistry. The program requires an industrial internship and a dissertation based on research involving both the university's chemistry faculty and chemists in industry. (SK)

  12. Monitoramento atmosférico passivo de SO2, NO2 e O3 em áreas urbanas e de influência industrial como prática de química ambiental para alunos de graduação Atmospheric passive monitoring of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban areas and in those under industrial influence as an environmental chemistry experiment for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P. Campos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a result of undergraduate student participation in the Environmental Chemistry discipline provided by the Chemistry Institute/UFBA. The students were involved in the development of passive samplers, a project of the LAQUAM (Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The students' residences and other neighborhoods were used to create a passive sampling network, allowing the measurement of atmospheric levels of pollutants in urban areas and in those under industrial influence. The assembly of the passive samplers, including impregnation of filters and chemical analysis were part of the students' practice tasks. The results were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian legislation.

  13. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  14. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  15. Social Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Robert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This article is both an essay to propose social chemistry as a new scientific discipline, and a preface of the book Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. Environmental chemistry is a fast emerging discipline aiming at the understanding the fate of pollutants in ecosystems and at designing novel processes that are safe for ecosystems. Past pollution should be cleaned, future pollution should be predicted and avoided (Lichtfouse et al., 2005a). Such advices ...

  16. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  17. Some Experiences About Improving Graduation Designing Teaching of Light Industry Chemistry Engineering Major%改进轻化工程专业毕业设计教学的几点体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子成; 孟晓敏; 尚尉

    2012-01-01

    Take it for example of Graduation Designing Teaching of Light Industry Chemistry Engi- neering major in engineering colleges, students' ability of "YiShiLiangChuang"(practice, creation, carving out) was trained welt by forward--looking topics selecting, "panel discussion " guidance, in- viting enterprises experienced engineering and technical personnel to common guidance, and making full use of a variety of information resources. Make good use of graduation design practice teaching platform to promote the employment of students and improve the social acceptance of professional training level of the Light Industry Chemistry Engineering major in Northeast Danli University.%以工科院校轻化工程专业的毕业设计教学为例,通过前瞻性的选题、“小组讨论”的指导方式、邀请企业有经验的工程技术人员共同指导以及充分利用各种信息资源等手段培养学生的一实两创能力(实践、创新、创业)。充分利用好毕业设计这个实践教学的平台,促进学生的就业和提高社会对我校轻化工程专业培养水平的认可度。

  18. Good chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The subject matter in chemistry courses reflects almost nothing of the issues that chemists are interested in. It is important to formulate a set of topics - and a Medical College Admissions Test reflecting them - that would leave chemistry departments no choice but to change their teaching.

  19. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  20. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI): A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Verslycke; Kim Reid; Teresa Bowers; Sagar Thakali; Ari Lewis; Johnny Sanders; Denise Tuck

    2014-01-01

    A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener†products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green†in the absence of a universally accepted de...

  1. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  2. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  3. New trends and developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It uses radiation as the initiator of chemical reactions. Practical applications of radiation chemistry today extend to many fields, including health care, food and agriculture, manufacturing, industrial pollution abatement, biotechnology and telecommunications. The important advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used to produce, and study, almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reactions, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. The techniques are applicable to gaseous, liquid, solid, and heterogeneous systems. By combining different techniques of radiation chemistry with analytical chemistry, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions are studied. In November 1988 in Bologna, Italy, the IAEA convened an advisory group meeting to assess new trends and developments in radiation chemistry. The present publication includes most of the contributions presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  5. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  6. Chemistry in all its States

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    1 • The Microwave Oven: from the Kitchen to Synthesis Chemistry “A microwave oven is a domestic appliance that is mainly used to heat up food quickly, by agitating the water molecules contained in the food under the effect of a microwave radiation” (Wikipedia). From the outset, this technology was mainly used in the kitchen and sometimes in highly precise industrial applications. However, for the last twenty years or so microwave has also been used in chemistry laboratories, to activate chem...

  7. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  8. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  9. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  11. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  12. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  13. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  14. Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control Protoxyde d'azote provenant de la combustion et de l'industrie : chimie, émissions et techniques de réduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available After an Introductory Part, presenting a survey of the present knowledge of nitrous oxide chemistry related to fossil fuel combustion and flue gas treatment, as a background for the understanding of emission factors, the paper deals successively with the average N2O emission factors from combustion and other industrial sources, and gives guidelines for appropriate N2O control technology ; with respect to the former item, some comments and criticisms on the 1991 OEDC/IPCC Report are formulated. As far as updated emission sources are concerned, emphasis is put on those which presently constitute issues : emissions from fluidized bed combustors, emissions caused by non catalytic selective NO reduction by ammonia and urea injection, N2O emissions caused by the use of automotive three-way catalysts as well as emissions from nitric acid and adipic acid manufacturing and from municipal wastes and sewage sludges incineration. Comments on the 1991 OEDC/IPCC Report mainly emphasize : (1 the surprising absence of emission factors from stationary combustion facilities and the inadequacy of some of the scarcely presented data, (2 the strange ignorance of the important effect of aging of three-way catalysts on the emission of N2O from gasoline vehicles. These omissions are the more surprising since reliable information in these two fields were already available at the period the OEDC Report was issued and or revised. For the assessment of adequate N2O control technologies, there is an urgent need for further R&D work. Presently existing understanding of homogeneous and heterogeneous N2O chemistry may provide interesting hints for N2O control, either by gas phase treatment or by catalytic reduction, depending on the concentration levels present in the off-gases to be treated. Le but de cet article est double : d'une part il fait le point sur les facteurs d'émission de N2O provenant de la combustion des combustibles fossiles et de certains autres secteurs de l'industrie

  15. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  16. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  17. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lowe's new edition assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry. It can serve as a primary text in quantum chemistry courses, and enables students and researchers to comprehend the current literature. This third edition has been thoroughly updated and includes numerous new exercises to facilitate self-study and solutions to selected exercises.* Assumes little initial mathematical or physical sophistication, developing insights and abilities in the context of actual problems* Provides thorough treatment

  18. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the mycotoxin research group are discussed. This includes the isolation and structure determination of mycotoxins, plant products, the biosyntheris of mycotoxins, the synthesis and characteristics of steroids, the synthesis and mechanistic aspects of heterocyclic chemistry and the functionality of steroids over long distances. Nmr spectra and mass spectroscopy are some of the techniques used

  19. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  20. Collection Development: Celebrating Chemistry, February 1, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Susannah

    2011-01-01

    A hundred years after Marie Curie received her Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this arm of science is pointing the way to a more sustainable future. Growing movements like green chemistry, which strives to create alternative and new chemical reactions that produce no harmful waste products, and molecular engineering hold great potential for industry,…

  1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WOOD CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Wood are one of the most important raw material source for forest products industry. Due to technological developments, researchers in the area of wood chemistry have been showing increased interest in the benefits of utilization wood based materials alone or together as an alternative lignocellulosic fiber sources for forest products industry. However, utilization of woody matrials more efficiently and conservation natural resources have been paid special attention. For that reason...

  2. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  3. Pre-industrial to End 21st Century Projections of Tropospheric Ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Bowman, K. W.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tilmes, S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Wild, O.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Cionni, I.; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Strode, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Present day tropospheric ozone and its changes between 1850 and 2100 are considered, analysing 15 global models that participated in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The ensemble mean compares well against present day observations. The seasonal cycle correlates well, except for some locations in the tropical upper troposphere. Most (75 %) of the models are encompassed with a range of global mean tropospheric ozone column estimates from satellite data, but there is a suggestion of a high bias in the Northern Hemisphere and a low bias in the Southern Hemisphere, which could indicate deficiencies with the ozone precursor emissions. Compared to the present day ensemble mean tropospheric ozone burden of 337+/-23 Tg, the ensemble mean burden for 1850 time slice is approx. 30% lower. Future changes were modelled using emissions and climate projections from four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Compared to 2000, the relative changes in the ensemble mean tropospheric ozone burden in 2030 (2100) for the different RCPs are: -4% (-16 %) for RCP2.6, 2% (-7%) for RCP4.5, 1% (-9%) for RCP6.0, and 7% (18 %) for RCP8.5. Model agreement on the magnitude of the change is greatest for larger changes. Reductions in most precursor emissions are common across the RCPs and drive ozone decreases in all but RCP8.5, where doubled methane and a 40-150% greater stratospheric influx (estimated from a subset of models) increase ozone. While models with a high ozone burden for the present day also have high ozone burdens for the other time slices, no model consistently predicts large or small ozone changes; i.e. the magnitudes of the burdens and burden changes do not appear to be related simply, and the models are sensitive to emissions and climate changes in different ways. Spatial patterns of ozone changes are well correlated across most models, but are notably different for models without time evolving stratospheric ozone concentrations

  4. Chemistry Perfumes Your Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortineau, Anne-Dominique

    2004-01-01

    A synopsis on the history of perfumery is presented, along with the various processes accessible for obtaining natural perfume constituents, and creation of synthetic chemicals. The important contribution of organic chemists in the invention of perfumes, aspects of fragrance chemistry, and general information on the perfume industry are…

  5. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences. PMID:19780101

  6. Disk Chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals wit...

  7. Interstellar chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species o...

  8. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  9. Discovery of practical production processes for arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides: Beginning of a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Umemoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Various arylsulfur pentafluorides, ArSF5, have long been desired in both academic and industrial areas, and ArSF5 compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas such as medicines, agrochemicals, and other new materials, since the highly stable SF5 group is considered a “super-trifluoromethyl group” due to its significantly higher electronegativity and lipophilicity. This article describes the first practical method for the production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides, from the corresponding diaryl disulfides or aryl thiols. The method consists of two steps: (Step 1 treatment of a diaryl disulfide or an aryl thiol with chlorine in the presence of an alkali metal fluoride, and (step 2 treatment of the resulting arylsulfur chlorotetrafluoride with a fluoride source, such as ZnF2, HF, and Sb(III/V fluorides. The intermediate arylsulfur chlorotetrafluorides were isolated by distillation or recrystallization and characterized. The aspects of these new reactions are revealed and reaction mechanisms are discussed. As the method offers considerable improvement over previous methods in cost, yield, practicality, applicability, and large-scale production, the new processes described here can be employed as the first practical methods for the economical production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, which could then open up a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its applications in many areas.

  10. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  11. BWR chromium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the concern about higher total specific conductivity in the reactor recirculation loop water due to the chromate ion. This concern is particularly high at plants where all other ionic species have been reduced through careful attention to makeup and condensate polisher operations. An EPRI Chromate Workshop was held in November 1990 to consider the issues raised by observed levels of chromate ion (generally 5 to 50 ppB). While BWRs on normal water chemistry were the only ones observing chromate, even plants on hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) observe sharp spikes of conductivity due to chromate whenever the hydrogen supply was interrupted after a reasonably long HWC operational period. The consensus of the workshop attendees was that chromate was not a concern as an agent causing pipe cracking compared to the more common species such as chloride and sulfate. However, the data are somewhat ambiguous for levels of chromate above 50 ppB. Adjustments to the weighing factors for the various ionic species in the industry chemistry performance index are suggested to allow for the known relative higher aggressiveness of other species relative to that of chromate

  12. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  13. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  14. BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines: 1993 Revision, Normal and hydrogen water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of water chemistry control is to extend the operating life of the reactor and rector coolant system, balance-of-plant components, and turbines while simultaneously controlling costs to safeguard the continued economic viability of the nuclear power generation investment. To further this goal an industry committee of chemistry personnel prepared guidelines to identify the benefits, risks, and costs associated with water chemistry in BWRs and to provide a template for an optimized water chemistry program. This document replaces the BWR Normal Water Chemistry Guidelines - 1986 Revision and the BWR Hydrogen Water Chemistry Guidelines -- 1987 Revision. It expands on the previous guidelines documents by covering the economic implications of BWR water chemistry control

  15. The modern alchemy: The chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history is presented on the development of chemistry from the antiquity, through alchemy, iatrochemistry, electrochemistry, atomic theory and the XVII, XVIII, XIX and X X centuries discoveries up to modern chemistry, fine chemistry, chemical engineering and the modern chemical industry with all of its consequences

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  17. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  18. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  19. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  20. Chemistry and the new industrial revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The options available to the UK when supplies of North Sea oil begin to be depleted are discussed in the context of the effect of the rapid population increase in other parts of the world on the exhaustion of non-renewable resources. Nuclear power is considered in relation to other energy sources - coal, solar energy, hydroelectric, wind, tide and wave power and geothermal energy. It is concluded that nuclear energy is the only source that can solve the problem in this country in the long run. (U.K.)

  1. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  2. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio PIZZI

    2016-01-01

    International audience Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosource...

  3. Trace Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  4. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  5. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  6. Enhancing Students’ Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaabi-Naor, Yamit; Kesner, Miri; Shwartz, Yael

    2014-01-01

    The interest, attitudes, and motivation of students towards science learning decreases over time, especially during the middle school years. In order to increase students’ motivation to learn chemistry, a national program «Chemistry, Industry, and the Environment in the eyes of the individual and society» has been designed to integrate three main components: (1) a competition format; (2) a context-based approach, and (3) Project- ased learning (PBL). Literature supports the effectivenes...

