Sample records for chemistry industrial

  1. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharon S.


    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  2. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  3. Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis in Industry. (United States)

    Parshall, George W.; Putscher, Richard E.


    Traces the growth in the industrial usage of organometallic chemistry from 1950 to 1977, pointing out that this growth involved the production of commodity chemicals. Indicates that one of the early successes of organometallic chemistry was the discovery of ethylene polymerization catalysts. (JN)

  4. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry. (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  5. Academia-industry symbiosis in organic chemistry. (United States)

    Michaudel, Quentin; Ishihara, Yoshihiro; Baran, Phil S


    Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial "sponsoring" is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry's point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry's desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply "pure science" research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the "real world" at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate groups, thereby presenting an

  6. Academia–Industry Symbiosis in Organic Chemistry (United States)


    Conspectus Collaboration between academia and industry is a growing phenomenon within the chemistry community. These sectors have long held strong ties since academia traditionally trains the future scientists of the corporate world, but the recent drastic decrease of public funding is motivating the academic world to seek more private grants. This concept of industrial “sponsoring” is not new, and in the past, some companies granted substantial amounts of money per annum to various academic institutions in exchange for prime access to all their scientific discoveries and inventions. However, academic and industrial interests were not always aligned, and therefore the investment has become increasingly difficult to justify from industry’s point of view. With fluctuating macroeconomic factors, this type of unrestricted grant has become more rare and has been largely replaced by smaller and more focused partnerships. In our view, forging a partnership with industry can be a golden opportunity for both parties and can represent a true symbiosis. This type of project-specific collaboration is engendered by industry’s desire to access very specific academic expertise that is required for the development of new technologies at the forefront of science. Since financial pressures do not allow companies to spend the time to acquire this expertise and even less to explore fundamental research, partnering with an academic laboratory whose research is related to the problem gives them a viable alternative. From an academic standpoint, it represents the perfect occasion to apply “pure science” research concepts to solve problems that benefit humanity. Moreover, it offers a unique opportunity for students to face challenges from the “real world” at an early stage of their career. Although not every problem in industry can be solved by research developments in academia, we argue that there is significant scientific overlap between these two seemingly disparate

  7. Industrial chemistry and chemoecology are linked together to realize a modern and sustainable chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saling Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Meeting society's needs without damaging the environment requires new ways of thinking. The link of industrial chemistry and chemoecology will be one of the key factors of sustainable development within the chemicals industry.

  8. Integrating Chemistry and Engineering: A Course in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. (United States)

    Schrader, G. L.; And Others


    Describes an industrial and engineering chemistry course organized on a case-study approach. The course theme is process conceptualization (creation of chemical processing routes). Flowcharts/flowcharting, quantitative aspects of industrial chemistry, teaching the course, use of patents, student evaluation, and useful references are discussed. A…

  9. Workshop on: Chemistry of Metals in Medicine - The Industrial Perspective


    Sadler, Peter J.


    The Workshop was attended by 61 participants from 20 countries. Most of the speakers were industrialists and the Chairpersons and Discussion Leaders were academics. The area “Chemistry of Metals in Medicine” has the potential for producing innovative, high quality, and original research. This is a new and emerging area of biomedical chemistry. Small firms are already being established which are devoted to the new elemental medicine. Major pharmaceutical and healthcare industries too are becom...

  10. Computational Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Childhood to Adolescence. (United States)

    Hillisch, Alexander; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Wild, Hanno


    Computational chemistry within the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a field that proactively contributes to many aspects of drug design, including target selection and lead identification and optimization. While methodological advancements have been key to this development, organizational developments have been crucial to our success as well. In particular, the interaction between computational and medicinal chemistry and the integration of computational chemistry into the entire drug discovery process have been invaluable. Over the past ten years we have shaped and developed a highly efficient computational chemistry group for small-molecule drug discovery at Bayer HealthCare that has significantly impacted the clinical development pipeline. In this article we describe the setup and tasks of the computational group and discuss external collaborations. We explain what we have found to be the most valuable and productive methods and discuss future directions for computational chemistry method development. We share this information with the hope of igniting interesting discussions around this topic.

  11. M.S. Offered in Industrial Chemistry (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975


    Describes graduate training geared specifically to prepare students for work in industry. Reports on schools offering such a program, and outlines the major characteristics of each school's curriculum. (GS)

  12. Biocatalysis--key to sustainable industrial chemistry. (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland


    The ongoing trends to process improvements, cost reductions and increasing quality, safety, health and environment requirements of industrial chemical transformations have strengthened the translation of global biocatalysis research work into industrial applications. One focus has been on biocatalytic single-step reactions with one or two substrates, the identification of bottlenecks and molecular as well as engineering approaches to overcome these bottlenecks. Robust industrial procedures have been established along classes of biocatalytic single-step reactions. Multi-step reactions and multi-component reactions (MCRs) enable a bottom-up approach with biocatalytic reactions working together in one compartment and recations hindering each other within different compartments or steps. The understanding of the catalytic functions of known and new enzymes is key for the development of new sustainable chemical transformations.

  13. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  14. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl


    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology.

  15. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)


    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  16. Industrial Chemistry: A Series of New Courses at the Undergraduate Level. (United States)

    Jasinski, Jerry P.; Miller, Robert E.


    Describes four courses in the undergraduate bachelor of science program in industrial chemistry at Keene State College (NH). They are (1) introduction to industrial chemistry; (2) polymers--synthesis and separation techniques; (3) inorganic industrial processes; and (4) organic industrial processes. (JN)

  17. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and... Veterinary Medicinal Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information--...

  18. 75 FR 36421 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Postapproval Manufacturing Changes Reportable in Annual Reports; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``CMC Postapproval Manufacturing...

  19. Overview on the history of organofluorine chemistry from the viewpoint of material industry


    Okazoe, Takashi


    Fluorine (from “le fluor”, meaning “to flow”) is a second row element of Group 17 in the periodic table. When bound to carbon it forms the strongest bond in organic chemistry to give organofluorine compounds. The scientific field treating them, organofluorine chemistry, started before elemental fluorine itself was isolated. Applying the fruits in academia, industrial organofluorine chemistry has developed over 80 years via dramatic changes during World War II. Nowadays, it provides various ma...

  20. The JMB Applied Chemistry Syllabus--the Place of Case Studies and Industrial Processes (United States)

    Hallas, G.; Hughes, W. J.


    Describes two novel topics in the JMB Applied Chemistry Core Syllabus. These are the social and economic aspects of chemical technology, involving the use of six case studies, and industrial processes. (Author/GS)

  1. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando


    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  2. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)


    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  3. Biobased chemicals: the convergence of green chemistry with industrial biotechnology. (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Ritchie, Rachael J; Allan, Jacqueline E M


    Policy issues around biobased chemicals are similar to those for biobased plastics. However, there are significant differences that arise from differences in production volumes and the more specific applications of most chemicals. The drivers for biobased chemicals production are similar to those for biobased plastics, particularly the environmental drivers. However, in Europe, biobased chemical production is further driven by the need to improve the competitiveness of the chemicals industry.

  4. Egyptology in the service of learning chemistry in industrial engineering


    Javier Gimenez


    Ancient cultures or civilizations carried out different technological improvements without the knowledge of the scientific processes involved. At the Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB), some courses deal with the technological achievements in the antiquity and, in particular, one course deals with the achievements of the Ancient Egyptians, not only to learn what the Ancient Egyptians knew and made but also to look for scientific solutions to modern problems ...

  5. Integrating Chemistry Laboratory Instrumentation into the Industrial Internet: Building, Programming, and Experimenting with an Automatic Titrator (United States)

    Famularo, Nicole; Kholod, Yana; Kosenkov, Dmytro


    This project is designed to improve physical chemistry and instrumental analysis laboratory courses for undergraduate students by employing as teaching tools novel technologies in electronics and data integration using the industrial Internet. The project carried out by upper-division undergraduates is described. Students are exposed to a complete…

  6. A Probabilistic Approach to Examine the Effect of Chemistry Variations on Distortion During Industrial Gas Carburizing (United States)

    Sahay, Satyam S.; Deshmukh, Vinayak; El-Zein, Mohamad


    Industrial carburizing operations have been traditionally simulated for several decades by solving the diffusion equation. However, using this deterministic approach, it is difficult to capture batch-to-batch variations in the properties attributed to process and chemistry variations. In the current study, a probabilistic approach is used to capture the variations in process parameters and alloy chemistry. The advantage of this approach is illustrated through a case study on reduction in distortion variations as well as its absolute value during the carburizing operation. Finally, some of the opportunities and challenges in the carburizing simulation are discussed.

  7. The Adaptation of The Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Scale into Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal TOSUN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Inventory instrument into Turkish. Firstly permission from the developers of the instrument was sought. Thereafter, the items of the instrument were translated into Turkish. The translation validity of the scale was examined by referring to the views of English and Turkish language experts. Once the final form of the scale had been derived, an English language expert translated the items of the scale from Turkish to English. The results obtained from this translation indicated that the Turkish scale closely approximated the original English scale. Thus the translation and language validity of the instrument had been insured. Regarding the content validity of the scale, chemistry teachers were asked to examine the scale. Besides the scale was administered to the 416 high school students and several reliability analyses have been conducted such as Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient (.78, Sperman Brown coefficient of correlation (.68 and Guttman split- half reliability coefficient (.64. According to these findings, Industrial Chemistry Classroom Learning Environment Inventory is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in the concerned courses.

  8. Tropospheric Bromine Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury (United States)

    Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.


    We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  9. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella


    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1−8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  10. Tropospheric bromine chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Parrella


    Full Text Available We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic bromine (Bry coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of short-lived bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. Bromine chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1–8 nmol mol−1 (6.5% globally, with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of bromine chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. Bromine effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.

  11. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry... (United States)


    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September...

  12. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry... (United States)


    ... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated February 2012. The guidance...

  13. Consultancy in the Classroom: Using Industrial Chemistry in a Teaching Exercise (United States)

    Ottewill, Geraldine A.; Walsh, Frank C.


    A consultancy enquiry, telephoned to a university chemistry department has been used as the basis of a classwork program designed to develop a variety of skills including team working and project management in addition to the application of chemical knowledge. The consultancy enquiry came from a small industrial electroplating company and concerned the removal of copper (II) ions from rinse water as part of a surface finishing process fro printed circuit boards. This teamwork exercise was formulated, not only to deliver academic learning but also to enhance transferable skills and improve industrial awareness. A set of model process data was provided for the students and they were asked to address the following series of questions: a. How could the amount of copper in the rinse water be reduced? b. What were the environmental implications of metal ion contamination and water remediation techniques could be used? c. How could copper be recovered in metallic form? d. Could feasibility be demonstrated experimentally? e. If an electrolytic process were used, what current would be needed and for how long? f. How could the copper concentration be monitored? Through this sophisticated education role play the class learns a good deal about the role of an industrial consultant.

  14. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  15. Statistical applications for chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) in the pharmaceutical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdick, Richard K; Pfahler, Lori B; Quiroz, Jorge; Sidor, Leslie; Vukovinsky, Kimberly; Zhang, Lanju


    This book examines statistical techniques that are critically important to Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control (CMC) activities. Statistical methods are presented with a focus on applications unique to the CMC in the pharmaceutical industry. The target audience consists of statisticians and other scientists who are responsible for performing statistical analyses within a CMC environment. Basic statistical concepts are addressed in Chapter 2 followed by applications to specific topics related to development and manufacturing. The mathematical level assumes an elementary understanding of statistical methods. The ability to use Excel or statistical packages such as Minitab, JMP, SAS, or R will provide more value to the reader. The motivation for this book came from an American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) short course on statistical methods applied to CMC applications presented by four of the authors. One of the course participants asked us for a good reference book, and the only book recomm...

  16. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived... (United States)


    ... Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates... fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and related drug products for veterinary medicinal...

  17. 75 FR 47604 - Guidance for Industry on Drug Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information... (United States)


    ... Substance Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...) information for drug substances that should be submitted to support original new animal drug applications... of information in section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360b) have...

  18. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华


    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  19. Processo químico industrial de extração de óleo vegetal: um experimento de química geral Chemical industrial process of vegetable oil extraction: an experiment for teaching general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vianna


    Full Text Available In this study we describe an experimental procedure based on a chemical industrial process of soya-bean oil extraction applied in general chemistry for undergraduate students. The experiment was planned according to the Science, Technology and Society (STS approach to teach basic chemical concepts and provide grounding in the management of environmental care. The use of real life chemistry problems seems to salient the relevance of chemistry to our students and enhances their motivation to learn both the practical and theoretical components of the discipline.

  20. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.


    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  1. Organocatalysis: Key Trends in Green Synthetic Chemistry, Challenges, Scope towards Heterogenization, and Importance from Research and Industrial Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Rajjak Shaikh


    Full Text Available This paper purports to review catalysis, particularly the organocatalysis and its origin, key trends, challenges, examples, scope, and importance. The definition of organocatalyst corresponds to a low molecular weight organic molecule which in stoichiometric amounts catalyzes a chemical reaction. In this review, the use of the term heterogenized organocatalyst will be exclusively confined to a catalytic system containing an organic molecule immobilized onto some sort of support material and is responsible for accelerating a chemical reaction. Firstly, a brief description of the field is provided putting it in a green and sustainable perspective of chemistry. Next, research findings on the use of organocatalysts on various inorganic supports including nano(porousmaterials, nanoparticles, silica, and zeolite/zeolitic materials are scrutinized in brief. Then future scope, research directions, and academic and industrial applications will be outlined. A succinct account will summarize some of the research and developments in the field. This review tries to bring many outstanding researches together and shows the vitality of the organocatalysis through several aspects.