  7. The Discourse of Chemistry (and Beyond)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Sjöström

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the mainstream discourse of chemistry and suggests a complementary discourse. On a disciplinary level, the discourse of chemistry is based on objectivism, rationalism, and molecular reductionism. On a societal level, the discourse is based on modernism. The aims of chemical research and education are often unclear, which nowadays often leads to an emphasis on the needs from industry. Integrating meta-perspectives (philosophical, historical, and socio-cultural) within chem...

  8. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    processes. Early work by Cauer (1951) had shown that Cl/Na and Cl/Mg ratios were lower in air than in seawater, indicating loss of chlorine by "acid displacement" from sea salt by the strong acids, H2SO4 (Eriksson (1959a, b) and HNO3 (Robbins et al., 1959). Already the first measurements of bromine in aerosols by Duce et al. (1963) showed that bromine, like chlorine, was lost from the sea salt particles, whereas iodine was strongly enriched ( Duce et al., 1965). Research since the early 1980s has shown that photochemical processes are actively involved.Interest in the chemistry of atmospheric halogens took a steep upward surge after it was postulated that the release of industrially produced halocarbons, in particular the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), CFCl3, and CF2Cl2, could cause severe depletions in stratospheric ozone (Molina and Rowland, 1974) by the reactions involving the CFC photolytic product radicals, Cl and ClO, as catalysts. The first stratospheric measurements of ClO did indeed show its presence in significant quantities in the stratosphere so that by the end of the 1970s USA, Canada, and the Scandinavian countries issued laws against the use of CFC gases as propellants in spray cans. In the mid-1980s the springtime stratospheric ozone hole over Antarctica was discovered by Farman et al. (1985), involving heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds that lead to chlorine activation ( Solomon et al., 1986). Ten years later, in 1996, a complete phaseout ofthe production of the CFCs and a number of other chlorine- or bromine-containing chemicals came into effect for all nations in the developed world. In this contribution we will, however, concentrate on the impact of reactive chlorine, bromine, and iodine on tropospheric ozone chemistry.Halogens have the potential to be important in many facets of tropospheric chemistry. A multitude of gas phase reactions and gas-particle interactions occur that include coupling with the sulfur cycle and reactions with

  9. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  10. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  11. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  12. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  13. Areva's water chemistry guidebook with chemistry guidelines for next generation plants (AREVA EPRTM reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, AREVA globally has maintained a strong expertise in LWR water chemistry and has been focused on minimizing short-term and long-term detrimental effects of chemistry for startup, operation and shutdown chemistry for all key plant components (material integrity and reliability, promote optimal thermal performances, etc.) and fuel. Also AREVA is focused on minimizing contamination and equipment/plant dose rates. Current Industry Guidelines (EPRI, VGB, etc.) provide utilities with selected chemistry guidance for the current operating fleet. With the next generation of PWR plants (e.g. AREVA's EPRTM reactor), materials of construction and design have been optimized based on industry lessons learned over the last 50+ years. To support the next generation design, AREVA water chemistry experts, have subsequently developed a Chemistry Guidebook with chemistry guidelines based on an analysis of the current international practices, plant operating experience, R and D data and calculation codes now available and/or developed by AREVA. The AREVA LWR chemistry Guidebook can be used to help resolve utility and safety authority questions and addresses regulation requirement questions/issues for next generation plants. The Chemistry Guidebook provides water chemistry guidelines for primary coolant, secondary side circuit and auxiliary systems during startup, normal operation and shutdown conditions. It also includes conditioning and impurity limits, along with monitoring locations and frequency requirements. The Chemistry Guidebook Guidelines will be used as a design reference for AREVA's next generation plants (e.g. EPRTM reactor). (authors)

  14. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  15. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well

  16. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In our country, the development in this field is associated with the name N.N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems.Energy development during the last decades created or sharpened new problems. Our new Institute, the Institute of Energy problems of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, is dealing with some of them. The present article is an overview of our work on radiation applications. Examples of the use of radiation in power industry (such as coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for vast utilization is demonstrated. (authors)

  18. Radiation chemistry and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in understanding the fundamental chemical reactions that occur when materials are irradiated. This has followed from the development of new techniques for studying these reactions. The International Atomic Energy Agency held a Panel on Radiation Chemistry in Vienna on 17-21 April 1967, to review the current status of various sources, new techniques in radiation chemistry, and their applications. The main sources mentioned by the Panel were isotope sources, electron accelerators, and chemonuclear reactors. Among the basic techniques discussed were pulsed radiolysis, flash photolysis, fast ESR methods, irradiation at liquid helium temperatures, electric discharge methods and far ultra-violet methods. Interesting industrial applications were discussed, such as the development of wood-plastic combinations, and a paper was given on the curing of paints and thin films Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  20. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  1. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The global business of chemistry:prospects and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, T.K. (Thomas)

    2006-01-01

    The global business of chemistry has faced numerous challenges in recent years. This article addresses the near-term business environment in which the industry will operate as well as the implications for the global business of chemistry during 2006 and 2007.

  3. The Chemistry behind Special Effects in Film and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel B.; Badger, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry behind practical special effects in the film and television industry is discussed, along with examples of commonly used chemical demonstrations that simulate them in the laboratory. (Contains 3 figures.)

  4. An Introduction to Polyelectrolytes via the Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Polyelectrolytes are discussed with regard to their importance to the undergraduate science major enrolled in a physical chemistry course. Suggests the importance of the solution behavior of polyelectrolytes to scientific disciplines and many industries. (Author/SA)

  5. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  6. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  7. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  8. PREFACE: 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry is an international conference organized by 4 chemistry departments of 4 universities in central Java, Indonesia. The universities are Sebelas Maret University, Diponegoro University, Semarang State University and Soedirman University. The venue was at Solo, Indonesia, at September 8-9, 2015. The total conference participants are 133 including the invited speakers. The conference emphasized the multidisciplinary chemical issue and impact of today's sustainable chemistry which covering the following topics: • Material innovation for sustainable goals • Development of renewable and sustainable energy based on chemistry • New drug design, experimental and theoretical methods • Green synthesis and characterization of material (from molecule to functionalized materials) • Catalysis as core technology in industry • Natural product isolation and optimization

  9. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  10. Starch: chemistry, microstructure, processing and enzymatic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is recognized as one of the most abundant and important commodities containing value added attributes for a vast number of industrial applications. Its chemistry, structure, property and susceptibility to various chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications offer a high technological value ...

  11. Pyrochemistry: from flowsheet to industrial facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, N.; Thied, R. [British Nuclear Fuels, Company Research Laboratory, BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Lamorlette, G.; Greneche, D. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2001-07-01

    Challenges to any future commercial deployment of pyro-chemistry will be significant. The implications of industrial use must be well understood in technical, economic and social terms to gain commercial and regulatory acceptance. The broad base of knowledge necessary to support general commercial use of pyro-chemistry in the nuclear field is considered. Pyro-chemistry development is discussed in the context of a commercial application-based approach and issues to be addressed are outlined. A stepwise evolutionary development of pyro-chemical processing is anticipated which might allow industrialization in the absence of acceptance of evolutionary development at industrial scale which benefited Purex development. (author)

  12. Technical development of industry for 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions the history for 30 years since 1979 on industrial technology, which records change of system and environment of industrial technology development, like economical and social environment, industrial technology policy, support system on technical development and enterprise institute, assignment for future and product of industrial technology by field such as electric electronic, information and communications, machine material and fiber chemistry, and the way which Korea industrial technology association walked on.

  13. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  14. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  15. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  16. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  17. 2012 ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY GRC/GRS, JULY 7-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Gregory

    2012-07-13

    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  18. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  19. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  20. Philosophy of Chemistry or Philosophy with Chemistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry deserves more philosophical attention not so much to do justice to a long-neglected science or to enhance its cultural prestige, but to undermine a number of taken-for-granted assumptions about scientific rationality and more importantly to diversify our metaphysical views of nature and reality. In brief, this paper does not make the case for a philosophy of chemistry. It rather urges philosophers of science to listen to chemists and discuss what they learn from them. Because over t...

  1. The links between science and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, David

    2004-01-01

    Simon Schaffer explains the links between science and industrialization. He explains the history of the Royal Institution where he is standing and the research into agriculture and chemistry which was so important.

  2. The Industrial Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for enriching an A-level chemistry course with a series of chemical company visits. The rationale is discussed for an emphasis of the visits on the industrial reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. (CS)

  3. Raw materials for paint industry products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brushwell, W.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation as regards raw materials for the United States paint industry is outlined, under the following headings: availability of methanol, chemical products from methanol, alkyd resins, petrochemistry, coal chemistry, and ethanol production by fermentation.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  5. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainabilit

  6. Pierre-Joseph Macquer: Chemistry in the French Enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent studies of chemistry courses and of academic research at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the perception of chemistry in the French Enlightenment has often been overshadowed by Lavoisier's works. This article proposes three specific case studies selected from Pierre Joseph Macquer's (1718-84) rich career to show the continuous evolution of chemistry throughout the century: medicinal chemistry through the application of the Comte de La Garaye's metallic salt solutions, the emergence of industrial chemistry through a few of Macquer's evaluations at the Bureau du Commerce, and finally communal academic research through the experiments on diamonds using Tschirnhaus's lens. These examples attempt to illustrate the innovative, creative, dynamic, multicultural, and multifaceted chemistry of the Enlightenment.

  7. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Freire da Silva, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainability in the 21st century. It is also agreed that to innovate is essential for this industry make the necessary advancements and to reconcile the firms´ interests of being profitable, in the short-term,...

  8. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.

    2005-01-01

    The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased de...

  9. Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    Colloid and Surface Chemistry is a subject of immense importance and implications both to our everyday life and numerous industrial sectors, ranging from coatings and materials to medicine and biotechnology. How do detergents really clean? (Why can’t we just use water ?) Why is milk “milky” Why do......, to the benefit of both the environment and our pocket. Cosmetics is also big business! Creams, lotions and other personal care products are really just complex emulsions. All of the above can be explained by the principles and methods of colloid and surface chemistry. A course on this topic is truly valuable...

  10. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Villaveces; Guillermo Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...

  11. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  12. 77 FR 43131 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13382 (70 FR 38567... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries...

  13. 78 FR 13142 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    .... 1701-1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13382 (70 FR 38567, July 1, 2005) (the ``Order... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries...

  14. The Chemistry Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry at the Collège de France has received particular attention over the last few years. After the departures of Profs Jean-Marie Lehn and Jacques Livage, new ambition for developing this discipline has led to the creation of several Chairs: Prof. Marc Fontecave’s Chair of Chemistry of Biological Processes in 2008, Prof. Clément Sanchez’ Chair of Chemistry of Hybrid Materials in 2011, and the Chair of Chemistry of Materials and Energy, which Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon has held since 2014....

  15. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  16. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  17. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  18. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  19. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  20. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  1. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  2. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  3. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  4. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  5. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  6. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  7. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  8. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Villaveces

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

  9. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  10. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  11. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  12. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  13. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  14. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  15. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  16. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  17. Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of TICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Michael V.; Burns, Douglas S.; Chynwat, Veeradej; Moore, William; Plitz, Angela; Rottmann, Shawn; Hearn, John

    2009-05-01

    An atmospheric chemistry model that describes the behavior and disposition of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere was coupled with the transport and diffusion model, SCIPUFF. The atmospheric chemistry model was developed by reducing a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff) that is a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, and cloud cover. Empirically derived keff functions that describe the degradation of target toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) were derived by statistically analyzing data generated from the detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. To assess and identify areas to improve the developed atmospheric chemistry model, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to (1) quantify the sensitivity of the model output (TIC concentrations) with respect to changes in the input parameters and (2) improve, where necessary, the quality of the input data based on sensitivity results. The model predictions were evaluated against experimental data. Chamber data were used to remove the complexities of dispersion in the atmosphere.

  18. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández; Omar González-Santiago; Mónica A. Ramírez-Cabrera; Patricia C. Esquivel-Ferriño; María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that ...

  19. The Plasma Chemistry of Polymer Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Jö

    2012-01-01

    This book illustrates plasma properties, polymer characteristics, surface specifics, and how to purposefully combine plasma and polymer chemistry. In so doing, it covers plasma polymerization, surface functionalization, etching, crosslinking, and deposition of monotype functional-group-bearing plasma polymers. It explains different techniques and plasma types, such as pressure-pulsed, remote, low-wattage plasmas and plasma polymerization in liquids. Finally, among the numerous applications discussed are plasmas for chemical synthesis, industrial processes or the modification of membranes and p

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  1. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  2. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  3. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  5. Energy and carbon for green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2006, massive shale gas exploration and development in the United States has enabled the country to reduce the price of gas by a factor of 3. Taking instantaneously advantage of this unique situation, the chemical sector has planned more than 100 billion dollars of investment in new industrial capacity, creating a tremendous environment for its domestic chemical industry. In Europe, despite a high capacity for innovation, the chemical industry is suffering from ageing facilities and high production costs. It must contend with ferocious competition from the United States but also from Asia, which currently represents 46% of the global market, and the Middle East that is benefiting from the 50 billion dollars invested in the chemical sector since the early 2000's. Lower energy prices and labor costs in the United States are negatively impacting the competitiveness of European industrial companies but their capacity to innovate can help them to re-bounce. By reducing the environmental impact of their products, they can generate added value that is important to their direct customers, end users and also governments. In this article, to assist industrial companies, ENEA, a consulting firm specialized in energy and sustainable development, examines two strategic principles of green chemistry: energy efficiency and the use of renewable feedstock. It addresses all of the topics linked to energy and carbon in chemistry, from supply (bio-feedstocks, CO2 reuse) to the end products (life-cycle analysis, recyclability) while also covering the processes (energy sobriety, bio-refineries, use of microalgae)

  6. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  7. Better Tomorrow of China Rubber Chemicals Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I. Development of China Rubber Chemicals Industry During the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, China rubber Chemicals industry fully implemented the development guideline of "Adhering to science and technology development, developing green chemistry with environmental protection, safety and energy conservation as the core, and building enterprise and world brands". With the great support of the state,

  8. Chemistry at large

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy. K.M. Sanders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  9. Chemistry for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  10. Bringing chemistry to life

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Michael; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry allows a wide variety of biomolecules to be specifically labeled and probed in living cells and whole organisms. Here we discuss the history of bioorthogonal reactions and some of the most interesting and important advances in the field.