  2. Effect of industrial dust on precipitation chemistry in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) from 1850 to 2013. (United States)

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Krám, Pavel; Oulehle, Filip; Posch, Maximilian


    Using statistical relationships between the composition of precipitation at eight long-term monitoring stations and emission rates of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds, as well as industrial dust in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Central Europe), we modelled historic pH and concentrations of sulphate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), base cations (BC), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) in bulk precipitation from 1850 to 2013. Our model suggests that concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), and HCO3(-) were similar (11-16 μeq l(-1)) in 1850. Cations were dominated by NH4(+) and BC (24-27 μeq l(-1)) and precipitation pH was >5.6. The carbonate buffering system was depleted around 1920 and precipitation further acidified at an exponential rate until the 1980s, when concentrations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), Cl(-), NH4(+) and BC reached maxima of 126, 55, 16, 76, and 57 μeq l(-1), respectively, and pH decreased to 4.2. Dust emissions from industrial sources were an important source of BC. Without their contribution, pH would have decreased to 4.0 in the 1980s, and the carbonate buffering system would have been depleted already in the 1870s. Since the late 1980s, concentrations of strong acid anions and BC have decreased by 46-81% (i.e. more than in Europe on average) due to a 53-93% reduction in regional emissions of S and N compounds and dust from industrial and agricultural sources. The present composition of precipitation is similar to the late 19th century, except for NO3(-) concentrations, which are similar to those during 1926-1950. Precipitation pH now exceeds 5.0, the carbonate buffering system has been re-established, and HCO3(-) has again become (after almost a century) a significant component of precipitation chemistry.

  3. Incorporating a Soap Industry Case Study to Motivate and Engage Students in the Chemistry of Daily Life (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad A.


    The global trend of the declining interest in chemistry education is a major concern. Over the last few decades, significant efforts and improvements have been made in various areas of chemistry education research to increase student motivation and engagement based on classroom and laboratory practices. However, little research has been conducted…

  4. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia


    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  5. Fenton chemistry-based detemplation of an industrially relevant microcrystalline beta zeolite. Optimization and scaling-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Iniesta, Maria Jesus; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio


    A mild template removal of microcrystalline beta zeolite, based on Fenton chemistry, was optimized. Fenton detemplation was studied in terms of applicability conditions window, reaction rate and scale up. TGA and CHN elemental analysis were used to evaluate the detemplation effectiveness, while 'CP,

  6. Sustainable Chemistry, the Spinning Tube-in-Tube (STT(R)) Reactor and GREENSCOPE: Innovation and Industrial Partnerships (United States)

    The chemical industry faces environmental, social and health challenges that are common across all economic sectors. From worker exposure to toxic substances, to product design and use, to the cost and handling of waste disposal, the industry must overcome numerous complex hurdle...

  7. Litter chemistry prevails over litter consumers in mediating effects of past steel industry activities on leaf litter decomposition. (United States)

    Lucisine, Pierre; Lecerf, Antoine; Danger, Michaël; Felten, Vincent; Aran, Delphine; Auclerc, Apolline; Gross, Elisabeth M; Huot, Hermine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Muller, Serge; Nahmani, Johanne; Maunoury-Danger, Florence


    Soil pollution has adverse effects on the performance and life history traits of microorganisms, plants, and animals, yet evidence indicates that even the most polluted sites can support structurally-complex and dynamic ecosystems. The present study aims at determining whether and how litter decomposition, one of the most important soil ecological processes leaf, is affected in a highly trace-metal polluted site. We postulated that past steel mill activities resulting in soil pollution and associated changes in soil characteristics would influence the rate of litter decomposition through two non-exclusive pathways: altered litter chemistry and responses of decomposers to lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. We carried out a litter-bag experiment using Populus tremula L. leaf litter collected at, and allowed to decompose in, a trace metal polluted site and in three unpolluted sites used as controls. We designed a fully-factorial transplant experimental design to assess effects of litter origin and exposure site on the rate of litter decomposition. We further determined initial litter chemistry, fungal biomass, mesofauna abundance in litter bags, and the soil macrofauna community. Irrespective of the site of litter exposure, litter originating from the polluted site had a two-fold faster decomposition than litter from the unpolluted sites. Litter chemistry, notably the lignin content, seemed most important in explaining the degradation rate of the leaf litter. Abundance of meso and macro-detritivores was higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted sites. However, litter decomposition proceeded at similar rates in polluted and unpolluted sites. Our results show that trace metal pollution and associated soil and litter changes do not necessarily weaken consumer control on litter decomposition through lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress.

  8. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke


    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  9. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The French membranes club (CFM), with the sustain of the French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized this meeting which aims to present the most recent industrial realizations in the domain of membrane processes in the chemistry and energy generation sectors. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations: 1 - hydrogen purification and CO{sub 2} extraction: development of polymer matrix and metal nano-particulate hybrid membranes for selective membrane applications; study of silicone-based mixed matrix membranes for hydrogen purification via inverse selectivity principle; CO{sub 2} capture from gaseous effluents for its sequestration: role and limitations of membrane processes; membranes and processes for the abatement of the acid gas content of smokes; new structural model for Nafion{sup R} membranes, the benchmark polymer for low temperature fuel cells; 2 - molecular screen-based membranes: MFI-alumina nano-composite ceramic membranes: preparation and characterization, gaseous transport and separation; characterization and permeation properties of supported MFI membranes; in-situ measurement of butane isomers diffusion in MFI zeolite membranes through transient permeation tests; 3 - vapors separation: stability of silver particulates in PA12-PTMO/AgBF{sub 4} composite membranes and its effect on the easier ethylene transport inside these membranes; 4 - separation of liquid organic mixtures: isomers separation using cyclo-dextrins bearing membranes: application to the extraction and separation of xylene isomers; electrodialysis in organic environment: application to the electro-synthesis; study of polymer materials permeability; 5 - treatment of industrial waters: use of NanoFlux software in the modeling of nano-filtration membrane processes in the chemical industry: elimination of sulfate impurities from 'Chloralkali' brines; ultra-filtration of a wastewater containing partially emulsified oil; efficiency of a hybrid membrane separation

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry of (CF3)2CF-C≡N: A Replacement Compound for the Most Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gas, SF6. (United States)

    Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P; Kyte, Mildrid; Andersen, Simone Thirstrup; Nielsen, Claus J; Nielsen, Ole John


    FTIR/smog chamber experiments and ab initio quantum calculations were performed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFCN, a proposed replacement compound for the industrially important sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The present study determined k(Cl + (CF3)2CFCN) = (2.33 ± 0.87) × 10(-17), k(OH + (CF3)2CFCN) = (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-15), and k(O3 + (CF3)2CFCN) ≤ 6 × 10(-24) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, in 700 Torr of N2 or air diluent at 296 ± 2 K. The main atmospheric sink for (CF3)2CFCN was determined to be reaction with OH radicals. Quantum chemistry calculations, supported by experimental evidence, shows that the (CF3)2CFCN + OH reaction proceeds via OH addition to -C(≡N), followed by O2 addition to -C(OH)═N·, internal H-shift, and OH regeneration. The sole atmospheric degradation products of (CF3)2CFCN appear to be NO, COF2, and CF3C(O)F. The atmospheric lifetime of (CF3)2CFCN is approximately 22 years. The integrated cross section (650-1500 cm(-1)) for (CF3)2CFCN is (2.22 ± 0.11) × 10(-16) cm(2) molecule(-1) cm(-1) which results in a radiative efficiency of 0.217 W m(-2) ppb(-1). The 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP) for (CF3)2CFCN was calculated as 1490, a factor of 15 less than that of SF6.

  11. Green chemistry & the sustainable development of leather industry%绿色化学和技术与皮革工业的可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭让; 林炜


    More and more people are engaged in the research and development of green chemistry for tannery in the background of serious environment pollution. The only outway for the sustainable development of leather industry is developing and utilization of less polluted chemicals, clean technology, reusing and quantitative transforming of solid tannery wastes. Some practical techniques and measures were also given.%由环境污染带来的各种灾难,迫使人们研究和实施制革工业的绿色化学与技术。文章不仅提出少污染皮革化学品、清洁制革工艺技术以及皮革固体废弃物资源化和高值转化是制革工业可持续发展的必经之路,而且就制革绿色化学与技术提供了一些切实可行的方法与措施。

  12. Teaching Teachers Industrial Organic (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977


    Describes a teacher seminar held at the University of Minnesota to introduce the addition of courses of industrial chemistry into higher education science curriculums in order to better prepare college science graduates for positions in industry. (SL)

  13. Summer Course Promotes Polymer Chemistry for Small Colleges. (United States)

    Stinson, Stephen


    Describes a three-week summer program teaching selected chemistry faculty how to incorporate polymer chemistry into chemistry courses. In addition to lectures, the program conducted many experiments and provided a trip to industry laboratories. (YP)

  14. 77 FR 43131 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry... (United States)


    ... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... determined that the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

  15. 78 FR 13142 - Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry... (United States)


    ... Designation of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... of the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry Industries (PCI... determined that the Center for Innovation and Technology Cooperation (CITC), Pentane Chemistry...

  16. Introducing Chemistry Students to the "Real World" of Chemistry (United States)

    Brown, Michael E.; Cosser, Ronald C.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Kaye, Perry T.; Klein, Rosalyn; Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Lobb, Kevin; Nyokong, Tebello; Sewry, Joyce D.; Tshentu, Zenixole R.; van der Zeyde, Tino; Watkins, Gareth M.


    A majority of chemistry graduates seek employment in a rapidly changing chemical industry. Our attempts to provide the graduates with skills in entrepreneurship and the ability to understand and communicate with their chemical engineering colleagues, in addition to their fundamental knowledge of chemistry, are described. This is done at…

  17. Industry-Oriented Doctorate Established. (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982


    Describes an industry-related program at the University of Texas (Arlington) leading to a Doctorate of Science in Applied Chemistry. The program requires an industrial internship and a dissertation based on research involving both the university's chemistry faculty and chemists in industry. (SK)

  18. Colour Chemistry (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.


    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  19. Chemistry Dashboard (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  20. Chemistry Notes (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976


    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  1. Biophysical chemistry. (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas


    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  2. Heterocyclic chemistry


    Hemming, Karl


    Recent progress in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds is presented\\ud 2010 offered highlights in pericyclic chemistry, particularly 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry, asymmetric synthesis, gold catalysis, organocatalysis, hydroamination, C–H activation and multicomponent reactions.

  3. Monitoramento atmosférico passivo de SO2, NO2 e O3 em áreas urbanas e de influência industrial como prática de química ambiental para alunos de graduação Atmospheric passive monitoring of SO2, NO2 and O3 in urban areas and in those under industrial influence as an environmental chemistry experiment for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia P. Campos


    Full Text Available This study is a result of undergraduate student participation in the Environmental Chemistry discipline provided by the Chemistry Institute/UFBA. The students were involved in the development of passive samplers, a project of the LAQUAM (Environmental Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The students' residences and other neighborhoods were used to create a passive sampling network, allowing the measurement of atmospheric levels of pollutants in urban areas and in those under industrial influence. The assembly of the passive samplers, including impregnation of filters and chemical analysis were part of the students' practice tasks. The results were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian legislation.

  4. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John


    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  5. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James


    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  6. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY


    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  7. Forensic chemistry. (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne


    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  8. Desafios da química analítica frente às necessidades da indústria farmacêutica Challenges of analytical chemistry in face of the needs of the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto dos Santos Pereira


    Full Text Available The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS techniques in the last few decades has made possible the analysis of trace amounts of analytes from complex matrices. With LC, the analytes of interest can be separated from each other as well as from the interfering matrix, after which they can be reliably identified thanks to the sensitivity and specificity of MS. LC-MS has become an irreplaceable tool for many applications, ranging from the analysis of proteins or pharmaceuticals in biological fluids to the analysis of toxic substances in environmental samples. In different segments of Brazilian Industry mass spectrometry has an important role, e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry in the development of generic formulations, contributing to the growth of Industry and social inclusion. However, the Brazilian chemists until this moment don't have an effective role in this new segment of the analytical chemistry in Brazil. The present paper shows the actual scenario for mass spectrometry in the pharmaceutical industry, emphasizing the need of a revision of graduation courses to attend the needs of this growing market.

  9. Computational chemistry



    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  10. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  11. Bioinorganic Chemistry


    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone


    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  12. Chemistry Technology (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  13. Cocrystal Controlled Solid-State Synthesis: A Green Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Cheney, Miranda L.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Beaton, Steve; Singer, Robert D.


    Green chemistry has become an important area of concern for all chemists from practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry to professors and the students they teach and is now being incorporated into lectures of general and organic chemistry courses. However, there are relatively few green chemistry experiments that are easily incorporated into…

  14. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry. (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T


    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  15. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J


    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  16. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Improvement on the Preparation Method of A Complex [ Co(NH3) 5 Cl] Cl2 for Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易正戟; 刘洋; 毛芳芳; 崔莺; 陈满生


    Preparation of the coordination compound [ Co ( NH3 ) 5 Cl ] Cl2 is an important inorganic synthesis experiment for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry course. However,according to the textbook operation, not only the yield of target product was low and some by-products were produced, but also the volatilization of HCl and NH3 would cause atmosphere pollution. Meanwhile, the target coordination compound detection gave rise to the waste of much valuable reagent AgNO3 . On the basis of green chemistry principle, the key procedure and reagent dosage for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry experiment’ for preparing a kind of Co(III) complex were improved. Therefore, the reactant amount of AgNO3 was saved, the yield and purity of the coordination product were increased, and the effect of environmental protection was also achieved.%配位化合物[ Co( NH3)5 Cl] Cl2的制备是大学无机化学课程中一个重要的无机合成实验,但按照教材中的步骤进行操作,不但产率低、易生成其它副产物,而且HCl和NH3气体的挥发容易造成大气污染;同时,目标配合物的检测会造成大量贵重试剂AgNO3的浪费。基于绿色化学理念,针对教材中“一种Co( III)配合物的制备”相关的关键步骤和药品用量进行了改进和创新,节省了AgNO3试剂的用量,提高了产品的产率和纯度,同时也达到了环保的效果。

  17. Nitrous Oxide from Combustion and Industry: Chemistry, Emissions and Control Protoxyde d'azote provenant de la combustion et de l'industrie : chimie, émissions et techniques de réduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G.