  11. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  12. Magnetism in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  13. Beauty in chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Atkins

    2006-01-01

    Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  14. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  15. Chemistry at large

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jeremy K. M.

    2007-01-01

    A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  16. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  17. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry; Streszczenia 40. Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego i Stowarzyszenia Inzynierow i Technikow Przemyslu Chemicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods.

  18. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  19. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  20. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  1. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  2. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  3. Impact of surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  4. Radiation Chemistry Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    The know how'' for the manufacture of gas chromatographic accessories such as the T. C. detector, E. C. detector, pyrolyzer and gas sampling valve was released to industry. An automatic preparative gas chromatograph working on repeat cycle principle was designed and fabricated. The instrument can be programmed to automatically inject the sample and collect any five separated components. A portable hydrogen monitor was developed for the Defence Ministry. In order to produce biodegradable detergents through the hydrolysis of alkyl sulfonylchloride, a hydrocarbon mixture was sulfochlorinated under the influence of gamma -radiation in 5 kg lots, in PANBIT facility. The results were quite encouraging. Terylene fibers and cloth have been grafted with acrylic acid under radiation and the resulting products have shown remarkably good dyeing properties and moisture uptake. An interesting observation was made in the case of radiation damage caused by iodine or bromine undergoing nuclear reactions of the type (n, 2n), (I. T.) and BETA -decay wherein the scavenger 12 or Br/sub 2/ consumption has been estimated per nuclear event. The results show that except in the case of BETA -decay, a surprisingly large number ( approximates 10/sup delta ) of molecules of the scavenger are consumed per nuclear event. In the field of ion exchange studies, the thermodynamic theory of ion exchange equilibria in nonaqueous solvents reported previously was experimentally verified for the first time. The change of medium from water to water-methanol mixture in lithium isotope studies in ion exchange equilibria resulted in a reversal of the isotope effect. Transport, activation, and redeposition of corrosion products in the recirculation and the clean-up loop systems of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station was hindering the regular and shut down maintenance jobs. In order to examine the possibility of chemical decontamination both laboratory and on-site experiments were carried out in

  5. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  6. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  7. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistry students in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialists of the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) into the world of the chemical applications. Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, other

  8. EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BWRVIP-190: BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines – 2008 Revision has been revised. The revision committee consisted of U.S. and non-U.S. utilities (members of the BWR Vessel and Internals Protection (BWRVIP) Mitigation Committee), reactor system manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and EPRI and industry experts. The revised document, BWRVIP-190 Revision 1, was completely reformatted into two volumes, with a simplified presentation of water chemistry control, diagnostic and good practice parameters in Volume 1 and the technical bases in Volume 2, to facilitate use. The revision was developed in parallel and in coordination with preparation of the Fuel Reliability Guidelines Revision 1: BWR Fuel Cladding Crud and Corrosion. Guidance is included for plants operating under normal water chemistry (NWC), moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M), and noble metal application (GE-Hitachi NobleChem™) plus hydrogen injection. Volume 1 includes significant changes to BWR feedwater and reactor water chemistry control parameters to provide increased assurance of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation of reactor materials and fuel reliability during all plant conditions, including cold shutdown (≤200°F (93°C)), startup/hot standby (>200°F (93°C) and ≤ 10%) and power operation (>10% power). Action Level values for chloride and sulfate have been tightened to minimize environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of all wetted surfaces, including those not protected by hydrogen injection, with or without noble metals. Chemistry control guidance has been enhanced to minimize shutdown radiation fields by clarifying targets for depleted zinc oxide (DZO) injection while meeting requirements for fuel reliability. Improved tabular presentations of parameter values explicitly indicate levels at which actions are to be taken and required sampling frequencies. Volume 2 provides the technical bases for BWR water chemistry control for control of EAC, flow accelerated corrosion

  9. Industrial-Academic Relationships in the 20th Century's Chemistry: A Review of the 4th International Conferenceof the Commission on the History of Modern Chemistry%20世纪的化学工业与学术研究--第4届国际现代化学史研讨会小记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张藜

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2002年10月3-5日,由国际现代化学史委员会(Commission on the History of Modern Chemistry,简称CHMC)主办的第4届国际现代化学史研讨会在地处美国费城的化学遗产基金会(Chemical Heritage Foundation,简称CHF)举行.这次会议的主题是"在化学和分子科学中工业与学术研究的关系",开幕式由CHF现任主席、国际著名的科学史家、曾担任过Isis主编的Arnold Thackray主持,来自美国、德国、法国、英国、意大利、瑞士、西班牙、委内瑞拉、日本、印度、中国等14个国家的15位研究者提交了论文并作了为期两天的演讲.

  10. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles; Les aerosols de pollution en zone urbaine et industrielle sous influence marine: physico-chimie des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimetz, J

    2007-12-15

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D{sub a}) were performed. Ions (Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO{sub 3},...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  11. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi

    2004-01-01

    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  12. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  13. BWR and PWR chemistry operating experience and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that proper control of water chemistry plays a critical role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). State-of-the-art water chemistry programs reduce general and localized corrosion of reactor coolant system, steam cycle equipment, and fuel cladding materials; ensure continued integrity of cycle components; and reduce radiation fields. Once a particular nuclear plant component has been installed or plant system constructed, proper water chemistry provides a global tool to mitigate materials degradation problems, thereby reducing the need for costly repairs or replacements. Recognizing the importance of proper chemistry control and the value in understanding the relationship between chemistry guidance and actual operating experience, EPRI continues to collect, monitor, and evaluate operating data from BWRs and PWRs around the world. More than 900 cycles of valuable BWR and PWR operating chemistry data has been collected, including online, startup and shutdown chemistry data over more than 10 years (> 20 years for BWRs). This paper will provide an overview of current trends in BWR and PWR chemistry, focusing on plants in the U.S.. Important chemistry parameters will be highlighted and discussed in the context of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines requirements (i.e., those parameters considered to be of key importance as related to the major goals identified in the EPRI Guidelines: materials integrity; fuel integrity; and minimizing plant radiation fields). Perspectives will be provided in light of recent industry initiatives and changes in the EPRI BWR and PWR Water Chemistry Guidelines. (author)

  14. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  15. Introductory quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on quantum chemistry is primarily intended for university students at the senior undergraduate level. It serves as an aid to the basic understanding of the important concepts of quantum mechanics introduced in the field of chemistry. Various chapters of the book are devoted to the following : (i) Waves and quanta, (ii) Operator concept in quantum chemistry, (iii) Wave mechanics of some simple systems, (iv) Perturbation theory, (v) Many-electron atoms and angular momenta (vi) Molecular orbital theory and its application to the electronic structure of diatomic molecules, (vii) Chemical bonding in polyatomic molecules and (viii) Chemical applications of Hellmann-Feynman theorem. At the end of each chapter, a set of problems is given and the answers to these problems are given at the end of the book. (A.K.)

  16. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  17. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  18. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  19. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  20. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  1. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the {gamma} irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain.

  2. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  3. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  4. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  5. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  6. Chemistry in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

  7. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  8. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma

    2011-01-01

    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  9. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  10. Cloud chemistry on Jupiter

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, B. E.; Prather, M. J.; W. B. Rossow

    1987-01-01

    Aqueous chemistry on Uranus affects the atmospheric abundances of NH3 and H2S below the methane cloud base. Here a complete thermochemical equilibrium model for the H2O-NH3-H2S system is presented. Inclusion of H2S increases the aqueous removal of NH3 to 20-30 percent, but aqueous chemistry alone cannot account for the depletion of NH3 in the 150-200-K region of the atmosphere required to fit microwave observations. Formation of NH4SH clouds can account for the observed depletion provided the...

  11. Computational organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author highlights the tremendous impact that density functional theory has had on computational chemistry over the last decade. This robust and efficient theoretical technique (for which John Pople and Walter Kohn were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1998) has opened up many new possibilities for chemists, allowing to study large systems with a degree of reliability hitherto uncontemplated. Examples which illustrate how both density functional theory and hybrid method have been successfully used in solving difficult problems in quantum chemistry of catalysis are briefly discussed

  12. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  13. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  14. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  15. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  16. Present and future activities of the water chemistry research committees in JAES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research committee on water chemistry was established in 1982 in Japan Atomic Energy Society (JAES) and has continued its activities. Many internal and international activities of the water chemistry groups have been based on the Committee. The activity so far and the future prospect are described. As internal activities within the JAES, research committees and the resulting reports are enumerated. International activities, including supporting of the JAIF (Japan Atomic Industrial Forum) Conferences on Water Chemistry, are also mentioned. (Yamamoto, A.)

  17. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  18. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok`92; Doroczny zjazd naukowy: chemia w ochronie zdrowia i srodowiska czlowieka. Bialystok`92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well.

  19. Industry News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Foundry Association's exhibition received 'Golden Finger' award in China's exhibition industry On January 12, 2008, the 8th International Foundry, Forging,and Industry Furnace Exhibition, sponsored by China Foundry Association, won the 'Golden Finger' award in China exposition industry for metal processing, foundry metallurgy and forging products.

  20. Fotografische industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij H

    1992-01-01

    This document on photographic industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emissi

  1. The environmental risk analysis of toxic gas leakage in Taiyuan coal chemistry industrial zone%太原煤化工区有毒气体泄漏环境风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沁怡; 蔡旭晖; 王雪; 宋宇

    2012-01-01

    针对太原煤化工区氯气、氨气和光气这3种泄漏风险最高的有毒气体的事故条件,采用非定常的CALPUFF大气扩散模式进行了一整年的事故扩散模拟.获得逐时次事故扩散浓度场并分析3种污染物泄漏的全年平均风险及各季变化.结果定量描述了氯气、氨气和光气的致死浓度、中毒浓度和刺激浓度的全年及各季平均风险范围,并分析了不同有毒气体风险范围的差异及四季变化的原因.%The non-steady C ALPU FF atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate the accidental dispersion of Ihree toxic gases with lhe highest risks under the leakage conditions in the Taiyuan Coal Chemical Industrial Zone for one year. The three toxic species are Cl2 , NH3 and COCl2, respectively. Hourly concentration fields of accidental dispersion were obtained and used to analyze the annual and seasonal risk fields for the three pollutants. Mean risk fields corresponding to the concentration levels of death, poisoning and irritation for Cl2, NH3 and COCl2 were described quantitatively. The differences in the risk ranges tbr different toxic species and in different seasons were analyzed.

  2. Evaluation of landuse impacts on lakewater chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This research has included several issues concerning acid-base chemistry modeling of aquatic ecosystems using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC). The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids and land use practices within the watershed have been investigated with respect to their effects on model performance. A version of the MAGIC model was prepared for use in DOE`s Tracking and Analysis Framework. Major components of the project included: (1) extending the MAGIC model by incorporating a quantitative organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations; and (2) testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway.

  3. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry......The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... and biomedical materials and concepts. In addition, the thiol–ene ‘click’ reaction is addressed in the same manner, and the possibility of using both click reactions orthogonally is highlighted. A strategy for the preparation of novel intriguing poly(ε‐caprolactone)‐based nanobiomaterials by orthogonal click...

  4. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  5. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  6. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  7. Metaphorical Models in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Bhusan, Nalini

    1995-01-01

    What happens when students of chemistry fail to recognize the metaphorical status of certain models and interpret them literally? Suggests that such failures lead students to form perceptions of phenomena that can be misleading. Argues that the key to making good use of metaphorical models is a recognition of their metaphorical status. Examines…

  8. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  11. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  12. Chromatin chemistry goes cellular.

    OpenAIRE

    W. Fischle; D. Schwarzer; Mootz, H.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing post-translational modifications of histone proteins as they occur within chromatin is challenging due to their large number and chemical diversity. A major step forward has now been achieved by using split intein chemistry to engineer functionalized histones within cells.

  13. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  14. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  15. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  16. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  17. Exploring the Information Literacy Needs and Values of High School Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Marci; Tucci, Valerie Karvey

    2016-01-01

    To meet the information literacy (IL) needs of chemistry students, The College of New Jersey's (TCNJ) Library and Chemistry Departments have created a three-year seminar with a strong IL component. The program focuses on IL skills necessary for success in industry and graduate or professional education, but may lack features specific to those…

  18. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  19. GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE (STT) REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...