    Full Text Available After an Introductory Part, presenting a survey of the present knowledge of nitrous oxide chemistry related to fossil fuel combustion and flue gas treatment, as a background for the understanding of emission factors, the paper deals successively with the average N2O emission factors from combustion and other industrial sources, and gives guidelines for appropriate N2O control technology ; with respect to the former item, some comments and criticisms on the 1991 OEDC/IPCC Report are formulated. As far as updated emission sources are concerned, emphasis is put on those which presently constitute issues : emissions from fluidized bed combustors, emissions caused by non catalytic selective NO reduction by ammonia and urea injection, N2O emissions caused by the use of automotive three-way catalysts as well as emissions from nitric acid and adipic acid manufacturing and from municipal wastes and sewage sludges incineration. Comments on the 1991 OEDC/IPCC Report mainly emphasize : (1 the surprising absence of emission factors from stationary combustion facilities and the inadequacy of some of the scarcely presented data, (2 the strange ignorance of the important effect of aging of three-way catalysts on the emission of N2O from gasoline vehicles. These omissions are the more surprising since reliable information in these two fields were already available at the period the OEDC Report was issued and or revised. For the assessment of adequate N2O control technologies, there is an urgent need for further R&D work. Presently existing understanding of homogeneous and heterogeneous N2O chemistry may provide interesting hints for N2O control, either by gas phase treatment or by catalytic reduction, depending on the concentration levels present in the off-gases to be treated. Le but de cet article est double : d'une part il fait le point sur les facteurs d'émission de N2O provenant de la combustion des combustibles fossiles et de certains autres secteurs de l'industrie

  18. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere (United States)

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  19. Analytical Chemistry in Russia. (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri


    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  20. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P


    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  1. Introductory Chemistry


    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss


    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  2. Nuclear Chemistry. (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979


    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  3. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D


    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  4. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie


    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  5. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  6. Attribution of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide at Texas City during SHARP/formaldehyde and olefins from large industrial releases (FLAIR) using an adjoint chemistry transport model (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P.; Herndon, Scott C.; Buzcu-Guven, Birnur; Kolb, Charles E.; Brown, Michael J.; Cuclis, Alex E.


    adjoint version of the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) neighborhood air quality model with 200 m horizontal resolution, coupled offline to the Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC-URB) fast response urban wind model, was used to perform 4-D variational (4Dvar) inverse modeling of an industrial release of formaldehyde (HCHO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Texas City, Texas during the 2009 Study of Houston Atmospheric Radical Precursors (SHARP). The source attribution was based on real-time observations by the Aerodyne mobile laboratory and a high resolution 3-D digital model of the emitting petrochemical complex and surrounding urban canopy. The inverse model estimate of total primary HCHO emitted during the incident agrees very closely with independent remote sensing estimates based on both Imaging and Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Whereas a previous analysis of Imaging DOAS data attributed the HCHO release to a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU), the HARC model attributed most of the HCHO event emissions to both the FCCU and desulfurization processes. Fugitives contributed significantly to primary HCHO, as did combustion processes, whereas the latter accounted for most SO2 event emissions. The inferred HCHO-to-SO2 molar emission ratio was similar to that computed directly from ambient air measurements during the release. The model-estimated HCHO-to-CO molar emission ratio for combustion units with significant inferred emissions ranged from 2% to somewhat less than 7%, consistent with other observationally-based estimates obtained during SHARP. A model sensitivity study demonstrated that the inclusion of urban morphology has a significant, but not critical, impact on the source attribution.

  7. Pre-industrial to End 21st Century Projections of Tropospheric Ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) (United States)

    Young, P. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Bowman, K. W.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tilmes, S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Wild, O.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Cionni, I.; Collins, W. J.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Faluvegi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Strode, S. A.


    Present day tropospheric ozone and its changes between 1850 and 2100 are considered, analysing 15 global models that participated in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The ensemble mean compares well against present day observations. The seasonal cycle correlates well, except for some locations in the tropical upper troposphere. Most (75 %) of the models are encompassed with a range of global mean tropospheric ozone column estimates from satellite data, but there is a suggestion of a high bias in the Northern Hemisphere and a low bias in the Southern Hemisphere, which could indicate deficiencies with the ozone precursor emissions. Compared to the present day ensemble mean tropospheric ozone burden of 337+/-23 Tg, the ensemble mean burden for 1850 time slice is approx. 30% lower. Future changes were modelled using emissions and climate projections from four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Compared to 2000, the relative changes in the ensemble mean tropospheric ozone burden in 2030 (2100) for the different RCPs are: -4% (-16 %) for RCP2.6, 2% (-7%) for RCP4.5, 1% (-9%) for RCP6.0, and 7% (18 %) for RCP8.5. Model agreement on the magnitude of the change is greatest for larger changes. Reductions in most precursor emissions are common across the RCPs and drive ozone decreases in all but RCP8.5, where doubled methane and a 40-150% greater stratospheric influx (estimated from a subset of models) increase ozone. While models with a high ozone burden for the present day also have high ozone burdens for the other time slices, no model consistently predicts large or small ozone changes; i.e. the magnitudes of the burdens and burden changes do not appear to be related simply, and the models are sensitive to emissions and climate changes in different ways. Spatial patterns of ozone changes are well correlated across most models, but are notably different for models without time evolving stratospheric ozone concentrations

  8. Education: Chemistry Faculty Job Mobility Surveyed. (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1981


    Summarizes results of a survey undertaking to describe the extent of movement of chemistry faculty members (N=1207) from academic to industrial positions. Numbers of male and female faculty within categories of reasons for leaving are also reported. (CS)

  9. Collection Development: Celebrating Chemistry, February 1, 2011 (United States)

    Hamm, Susannah


    A hundred years after Marie Curie received her Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this arm of science is pointing the way to a more sustainable future. Growing movements like green chemistry, which strives to create alternative and new chemical reactions that produce no harmful waste products, and molecular engineering hold great potential for industry,…

  10. Updating the EPRI guidelines (water chemistry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Welty, C.S.; Wood, C.J.


    Significant improvements in water chemistry have been achieved in recent years at US nuclear plants, at least in part as a result of implementing water chemistry guidelines. These guidelines were prepared by industry committees, comprised of utilities and NSSS vendors and chaired by EPRI.

  11. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.


    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  12. Polymer Chemistry (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne


    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  13. QDB: Validated Plasma Chemistries Database (United States)

    Rahimi, Sara; Hamilton, James; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan; UCL Team


    One of most challenging recurring problems when modelling plasmas is the lack of data. This lack of complete and validated datasets hinders research on plasma processes and curbs development of industrial Applications. We will describe the QDB project which aims to fill this missing link by provide a platform for exchange and validation of chemistry datasets. The database will collate published data on both electron scattering and heavy particle reactions and also facilitates and encourages peer-to-peer data sharing by its users. This data platform is rigorously supported by the validation methodical validation of the datasetsan automated chemistry generator employed; this methodology identifies missing reactions in chemistries which although important are currently unreported in the literature and employs mathematical methods to analyze the importance of these chemistries. Gaps in the datasets are filled using in house theoretical methods.

  14. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)


    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  15. Discovery of practical production processes for arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides: Beginning of a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Umemoto


    Full Text Available Various arylsulfur pentafluorides, ArSF5, have long been desired in both academic and industrial areas, and ArSF5 compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas such as medicines, agrochemicals, and other new materials, since the highly stable SF5 group is considered a “super-trifluoromethyl group” due to its significantly higher electronegativity and lipophilicity. This article describes the first practical method for the production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, bis- and tris(sulfur pentafluorides, from the corresponding diaryl disulfides or aryl thiols. The method consists of two steps: (Step 1 treatment of a diaryl disulfide or an aryl thiol with chlorine in the presence of an alkali metal fluoride, and (step 2 treatment of the resulting arylsulfur chlorotetrafluoride with a fluoride source, such as ZnF2, HF, and Sb(III/V fluorides. The intermediate arylsulfur chlorotetrafluorides were isolated by distillation or recrystallization and characterized. The aspects of these new reactions are revealed and reaction mechanisms are discussed. As the method offers considerable improvement over previous methods in cost, yield, practicality, applicability, and large-scale production, the new processes described here can be employed as the first practical methods for the economical production of various arylsulfur pentafluorides and their higher homologues, which could then open up a new era of “super-trifluoromethyl” arene chemistry and its applications in many areas.

  16. A robotic system for the educational chemistry laboratory: Integrating a SCARA light industrial robot with ordinary laboratory devices to perform chemical operations (United States)

    Johnson, Wes W.

    Laboratory robotics had its origins in devices constructed to perform specific and invariant mechanical operations in the chemical laboratory. Examples of this type of automation equipment include: automatic titrators, fraction collectors, and autoanalyzers. With the advancements in the electronics and computer industries, it has been possible to build more flexible automated devices, which we now call robots. Programmable robots can be taught to do a variety of routine procedures and are a valuable asset in the chemical laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to be able to initially set up or modify an existing automation without the assistance of a vendor expert. Automation manufacturers often impose restrictions on how a device may be used and reconfiguration of the device by the user is usually too complex for the average technician. Also, it is not uncommon to find automated systems that only support the use of one manufacturer's balance, diluter, or other device. This approach simplifies the work needed in the development and manufacturing processes of the robotic system. But, by neglecting to design systems that can accept a wide range of third party equipment, the manufacturer restricts the user's ability to independently design unique applications. To address these issues, an example robotic system was constructed at the University of Cincinnati (UC). In this work, the feasibility of creating a simple and flexible automation using ordinary laboratory devices controlled via RS-232 was investigated. The system devised can control any device that is RS-232 compatible and can be reconfigured to accept new devices easily. The basis for this system is ASCII text definition files used by the control software. The software uses the configuration information, including ASCII command sets, to implement control of the RS-232 devices. A common pharmacuetical analysis (The Acid Neutralizing Capacity of OTC Antacids) was selected and implemented using

  17. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach (United States)

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.


    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  18. Sustainable chemistry metrics. (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García


    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences.

  19. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A


    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  20. Computational chemistry (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.


    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  1. Polymer Chemistry--An Elective in the New Leaving Chemistry Course: A Method of Teaching It (United States)

    Lister, G.


    A scheme is suggested for teaching concepts of polymer chemistry. Laboratory activities are suggested for the major topics. Interrelationships of different industrial uses of polymers are emphasized during the course. (PS)

  2. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry


    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  3. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR


    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney


    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  5. Green chemistry: science and politics of change. (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Farren, Trevor R; Anastas, Paul T


    The chemical industry plays a key role in sustaining the world economy and underpinning future technologies, yet is under unprecedented pressure from the effects of globalization and change in many of its traditional markets. Against this background, what will be needed for the industry to embrace efforts to make it "greener"? We explore some of the issues raised by the development of "green chemistry" techniques and identify potential barriers to their implementation by industry.

  6. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca


    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  7. Astronomical chemistry. (United States)

    Klemperer, William


    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  8. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  9. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  10. The solving of chemistry problems


    Pranukevičienė, Laima


    Modern youth will live in the world of quick changes when industrial society will change into information society. That’s why the reform of Lithuanian Education faces changes according to present information requirements. The shortage of appropriate program equipment is a serious obstacle to successful integration of computer science into educational process. Teaching chemistry we can do much accommodating various innovations, creating new teaching facilities, using experiments and modelin...

  11. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  12. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry. (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca


    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  13. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)


    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  14. Pollution prevention through chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J.J.; Anastas, P.T.; Hassur, S.M.; Tobin, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics


    Prosperity without pollution, and the consideration of how to achieve this economic and environmental imperative, has become the fundamental environmental theme of the 1990s. The new strategy--pollution prevention--will serve s the keystone of federal, state, and local environmental policy. The challenge is to switch from two decades of environmental policy based on pollution controls and government-mandated regulations to a future environmental policy based on pollution prevention, source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization. To make this change will require a new social compact among environmental, industrial, and regulatory interests. This chapter focuses on the role of chemistry and the contributions of synthetic and process analytical chemists. It also describes the implementation of pollution prevention concepts into the premanufacturing notice review process mandated by Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and discusses the implications of pollution prevention for chemical safety. 55 refs.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.


    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP;, the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  16. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry


    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar


    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  17. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN


    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  18. The Chemistry behind Special Effects in Film and Television (United States)

    Short, Daniel B.; Badger, Paul D.


    The chemistry behind practical special effects in the film and television industry is discussed, along with examples of commonly used chemical demonstrations that simulate them in the laboratory. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. The global business of chemistry:prospects and challenges


    Swift, T.K. (Thomas)


    The global business of chemistry has faced numerous challenges in recent years. This article addresses the near-term business environment in which the industry will operate as well as the implications for the global business of chemistry during 2006 and 2007.

  20. The Industrial Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds. (United States)

    Gilbert, G.


    Describes methods for enriching an A-level chemistry course with a series of chemical company visits. The rationale is discussed for an emphasis of the visits on the industrial reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. (CS)

  1. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry. (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie


    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  2. PREFACE: 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry (United States)


    The 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry is an international conference organized by 4 chemistry departments of 4 universities in central Java, Indonesia. The universities are Sebelas Maret University, Diponegoro University, Semarang State University and Soedirman University. The venue was at Solo, Indonesia, at September 8-9, 2015. The total conference participants are 133 including the invited speakers. The conference emphasized the multidisciplinary chemical issue and impact of today's sustainable chemistry which covering the following topics: • Material innovation for sustainable goals • Development of renewable and sustainable energy based on chemistry • New drug design, experimental and theoretical methods • Green synthesis and characterization of material (from molecule to functionalized materials) • Catalysis as core technology in industry • Natural product isolation and optimization

  3. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.


    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  4. 我国18项干化学检测项目参考区间调查及与已发布和即将发布的卫生行业标准的比较和分析%Comparison and analysis on the reference intervals of Chinese 18 dry chemistry items with current health industry standards and draft for approval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟堃; 王薇; 何法霖; 王治国


    目的:对我国医院检验科干化学检验项目的参考区间进行调查和分析,并与现行和即将发布的卫生行业标准进行比较,全面了解我国医院检验科干化学检验项目的参考区间应用情况。方法采用基于Web方式的室间质量评价(EQA)软件系统收集参加2014年全国干化学和常规化学参考区间调查的实验室上报数据,利用单样本t检验等统计方法对数据进行分析。结果有83.3%(30/36)的项目参考区间上、下限与卫生行业标准存在差异(P<0.05)。有83.3%(20/24)的项目男、女性参考区间上、下限与卫生行业标准存在差异(P<0.05)。有73.6%(53/72)的项目按检测系统分组得出的参考区间上、下限与卫生行业标准存在差异(P<0.05)。结论我国干化学检验项目目前应用的参考区间与卫生行业标准存在一定的差异,建议建立中国人群干化学检验项目的参考区间。%Objective To investigate the current application status of reference intervals for dry chemistry items in China,and compare with current health industry standards and draft for approval. Methods By Web-based external quality assessment(EQA) software system,the submitted data from the laboratories, which attended national reference interval investigation for dry chemistry and routine chemistry,2014,were collected. Statistical methods,such as single-sample t determination,were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 83.3%(30/36) of reference interval upper and lower limits had differences compared with those from health industry standards (P<0.05),and 83.3%(20/24)of male and female reference interval upper and lower limits had significantly statistical differences compared with those from health industry standards(P<0.05). The 73.6%(53/72)of measurement system reference interval upper and lower limits had significantly statistical differences compared with those from health industry standards(P<0

  5. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya


    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  6. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.


    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  7. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  8. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum. (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.


    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  9. Chemistry for Potters. (United States)

    Denio, Allen A.


    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik


    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  12. Green Chemistry and Education. (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.


    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Gregory


    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  14. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  15. Green Chemistry, Green Engineering and Eco-Innovation Towards a More Sustainable Petrochemical Industry: Determinants of Brazilian Petrochemical Companies´ Engagement in GCE-Based Eco-Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Freire da Silva (Paulo)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ It is the general wisdom, within the petrochemical industrial sector, that technological changes, for the development of cleaner products, processes and services, is a basic requirement for companies to achieve advanced states of environmental and economic sustainabilit

  16. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S


    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  17. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK


    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  18. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry (United States)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  19. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry


    Zuhal GERÇEK


    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  20. The development of chemistry at the National Medical Institute, 1888-1915


    Schifter, Liliana; Head Professor, Department of Biological Systems, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco; Aceves Pastrana, Patricia; Head Professor, Department of Biological Systems, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco


    In the present paper we analyze the contributions of the National Medical Institute (NMI) to the development of chemistry in Mexico at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century mainly through the work carried out in two of its sections: Analytical chemistry and Department of Industrial Chemistry. NMI had the most modern laboratories of the time for the advancement of analytical chemistry, where leading scientists carried out research with the common goal of investigating t...

  1. Pierre-Joseph Macquer: Chemistry in the French Enlightenment. (United States)

    Lehman, Christine


    Despite recent studies of chemistry courses and of academic research at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the perception of chemistry in the French Enlightenment has often been overshadowed by Lavoisier's works. This article proposes three specific case studies selected from Pierre Joseph Macquer's (1718-84) rich career to show the continuous evolution of chemistry throughout the century: medicinal chemistry through the application of the Comte de La Garaye's metallic salt solutions, the emergence of industrial chemistry through a few of Macquer's evaluations at the Bureau du Commerce, and finally communal academic research through the experiments on diamonds using Tschirnhaus's lens. These examples attempt to illustrate the innovative, creative, dynamic, multicultural, and multifaceted chemistry of the Enlightenment.

  2. Medicinal chemistry matters - a call for discipline in our discipline. (United States)

    Johnstone, Craig


    Medicinal chemistry makes a vital contribution to small molecule drug discovery, and the quality of it contributes directly to research effectiveness as well as to downstream costs, speed and survival in development. In recent years, the discipline of medicinal chemistry has evolved and witnessed many noteworthy contributions that propose and offer potential improvements to medicinal chemistry practice; however, the impact of these ideas is limited by their acceptance and deployment into every-day activity and, as a result, the quality of medicinal chemistry remains variable. For the good of the industry and the medicinal chemistry discipline, there is a need to move from retrospective learning to prospective control of medicinal chemistry practice to improve cost effectiveness, probability of success and survival rates.

  3. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren


    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.


    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP;, the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  5. Better Tomorrow of China Rubber Chemicals Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    I. Development of China Rubber Chemicals Industry During the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, China rubber Chemicals industry fully implemented the development guideline of "Adhering to science and technology development, developing green chemistry with environmental protection, safety and energy conservation as the core, and building enterprise and world brands". With the great support of the state,

  6. Combinatorial computational chemistry approach for materials design: applications in deNOx catalysis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, lanthanoid complex, and lithium ion secondary battery. (United States)

    Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A; Miyamoto, Akira


    Computational chemistry can provide fundamental knowledge regarding various aspects of materials. While its impact in scientific research is greatly increasing, its contributions to industrially important issues are far from satisfactory. In order to realize industrial innovation by computational chemistry, a new concept "combinatorial computational chemistry" has been proposed by introducing the concept of combinatorial chemistry to computational chemistry. This combinatorial computational chemistry approach enables theoretical high-throughput screening for materials design. In this manuscript, we review the successful applications of combinatorial computational chemistry to deNO(x) catalysts, Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, lanthanoid complex catalysts, and cathodes of the lithium ion secondary battery.

  7. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan


    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  8. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M


    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  9. Green Chemistry Pedagogy (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry


    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  10. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R


    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  11. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry. (United States)

    Worthy, Ward


    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  12. Industrial Chain: Industrial Vertical Definition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YifeiDu; GuojunJiang; ShimingLi


    Like value chain and supply chain, “industrial chain” becomes the focus of attention. The implication of “industrial chain” has gained a large range of extension. It not only expresses the industrial “chain” structure and relationship of “back and forward”in order or “up and down” in direction, but also it represents a cluster of large scale of firms in an area or colony. It is a network, or a community. Consequently, we conclude that “industrial chain” is a synthesis of industrial chain, industrial cluster, or industrial network.In this article, firstly we will distinguish industry chain from industry. An industry is the collection of firms that have the same attribute, so an industry can be defined by firm collection of certain attribute. We indicate that industrial chain is a kind of vertical and orderly industrial link. It is defined according to a series of specific product or service created. Secondly we analyze the vertical orderly defiinition process from the aspects of social division of labor and requirement division, self-organization system, and value analysis.Non-symmetry and depending on system or community of large scale of industrial units lead to entire industry to “orderly” structure. On the other hand, the draught of diversity and complexity of requirement simultaneously lead to entire industry to be more “orderly”. Along with processes of self-organization, industrial will appi'oach the state of more orderly and steady, and constantly make industrial chain upgrade. Each firm or unit, who will gain the value, has to establish channels of value, which we called “industrial value chain”. Lastly,we discuss the consequence of vertical and orderly definition, which is exhibited by a certain relationship body. The typical forms of industrial chain include industrial cluster, strategy alliance and vertical integration etc.

  13. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry; Streszczenia 40. Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego i Stowarzyszenia Inzynierow i Technikow Przemyslu Chemicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods.

  14. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.


    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  15. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  16. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  17. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  18. Bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Creus, Marc; Gademann, Karl; Giese, Bernd; Ward, Thomas R; Woggon, Wolf D; Chougnet, Antoinette


    The interdisciplinary projects in bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry of the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel led to the preparation of new systems that mimic biologically important processes and to the discovery of compounds from natural sources which are very promising with respect to medical applications. The advances in these areas are reported here.

  19. Mathematics and Chemistry (United States)

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.


    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  20. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.


    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  1. Introduction to Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren

    Colloid and Surface Chemistry is a subject of immense importance and implications both to our everyday life and numerous industrial sectors, ranging from coatings and materials to medicine and biotechnology. How do detergents really clean? (Why can’t we just use water ?) Why is milk “milky” Why do...... we use eggs so often for making sauces ? Can we deliver drugs in better and controlled ways? Coating industries wish to manufacture improved coatings e.g. for providing corrosion resistance, which are also environmentally friendly i.e. less based on organic solvents and if possible exclusively......, to the benefit of both the environment and our pocket. Cosmetics is also big business! Creams, lotions and other personal care products are really just complex emulsions. All of the above can be explained by the principles and methods of colloid and surface chemistry. A course on this topic is truly valuable...

  2. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Lu, Yi


    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  3. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer


    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  4. The Plasma Chemistry of Polymer Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Jö


    This book illustrates plasma properties, polymer characteristics, surface specifics, and how to purposefully combine plasma and polymer chemistry. In so doing, it covers plasma polymerization, surface functionalization, etching, crosslinking, and deposition of monotype functional-group-bearing plasma polymers. It explains different techniques and plasma types, such as pressure-pulsed, remote, low-wattage plasmas and plasma polymerization in liquids. Finally, among the numerous applications discussed are plasmas for chemical synthesis, industrial processes or the modification of membranes and p

  5. Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of TICs (United States)

    Henley, Michael V.; Burns, Douglas S.; Chynwat, Veeradej; Moore, William; Plitz, Angela; Rottmann, Shawn; Hearn, John


    An atmospheric chemistry model that describes the behavior and disposition of environmentally hazardous compounds discharged into the atmosphere was coupled with the transport and diffusion model, SCIPUFF. The atmospheric chemistry model was developed by reducing a detailed atmospheric chemistry mechanism to a simple empirical effective degradation rate term (keff) that is a function of important meteorological parameters such as solar flux, temperature, and cloud cover. Empirically derived keff functions that describe the degradation of target toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) were derived by statistically analyzing data generated from the detailed chemistry mechanism run over a wide range of (typical) atmospheric conditions. To assess and identify areas to improve the developed atmospheric chemistry model, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to (1) quantify the sensitivity of the model output (TIC concentrations) with respect to changes in the input parameters and (2) improve, where necessary, the quality of the input data based on sensitivity results. The model predictions were evaluated against experimental data. Chamber data were used to remove the complexities of dispersion in the atmosphere.

  6. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry (by Geoff Rayner-Canham) (United States)

    Rabinovich, Daniel


    Geoff Rayner-Canham. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1996. 492 pp. ISBN: 0-7167-2819-2. $67.95. There are plenty of good inorganic chemistry books on the market, from venerable reference works (e.g., Cotton and Wilkinson's Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Greenwood and Earnshaw's Chemistry of the Elements) to "comprehensive" two-semester textbooks (e.g., Huheey, Keiter, and Keiter's Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Douglas, McDaniel, and Alexander's Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry). Undergraduate students, especially those new to inorganic chemistry, frequently find these books overwhelming in depth and length (not to mention weight!). Alternatively, some shorter books with less ambitious goals present an oversimplified view of the field or sacrifice conceptual material on behalf of sections on environmental, industrial, or biological chemistry. Rayner-Canham's Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, a one-semester book aimed specifically at the introductory (sophomore) level, provides an excellent balance of theory and descriptive material, with a fresh look at traditional and current areas of interest in inorganic chemistry.

  7. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  8. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry (United States)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  9. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T


    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  10. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G


    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  11. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R


    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  12. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold


    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  13. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Swallow, Steven


    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  14. Students' perceptions of academic dishonesty in the chemistry classroom laboratory (United States)

    del Carlo, Dawn I.; Bodner, George M.


    Although the literature on both academic dishonesty and scientific misconduct is extensive, research on academic dishonesty has focused on quizzes, exams, and papers, with the virtual exclusion of the classroom laboratory. This study examined the distinctions undergraduate chemistry majors made between academic dishonesty in the classroom laboratory and scientific misconduct in the research laboratory. Across the spectrum of undergraduate chemistry courses, from the introductory course for first-semester chemistry majors to the capstone course in instrumental analysis, we noted that students believe the classroom lab is fundamentally different from a research or industrial lab. This difference is so significant that it carries over into students' perceptions of dishonesty in these two environments.

  15. Indicators: Soil Chemistry (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  16. Chemistry for Kids. (United States)

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela


    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  17. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins


    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  18. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie


    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  19. Uncertainty in chemistry. (United States)

    Menger, Fredric M


    It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.

  20. Chemistry at large

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy. K.M. Sanders


    Full Text Available A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  1. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry. (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.


    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  2. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.