  20. PROCESS INTENSIFIED GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES PERFORMED IN THE SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE (STT®) REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...

  1. 13th AINSE radiation chemistry conference, 12-14 November 1986, Lucas Heights - AINSE Theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of papers are given which cover the fields of radiolysis in aqueous solutions, solids and gases, radiation polymerisation and degradation, excitation in solids and gases, and industrial applications of radiation chemistry

  2. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  3. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  4. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  5. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, P.J. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  6. Teaching Chemistry Topics Through the Rich Context of Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; Towns, M.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and responding to the fundamental changes to earth's atmosphere and oceans since the industrial revolution is one of the defining challenges facing our modern world. Despite the fact that much of the underlying science builds so heavily on fundamental chemistry and physics, chemistry educators have taken little ownership for helping students visualize and understand the science and connect it to conceptual understanding in chemistry courses. We introduce (a) strategies used in an NSF-funded CCLI project to teach a set of core chemistry concepts through the rich contexts of climate science and (b) a new IYC-2011 legacy project carried out in partnership with IUPAC, UNESCO, RSC and ACS to create a set of interactive web resources for global dissemination, www.explainingclimatechange.com.

  7. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1989 (October 1988 through September 1989). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  8. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Boparai, A.S.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991). This is the eighth annual report for the ACL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Progress report for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Graczyk, D.G.; Lindahl, P.C.; Erickson, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for fiscal year 1988 (October 1987 through September 1988). The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, the ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques.

  11. Predictors of General Chemistry Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsogomonyan, Ardas; Loftus, Drew

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry pretest scores, high school chemistry grades and, to a greater extent, math SAT scores were useful predictors of college general chemistry grades. Regression analysis of all these predictors combined was used to construct an expectancy table which is being used to identify and advise underprepared students. (BB)

  12. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF)

  13. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  14. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.)

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials...

  16. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  17. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.

    2007-01-01

    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  18. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  19. Chemistry of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task is concerned primarily with the fundamental chemistry of the actinide and fission product elements. Special efforts are made to develop research programs in collaboration with researchers at universities and in industry who have need of national laboratory facilities. Specific areas currently under investigation include: (1) spectroscopy and photochemistry of actinides in low-temperature matrices; (2) small-angle scattering studies of hydrous actinide and fission product polymers in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents; (3) kinetic and thermodynamic studies of complexation reactions in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions; and (4) the development of inorganic ion exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide separations. Recent results from work in these areas are summarized here

  20. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  1. Aqueous chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H3BO3 at temperatures up to 1500C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO3- + 2I- + 3H+, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >104 has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  3. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  4. Chemistry space–time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Einstein identified so clearly, space and time are intimately related. We discuss the relationship between time and Euclidean space using spectroscopic and radioastronomical studies of interstellar chemistry as an example. Given the finite speed of light, we are clearly studying chemical reactions occurring tens of thousands of years ago that may elucidate the primordial chemistry of this planet several billion years ago. We also explore space of a different kind – chemical space, with many more dimensions than the four we associate as space–time. Vast chemical spaces also need very efficient (computational methods for their exploration to overcome this ‘curse of dimensionality’. We discuss methods by which the time to explore these new spaces can be very substantially reduced, opening the discovery useful new materials that are the key to our future.

  5. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  6. Radiation chemistry of oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Primary investigations have been conducted at the end of the 1950th years in the area of radiation chemistry of the oils, the physical-chemical properties of crude oil have been investigated the influence of ionizing rays. This report by M. Malikzadeh is about the results of investigations carried out in the field of development of radiation chemistry. The power of the radiation dose and temperature-thermal effect of the collapse of Phentadekan -Oil, and oil fractions (200-400 degrees Celsium, 230-310 degrees Celsium) of radiation-thermal separation of olefins - Conversion of hydrogen from the transormation of black oil, bitumen and tar Kinetics of the above-mentioned processes was studied, the technical-economic indicators of the products were determined

  7. Supramolecular chemistry and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIQUE E. TOMA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular chemistry deals with the association of several chemical species, in an organized way and according to well defined purposes. Based on a molecular engineering approach, supramolecular structures can be designed from pre-formed building blocks, providing a promising route from chemistry to molecular nanotechnology. New supramolecular systems have been assembled in our laboratory with the use of bridging unities such as tetrapyridylporphyrins, porphyrazines and polypyrazines, connecting transition metal complexes and clusters. These systems display a very exciting electrochemical and catalytic behavior, and interact with DNA, generating ¹O2 and leading to efficient oxidative clivage for photodynamic terapy applications. Molecular interfaces have been developed, exhibiting photocurrent response in the presence of visible-UV light, and rectifying properties in the presence of electroactive species. Successful applications of the supramolecular species in chemical and bio-sensors have been developed.

  8. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  9. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... that affect soil processes are the same in tropical soils as in temperate region soils, but because of high temperature year round and occurrence in very stable landscapes, some (but not all) tropical soils possess special composition and properties. These features are highlighted in the book, and general...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  10. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  11. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  12. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-11-30

    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  13. Art and Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Philippe Walter’s teaching, which he delivered as holder of the Liliane Bettencourt Annual Chair of Technological Innovation, was completed with two lectures on “practical work” to deal with a real case. The conditions and challenges of interdisciplinary research combining analytical chemistry, art history and archaeology were thus discussed in relation to specific works. The Holy Family, Constantin Abraham (1785-1855) by Raphaël (aka), Sanzio Raffaello (1483-1520), hard porcelain, Sèvres, C...

  14. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D.; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five ma...

  15. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  16. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  17. Radioanalytical chemistry in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Publications from Denmark in the field of radioanalytical chemistry are presented in 2 groups, one involving neutron activation and similar techniques, and one for other radioanalytical work. Altogether 258 references including books are given for the period 1936-1977, and the overall doubling time is 5.2 years. A significant deviation from a purely exponential growth was caused by the Second World War. (author)

  18. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving ma...

  19. Current ADC Linker Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W.; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugati...

  20. Advances in electroanalytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yijun; Compton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns several advances in electroanalytical chemistry which are separated into four parts: the electrochemical investigation of diffusional behaviour, the mechanistic and kinetic study of electrochemistry with room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), the study of weakly-supported electrochemistry and a comparison of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush kinetic theories of electron transfer. A study of the diffusional behaviour of electroactive species is essential for further s...

  1. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore be a useful marker of lightning activity. Observational evidence is considered to support this view. Thirdly, the chemical decomposition of HCN leads to the production of small amounts of CN and NCO. NCO can be photolyzed in the visible portion of the spectrum yielding N atoms. The production of N atoms is significant as it leads to the titration of nitrogen from the atmosphere via N+N→N2. Normally the only modelled source of N atoms is NO photolysis which happens largely in the UV Schumann-Runge bands. However, NCO photolysis occurs in the visible and so could be involved in titration of atmospheric nitrogen in the lower stratosphere and troposphere. HCN emission inventories are worthy of attention. The CN and NCO radicals have been termed pseudohalogens since the 1920s. They are strongly bound, univalent, radicals with an extensive and varied chemistry. The products of the atmospheric oxidation of HCN are NO, CO and O3. N+CH4 and N+CH3OH are found to be important sources of HCN. Including the pseudohalogen chemistry gives a small increase in ozone and total reactive nitrogen (NOy.

  2. Chemistry in Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell John; Murray-Rust Peter; Rzepa Henry

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Chemical information is now seen as critical for most areas of life sciences. But unlike Bioinformatics, where data is openly available and freely re-usable, most chemical information is closed and cannot be re-distributed without permission. This has led to a failure to adopt modern informatics and software techniques and therefore paucity of chemistry in bioinformatics. New technology, however, offers the hope of making chemical data (compounds and properties) free during the auth...

  3. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  4. General chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.

  5. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  6. An Example of Learning about Plastics and Their Evaluation as a Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a secondary school lesson plan for chemistry education on the topic Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The lessons focus both on the chemistry of plastics and on learning about the societal evaluation of competing, chemistry-based industrial products. A specific teaching method was…

  7. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  8. Handbook of green chemistry and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.; MacQuarrie, D. (eds.)

    2002-05-15

    Sustainable development is now accepted as a necessary goal for achieving societal, economic and environmental objectives. Within this chemistry has a vital role to play. The chemical industry is successful but traditionally success has come at a heavy cost to the environment. The challenge for chemists and others is to develop new products, processes and services that achieve societal, economic and environmental benefits. This requires an approach that reduces the materials and energy intensity of chemical processes and products; minimises the dispersion of harmful chemicals in the environment; maximises the use of renewable resources and extends the durability and recyclability of products in a way that increases industrial competitiveness as well as improve its tarnished image. (author)

  9. Heterogeneous Chemistry in Global Chemistry Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Scarlet; Simpson, David; Schultz, Martin; Bott, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The impact of six tropospheric heterogeneous reactions on ozone and nitrogen species was studied using two chemical transport models EMEP MSC-W and ECHAM6-HAMMOZ. Since heterogeneous reactions depend on reactant concentrations (in this study these are N_2O_5, NO_3, NO_2, O_3, HNO_3, HO_2) and aerosol surface area S_a, the modeled surface area of both models was compared to a satellite product retrieving the surface area. This comparison shows a good agreement in global pattern and especially the capability of both models to capture the extreme aerosol loadings in East Asia. Further, the impact of the heterogeneous reactions was evaluated by the simulation of a reference run containing all heterogeneous reactions and several sensitivity runs. One reaction was turned off in each sensitivity run to compare it with the reference run. As previously shown, the analysis of the sensitivity runs shows that the globally most important heterogeneous reaction is the one of N_2O_5. Nevertheless, NO_2, NO_3, HNO3 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions gain relevance particular in East China due to presence of high NOx concentrations and high Sa in the same region. The heterogeneous reaction of O3 itself on dust is compared to the other heterogeneous reactions of minor relevance. Evaluation of the models with northern hemispheric ozone surface observations yields a better agreement of the models with observations when the heterogeneous reactions are incorporated. Impacts of emission changes on the importance of the heterogeneous chemistry will be discussed.

  10. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  11. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  12. Publicising chemistry in a multicultural society through chemistry outreach

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce D. Sewry; Norman, Nicholas C.; Dudley E. Shallcross; Harrison, Timothy G.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Given the emphasis in Higher Education on community engagement in South Africa and the importance of international collaboration, we discuss a joint approach to chemistry outreach in two countries on two continents with widely differing target school audiences. We describe the history of the partnership between the chemistry departments at Rhodes University and the University of Bristol and provide an outline of the chemistry content of their outreach initiatives, the modes of delivery, the a...

  13. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  14. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Deffense Etienne

    2009-01-01

    With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. A...

  15. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  16. Chemistry and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Jack H.

    1998-11-01

    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  17. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  19. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  20. Organic iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. E-mail: shirley.dickinson@aeat.co.uk; Sims, H.E.; Belval-Haltier, E.; Jacquemain, D.; Poletiko, C.; Funke, F.; Hellmann, S.; Karjunen, T.; Zilliacus, R

    2001-11-01

    A shared-cost action on Organic Iodine Chemistry has been completed as part of the CEC 4th Framework programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. Organisations from four EC countries are involved in an integrated programme of experiments and analysis to help clarify the phenomenology, and to increase confidence in the modelling of iodine behaviour in containment. The project is focused on identifying the main routes for organic iodine formation, and providing new experimental kinetic data which will be used to improve existing models and to stimulate code development.

  1. Chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Rehder, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic field of extraterrestrial chemistry brings together ideas of chemistr, astrophysics, and biology to the study of molecules between stars, around stars, and on plantes. This book serves as an introduction to chemial processes under ?unearthly? and hence usually extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, high or low density, bombardment by cosmic rays), and their impact on the early development of our solar system, as well as providing a deeper understanding of processes in earthly regions where conditions approach those of extraterrestrial areas.A unique and extraordinary perspe

  2. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis......, formulation, and their medicinal and agricultural applications. The antifungal mode-of-action of griseofulvin has been the subject of considerable research efforts and some debate over the years, a discussion that is still ongoing. Griseofulvin was one of the first antifungal natural products found...

  3. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  4. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  5. Optimized random chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Warrington, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    The random chemistry algorithm of Kauffman can be used to determine an unknown subset S of a fixed set V. The algorithm proceeds by zeroing in on S through a succession of nested subsets V=V_0,V_1,...,V_m=S. In Kauffman's original algorithm, the size of each V_i is chosen to be half the size of V_{i-1}. In this paper we determine the optimal sequence of sizes so as to minimize the expected run time of the algorithm.

  6. Chemistry of fast electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Maximoff, Sergey N.; Head-Gordon, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    A chemicurrent is a flux of fast (kinetic energy ≳ 0.5−1.3 eV) metal electrons caused by moderately exothermic (1−3 eV) chemical reactions over high work function (4−6 eV) metal surfaces. In this report, the relation between chemicurrent and surface chemistry is elucidated with a combination of top-down phenomenology and bottom-up atomic-scale modeling. Examination of catalytic CO oxidation, an example which exhibits a chemicurrent, reveals 3 constituents of this relation: The localization of...