    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  3. Radiation Chemistry Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The know how'' for the manufacture of gas chromatographic accessories such as the T. C. detector, E. C. detector, pyrolyzer and gas sampling valve was released to industry. An automatic preparative gas chromatograph working on repeat cycle principle was designed and fabricated. The instrument can be programmed to automatically inject the sample and collect any five separated components. A portable hydrogen monitor was developed for the Defence Ministry. In order to produce biodegradable detergents through the hydrolysis of alkyl sulfonylchloride, a hydrocarbon mixture was sulfochlorinated under the influence of gamma -radiation in 5 kg lots, in PANBIT facility. The results were quite encouraging. Terylene fibers and cloth have been grafted with acrylic acid under radiation and the resulting products have shown remarkably good dyeing properties and moisture uptake. An interesting observation was made in the case of radiation damage caused by iodine or bromine undergoing nuclear reactions of the type (n, 2n), (I. T.) and BETA -decay wherein the scavenger 12 or Br/sub 2/ consumption has been estimated per nuclear event. The results show that except in the case of BETA -decay, a surprisingly large number ( approximates 10/sup delta ) of molecules of the scavenger are consumed per nuclear event. In the field of ion exchange studies, the thermodynamic theory of ion exchange equilibria in nonaqueous solvents reported previously was experimentally verified for the first time. The change of medium from water to water-methanol mixture in lithium isotope studies in ion exchange equilibria resulted in a reversal of the isotope effect. Transport, activation, and redeposition of corrosion products in the recirculation and the clean-up loop systems of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station was hindering the regular and shut down maintenance jobs. In order to examine the possibility of chemical decontamination both laboratory and on-site experiments were carried out in

  4. Forensic Chemistry Training


    GERÇEK, Zuhal


    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  5. Click chemistry with DNA


    El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom


    The advent of click chemistry has led to an influx of new ideas in the nucleic acids field. The copper catalysed alkyne–azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is the method of choice for DNA click chemistry due to its remarkable efficiency. It has been used to label oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes, sugars, peptides and other reporter groups, to cyclise DNA, to synthesise DNA catenanes, to join oligonucleotides to PNA, and to produce analogues of DNA with modified nucleobases and backbone...

  6. Impact of surface chemistry



    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  7. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T


    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  8. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E


    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  9. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg


    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  10. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information...... available about industrial waste – maybe also influenced by the policy of the industry as to making information publicly available. The data presented in this chapter is scarce and maybe not fully representative for the industrial sectors and hence should be used with caution only....

  11. Longshoring Industry (United States)


    a)(1). (5) ANSI Z-89.1-1986, Personnel Protection-Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for 1917.93(b). (6) ANSI Z-41... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements.” (c) Protective hats previously worn shall be cleaned and disinfected before issuance by the employer to... Headwear for Industrial Workers-Requirements; IBR approved for §1918.103(b). (6) ANSI Z-41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection

  12. Biotechnology Industry (United States)


    Countries Growing GMO , 2007). Herbicide and insect resistance traits will continue to be pursued since 25% of food crops are lost each year to insect...daily lives from the clothing we wear, the fuel we use, the food we eat, and the medicines we take. From the earliest days, humans have used the...industry is very broad and includes health care, food , agriculture, industrial, and environmental industries. It is one of the fastest growing sciences

  13. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.


    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  14. 我国九项常规生化项目参考区间与现行行业标准的比较和分析%Comparison and analysis of the reference intervals of 9 analytes with current industry standards in routine chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟堃; 王薇; 何法霖; 王治国


    目的:对我国医院检验科常规化学检验项目的参考区间进行调查,并与现行的卫生行业标准进行比较。方法采用基于Web方式的室间质量评价软件系统,向所有参加2012年卫生部临床检验中心常规化学室间质量评价计划的实验室下发参考区间调查表,包括:参考区间来源、上下限、分组与规则,所用方法、仪器、试剂和校准物等信息。使用Microsoft Excel 2007和SPSS 13.0等统计软件对数据进行统计分析。结果共有385家实验室上报了结果,只有较少的实验室对参考区间进行了分组,部分实验室的分组规则与行业标准有一定的差异,与行业标准分组相同的实验室所给出的参考区间与行业标准相比也多存在极显著统计学差异( P<0.01)。结论卫生行业标准所给出的常规生化项目参考区间与实际工作中检验科所应用的参考区间差异较大,这可能与实验室服务人群和诸多实验室内因素有关,如果在实际工作中使用行业标准所给出的参考区间,应在使用前进行参考区间的评估和验证。(中华检验医学杂志,2014,37:709-711)%Objective To investigate the current application status of reference intervals in routine chemistry and compare with the current health industry standards .Methods By using web-based external quality assessmentsoftware system , data were collectedfrom the laboratories which attended 2012 national reference intervals investigation , including the sources of reference intervals , upper and lower limits , subgroups and grouping rules , test methods, instruments and reagents , etc.Microsoft Excell2007 and SPSS 13.0 were used to analyze the trimmed data .Results There were 385 laboratories submitting the reference intervals they had been using .Only a few of laboratories'reference intervalsweregrouped .There are some differences in grouping rulescompared with the currentstandards .Even

  15. Industrial Communications. (United States)

    Lindsay, Dan

    Intended for seniors planning a career in industry as skilled laborers, this specialized course in Industrial Communications offers the student basic communications skills which he will need in his work and in his daily life. Since class activities center around short, factual oral reports, class size will be limited to 20, providing a maximum of…

  16. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok`92; Doroczny zjazd naukowy: chemia w ochronie zdrowia i srodowiska czlowieka. Bialystok`92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well.

  17. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  18. No Denying It: Medicinal Chemistry Training Is in Big Trouble. (United States)

    Rafferty, Michael F


    There has been little consensus between the pharmaceutical industry and academic communities concerning the best approach to train medicinal chemists for drug discovery. For decades the pharmaceutical industry has shown preference for synthetic organic graduates over candidates with degrees from medicinal chemistry programs on the assumption that medicinal chemistry expertise will be acquired on the job. However, ongoing changes to pharmaceutical drug discovery organizations and practices threaten to undermine this training model. There is a compelling argument to be made for establishment of a strong industry-academic partnership to train new candidates with sophisticated knowledge of contemporary drug design concepts and techniques to ensure that the future needs of both industry and academic drug discovery research can be served.

  19. Chemistry beyond positivism. (United States)

    Brandt, Werner W


    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education.


    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...


    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Kreido Laboratories have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) collaboration, to develop and commercialize green and sustainable chemistries in the area of industrial chemical synthesis. Utilizi...

  2. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment. (United States)

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.


    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  3. Exploring the Information Literacy Needs and Values of High School Chemistry Teachers (United States)

    Zane, Marci; Tucci, Valerie Karvey


    To meet the information literacy (IL) needs of chemistry students, The College of New Jersey's (TCNJ) Library and Chemistry Departments have created a three-year seminar with a strong IL component. The program focuses on IL skills necessary for success in industry and graduate or professional education, but may lack features specific to those…

  4. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  5. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G


    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  6. Air Composition and Chemistry (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter


    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  7. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole


    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... of the experienc e achieved during the project is provided. The project is industrial oriented. An essential part of the project has been focused on the possi-bilities for immediate use of the results. A full implemented application doing vision ba sed positioning is described. It is concluded that visionbased...

  8. Evaluation of landuse impacts on lakewater chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research has included several issues concerning acid-base chemistry modeling of aquatic ecosystems using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC). The influence of naturally-occurring organic acids and land use practices within the watershed have been investigated with respect to their effects on model performance. A version of the MAGIC model was prepared for use in DOE`s Tracking and Analysis Framework. Major components of the project included: (1) extending the MAGIC model by incorporating a quantitative organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations; and (2) testing the revised model using data from paleolimnological hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry for 33 Adirondack Mountain lakes, and the results of whole-catchment artificial acidification projects in Maine and Norway.

  9. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma


    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  10. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick


    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  11. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  12. Chemistry WebBook (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  13. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin


    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  14. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf


    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  15. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald


    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  16. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy


    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  17. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.


    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  18. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry. (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey


    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  19. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, P.J. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  20. Teaching Chemistry Topics Through the Rich Context of Climate Science (United States)

    Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; Towns, M.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.


    Understanding and responding to the fundamental changes to earth's atmosphere and oceans since the industrial revolution is one of the defining challenges facing our modern world. Despite the fact that much of the underlying science builds so heavily on fundamental chemistry and physics, chemistry educators have taken little ownership for helping students visualize and understand the science and connect it to conceptual understanding in chemistry courses. We introduce (a) strategies used in an NSF-funded CCLI project to teach a set of core chemistry concepts through the rich contexts of climate science and (b) a new IYC-2011 legacy project carried out in partnership with IUPAC, UNESCO, RSC and ACS to create a set of interactive web resources for global dissemination,

  1. Electronics Industry (United States)


    companies to begin listing stock options as expenses on financial reports (Chappell, 2005). The industry had used stock options extensively to help... stock options (Chappell, 2005). Industry representatives interviewed by the group argued against the requirement since they predict U.S. companies...may be less inclined now to offer stock options , and subsequently talent may be lost to aggressive foreign competition (Anonymous interviews, 2006

  2. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment (United States)

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd


    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  3. Biodiesel Synthesis and Evaluation: An Organic Chemistry Experiment (United States)

    Bucholtz, Ehren C.


    A new lab esterification reaction based on biodiesel preparation and viscosity, which provides a model experience of industrial process to understand oxidation of vicinal alcohols by periodic acid, is presented. This new desertification experiment and periodate analysis of glycerol for the introductory organic chemistry laboratory provides an…

  4. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan


    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  5. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen


    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  6. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.


    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  7. Polymer Chemistry in High School. (United States)

    Stucki, Roger


    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  8. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual. (United States)

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  9. Chemistry and Popperism. (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael


    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  10. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem


    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  11. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK


    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  12. Online organic chemistry (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

  13. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.


    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Anderson, Mark


    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  15. Supramolecular analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V


    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  16. Computational chemistry at Janssen. (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara


    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  17. Online Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.


    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  18. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks. (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.


    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  19. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas


    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  20. Chemistry and Heritage (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria


    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  1. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (United States)


    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  2. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld


    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  3. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H


    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  4. Computational chemistry at Janssen (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara


    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  5. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  6. Chemistry Is Fun. (United States)

    Yaniv, D; And Others


    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  7. Green chemistry metrics (United States)

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  8. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy


    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  9. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald


    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  10. An Example of Learning about Plastics and Their Evaluation as a Contribution to Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary School Chemistry Teaching (United States)

    Burmeister, Mareike; Eilks, Ingo


    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a secondary school lesson plan for chemistry education on the topic Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The lessons focus both on the chemistry of plastics and on learning about the societal evaluation of competing, chemistry-based industrial products. A specific teaching method was…

  11. Industrial diamond (United States)

    Olson, D.W.


    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  12. Examination on Expert Chemistry Teachers’ Secondary School Chemistry Textbook Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine how chemistry textbooks used by expert chemistry teachers are used during teaching process in secondary education, and to find how prospective chemistry teachers evaluate the situation mentioned. Thus, a project concerned with how expert chemistry teachers use them in their classes was carried out. Based on the research context, an interview that was used to interview with expert chemistry teachers by prospective chemistry teachers was prepared by the author. Next, prospective chemistry teachers were asked to evaluate how expert chemistry teachers used textbooks. The sample group of the study consisted of 21 expert high school chemistry teachers working at schools in Balıkesir and 21 prospective chemistry teachers studying at Education Faculty of Balıkesir University during 2007-2008 academic years. The findings of the study revealed that expert chemistry teachers did not use textbooks during their teaching process while they used them as the sources of problems and exercises at the end of units. Furthermore, it was found that University Entrance Exam (OSS had an effect on how to use the textbooks by teachers.

  13. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  14. Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ionel


    Full Text Available Development of accommodation, as basic services offered to tourists, led to the creation of a genuine hospitality industry. Currently, the hospitality industry is no longer just the accommodation service itself but also requires an atmosphere that ensures leisure tourists in the hotel. Thus, hospitable unit manager offers its service in addition to accommodation and catering services, leisure services, treatment services, business services required.. The existence of factors such as revenue growth, increasing leisure time, the development of transport services, the emergence of new tourist attractions have caused increasing international flows of tourists, with consequent development of units hospitable, and therefore a strong hospitality industry. In Romania, after 1990, the tourism sector experienced a true expansion, both through the development of the hotel sector, but also by developing rural hospitality units.

  15. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper


    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  16. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer


    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  17. Fiabilidad industrial


    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia


    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  18. Handbook of green chemistry and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.; MacQuarrie, D. (eds.)


    Sustainable development is now accepted as a necessary goal for achieving societal, economic and environmental objectives. Within this chemistry has a vital role to play. The chemical industry is successful but traditionally success has come at a heavy cost to the environment. The challenge for chemists and others is to develop new products, processes and services that achieve societal, economic and environmental benefits. This requires an approach that reduces the materials and energy intensity of chemical processes and products; minimises the dispersion of harmful chemicals in the environment; maximises the use of renewable resources and extends the durability and recyclability of products in a way that increases industrial competitiveness as well as improve its tarnished image. (author)

  19. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry. (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H


    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  20. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry? (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel


    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  1. [Gaubius and medical chemistry]. (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P


    Hieronymus David Gaub (1705-1780) was the son of a protestant cloth merchant in Heidelberg. Disliking a pietistic boarding school in Halle, Germany, he came to stay with a paternal uncle who was a physician in Amsterdam. Hieronymus studied medicine in Harderwijk and in Leiden, under the guidance of Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738). In 1731 he was appointed reader (and in 1734 professor) in chemistry at the Leiden medical faculty. After Boerhaave's death he also taught medicine, but without access to hospital beds. Gaubius correctly envisaged that chemistry would become an important discipline in medicine, but was limited by the technical constraints of his time. In his textbook of general pathology (1758) he attributed disease to disturbances of not only fluids, but also solid parts, although symptoms remained the basis of his classification. The book would remain influential for several decades, until the advent of pathological anatomy.

  2. Chemistry space–time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler


    Full Text Available As Einstein identified so clearly, space and time are intimately related. We discuss the relationship between time and Euclidean space using spectroscopic and radioastronomical studies of interstellar chemistry as an example. Given the finite speed of light, we are clearly studying chemical reactions occurring tens of thousands of years ago that may elucidate the primordial chemistry of this planet several billion years ago. We also explore space of a different kind – chemical space, with many more dimensions than the four we associate as space–time. Vast chemical spaces also need very efficient (computational methods for their exploration to overcome this ‘curse of dimensionality’. We discuss methods by which the time to explore these new spaces can be very substantially reduced, opening the discovery useful new materials that are the key to our future.

  3. Organic Chemistry in Space (United States)

    Charnley, Steven


    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  4. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors......A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  5. Storylines in intercalation chemistry. (United States)

    Lerf, A


    Intercalation chemistry will soon be a hundred years old. The period of greatest activity in this field of solid state chemistry and physics was from about 1970 to 1990. The intercalation reactions are defined as topotactic solid state reactions and the products--the intercalation compounds--are clearly distinguished from inclusion and interstitial compounds. After a short historical introduction emphasizing the pioneering work of Ulrich Hofmann, the central topics and concepts will be reviewed and commented on. The most important ones, in my view, are: dichalcogenide intercalation compounds, the electrochemical intercalation and the search for new battery electrodes, the physics of graphite intercalation compounds, and the staging and interstratification phenomena. The relation to other fields of actual research and the demands for forthcoming research will also be addressed.

  6. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C


    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  7. Green chemistry: development trajectory (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.


    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  8. Transferases in Polymer Chemistry (United States)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Loos, Katja

    Transferases are enzymes that catalyze reactions in which a group is transferred from one compound to another. This makes these enzymes ideal catalysts for polymerization reactions. In nature, transferases are responsible for the synthesis of many important natural macromolecules. In synthetic polymer chemistry, various transferases are used to synthesize polymers in vitro. This chapter reviews some of these approaches, such as the enzymatic polymerization of polyesters, polysaccharides, and polyisoprene.

  9. Fermentation Industry. (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.


    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Shifting Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Coastal city Beihai aspires to revive its economy by developing its electronic information industry Against a clear sky,the blue sea hums along a shining beach,with villas in the distance.This beautiful scene is in Beihai,in south China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  11. Heterogeneous Catalytic Chemistry by Example of Industrial Applications (United States)

    Heveling, Josef


    Worldwide, more than 85% of all chemical products are manufactured with the help of catalysts. Virtually all transition metals of the periodic table are active as catalysts or catalyst promoters. Catalysts are divided into homogeneous catalysts, which are soluble in the reaction medium, and heterogeneous catalysts, which remain in the solid state.…

  12. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide. (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris


    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  13. Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Kapsamında Çevre Açıklamaları İle Firma Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişki: Kimya, Petrol, Kauçuk ve Plastik Ürünler Sektöründe Bir Uygulama - Relation Between Company Features And Environmental Statement Within Corporate Social Responsibility: An Application In Chemistry, Petroleum, Rubber And Plastics Products Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule YILDIZ


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine the relation between company features and environmental statement amounts in the annual activity reports of companies. To this end, activity reports of 19 companies making business in chemistry, petroleum, rubber and plastic products industry in Borsa Istanbul were inspected with content analysis method for 2008 - 2014. The company features inspected within the research are size, equity profitability, active profitability, debt levels, stock market listing date and date of foundation of companies. In the research, the relation between environmental statement level and related company features were analyzed with panel regression model. According to the results of research, the environmental statement level has positive relation with date of foundation and debt level and it has negative relation with size and stock market listing and it is statistically meaningful. However, no statistically meaningful relation was found between equity profitability and asset profitability and the environmental statement level.

  14. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling


    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  15. An examination of past and present influences on university chemistry education (United States)

    Soliman, William Atef

    This study examined the historical influences that have contributed to past and present-day university level chemistry education. The study was organized into three sections: First, by analyzing the academic genealogy, education origins of prominent chemists, Nobel Prize winners in chemistry and scientific patents awarded by countries; the major historical contributors to chemical education during the 19th century were identified; Secondly, by analyzing the educational backgrounds of current chemistry professors (n=12,120) in 407 universities in 40 countries around the world and six chemical education indicators for 25 countries; and finally the relationship, if any, between a country's chemical, biotechnology, defense, and petroleum industries to its level of chemistry education was investigated utilizing a multiple regression analysis between the monetary value of the industries and the extent of chemical education within each country. The findings indicated that the U.S., Britain, Germany, and France were major influencers of 19th century chemical education while the major present-day influencers of university chemical education are the U.S., Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that the value of the chemical industry for a country was significantly related to (a) the number of chemistry doctorates awarded (p=.05), (b) chemistry Nobel awards (p=.001), (c) the number of chemistry publications (p=.001), and (d) prominence of the country in the chemical literature (p=.05). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the value of the biotechnology industry was significantly related to the number of Nobel awards (p=.007) and the number of chemistry publications (p=.001). The value of the defense industry was significantly related to chemistry doctorates (p=.002), chemistry Nobel awards (p=.001), the number of chemistry publications (p=.001), and prominence in the literature (p=.001). The value of the petroleum

  16. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education. (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi


    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  17. Glassy state on the undergraduate course in chemistry (physical chemistry).


    Yamaki, SB; Pedroso, AG; ATVARS, TDZ


    We consider the relevance of the study of the glassy state properties and the glass transition as important topics of the physical chemistry for undergraduate courses of Chemistry. Two of the most important theoretical approaches for the description of the glassy state, the thermodynamic and the kinetic models, are summarized with emphasis on the physical chemistry aspects. Examples illustrating the glass transition of some materials are also presented.

  18. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry


    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik


    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  19. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*


    Deffense Etienne


    With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. A...

  20. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AYDIN


    Full Text Available Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 19 chemistry teachers who work in the private courses. According to the results obtained, chemistry teachers think that there are some deficiencies and obstacles in the application of this textbook.

  1. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun


    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  2. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers (United States)

    Green, Sarah A.


    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  3. Industrial ecology Prosperity Game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.; Boyack, K.; Berman, M.


    Industrial ecology (IE) is an emerging scientific field that views industrial activities and the environment as an interactive whole. The IE approach simultaneously optimizes activities with respect to cost, performance, and environmental impact. Industrial Ecology provides a dynamic systems-based framework that enables management of human activity on a sustainable basis by: minimizing energy and materials usage; insuring acceptable quality of life for people; minimizing the ecological impact of human activity to levels that natural systems can sustain; and maintaining the economic viability of systems for industry, trade and commerce. Industrial ecology applies systems science to industrial systems, defining the system boundary to incorporate the natural world. Its overall goal is to optimize industrial activities within the constraints imposed by ecological viability, globally and locally. In this context, Industrial systems applies not just to private sector manufacturing and services but also to government operations, including provision of infrastructure. Sandia conducted its seventeenth Prosperity Game{trademark} on May 23--25, 1997, at the Hyatt Dulles Hotel in Herndon, Virginia. The primary sponsors of the event were Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory, who were interested in using the format of a Prosperity Game to address some of the issues surrounding Industrial Ecology. Honorary game sponsors were: The National Science Foundation; the Committee on Environmental Improvement, American Chemical Society; the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Division, American Chemical Society; the US EPA--The Smart Growth Network, Office of Policy Development; and the US DOE-Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various


    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  5. Chemistry and Science Fiction (United States)

    Stocker, Jack H.


    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  6. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E


    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  7. Organic iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. E-mail:; Sims, H.E.; Belval-Haltier, E.; Jacquemain, D.; Poletiko, C.; Funke, F.; Hellmann, S.; Karjunen, T.; Zilliacus, R


    A shared-cost action on Organic Iodine Chemistry has been completed as part of the CEC 4th Framework programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. Organisations from four EC countries are involved in an integrated programme of experiments and analysis to help clarify the phenomenology, and to increase confidence in the modelling of iodine behaviour in containment. The project is focused on identifying the main routes for organic iodine formation, and providing new experimental kinetic data which will be used to improve existing models and to stimulate code development.

  8. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;


    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis......, formulation, and their medicinal and agricultural applications. The antifungal mode-of-action of griseofulvin has been the subject of considerable research efforts and some debate over the years, a discussion that is still ongoing. Griseofulvin was one of the first antifungal natural products found...

  9. Radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Choppin, Gregory; RYDBERG, JAN; Ekberg, Christian


    Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties. This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text secti

  10. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter


    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  11. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))


    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  12. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere


    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  13. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan


    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  14. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab (United States)


    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevelde, L


    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of R and D at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear chemistry and analytical techniques are summarized. Major achievement in 2001 included the completion of a project on the measurement of critical radionuclides in reactor waste fluxes (the ARIANE project), the radiochemical characterisation of beryllium material originating from the second matrix of the BR2 reactor as well as to a the organisation of a workshop on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials.

  16. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab (United States)


    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V


    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  18. Sustainable technological development in chemistry. Improving the quality of life through chemistry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The importance of agricultural products, their potential conversion to energy sources and their applications for fibre-reinforced construction materials is emphasized. Another potentially important technology is the conversion of sunlight into electricity such as occurs in the leaves of plants. Parallels with nature exist, even though conversions with inorganic materials have, until now, been promising. The ability to control chemical reactions is the subject throughout all the following chapters. The goal is to achieve high reaction efficiencies and to use fewer basic materials, both of which will lead to a reduction in environmental stress. Sustainable developments in chemistry can be described by two approaches: (1) Improvements in society, with challenges for chemistry; and (2) Improvement in the chemical sector itself. Both approaches are dealt with in this report. Five areas for development have been chosen in the discussions for `DTO-Chemie`: Integrated plant conversion (IPC), in particular Valorisation of plant parts for raw materials and energy; Biomass conversion (C1 Chemistry), in particular Technologies for (among others) C1-based chemicals and energy carriers; Photovoltaic cells (PSC), in particular Technologies for the conversion of solar light into electricity; Process Technology in Fine chemistry (PFC), in particular Methodology of manufacturing processes for Fine chemicals; and Sustainable Construction Materials (FRC); in particular Techniques for using fibre-reinforced composites in construction applications. These areas can be viewed as clusters of technologies, with a strong chemistry and agricultural component, which are necessary for achieving a sustainable future. Furthermore, it is important to recognise that technology requires a progressive development (technology lifecycle). The five areas of technology development are tested against a number of criteria: (1) Sustainability / leap / volume; (2) Horizon 2050; (3) Commitment from industry

  19. Green chemistry: principles and practice. (United States)

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas


    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  20. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E


    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  1. Podcasts in the Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Leite


    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide facilities in teaching through education. There are many new tools and methodologies that use ICT as a knowledge-building support, but that are not always related to pedagogical practice. The Podcast is an important technology that can be used in the classroom. Using this tool, it can make the most interactive chemistry class, fleeing the classroom routine. However, it is necessary to point out that the podcast is just one feature that should be incorporated into education and not a substitute. This paper describes the development of Chemistry Podcasts by teachers and chemistry students in three disciplines in 2015. This study took place over a one-year period in a public University, in Pernambuco, Brazil. In the discipline of "Computer applied to the teaching of chemistry" participated 21 Chemistry teachers. In the disciplines of "Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching of chemistry" and "Informatics, Chemistry and Education" was composed of 54 undergraduate students in chemistry. Twelve podcasts were elaborated by students and five by teachers in this paper we present only nine. The results showed the contribution of podcasts produced by teachers and students in teaching and learning process chemistry. DOI:

  2. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S


    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  3. Complex Protostellar Chemistry (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.


    Two decades ago, our understanding of the chemistry in protostars was simple-matter either fell into the central star or was trapped in planetary-scale objects. Some minor chemical changes might occur as the dust and gas fell inward, but such effects were overwhelmed by the much larger scale processes that occurred even in bodies as small as asteroids. The chemistry that did occur in the nebula was relatively easy to model because the fall from the cold molecular cloud into the growing star was a one-way trip down a well-known temperature-pressure gradient; the only free variable was time. However, just over 10 years ago it was suggested that some material could be processed in the inner nebula, flow outward, and become incorporated into comets (1, 2). This outward flow was confirmed when the Stardust mission returned crystalline mineral fragments (3) from Comet Wild 2 that must have been processed close to the Sun before they were incorporated into the comet. In this week's Science Express, Ciesla and Sandford (4) demonstrate that even the outermost regions of the solar nebula can be a chemically active environment. Their finding could have consequences for the rest of the nebula.

  4. Current ADC Linker Chemistry. (United States)

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce


    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugation to the multiple lysines or cysteines found in mAbs, significant research efforts are now being directed toward the production of discrete, homogeneous ADC products, via site-specific conjugation. These site-specific conjugations may involve genetic engineering of the mAb to introduce discrete, available cysteines or non-natural amino acids with an orthogonally-reactive functional group handle such as an aldehyde, ketone, azido, or alkynyl tag. These site-specific approaches not only increase the homogeneity of ADCs but also enable novel bio-orthogonal chemistries that utilize reactive moieties other than thiol or amine. This broadens the diversity of linkers that can be utilized which will lead to better linker design in future generations of ADCs.

  5. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas


    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  6. Art in Chemistry: Chemistry in Art. Second Edition (United States)

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne


    This textbook integrates chemistry and art with hands-on activities and fascinating demonstrations that enable students to see and understand how the science of chemistry is involved in the creation of art. It investigates such topics as color integrated with electromagnetic radiation, atoms, and ions; paints integrated with classes of matter,…

  7. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry. (United States)

    Harrison, Aline M.


    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  8. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis. (United States)

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François


    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  9. A review of opportunities for electrospun nanofibers in analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson


    Challenges associated with analyte and matrix complexities and the ever increasing pressure from all sectors of industry for alternative analytical devices, have necessitated the development and application of new materials in analytical chemistry. To date, nanomaterials have emerged as having excellent properties for analytical chemistry applications mainly due to their large surface area to volume ratio and the availability of a wide variety of chemical and morphological modification methods. Of the available nanofibrous material fabrication methods, electrospinning has emerged as the most versatile. It is the aim of this contribution to highlight some of the recent developments that harness the great potential shown by electrospun nanofibers for application in analytical chemistry. The review discusses the use of electrospun nanofibers as a platform for low resolution separation or as a chromatographic sorbent bed for high resolution separation. It concludes by discussing the applications of electrospun nanofibers in detection systems with a specific focus on the development of simple electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probes.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.