  7. Nanoscale surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Madey, Theodore E.; Pelhos, Kalman; WU, QIFEI; Barnes, Robin; Ermanoski, Ivan; Chen, Wenhua; Kolodziej, Jacek J.; Rowe, John E.

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence in several experiments for nanometer-size effects in surface chemistry. The evidence concerns bimetallic systems, monolayer films of Pt or Pd on W(111) surfaces. Pyramidal facets with {211} faces are formed on annealing on physical monolayer of Pt, Pd on a W(111) substrate, and facet sizes increase with annealing temperature. We used synchrotron radiation-based soft x-ray photoemission to show that monolayer films of Pt, Pd, on W “float” on the outer surface, whereas multil...

  8. Radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Choppin, Gregory; RYDBERG, JAN; Ekberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties. This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text secti

  9. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevelde, L

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of R and D at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear chemistry and analytical techniques are summarized. Major achievement in 2001 included the completion of a project on the measurement of critical radionuclides in reactor waste fluxes (the ARIANE project), the radiochemical characterisation of beryllium material originating from the second matrix of the BR2 reactor as well as to a the organisation of a workshop on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials.

  10. Arene ruthenium chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Richard Simon

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and reactivity studies of new arene-ruthenium(II) and arene-ruthenium(O) complexes. Ultrasound has been investigated as an alternative energy source, with the overall aim of synthesising arene ruthenium clusters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction and summary of the known arene ruthenium chemistry reported to date. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis of (CGH6)Ru(C2H4)2 and (MeC6H4CHMe2)Ru(C2H4)2. Low temperature protonation studies generated (C6H6)Ru(H)(CZH4...

  11. A química orgânica na consolidação dos conceitos de átomo e molécula Organic chemistry in the consolidation of the concepts of atom and molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia de Oliveira Camel; Carlos B. G. Koehler; Carlos A. L. Filgueiras

    2009-01-01

    The present work discusses the appearance of the concepts of valence and molecular structure, and describes the appropriation and evolution of the concept of molecule in the period following the publication of Avogadro's Hypothesis. The point of reference is the development of what became known as Organic Chemistry, which encompassed Pharmacy, Physiological Chemistry, Animal and Plant Chemistry, Chemistry of Dyestuffs, Agricultural Chemistry, and the fledgling Organic Synthesis industry in th...

  12. Symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the full proceedings of the symposium on chemistry and biotechnology for national development held at SHESTCO in 1995. It contains the full texts of a forward, opening and special remarks, welcome and keynote addresses and abstracts and texts of 21 technical papers. The subjects covered included information technology,chemistry and biotechnology in agriculture, health care and industrial development. Additionally, the abstracts in respect of 19 other papers are included. We wish to thank the Coordinator of SHESTCO for making available this proceedings

  13. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  14. Six Phases of Cosmic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Lamza

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a conceptually unified, quantitative account of the development of chemical phenomena throughout the cosmic history, with a detailed discussion of the cosmological, astrophysical, geological, biological, and anthropological context. The totality of cosmic chemistry is represented by a list of 176 classes of phenomena, drawn from the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) library cataloguing system, and divided into 6 phases: of no chemistry, of prestellar chemistry, of ga...

  15. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  16. Heterogeneous Catalytic Chemistry by Example of Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heveling, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 85% of all chemical products are manufactured with the help of catalysts. Virtually all transition metals of the periodic table are active as catalysts or catalyst promoters. Catalysts are divided into homogeneous catalysts, which are soluble in the reaction medium, and heterogeneous catalysts, which remain in the solid state.…

  17. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  18. O Instituto de Química da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, da pós-graduação à incorporação dos cursos de graduação: uma perspectiva histórica The Chemistry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from postgraduate to the incorporation of undergraduate courses: a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Prestes Massena; Nadja Paraense dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    This work intends to present the history of top-level Chemistry education in Rio de Janeiro. It's important to rescue the history of Chemistry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro since 1959. It's also important to understand the incorporation of two undergraduate courses: Chemistry and Chemistry bachelor's degree. It covers historical background of Chemistry education in old National Faculty of Philosophy, considering power disputes between Industrial Chemistry Course and Chemic...

  19. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references). PMID:20023854

  20. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  1. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  2. Industrial practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the industrial practices carried out by the author viewing the requirements fulfilled for obtention the academic degree in chemical engineering of the San Andres University - Bolivia

  3. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  4. Complex Protostellar Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago, our understanding of the chemistry in protostars was simple-matter either fell into the central star or was trapped in planetary-scale objects. Some minor chemical changes might occur as the dust and gas fell inward, but such effects were overwhelmed by the much larger scale processes that occurred even in bodies as small as asteroids. The chemistry that did occur in the nebula was relatively easy to model because the fall from the cold molecular cloud into the growing star was a one-way trip down a well-known temperature-pressure gradient; the only free variable was time. However, just over 10 years ago it was suggested that some material could be processed in the inner nebula, flow outward, and become incorporated into comets (1, 2). This outward flow was confirmed when the Stardust mission returned crystalline mineral fragments (3) from Comet Wild 2 that must have been processed close to the Sun before they were incorporated into the comet. In this week's Science Express, Ciesla and Sandford (4) demonstrate that even the outermost regions of the solar nebula can be a chemically active environment. Their finding could have consequences for the rest of the nebula.

  5. Current ADC Linker Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugation to the multiple lysines or cysteines found in mAbs, significant research efforts are now being directed toward the production of discrete, homogeneous ADC products, via site-specific conjugation. These site-specific conjugations may involve genetic engineering of the mAb to introduce discrete, available cysteines or non-natural amino acids with an orthogonally-reactive functional group handle such as an aldehyde, ketone, azido, or alkynyl tag. These site-specific approaches not only increase the homogeneity of ADCs but also enable novel bio-orthogonal chemistries that utilize reactive moieties other than thiol or amine. This broadens the diversity of linkers that can be utilized which will lead to better linker design in future generations of ADCs.

  6. Industrial Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran zolfaghari

    1996-01-01

    Various risk factors in industrial environments can affect hearing status and healthy in today’s modern society. Noise control and hearing conservation program is very crucial in preventing workers exposed to high levels of noise in the work places. In the current article we are going to discuss issues such as industrial noise control, noise characteristics and standards and techniques for noise control. Then the methods for individual hearing conservation and medical care will be described i...

  7. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  8. Influencing College Chemistry Success through High School Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Loehr, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The connection between high school chemistry pedagogical experiences and introductory college chemistry performance has been a topic researched in published science education literature since the 1920s. However, analysis techniques have limited the generalizability of these results. This review discusses the findings of a large-scale,…

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  10. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  11. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffense Etienne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. Among the topics which I worked out, I highlighted more particularly the following subjects: the degumming chemistry of oil and fat; the improvement of physical refining; a new chemical analytical tool for the dry fractionation; new development in the dry fractionation

  12. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  13. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  14. Sulfanyl Radical Addition to Alkynes: Revisiting an Old Reaction to Enter the Novel Realms of Green Chemistry, Bioconjugation, and Material Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Monesi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade considerable attention has been devoted to the rewarding use of Green Chemistry in various synthetic processes and applications. Green Chemistry is of special interest in the synthesis of expensive pharmaceutical products, where suitable adoption of “green” reagents and conditions is highly desirable. Our project especially focused in a search for new green radical processes which might also find useful applications in the industry. In particular, we have explored the po...

  15. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  16. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  17. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  18. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  19. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  20. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the R and D activities are reported, dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF)

  1. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  2. Crocodile Chemistry. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This high school chemistry resource is an on-screen chemistry lab. In the program, students can experiment with a huge range of chemicals, choosing the form, quantity and concentrations. Dangerous or difficult experiments can be investigated safely and easily. A vast range of equipment can be set up, and complex simulations can be put together and…

  3. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  4. Industrial diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  5. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field. PMID:26007183

  6. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  8. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  9. Clays in prebiological chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Oro, J.; Odom, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    The ways in which clays have been utilized in studies of prebiological chemistry are reviewed, and an assessment is given of the possible role of clays in prebiological systems. The adsorption of organic molecules on clays has been demonstrated, as has the synthesis of bioorganic monomers in the presence of clays. For instance, amino acids, purines and pyrimidines have been obtained from carbon monoxide and nitric acid in the presence of clays at relatively high temperatures (250-325 C). The oligomerization of biochemical monomers, mediated by clays, has also been shown to result in the formation of polymer molecules basic to life. Clays have also been found to affect the condensation of mononucleotides to oligonucleotides.

  10. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  11. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  12. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  13. Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.

  14. Comet Halley and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How complex is the chemistry of the interstellar medium? How far does it evolve and how has it interacted with the chemistry of the solar system? Are the galactic chemical processes destroyed, preserved, or even enhanced in comets? Are biogenic molecules formed in space and have the formation mechanisms interacted in any way with prebiotic organic chemical processes on the early earth? Radio molecular studies of comets are important for probing deep into the coma and nuclear region and thus may help answer these questions. Comets are believed to be pristine samples of the debris left from the formation of the solar system and may have been the carrier between interstellar and terrestrial prebiotic chemistries. Recent observations of Comet Halley and subsequent comets have given the author an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between interstellar molecular chemistry and cometary chemistry

  15. A Survey of Industrial Organic Chemists: Understanding the Chemical Industry's Needs of Current Bachelor-Level Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Justin D.; Kleist, Elyse M.; Stoy, Dylan M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted of companies from the chemical industry with an emphasis on the organic division. The data include results from 377 respondents from more than 100 different companies. More than half of all undergraduates gain fulltime work in the chemical industry or government after graduating with a bachelor's degree in chemistry.…

  16. Chemistry of Art and Color Sudoku Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle format was used to teach light science and chemistry terms to students of Chemistry of Art and Color. The puzzles were used to motivate and encourage students to learn chemistry in an easier and in friendly fashion.

  17. Fiabilidad industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia

    2001-01-01

    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  18. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder João Lenardão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  19. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    OpenAIRE

    Eder João Lenardão; Rogério Antônio Freitag; Miguel J. Dabdoub; Antônio C. Ferreira Batista; Claudio da Cruz Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  20. German women in chemistry, 1895-1925 (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the entrance of German women into the chemistry profession from the 1890s to 1925, examining how they first overcame social and cultural conservatism to obtain access to opportunities for a chemical education during the later Kaiserreich, then began to seek academic and industrial careers and to establish a professional organization in the face of resistance from the established Verein Deutscher Chemiker. The paper examines the effect of World War I and the advent of the Weimar Republic in completing the process whereby German women achieved a small but significant role in the profession of chemistry, in science as well as industry. Finally, it discusses the considerable limitations on women's full and equal participation that still remained by 1925. PMID:11619920

  1. German women in chemistry, 1895-1925 (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A

    1998-01-01

    The paper traces the entrance of German women into the chemistry profession from the 1890s to 1925, examining how they first overcame social and cultural conservatism to obtain access to opportunities for a chemical education during the later Kaiserreich, then began to seek academic and industrial careers and to establish a professional organization in the face of resistance from the established Verein Deutscher Chemiker. The paper examines the effect of World War I and the advent of the Weimar Republic in completing the process whereby German women achieved a small but significant role in the profession of chemistry, in science as well as industry. Finally, it discusses the considerable limitations on women's full and equal participation that still remained by 1925.

  2. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is meant to be a manual for industrial radiography. As such the manual concentrates on the practical aspects, presenting existing radiographic system and techniques of operation to satisfy specified quality requirements. The manual also reviews the safety aspect of performing radiographic work. (author) systems

  3. Industrial Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaff, Herman J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes industrially important yeasts, molds, bacteria, and actinomycetes. Discussed in detail are microbial products, such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, enzymes, and capsular polysaccharides. Traces the historical background of human cell culture, mentioning recombinant DNA research and hybridization of normal mammalian cells…

  4. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  5. Moving Green Chemistry Forward: Networks as a Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T.; Lough, G.

    2014-12-01

    Green chemistry is a growing discipline, but for a variety of reasons, it has not yet become integrated into science curriculum and the greater societal conscience. With its increasing economic benefits to many sectors including business, industry, and academia and its potential to make science more accessible not only to science students but also to the general citizenry, we suggested answers to the questions: Why has greater success not been realized? What are the particular barriers to wider implementation? And what are incentives and ways to move green chemistry forward? We suggest some strategies and options to both increase the use of green chemistry principles and to also increase stakeholders' understanding of the importance and utility of green chemistry in their daily lives. For example, our main suggestions are that an inclusive, multidisciplinary network would aid in coordinating data and in translating the science into user friendly tools, and that an educational component embedded in this greater effort would also serve to move green chemistry forward.

  6. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  7. COST : action chemistry conference on supramolecular chemistry in water

    OpenAIRE

    Magri, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Scientists and chemists from 18 countries gathered in Malta for the 3rd Scientific Meeting on Supramolecular Chemistry in Water between the 9 − 11th of November 2013 at the Old University Building on St Paul Street in Valletta

  8. Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

  9. The chemistry of low dosage clathrate hydrate inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, A.; Musa, O. M.; STEED, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to introduce the chemistry of low dosage inhibitors of clathrate hydrate formation within the context of their role in the oil and gas industry. The review covers both kinetic hydrate inhibitors and anti-agglomerants from the point of view of structure–function relationships, focussing on recent refinements in mechanistic understanding and chemical design, and the consequently evolving and increasingly fine-tuned properties of these fascinating compounds.