    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry. (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek


    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  12. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffense Etienne


    Full Text Available With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. Among the topics which I worked out, I highlighted more particularly the following subjects: the degumming chemistry of oil and fat; the improvement of physical refining; a new chemical analytical tool for the dry fractionation; new development in the dry fractionation

  13. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski


    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  14. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry? (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E


    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  15. "Green chemistry": os 12 princípios da química verde e sua inserção nas atividades de ensino e pesquisa Green chemistry: the 12 principles of green chemistry and it insertion in the teach and research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder João Lenardão


    Full Text Available Green chemistry ¾ defined as the design, development, and application of chemical processes and products to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. This article summarizes the 12 principles of green chemistry, describing how they have been applied to the academic, industrial and research activities around the world.

  16. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh


    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  17. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula (United States)

    Miller, Stephen R.


    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  18. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity (United States)

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat


    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  19. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan


    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  20. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry (United States)

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.


    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  1. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry]. (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng


    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  2. News from Online: Green Chemistry (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.


    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  3. Crocodile Chemistry. [CD-ROM]. (United States)


    This high school chemistry resource is an on-screen chemistry lab. In the program, students can experiment with a huge range of chemicals, choosing the form, quantity and concentrations. Dangerous or difficult experiments can be investigated safely and easily. A vast range of equipment can be set up, and complex simulations can be put together and…

  4. Organic Chemistry Software from COMPress. (United States)

    Ball, Sister Isabel


    Reviews three organic chemistry computer programs for TRS-80 and Apple microcomputers. Programs include "Introduction to Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Organic Analysis," and a game called "Chemrain." Indicates that all three produce a readable screen, require exact responses, use graphics in an appealingly and…

  5. Fundamentals of Aqueous Microwave Chemistry (United States)

    The first chemical revolution changed modern life with a host of excellent amenities and services, but created serious problems related to environmental pollution. After 150 years of current chemistry principles and practices, we need a radical change to a new type of chemistry k...

  6. Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries. (United States)

    Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon


    Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.

  7. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered (United States)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)


    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  8. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds (United States)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas


    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  9. Advances in analytical chemistry (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.


    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  10. Getting Hooked on Chemistry (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.


    Other fun things in this issue include three Quote Boxes by Olney (3) that will allow your students to engage in deductive reasoning to solve the puzzles. Kelkar (4) presents a slightly more difficult but very clever mystery element game; it provides clues to element symbols that all fit into a single matrix. Ibanez's game (5) lists popular sayings or proverbs and the student's job is to match each with an analogous chemical phenomenon. As always, answers are provided. For the more sophisticated among us, there is Who Wants to Be a Chemist Extraordinaire? devised by Campbell and Muzyka (6), who describe their use of online chemistry game shows patterned on popular TV programs. Examples of the HTML files with sample questions are available through JCE Online. These are just some of the many suggestions that can be found in this issue of JCE. Try a few, you might like them!

  11. Organic chemistry on Titan (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.


    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  12. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels (United States)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.


    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.


    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  14. Nanoplasmonics tuned ``click chemistry'' (United States)

    Tijunelyte, I.; Guenin, E.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Colas, F.; Ibrahim, J.; Toury, T.; Lamy de La Chapelle, M.


    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry.Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR study on reaction initiation, SERS spectra and temperature calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09018k

  15. Chemistry for whom? Gender awareness in teaching and learning chemistry (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina


    Marie Ståhl and Anita Hussénius have defined what discourses dominate national tests in chemistry for Grade 9 in Sweden by using feminist, critical didactic perspectives. This response seeks to expand the results in Ståhl and Hussénius's article Chemistry inside an epistemological community box!—Discursive exclusions and inclusions in the Swedish national tests in chemistry, by using different facets of gender awareness. The first facet—Gender awareness in relations to the test designers' own conceptions—highlighted how the gender order where women are subordinated men becomes visible in the national tests as a consequence of the test designers internalized conceptions. The second facet—Gender awareness in relation to chemistry—discussed the hierarchy between discourses within chemistry. The third facet—Gender awareness in relation to students—problematized chemistry in relation to the students' identity formation. In summary, I suggest that the different discourses can open up new ways to interpret chemistry and perhaps dismantle the hegemonic chemistry discourse.

  16. The Critical Role of Organic Chemistry in Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Rotella, David P


    Small molecules remain the backbone for modern drug discovery. They are conceived and synthesized by medicinal chemists, many of whom were originally trained as organic chemists. Support from government and industry to provide training and personnel for continued development of this critical skill set has been declining for many years. This Viewpoint highlights the value of organic chemistry and organic medicinal chemists in the complex journey of drug discovery as a reminder that basic science support must be restored.

  17. Medicinal chemistry teaching and training: a continuous adaptation. (United States)

    Timmerman, Henk; de Souza, Noel J


    Bridging the gap: The differences between medicinal chemistry at the industrial and academic levels raises the question: Is there a significant gap between the two spheres that requires attention, or should such differences be deemed natural, without the need to close the gap? Herein we provide perspectives on this issue, based in part on opinions expressed at a forum discussion held at ISMC 2008 in Vienna.

  18. Biorefinery: Toward an industrial metabolism. (United States)

    Octave, Stéphane; Thomas, Daniel


    Fossil fuel reserves are running out, global warming is becoming a reality, waste recycling is becoming ever more costly and problematic, and unrelenting population growth will require more and more energy and consumer products. There is now an alternative to the 100% oil economy; it is a renewable resource based on agroresources by using the whole plant. Production and development of these new products are based on biorefinery concept. Each constituent of the plant can be extracted and functionalized in order to produce non-food and food fractions, intermediate agro-industrial products and synthons. Three major industrial domains can be concerned: molecules, materials and energy. Molecules can be used as solvent surfactants or chemical intermediates in substitution of petrol derivatives. Fibers can be valorized in materials like composites. Sugars and oils are currently used to produce biofuels like bioethanol or biodiesel, but second-generation biofuels will use lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. Lipids can be used to produce a large diversity of products like solvent, lubricants, pastes or surfactants. Industrial biorefinery will be linked to the creation of new processes based on the twelve principles of green chemistry (clean processes, atom economy, renewable feedstocks...). Biotechnology, especially white biotechnology, will take a major part into these new processes with biotransformations (enzymology, micro-organisms...) and fermentation. The substitution of oil products by biobased products will develop a new bioeconomy and new industrial processes respecting the sustainable development concept. Industrial biorefinery can be developed on the principle that any residues of one can then be exploited as raw material by others in an industrial metabolism.

  19. Moving Green Chemistry Forward: Networks as a Foundation (United States)

    Carter, T.; Lough, G.


    Green chemistry is a growing discipline, but for a variety of reasons, it has not yet become integrated into science curriculum and the greater societal conscience. With its increasing economic benefits to many sectors including business, industry, and academia and its potential to make science more accessible not only to science students but also to the general citizenry, we suggested answers to the questions: Why has greater success not been realized? What are the particular barriers to wider implementation? And what are incentives and ways to move green chemistry forward? We suggest some strategies and options to both increase the use of green chemistry principles and to also increase stakeholders' understanding of the importance and utility of green chemistry in their daily lives. For example, our main suggestions are that an inclusive, multidisciplinary network would aid in coordinating data and in translating the science into user friendly tools, and that an educational component embedded in this greater effort would also serve to move green chemistry forward.

  20. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes and other nanocarbons by azide chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Han; Chao Gao


    Following the conventional carbon allotropes of diamond and graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene as 0D, 1D and 2D graphitic macromolecules have been discovered recently in succession, declaring the unlimited potential of carbon-based nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Although CNTs exhibit significant potential applications in advanced materials and other fields due to their extraordinary mechanical strength and electrical/thermal conductivity properties, their low solubility, poor wettability and bad dispersibility in common solvents and solid matrices have limited their processing and applications. Thus, the attempt to achieve wettable/processable CNTs by functionalization has attracted increasing attention in both scientific and industrial communities. In recent years, azide chemistry has been demonstrated as a powerful means to covalently modify CNTs. It consists of two major approaches: click chemistry and nitrene chemistry, which both involve the usage of various azide compounds. The former one is based on highly reactive and stereospecifical Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction; the latter one is based on the electrophilic attack to unsaturated bonds of CNTs with nitrenes as reactive intermediates formed from thermolysis or photolysis of azides. In this mini-review paper, the azide chemistry to functionalize CNTs is highlighted and the corresponding functionalization routes to build CNT-based complex structures are also discussed. Besides, covalent functionalizations of other graphitic nanomaterials such as fullerence and graphene, via azide chemistry, are commented briefly.

  1. Stability and stabilization of industrial biocatalysts


    Fattor, Diana


    Catalytic potential of enzymes is not fully exploited at industrial level and in chemistry due to technical difficulties and long time required for development of new processes. The main issues are: 1) The choice of the biocatalyst and the planning of reaction conditions still relies largely on empirical approaches, leading to long experimental studies; 2) There is still a short knowledge about molecular phenomena occurring in the microenvironment surrounding the enzyme and affecting...

  2. Could Trade Remedy keep Industry Safe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao


    @@ China has been the biggest victim of anti-dumping investigations for 14 years running since WTO was established in 1995. According to WTO statistics, in the first half of 2008, there were 85 new antidumping cases in the world, 37 cases out of which were targeted on China, sharing 43.5%. In product regimes, antidumping cases on China caught hold of various industrial sectors like metallurgy, chemistry, textile, mechanics, light industry, metal works, automobile, medicine, building material, and paper making etc., but with textile product as one of the most vulnerable targets under fire. 2008 saw an ever-growing new antidumping cases in different industrial sectors while textile was in the third placing (11 new antidumping cases) only after metallurgy (17 cases) and machine building industry (12).

  3. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet. (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo


    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture.

  4. Mathematical challenges from theoretical/computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The committee believes that this report has relevance and potentially valuable suggestions for a wide range of readers. Target audiences include: graduate departments in the mathematical and chemical sciences; federal and private agencies that fund research in the mathematical and chemical sciences; selected industrial and government research and development laboratories; developers of software and hardware for computational chemistry; and selected individual researchers. Chapter 2 of this report covers some history of computational chemistry for the nonspecialist, while Chapter 3 illustrates the fruits of some past successful cross-fertilization between mathematical scientists and computational/theoretical chemists. In Chapter 4 the committee has assembled a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of research opportunities. Most of these are descriptions of important open problems in computational/theoretical chemistry that could gain much from the efforts of innovative mathematical scientists, written so as to be accessible introductions to the nonspecialist. Chapter 5 is an assessment, necessarily subjective, of cultural differences that must be overcome if collaborative work is to be encouraged between the mathematical and the chemical communities. Finally, the report ends with a brief list of conclusions and recommendations that, if followed, could promote accelerated progress at this interface. Recognizing that bothersome language issues can inhibit prospects for collaborative research at the interface between distinctive disciplines, the committee has attempted throughout to maintain an accessible style, in part by using illustrative boxes, and has included at the end of the report a glossary of technical terms that may be familiar to only a subset of the target audiences listed above.

  5. Cooperative Research in C1 Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman


    C1 chemistry refers to the conversion of simple carbon-containing materials that contain one carbon atom per molecule into valuable products. The feedstocks for C1 chemistry include natural gas, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methanol and synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Synthesis gas, or syngas, is produced primarily by the reaction of natural gas, which is principally methane, with steam. It can also be produced by gasification of coal, petroleum coke, or biomass. The availability of syngas from coal gasification is expected to increase significantly in the future because of increasing development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Because of the abundance of remote natural gas, the advent of IGCC, and environmental advantages, C1 chemistry is expected to become a major area of interest for the transportation fuel and chemical industries in the relatively near future. The CFFLS will therefore perform a valuable national service by providing science and engineering graduates that are trained in this important area. Syngas is the source of most hydrogen. Approximately 10 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) of hydrogen are manufactured annually in the world. Most of this hydrogen is currently used for the production of ammonia and in a variety of refining and chemical operations. However, utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is expected to grow significantly in the next century. Syngas is also the feedstock for all methanol and Fischer-Tropsch plants. Currently, world consumption of methanol is over 25 million tons per year. There are many methanol plants in the U.S. and throughout the world. Methanol and oxygenated transportation fuel products play a significant role in the CFFLS C1 program. Currently, the only commercial Fischer-Tropsch plants are overseas, principally in South Africa (SASOL). However, new plants are being built or planned for a number of locations. One possible location for future F

  6. Click chemistry patents and their impact on drug discovery and chemical biology. (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Jones, Lyn H


    First introduced by K Barry Sharpless in 2001, the term 'click chemistry' soon became a widely used description of chemical reactions that proceed rapidly, cleanly and in a manner that is often compatible with aqueous solutions. Click chemistry is frequently employed throughout the process of drug discovery, and greatly helps advance research programs in the pharmaceutical industry. It facilitates library synthesis to support medicinal chemistry optimization, helps identify the targets and off-targets of drug candidates, and can facilitate the determination of drug efficacy in clinical trials. In the last decade, a large number of patent applications covering the various types and utilities of click chemistry have been filed. In this review, we provide the first analysis of click chemistry applications.

  7. Green Chemistry Techniques for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis (United States)

    Cannavino, Sarah A.; King, Christy A.; Ferrara, Davon W.