  10. AutoClickChem: Click Chemistry in Silico

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Jacob D; J Andrew McCammon

    2012-01-01

    Academic researchers and many in industry often lack the financial resources available to scientists working in "big pharma." High costs include those associated with high-throughput screening and chemical synthesis. In order to address these challenges, many researchers have in part turned to alternate methodologies. Virtual screening, for example, often substitutes for high-throughput screening, and click chemistry ensures that chemical synthesis is fast, cheap, and comparatively easy. Thou...

  11. Imidazole and Triazole Coordination Chemistry for Antifouling Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Andersson Trojer; Alireza Movahedi; Hans Blanck; Magnus Nydén

    2013-01-01

    Fouling of marine organisms on the hulls of ships is a severe problem for the shipping industry. Many antifouling agents are based on five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, in particular imidazoles and triazoles. Moreover, imidazole and triazoles are strong ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, which are both potent antifouling agents. In this review, we summarize a decade of work within our groups concerning imidazole and triazole coordination chemistry for antifouling applications with a partic...

  12. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Pasquale; Ventrice, Domenica; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-07-01

    Phthalates are chemicals widely used in industry and the consequences for human health caused by exposure to these agents are of significant current interest. Phthalate toxicity targets the reproductive and respiratory systems primarily, but they also may be involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and even in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in organ toxicity of phthalates; furthermore, pharmacokinetic, chemistry and the European regulation are summarized. PMID:23603460

  13. MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.

  14. Setting up the water chemistry for thermal water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglovskii, A. V.; Chernozubov, V. B.; Chernykh, N. E.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Birdin, R. Kh.

    2007-07-01

    Results are presented from the development and setting up of water-chemistry conditions for a thermal water treatment process that allows saline effluents from a boiler house to be eliminated. Peculiarities of reducing scale formation in the evaporator through the use of chalk primer and type PAF-13A antiscale agent are discussed. The results of industrial tests of a thermal water treatment plant are presented that confirm the possibility of producing makeup water for heating networks and steam boilers.

  15. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  16. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  17. The radiation chemistry of macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Volume II is a collection of papers that discusses radiation chemistry of specific systems. Part 1 deals with radiation chemistry of substituted vinyl polymers, particularly polypropylene (PP) as its structure is intermediate between polyethylene and polyisobutylene. This part also discusses polypropylene oxide (PPOx) for it can be prepared in the atactic, isotactic, and optically active forms. One paper focuses on the fundamental chemical processes and the changes in physical properties that give rise to many different applications of polystyrene. An

  18. Mathematical challenges from theoretical/computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The committee believes that this report has relevance and potentially valuable suggestions for a wide range of readers. Target audiences include: graduate departments in the mathematical and chemical sciences; federal and private agencies that fund research in the mathematical and chemical sciences; selected industrial and government research and development laboratories; developers of software and hardware for computational chemistry; and selected individual researchers. Chapter 2 of this report covers some history of computational chemistry for the nonspecialist, while Chapter 3 illustrates the fruits of some past successful cross-fertilization between mathematical scientists and computational/theoretical chemists. In Chapter 4 the committee has assembled a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of research opportunities. Most of these are descriptions of important open problems in computational/theoretical chemistry that could gain much from the efforts of innovative mathematical scientists, written so as to be accessible introductions to the nonspecialist. Chapter 5 is an assessment, necessarily subjective, of cultural differences that must be overcome if collaborative work is to be encouraged between the mathematical and the chemical communities. Finally, the report ends with a brief list of conclusions and recommendations that, if followed, could promote accelerated progress at this interface. Recognizing that bothersome language issues can inhibit prospects for collaborative research at the interface between distinctive disciplines, the committee has attempted throughout to maintain an accessible style, in part by using illustrative boxes, and has included at the end of the report a glossary of technical terms that may be familiar to only a subset of the target audiences listed above.

  19. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2000-10-27

    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  20. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  1. Microfluidics in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased demand for molecular imaging tracers useful in assessing and monitoring diseases has stimulated research towards more efficient and flexible radiosynthetic routes, including newer technologies. The traditional vessel-based approach suffers from limitations concerning flexibility, reagent mass needed, hardware requirements, large number of connections and valves, repetitive cleaning procedures and overall big footprint to be shielded from radiation. For these reasons, several research groups have started to investigate the application of the fast growing field of microfluidic chemistry to radiosynthetic procedures. After the first report in 2004, many scientific papers have been published and demonstrated the potential for increased process yields, reduced reagent use, improved flexibility and general ease of setup. This review will address definitions occurring in microfluidics as well as analyze the different approaches under two macro-categories: microvessel and microchannel. In this perspective, several works will be collected, involving the use of positron emitting species (11C, 18F, 64Cu) and the fewer examples of gamma emitting radionuclides (99mTc, 125/131I). New directions in microfluidic research applied to PET radiochemistry, future developments and challenges are also discussed. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  2. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  3. Computational chemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Task 41 is composed of two parts: (1) analysis and design studies related to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Extended Operating Configuration (EOC) and (2) computational chemistry. During the first half of 1987, Dr. Levin served as a member of an advanced system planning team to establish the requirements, goals, and principal technical characteristics of the NAS EOC. A paper entitled 'Scaling of Data Communications for an Advanced Supercomputer Network' is included. The high temperature transport properties (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, etc.) of the major constituents of air (oxygen and nitrogen) were correctly determined. The results of prior ab initio computer solutions of the Schroedinger equation were combined with the best available experimental data to obtain complete interaction potentials for both neutral and ion-atom collision partners. These potentials were then used in a computer program to evaluate the collision cross-sections from which the transport properties could be determined. A paper entitled 'High Temperature Transport Properties of Air' is included.

  4. Chemistry in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Pierre-François; Ball, Caleb J; Gill, Peter M W

    2015-02-01

    We report benchmark results for one-dimensional (1D) atomic and molecular systems interacting via the Coulomb operator |x|(-1). Using various wavefunction-type approaches, such as Hartree-Fock theory, second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and explicitly correlated calculations, we study the ground state of atoms with up to ten electrons as well as small diatomic and triatomic molecules containing up to two electrons. A detailed analysis of the 1D helium-like ions is given and the expression of the high-density correlation energy is reported. We report the total energies, ionization energies, electron affinities and other physical properties of the many-electron 1D atoms and, using these results, we construct the 1D analog of Mendeleev's periodic table. We find that the 1D periodic table contains only two groups: the alkali metals and the noble gases. We also calculate the dissociation curves of several 1D diatomics and study the chemical bond in H2(+), HeH(2+), He2(3+), H2, HeH(+) and He2(2+). We find that, unlike their 3D counterparts, 1D molecules are primarily bound by one-electron bonds. Finally, we study the chemistry of H3(+) and we discuss the stability of the 1D polymer resulting from an infinite chain of hydrogen atoms. PMID:25518906

  5. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  6. Prebiotic chemistry - Lecture 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleic acids and proteins are at the basis of all life. The energy source on the primitive earth acting on the earth's early atmosphere are believed to have produced all the molecules necessary for life. Laboratory experiments over the last four decades have clearly established the prebiotic synthesis of these components, amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates. The mechanisms of polymerization have also been outlined. We thus have a sequence from atoms to small molecules to the large molecules which are necessary for the emergence of life. The analysis of meteorites has given us fresh evidence that these reactions which we have presumed to have taken place on the primitive earth may have also occurred in the early solar system. The analysis of carbonaceous chondrites has given us unmistakable evidence for the presence of these molecules in outer space. Recent observational and theoretical studies have also pointed out that comets may be the location for prebiotic reactions and may also have contributed to organic matter on the primitive earth. The radio astronomers studying interstellar media have also provided us with ample evidence that there are a large number of organic molecules in interstellar space. Organic chemistry appears to be commonplace in the universe. (author)

  7. Pore-water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinsot, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Appelo, C.A.J. [Valeriusstraat 11, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cailteau, C. [LEM, ENSG/INPL, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Cailteau, C. [G2R-CREGU, UMR 7566 CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Cailteau, C. [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Mettler, S.; Wersin, P. [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); Canniere, P. de [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gabler, H.E. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Gaucher, E.C.; Tournassat, C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Jacquot, E.; Altmann, S. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (DS/TR), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Vinsot, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Recherche Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Courdouan, A.; Christl, I.; Kretzschmar, R. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, ETH Zurich, CHN (Switzerland); Wersin, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Savoye, S.; Matray, J.M.; Wittebroodt, Ch.; Cabrera, J.; Bensenouci, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Michelot, J.L.; Bensenouci, F. [Paris-11 Univ., UMR IDES CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Waber, H.S. [Rock-Water Interaction (RWI), Inst. of Geological Sciences, Bern (Switzerland); Wittebroodt, Ch. [Montpellier-2 Univ., MSE, 34 (France); Lavielle, B.; Gilabert, E.; Thomas, B.; Lavastre, V. [Bordeaux 1-2 Univ., (GdR FORPRO 0788), Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bioenvironnementale (CNAB), CNRS, 33 - Gradignan (France); Lavastre, V. [Nimes Univ., Geochimie Isotopique Environnementale (GIS/CEREGE), CNRS-RANCE, 30 (France)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 5 articles dealing with: CO{sub 2} data on gas and pore water sampled in-situ in the Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (A. Vinsot, C.A.J. Appelo, C. Cailteau, S. Mettler, P. Wersin, P. De Canniere, H.E. Gaebler); the improvements in the modelling of the pore water chemistry of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation (E.C. Gaucher, C. Tournassat, E. Jacquot, S. Altmann, A. Vinsot) the nature and reactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Opalinus clay and Callovo-Oxfordian formations (A. Courdouan, I. Christl, P.Wersin, R. Kretzschmar); PH4: a 250 m deep borehole in Tournemire for assessing the reliability of chloride, helium and water stable isotopes profiles in the Toarcian/ Domerian shales (S. Savoye, J.L. Michelot, H.N. Waber, J.M. Matray, F. Bensenouci, Ch. Wittebroodt, J. Cabrera); and the development of a new facility for dating old groundwaters by using {sup 81}Kr (B. Lavielle, E. Gilabert, B. Thomas, V. Lavastre)

  8. Green Chemistry Techniques for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavino, Sarah A.; King, Christy A.; Ferrara, Davon W.

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often utilized in many technological and research applications ranging from the detection of tumors, molecular and biological sensors, and as nanoantennas to probe physical processes. As these applications move from the research laboratory to industrial settings, there is a need to develop efficient and sustainable synthesis techniques. Recent research has shown that several food products and beverages containing polyphenols, a common antioxidant, can be used as reducing agents in the synthesis of AuNPs in solution. In this study, we explore a variety of products to determine which allow for the most reproducible solution of nanoparticles based on the size and shapes of particles present. We analyzed the AuNPs solutions using extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We also develop a laboratory activity to introduce introductory chemistry and physics students to AuNP synthesis techniques and analysis.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Division : annual report (for) 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account of the various activities of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during 1985 is presented. The main function of the Division is to provide chemical analysis support to India's atomic energy programme. In addition, the Division also offers its analytical services, mostly for measurement of concentrations at trace levels to Indian industries and other research organization in the country. A list of these determinations is given. The report also describes the research and development (R and D) activities - both completed and in progress, in the form of individual summaries. During the year an ultra trace analytical laboratory for analysis of critical samples without contamination was set up using indigenous material and technology. Publications and training activities of the staff, training of the staff from other institution, guidance by the staff for post-graduate degree and invited talks by the staff are listed in the appendices at the end of the report. (M.G.B.)

  10. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  11. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  12. Green and Sustainable Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Boxing

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is now a common opinion that sustainable development is a key issue to humanity.How to provide the population with sufficient clean water, food, chemicals, materials and energy without damaging our planet is an extremely important and challenging issue in today's world.Although the chemical industry plays a pivotal role in driving the world economy and sustaining the high quality of life, most currently used chemical processes are not sustainable because they use fossil resources as their feedstock and produce a large amount of waste and hazardous materials.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SEVERAL NON-OXIDIZING BIOCIDES ON FINE PAPER WET-END CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Huber; Bruno Carré; Elisa Zeno

    2010-01-01

    Biocide programs have become necessary in most fine paper manufacturing circuits, as drastic reduction of fresh water consumption in the industry enhances microbial development. Depending on their chemical nature, biocides may interfere with typical wet-end chemistry additives and furnish. A reference wet-end chemistry was set (including fixing aid, dry strength aid, sizing agent, and retention system), then biocides were added to the furnish (bleached virgin fibres + mineral filler) prior to...

  14. Barriers to the Implementation of Green Chemistry in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Matus, Kira Jen Mendelsohn; Clark, William C; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the conditions under which firms are able to develop and implement innovations with sustainable development benefits. In particular, we examine “green chemistry†innovations in the United States. Via interviews with green chemistry leaders from industry, academia, nongovernmental institutions (NGOs), and government, we identified six major categories of challenges commonly confronted by innovators: (1) economic and financial, (2) regulatory, (3) technical, (4) organ...

  15. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  16. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures

  17. Chemistry in the Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazdra, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of chemistry to the justice system is presented. The role of the forensic chemist, historical development of forensic laboratories, and tools of the criminalists are also discussed. (HM)

  18. International Year of Chemistry 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Science China Chemistry would like to dedicate this special issue to the International Year of Chemistry (IYC) 2011,as part of the celebrations of IYC in China.Scientists from Australia,Brazil,Britain,Canada,Chile,China,France,Germany,India,Israel,Japan,Nepal,Pakistan,Saudi Arabia,Singapore,South Africa,and the USA have contributed 28 papers marking the event.Our authors from across the globe include students,members (a corresponding member) and fellows of national academies of sciences in several countries (Australia,Chile,China,France,India,Israel,Pakistan,and the USA),fellows of the British and Canadian Royal Societies,and two Nobel Laureates (Robert Grubbs and Ada Yonath).Here they present their work contributing to the IYC 2011 theme "Chemistry-our life,our future" [1].These papers cover fundamental chemistry,the chemical bases of life processes,and their potential applications.

  19. Industrial ecology Prosperity Game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.; Boyack, K.; Berman, M.

    1998-03-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) is an emerging scientific field that views industrial activities and the environment as an interactive whole. The IE approach simultaneously optimizes activities with respect to cost, performance, and environmental impact. Industrial Ecology provides a dynamic systems-based framework that enables management of human activity on a sustainable basis by: minimizing energy and materials usage; insuring acceptable quality of life for people; minimizing the ecological impact of human activity to levels that natural systems can sustain; and maintaining the economic viability of systems for industry, trade and commerce. Industrial ecology applies systems science to industrial systems, defining the system boundary to incorporate the natural world. Its overall goal is to optimize industrial activities within the constraints imposed by ecological viability, globally and locally. In this context, Industrial systems applies not just to private sector manufacturing and services but also to government operations, including provision of infrastructure. Sandia conducted its seventeenth Prosperity Game{trademark} on May 23--25, 1997, at the Hyatt Dulles Hotel in Herndon, Virginia. The primary sponsors of the event were Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory, who were interested in using the format of a Prosperity Game to address some of the issues surrounding Industrial Ecology. Honorary game sponsors were: The National Science Foundation; the Committee on Environmental Improvement, American Chemical Society; the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Division, American Chemical Society; the US EPA--The Smart Growth Network, Office of Policy Development; and the US DOE-Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.

  20. Language Preferences of Freshman Chemistry Students: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Douglas M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Ascertained whether chemistry instructors have a consistent preference for particular ways of idea expression by chemistry students. Comparisons of responses on a chemistry preference test were made among chemistry instructors, chemistry majors and nonscience majors. (CS)

  1. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This paper will give an example of a pedagogical approach taken in integrating nanotechnology into a chemistry degree course. In recent years nanotechnology has widely become part of the course content for undergraduate chemistry and physics degree curriculum. How contextualised the delivery of the subject matter may vary. The role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content is the main focus of this paper, as to date in Ireland and many other countries nanotechnolog...

  2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  3. Nonthermal plasma chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meichsner, Jurgen; Schneider, Ralf; Wagner, Hans-Erich

    2013-01-01

    In addition to introducing the basics of plasma physics, Nonthermal Plasma Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive presentation of recent developments in the rapidly growing field of nonthermal plasma chemistry. The book offers a detailed discussion of the fundamentals of plasma chemical reactions and modeling, nonthermal plasma sources, relevant diagnostic techniques, and selected applications.Elucidating interconnections and trends, the book focuses on basic principles and illustrations across a broad field of applications. Expert contributors address environmental aspects of plasma chemist

  4. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".

  5. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  6. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

  7. Who is Teaching the History of Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into how the history of chemistry is being taught in colleges and universities. Results indicate that courses on the history of chemistry are hardly ever required of chemistry majors, and they are offered in only 10 percent of American Chemical Society approved chemistry departments. (TW)

  8. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  9. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  10. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  11. Philosophy of Chemistry: An Emerging Field with Implications for Chemistry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erduran, Sibel

    Traditional applications of history and philosophy of science in chemistry education have concentrated on the teaching and learning of "history of chemistry". This paper considers the recent emergence of "philosophy of chemistry" as a distinct field and explores the implications of philosophy of chemistry for chemistry education in the context of…

  12. GREEN CHEMISTRY POTENTIAL FOR PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Manmohan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry brought about medical revolution till about the middle of twentieth century in which drugs and antibiotics were discovered. The world’s food supply also increased enormously due to the discovery of hybrid varieties, improved methods of farming, better seeds, and use of insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers. The quality of life on earth became much better due to the discovery of dyes, plastics, cosmetics and other materials. Soon, the ill effects of chemistry also became pronounced, main among them being the pollution of land, water and atmosphere. This is caused mainly due to the effects of by-products of chemical industries, which are being discharged into the air, rivers/ oceans and the land. The use of toxic reactants and reagents also make the situation worse. The pollution reached such levels that different governments made laws to minimize it. This marked the beginning of Green Chemistry by the middle of 29th century. Green Chemistry is defined as environmentally benign chemistry. As on today, maximum pollution to the environment is caused by numerous chemical industries. Therefore, attempts have been made to design synthesis for manufacturing processes in such a way that the waste products are minimum, they have no effect on the environment and their disposal is convenient. For carrying out reactions it is necessary that the starting materials, solvents and catalysts should be carefully chosen. For example Benzene (C6H6 as a solvent must be avoided at any cost since it is carcinogenic in nature. If possible, it is best to carry out reactions in the aqueous phase. With this view in mind, synthesis methods should be designed in such a way that the starting materials are consumed to the maximum extent in the final product. The reaction should also not generate any toxic by-products.

  13. Mixed integer optimization. Modelling in the practice. With case studies from chemistry, energy management, metal industry, production, and logistics. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Gemischt-ganzzahlige Optimierung. Modellierung in der Praxis. Mit Fallstudien aus Chemie, Energiewirtschaft, Metallgewerbe, Produktion und Logistik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallrath, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The author of the book under consideration describes the application of a mixed-inter optimization in the process industry as well as in the paper industry, metal industry or power industry. The author also describes the modelling of problems and successful problem-solving. Aspects of modelling are combined with algorithmic aspects of continuous and discrete, linear and non-linear as well as global optimization. The impact of this methodology in today's industrial society is described especially against the background of supply-chain management and the global implementation of software packages such as SAP.

  14. Advances in BWR water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent advances in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) water chemistry control with examples of plant experiences at U.S. designed BWRs. Water chemistry advances provide some of the most effective methods for mitigating materials degradation, reducing fuel performance concerns and lowering radiation fields. Mitigation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of materials remains a high priority and improved techniques that have been demonstrated in BWRs will be reviewed, specifically hydrogen injection combined with noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) and the newer on-line noble metal application process (OLNC). Hydrogen injection performance, an important part of SCC mitigation, will also be reviewed for the BWR fleet, highlighting system improvements that have enabled earlier injection of hydrogen including the potential for hydrogen injection during plant startup. Water chemistry has been significantly improved by the application of pre-filtration and optimized use of ion exchange resins in the CP (condensate polishing) and reactor water cleanup (RWCU) systems. EPRI has monitored and supported water treatment improvements to meet water chemistry goals as outlined in the EPRI BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines, particularly those for SCC mitigation of reactor internals and piping, minimization of fuel risk due to corrosion and crud deposits and chemistry control for radiation field reduction. In recent years, a significant reduction has occurred in feedwater corrosion product input, particularly iron. A large percentage of plants are now reporting <0.1 ppb feedwater iron. The impacts to plant operation and chemistry of lower feedwater iron will be explored. Depleted zinc addition is widely practiced across the fleet and the enhanced focus on radiation reduction continues to emphasize the importance of controlling radiation source term. In addition, shutdown chemistry control is necessary to avoid excessive release of activated corrosion products from fuel

  15. APPLICATIONS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh D. Dhage; Komalsing K. Shisodiya

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is really very helpful to us as its applications are used worldwide for several purposes. We cannot really imagine a world without chemistry and its applications such as medicines. However, we should now concentrate on green chemistry or sustainable chemistry, which refers to reducing or stopping the damage done to the environment around us. Hence, green chemistry could include anything from reducing waste to even disposing of waste in the correct manner. Another way to save the env...

  16. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  17. Technology assessment: Chlorine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine is not just one of many chemical feedstocks which is used in a few definitely harmful products like PVC or CFC but is irrelevant in all other respects. Just the opposite is true: There is hardly any product line of the chemical industry that can do without chlorine, from herbicides and pesticides to dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals, photographic atricles, and cosmetics. Chlorine is not only a key element of chemical production but also an ubiquitous element of everyday life in civilisation. There are even many who would agree that the volume of chlorine production is an indicator of the competitive strength and national wealth of a modern society. By now, however, it has become evident that the unreflected use of chlorine is no longer ecologically acceptable. The consequences of a chlorine phase-out as compared to the continued chlorine production at the present level were investigated scientifically by a PROGNOS team. They are presented in this book. (orig.)

  18. Publicising chemistry in a multicultural society through chemistry outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce D. Sewry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the emphasis in Higher Education on community engagement in South Africa and the importance of international collaboration, we discuss a joint approach to chemistry outreach in two countries on two continents with widely differing target school audiences. We describe the history of the partnership between the chemistry departments at Rhodes University and the University of Bristol and provide an outline of the chemistry content of their outreach initiatives, the modes of delivery, the advantages to both departments and their students for involvement in various levels of outreach, the challenges they still face and additional opportunities that such work facilitated. The lecture demonstration ‘A Pollutant’s Tale’ was presented to thousands of learners all over the world, including learners at resource-deprived schools in South Africa. Challenges to extend outreach activities in South Africa include long travelling distances, as well as a lack of facilities (such as school halls and electricity at schools. Outreach activities not only impacted on the target audience of young learners, they also impacted upon the postgraduate and other chemistry students taking part in these initiatives. This collaboration strengthened both institutions and their outreach work and may also lead to chemistry research collaborations between the academics involved.

  19. La chimie verte: une nouvelle industrie de substitution GREEN CHEMISTRY: A NEW INDUSTRY OF SUBSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Clément WILS

    2013-01-01

    Ce rapport présente le contexte économique et social introduisant le concept de la chimie verte qui pourrait s’annoncer comme une alternative d’avenir à la pétrochimie. Il définit ce nouveau concept mis en avant au début des années 1990, tout en précisant les acteurs principaux à son émergence. Les causes de son développement seront également abordés et notamment la pression croissante des particuliers, de plus en plus soucieux de leur environnement et de leur condition de vie, envers les ind...

  20. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies. PMID:24533810

  1. 2012 RADIATION CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, JULY 28, - AUGUST 3, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    y LaVerne

    2012-08-03

    The overarching objective of this conference is to catalyze the interchange of new ideas and recent discoveries within the basic radiation sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology, and to facilitate translating this knowledge to applications in medicine and industry. The 9 topics for the GRC are: "œFrom Energy Absorption to Disease", "œBiodosimetry after a Radiological Incident," "œTrack Structure and Low Energy Electrons," "Free Radical Processes in DNA and Proteins," "Irradiated Polymers for Industrial/ Medical Applications," "Space Radiation Chemistry/Biology," "Nuclear Power and Waste Management," "Nanoparticles and Surface Interfaces", and the "Young Investigator" session.

  2. Cycloadditions in modern polymer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaittre, Guillaume; Guimard, Nathalie K; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Synthetic polymer chemistry has undergone two major developments in the last two decades. About 20 years ago, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization processes started to give access to a wide range of polymeric architectures made from an almost infinite reservoir of functional building blocks. A few years later, the concept of click chemistry revolutionized the way polymer chemists approached synthetic routes. Among the few reactions that could qualify as click, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) initially stood out. Soon, many old and new reactions, including cycloadditions, would further enrich the synthetic macromolecular chemistry toolbox. Whether click or not, cycloadditions are in any case powerful tools for designing polymeric materials in a modular fashion, with a high level of functionality and, sometimes, responsiveness. Here, we wish to describe cycloaddition methodologies that have been reported in the last 10 years in the context of macromolecular engineering, with a focus on those developed in our laboratories. The overarching structure of this Account is based on the three most commonly encountered cycloaddition subclasses in organic and macromolecular chemistry: 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, (hetero-)Diels-Alder cycloadditions ((H)DAC), and [2+2] cycloadditions. Our goal is to briefly describe the relevant reaction conditions, the advantages and disadvantages, and the realized polymer applications. Furthermore, the orthogonality of most of these reactions is highlighted because it has proven highly beneficial for generating unique, multifunctional polymers in a one-pot reaction. The overview on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions is mostly centered on the application of CuAAC as the most travelled route, by far. Besides illustrating the capacity of CuAAC to generate complex polymeric architectures, alternative 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions operating without the need for a catalyst are described. In the area of (H)DA cycloadditions

  3. Logic, History, and the Chemistry Textbook: I. Does Chemistry Have a Logical Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the first of three invited keynote lectures from the 1995 conference of the New England Association of Chemistry Teachers. Discusses the relevance of the history of chemistry to the teaching of chemistry. Contains 27 references. (DDR)

  4. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  5. The Application of SCC-DV-Xα Computational Method of Quantum Chemistry in Cement Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been explored why quantum chemistry is applied to the research field of cement chemistry. The fundamental theory of SCC-DV-Xα computational method of quantum chemistry is synopsized. The results obtained by computational quantum chemistry method in recent years of valence-bond structures and hydration activity of some cement clinker minerals, mechanical strength and stabilization of some hydrates are summarized and evaluated. Finally the prospects of the future application of quantum chemistry to cement chemistry are depicted.

  6. Towards Bildung-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-07-01

    This paper concerns Bildung-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. Bildung-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also knowledge about chemistry, both about the nature of chemistry and about its role in society. In 2004 Mahaffy suggested a tetrahedron model based on Johnstone's chemical triangle. The latter represents the formal aspects of chemistry teaching (macro, submicro, and symbolic) and the top of the tetrahedron represents a human element. In the present paper the following subdivision of the top is suggested (starting from the bottom): (1) applied chemistry, (2) socio-cultural context, and (3) critical-philosophic approach. The professional identity of the Bildung-oriented chemistry teacher differs from that of the chemist and is informed by research fields such as Philosophy of Chemistry, Science and Technology Studies, and Environmental Education. He/she takes a socio-critical approach to chemistry, emphasising both the benefits and risks of chemistry and its applications.

  7. Assessment of EPRI water chemistry guidelines for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water chemistry control technologies for nuclear power plants have been significantly enhanced over the past few decades to improve material and equipment reliability and fuel performance, and to minimize radionuclide production and transport. Chemistry Guidelines have been developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for currently operating plants and have been intermittently revised over the past twenty-five years for the protection of systems and components and for radiation management. As new plants are being designed for improved safety and increased power production, it is important to ensure that the designs consider implementation of state-of-the-art, industry developed water chemistry controls. In parallel, the industry will need to consider and update water chemistry guidelines as well as plant startup and operational strategies based on the advanced plant designs. EPRI has performed assessments of water chemistry control guidance or assumptions provided in design and licensing documents for several advanced plant designs. These designs include: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized Water Reactor AREVA US-EPR Pressurized Water Reactor Mitsubishi Nuclear Energy Systems/Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power APR1400 Pressurized Water Reactor Toshiba Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) General Electric-Hitachi Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) The intent of these assessments was to identify key design differences in each of the new plant designs relative to the current operating fleet and to identify differences in water chemistry specifications or design assumptions provided in design and licensing documents for the plants in comparison to current EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines. This paper provides a summary of the key results of these assessments. The fundamental design and operation of the advanced plants is similar to the currently operating fleet. As such, the new plants are

  8. Industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radiography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method which allows components to be examined for flaws without interfering with their usefulness. It is one of a number of inspection methods which are commonly used in industry to control the quality of manufactured products and to monitor their performance in service. Because of its involvement in organizing training courses in all the common NDT methods in regional projects in Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean and in many country programmes, the Agency is aware of the importance of standardizing as far as possible the syllabi and training course notes used by the many experts who are involved in presenting the training courses. IAEA-TECDOC-628 ''Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing'' presents syllabi which were developed by an Agency executed UNDP project in Latin America and the Caribbean taking into account the developmental work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing. Experience gained from using the radiography syllabi from TECDOC-628 at national and regional radiography training courses in the Agency executed UNDP project in Asia and the Pacific (RAS/86/073) showed that some guidance needed to be given to radiography experts engaged in teaching at these courses on the material which should be covered. The IAEA/UNDP Asia and Pacific Project National NDT Coordinators therefore undertook to prepare Radiography Training Course Notes which could be used by experts to prepare lectures for Level 1,2 and 3 radiography personnel. The notes have been expanded to cover most topics in a more complete manner than that possible at a Level 1, 2 or 3 training course and can now be used as source material for NDT personnel interested in expanding their knowledge of radiography. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Radiation chemistry of heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical aspects of the energy deposit of fast particles in matter initiate chemical effects which are merged with the early physical processes. Here only radiation chemistry and its relationship to the initial energy deposit are of concern. The primary objective of our track studies is, however, application to biology. In the radiolytic decomposition of water energy is absorbed almost exclusively in water, and the principal chemistry is that of radiation decomposition of water. The track structure in water is expected to be virtually the same as that in a biological system. The study of radiation chemistry of dilute solutions, therefore, provides another method to investigate the structure of tracks as they are likely to be present in an irradiated biological system but at times much longer than they are accessible to purely physical measurements

  10. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  11. The migration chemistry of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of neptunium, including redox properties, complex chemistry and chemistry of neptunium in its five oxidation states, III, IV, V, VI and VII has been reviewed with special emphasis on factors, which may be of importance in controlling the environmental behaviour of this element. Under environmental conditions neptunium should exist predominantly in oxidation state V in the form NpO2+ and to some extent also as Np (IV) in the form of Np4+ and Np (VI) in the form of NpO22+, whereas the other oxidation states Np (III) and Np (VII) can not exist in the environment. However, experimental evidence is lacking as is any knowledge about the mobility of neptunium in the environment. (author) 15 tabs., 2 ills., 37 refs

  12. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Parimal; Priyadarsini, K. I.; Rao, B. S. M.

    2008-10-01

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 μs with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  13. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Parimal [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, B.S.M. [National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)], E-mail: bsmr@chem.unipune.ernet.in

    2008-10-15

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 {mu}s with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  14. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...... of accuracy published in research literature. The possible deviations are suspected to originate from long-term variations of detection systems of instrumental analysis, and the impact on these findings on future measurements of analytical chemistry is discussed....

  15. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  16. IONIC LIQUIDS MATERIAL AS MODERN CONTEXT OF CHEMISTRY IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Hernani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One way to improve students’ chemistry literacy which is demanded in the modernization of modern technology-based chemistry learning is by studying ionic liquids. Low level of scientific literacy of students in Indonesia as revealed in the PISA in 2012 was the main reason of the research. Ionic liquids-based technology are necessary to be applied as a context for learning chemistry because: (1 the attention of the scientific an technology community in the use of ionic liquids as a new generation of green solvent, electrolyte material and fluidic engineering in recent years becomes larger, in line with the strong demands of the industry for the provision of new materials that are reliable, safe, and friendly for various purposes; (2 scientific explanations related to the context of the ionic liquid contains a lot of facts, concepts, principles, laws, models and theories can be used to reinforce the learning content as a media to develop thinking skill (process/competence as demanded by PISA; (3 The modern technology-based ionic liquid can also be used as a discourse to strengthen scientific attitude. The process of synthesis of ionic liquid involves fairly simple organic reagents, so it deserves to be included in the chemistry subject in school.

  17. Could Trade Remedy keep Industry Safe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ China has been the biggest victim of anti-dumping investigations for 14 years running since WTO was established in 1995. According to WTO statistics, in the first half of 2008, there were 85 new antidumping cases in the world, 37 cases out of which were targeted on China, sharing 43.5%. In product regimes, antidumping cases on China caught hold of various industrial sectors like metallurgy, chemistry, textile, mechanics, light industry, metal works, automobile, medicine, building material, and paper making etc., but with textile product as one of the most vulnerable targets under fire. 2008 saw an ever-growing new antidumping cases in different industrial sectors while textile was in the third placing (11 new antidumping cases) only after metallurgy (17 cases) and machine building industry (12).

  18. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... on current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...

  19. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column again has a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Manfred Grasserbauer of Vienna University of Technology to present some...... of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002– 2007 Manfred Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all those...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely, analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry in particular since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We are already noticing a decreased industrial commitment...

  20. Department of Chemistry, progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities in Department of Chemistry during the last 3 years from 1986 to 1988 were compiled. The researches and works of Department of Chemistry are mainly those concerned with important basic matters and items which are committed to the further development of the nuclear fuels and materials, to the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to the acquisition of data for the environmental safety studies. Intensive efforts were also made on chemical analysis service of various fuels and nuclear materials. (author)

  1. Analytical chemistry and semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, P.W. (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA)); Harris, T.D. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1990-07-15

    Advances in analytical chemistry are crucial to the continued expansion of electronic and optoelectronic materials in device applications. This report explains the critical role that the defect chemistry of semiconductor material in a device and the difficulty of extracting chemical information about defects. The authors focus on the generic class of chemical analysis problems resulting from the fact that the spatial distribution of chemical composition is the single most important factor in determining the operative properties of electronic and optoelectronic materials. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  2. Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

  3. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  4. Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-20

    Special Issue: Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. Sustainable chemistry is key to the development of efficient renewable energies, which will become more and more important in order to combat global warming. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Nam-Gyu Park describes the context of this Special Issue on top-quality research towards sustainability performed at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) in Korea. Scientists at SKKU work on, for example, photovoltaic solar cells to generate low-cost electricity, lithium batteries and capacitors to store electricity, piezoelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectric devices, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.

  5. Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-20

    Special Issue: Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. Sustainable chemistry is key to the development of efficient renewable energies, which will become more and more important in order to combat global warming. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Nam-Gyu Park describes the context of this Special Issue on top-quality research towards sustainability performed at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) in Korea. Scientists at SKKU work on, for example, photovoltaic solar cells to generate low-cost electricity, lithium batteries and capacitors to store electricity, piezoelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectric devices, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells. PMID:26183687

  6. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established

  7. The Doctorate in Chemistry. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Ronald

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…

  8. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  9. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  10. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  11. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  12. Advances in nuclear chemistry and its applications in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear chemistry was born almost 120 years ago with the discovery of radioactivity by Antoine Henry Becquerel in 1896. Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry that deals with radioactivity, nuclear reactions and processes, and nuclear properties. The composition of the nucleus and the changes that occur within the nucleus define the properties of the radioisotope and the nuclear reactions and processes it is involved in. Almost six decades ago, nuclear chemistry established its roots in the Philippines under the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, presently the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The main areas of nuclear chemistry, namely, namely radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation biology, and isotopic chemistry have been studies, and have found applications in food and agriculture, medicine and health, in idustry, and in the protection of the environment. Early work in nuclear chemistry utilized the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) for the production of radioisotopes which were used in either research or direct applications in food and agriculture, health and medicine, and industry. The PRR-1 provided neutrons for the non destructive multi element analysis of various samples using the neutron activation analysis technique. Radioactive materials as sources of ionizing radiation are being used extensively to study the chemical and biological effects of radiation on matter. Current studies involve the irradiation of certain plants and insects causing changes in their DNA which result in mutation for better crop varieties and sterility in insects for quarantine treatment and pest management. Radiation can modify the properties of polymers. Natural polymers such as carrageenan, chitosan and cellulose in abaca and water hyacinth fibers are subjected to gamma irradiation changing their properties and resulting in new products such as wound drressing, hemostatic agents, plant growth promoters, and metal-chelating agents. Radioisotopes are also

  13. Developing an online chemistry laboratory for non-chemistry majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jacqueline H.

    Distance education, also known as online learning, is student-centered/self-directed educational opportunities. This style of learning is expanding in scope and is increasingly being accepted throughout the academic curriculum as a result of its flexibility for the student as well as the cost-effectiveness for the institution. Nevertheless, the introduction of online science courses including chemistry and physics have lagged behind due to the challenge of re-creation of the hands-on laboratory learning experience. This dissertation looks at the effectiveness of the design of a series of chemistry laboratory experiments for possible online delivery that provide students with simulated hands-on experiences. One class of college Chemistry 101 students conducted chemistry experiments inside and outside of the physical laboratory using instructions on Blackboard and Late Nite Labs(TM). Learning outcomes measured by (a) pretests, (b) written laboratory reports, (c) posttest assessments, (d) student reactions as determined by a questionnaire, and (e) a focus group interview were utilized to compare both types of laboratory experiences. The research findings indicated learning outcomes achieved by students outside of the traditional physical laboratory were statistically greater than the equivalent face-to-face instruction in the traditional laboratory. Evidence from student reactions comparing both types of laboratory formats (online and traditional face-to-face) indicated student preference for the online laboratory format. The results are an initial contribution to the design of a complete sequence of experiments that can be performed independently by online students outside of the traditional face-to-face laboratory that will satisfy the laboratory requirement for the two-semester college Chemistry 101 laboratory course.

  14. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arseneault

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  17. Improvement of coal tailings disposal via understanding of clay chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Kretser, R.G.; Boger, D.V. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The problem of montmorillonitic clay based tailings in the coal industry and their disposal is widely acknowledged and is still poorly understood in terms of the link between surface chemistry and the relevant engineering properties of the waste such as sedimentation rate and ultimate solids concentration, shear and compressive rheology. Often dewatering of coal tailings is inhibited by the presence of clays, making it difficult to obtain a high concentration, handleable coal tailings. The net result can be a low concentration, chocolate mousse-like tailings which poses significant sedimentation problems in a tailings dam and represents a significant environmental problem. This paper examines the coal tailings from a Hunter Valley colliery where the tailings properties are influenced significantly by the presence of montmorillonite clay. The results presented are of clear practical significance and indicate how coal tailings problems where clay dominates the rheology can be improved considerably by knowledge of the surface chemistry. (author). 1 table. 5 figs., 30 refs.

  18. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  19. Polymer Chemistry and Liposome Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tirrell, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Polymer chemistry has a great deal to offer in the construction of synthetic liposomal membranes for use in biology and medicine. This chapter explores the preparation and properties of polymeric liposomes , with particular emphasis on the use of controlled polyelectrolyte adsorption to manipulate liposomal membrane properties.

  20. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…