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often utilized in many technological and research applications ranging from the detection of tumors, molecular and biological sensors, and as nanoantennas to probe physical processes. As these applications move from the research laboratory to industrial settings, there is a need to develop efficient and sustainable synthesis techniques. Recent research has shown that several food products and beverages containing polyphenols, a common antioxidant, can be used as reducing agents in the synthesis of AuNPs in solution. In this study, we explore a variety of products to determine which allow for the most reproducible solution of nanoparticles based on the size and shapes of particles present. We analyzed the AuNPs solutions using extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We also develop a laboratory activity to introduce introductory chemistry and physics students to AuNP synthesis techniques and analysis.

  8. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia


    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address:

  9. Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum (United States)

    Forbes, David C.


    Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

  10. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S


    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  11. The radiation chemistry of macromolecules

    CERN Document Server


    The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Volume II is a collection of papers that discusses radiation chemistry of specific systems. Part 1 deals with radiation chemistry of substituted vinyl polymers, particularly polypropylene (PP) as its structure is intermediate between polyethylene and polyisobutylene. This part also discusses polypropylene oxide (PPOx) for it can be prepared in the atactic, isotactic, and optically active forms. One paper focuses on the fundamental chemical processes and the changes in physical properties that give rise to many different applications of polystyrene. An

  12. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)


    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  13. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  14. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers


    Abdullah AYDIN


    Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 1...

  15. Computational chemistry research (United States)

    Levin, Eugene


    Task 41 is composed of two parts: (1) analysis and design studies related to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Extended Operating Configuration (EOC) and (2) computational chemistry. During the first half of 1987, Dr. Levin served as a member of an advanced system planning team to establish the requirements, goals, and principal technical characteristics of the NAS EOC. A paper entitled 'Scaling of Data Communications for an Advanced Supercomputer Network' is included. The high temperature transport properties (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, etc.) of the major constituents of air (oxygen and nitrogen) were correctly determined. The results of prior ab initio computer solutions of the Schroedinger equation were combined with the best available experimental data to obtain complete interaction potentials for both neutral and ion-atom collision partners. These potentials were then used in a computer program to evaluate the collision cross-sections from which the transport properties could be determined. A paper entitled 'High Temperature Transport Properties of Air' is included.

  16. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.


    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  17. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.


    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  18. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences


    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  19. Structural transition metal chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K M


    This thesis is divided up into five chapters as outlined below. Chapter 1 gives the background to the techniques used in this thesis including X-ray structure determination and ab initio methods. An overview of some recent studies using ab initio methods to study transition metal complexes is also given. Chapter 2 investigates structural trans influence in a number of transition metal and p-block complexes. The database and ab initio studies showed that the classical trans influence model based on Pt(II) chemistry does not always hold. For some systems (eg. d sup 1 sup 0 s sup 0 for Sb sup V and Sn sup I sup V) the cis influence is of similar magnitude to the trans influence. For other systems (d sup 0), the trans influence is not as powerful as usually assumed. Chapter 3 is an investigation into the bridging chloride unit. A database study was performed on three systems (M-CI-M', M-CI...H and M-CI...Li/Na/K). Reaction pathway analysis was carried out for the M-CI-M' case and showed that bond order is not con...

  20. Green and Sustainable Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Boxing


    @@ It is now a common opinion that sustainable development is a key issue to humanity.How to provide the population with sufficient clean water, food, chemicals, materials and energy without damaging our planet is an extremely important and challenging issue in today's world.Although the chemical industry plays a pivotal role in driving the world economy and sustaining the high quality of life, most currently used chemical processes are not sustainable because they use fossil resources as their feedstock and produce a large amount of waste and hazardous materials.

  1. American Association for Clinical Chemistry (United States)

    ... Education Credits Certification Resources Career Guidance Publications Clinical Chemistry Clinical Laboratory News The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine Clinical and Forensic Toxicology News Clinical Laboratory Marketplace Books and Multimedia ...

  2. International Year of Chemistry 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zi-Ling


    Science China Chemistry would like to dedicate this special issue to the International Year of Chemistry (IYC) 2011,as part of the celebrations of IYC in China.Scientists from Australia,Brazil,Britain,Canada,Chile,China,France,Germany,India,Israel,Japan,Nepal,Pakistan,Saudi Arabia,Singapore,South Africa,and the USA have contributed 28 papers marking the event.Our authors from across the globe include students,members (a corresponding member) and fellows of national academies of sciences in several countries (Australia,Chile,China,France,India,Israel,Pakistan,and the USA),fellows of the British and Canadian Royal Societies,and two Nobel Laureates (Robert Grubbs and Ada Yonath).Here they present their work contributing to the IYC 2011 theme "Chemistry-our life,our future" [1].These papers cover fundamental chemistry,the chemical bases of life processes,and their potential applications.

  3. One century of aryne chemistry. (United States)

    Wenk, Hans Henning; Winkler, Michael; Sander, Wolfram


    Arynes, which are formally derived from aromatic rings by abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, have been a focus of organic chemistry for 100 years. In contrast to ortho-benzyne, which is mentioned in almost every introductory textbook on organic reaction mechanisms as a reactive intermediate of nucleophilic aromatic substitution, the meta and para isomers were regarded as rather exotic until recently. This situation has changed dramatically with the discovery of the enediyne antibiotics, a promising new class of antitumor drugs, and has aroused the interest of research groups from all branches of chemistry. Nowadays, arynes and related compounds are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet. In this review we outline the historical developement with an emphasis on recent progress in this challenging field of research.

  4. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2 (United States)

    Bailey, D.


    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Manmohan


    Full Text Available Chemistry brought about medical revolution till about the middle of twentieth century in which drugs and antibiotics were discovered. The world’s food supply also increased enormously due to the discovery of hybrid varieties, improved methods of farming, better seeds, and use of insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers. The quality of life on earth became much better due to the discovery of dyes, plastics, cosmetics and other materials. Soon, the ill effects of chemistry also became pronounced, main among them being the pollution of land, water and atmosphere. This is caused mainly due to the effects of by-products of chemical industries, which are being discharged into the air, rivers/ oceans and the land. The use of toxic reactants and reagents also make the situation worse. The pollution reached such levels that different governments made laws to minimize it. This marked the beginning of Green Chemistry by the middle of 29th century. Green Chemistry is defined as environmentally benign chemistry. As on today, maximum pollution to the environment is caused by numerous chemical industries. Therefore, attempts have been made to design synthesis for manufacturing processes in such a way that the waste products are minimum, they have no effect on the environment and their disposal is convenient. For carrying out reactions it is necessary that the starting materials, solvents and catalysts should be carefully chosen. For example Benzene (C6H6 as a solvent must be avoided at any cost since it is carcinogenic in nature. If possible, it is best to carry out reactions in the aqueous phase. With this view in mind, synthesis methods should be designed in such a way that the starting materials are consumed to the maximum extent in the final product. The reaction should also not generate any toxic by-products.

  6. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics]. (United States)

    Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina


    The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".

  7. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  8. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.


    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  9. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016


    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  10. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry


    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto


    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    y LaVerne


    The overarching objective of this conference is to catalyze the interchange of new ideas and recent discoveries within the basic radiation sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology, and to facilitate translating this knowledge to applications in medicine and industry. The 9 topics for the GRC are: "œFrom Energy Absorption to Disease", "œBiodosimetry after a Radiological Incident," "œTrack Structure and Low Energy Electrons," "Free Radical Processes in DNA and Proteins," "Irradiated Polymers for Industrial/ Medical Applications," "Space Radiation Chemistry/Biology," "Nuclear Power and Waste Management," "Nanoparticles and Surface Interfaces", and the "Young Investigator" session.

  12. Workshop on scientific and industrial applications of free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Difilippo, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Perez, R.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))


    A Workshop on Scientific and Industrial Applications of Free Electron Lasers was organized to address potential uses of a Free Electron Laser in the infrared wavelength region. A total of 13 speakers from national laboratories, universities, and the industry gave seminars to an average audience of 30 persons during June 12 and 13, 1989. The areas covered were: Free Electron Laser Technology, Chemistry and Surface Science, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Condensed Matter, and Biomedical Applications, Optical Damage, and Optoelectronics.

  13. Analytical Chemistry as an Information Science. (United States)


    AD-AIOS 433 WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB OR CHEMOMETRICS /7/ ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE Ul NAb7/ .JUN 81 B A KO WALSKI NUUUIA 75C...AN INFORMATION SCIENCE by B. R. Kowalski Prepared for Publication in Trends in Analytical Chemistry University of Washington Department of Chemistry...S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report - Interim ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE , 2/1981 - 6/1981 6. PERFORMING ORG

  14. Flue gas cleaning chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutberlet, H. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    The introduction of modern flue gas cleaning technology into fossil-fueled power stations has repeatedly confronted the power station chemists with new and interesting problems over the last 15 - 20 years. Both flue gas desulphurization by lime washing and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides are based on simple basic chemical reactions. Owing to the use of readily available starting materials, the production of safe, useful end products and, last but not least, the possibility of implementing all this on an industrial scale by means of efficient process engineering, limestone desulphurization and catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides dominate the world market and, little by little, are becoming still more widespread. The origin and thus the quality of fuels and starting materials, the firing method, the mode of operation and engineering peculiarities in each plant interact in a complex manner. Simple cause/effect relationships are frequently incapable of explaining phenomena; thinking in complex interrelationships is needed. (EG)

  15. Publicising chemistry in a multicultural society through chemistry outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce D. Sewry


    Full Text Available Given the emphasis in Higher Education on community engagement in South Africa and the importance of international collaboration, we discuss a joint approach to chemistry outreach in two countries on two continents with widely differing target school audiences. We describe the history of the partnership between the chemistry departments at Rhodes University and the University of Bristol and provide an outline of the chemistry content of their outreach initiatives, the modes of delivery, the advantages to both departments and their students for involvement in various levels of outreach, the challenges they still face and additional opportunities that such work facilitated. The lecture demonstration ‘A Pollutant’s Tale’ was presented to thousands of learners all over the world, including learners at resource-deprived schools in South Africa. Challenges to extend outreach activities in South Africa include long travelling distances, as well as a lack of facilities (such as school halls and electricity at schools. Outreach activities not only impacted on the target audience of young learners, they also impacted upon the postgraduate and other chemistry students taking part in these initiatives. This collaboration strengthened both institutions and their outreach work and may also lead to chemistry research collaborations between the academics involved.

  16. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov


    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... on current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...

  17. The Chemistry of Planet Formation (United States)

    Oberg, Karin I.


    Exo-planets are common, and they span a large range of compositions. The origins of the observed diversity of planetary compositions is largely unconstrained, but must be linked to the planet formation physics and chemistry. Among planets that are Earth-like, a second question is how often such planets form hospitable to life. A fraction of exo-planets are observed to be ‘physically habitable’, i.e. of the right temperature and bulk composition to sustain a water-based prebiotic chemistry, but this does not automatically imply that they are rich in the building blocks of life, in organic molecules of different sizes and kinds, i.e. that they are chemically habitable. In this talk I will argue that characterizing the chemistry of protoplanetary disks, the formation sites of planets, is key to address both the origins of planetary bulk compositions and the likelihood of finding organic matter on planets. The most direct path to constrain the chemistry in disks is to directly observe it. In the age of ALMA it is for the first time possible to image the chemistry of planet formation, to determine locations of disk snowlines, and to map the distributions of different organic molecules. Recent ALMA highlights include constraints on CO snowline locations, the discovery of spectacular chemical ring systems, and first detections of more complex organic molecules. Observations can only provide chemical snapshots, however, and even ALMA is blind to the majority of the chemistry that shapes planet formation. To interpret observations and address the full chemical complexity in disks requires models, both toy models and astrochemical simulations. These models in turn must be informed by laboratory experiments, some of which will be shown in this talk. It is thus only when we combine observational, theoretical and experimental constraints that we can hope to characterize the chemistry of disks, and further, the chemical compositions of nascent planets.

  18. Boosting Cultural Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen


    @@ On July 22 of 2009, the State Council released the Revitalization Plan of Cultural Industry, which is the 11th revitalization plan for an industry following plans for steel, auto, textile, equipment manufacturing, ship-making, IT and other industries.

  19. Trajectory for Industrial Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) ordered the closure of outdated production lines in 18 industries as part of the country's plan to upgrade its industrial structure and move up the value chain.

  20. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  1. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry. (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M


    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  2. Imidazole and Triazole Coordination Chemistry for Antifouling Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andersson Trojer


    Full Text Available Fouling of marine organisms on the hulls of ships is a severe problem for the shipping industry. Many antifouling agents are based on five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, in particular imidazoles and triazoles. Moreover, imidazole and triazoles are strong ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, which are both potent antifouling agents. In this review, we summarize a decade of work within our groups concerning imidazole and triazole coordination chemistry for antifouling applications with a particular focus on the very potent antifouling agent medetomidine. The entry starts by providing a detailed theoretical description of the azole-metal coordination chemistry. Some attention will be given to ways to functionalize polymers with azole ligands. Then, the effect of metal coordination in azole-containing polymers with respect to material properties will be discussed. Our work concerning the controlled release of antifouling agents, in particular medetomidine, using azole coordination chemistry will be reviewed. Finally, an outlook will be given describing the potential for tailoring the azole ligand chemistry in polymers with respect to Cu2+ adsorption and Cu2+→Cu+ reduction for antifouling coatings without added biocides.

  3. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Hernani


    Full Text Available One way to improve students’ chemistry literacy which is demanded in the modernization of modern technology-based chemistry learning is by studying ionic liquids. Low level of scientific literacy of students in Indonesia as revealed in the PISA in 2012 was the main reason of the research. Ionic liquids-based technology are necessary to be applied as a context for learning chemistry because: (1 the attention of the scientific an technology community in the use of ionic liquids as a new generation of green solvent, electrolyte material and fluidic engineering in recent years becomes larger, in line with the strong demands of the industry for the provision of new materials that are reliable, safe, and friendly for various purposes; (2 scientific explanations related to the context of the ionic liquid contains a lot of facts, concepts, principles, laws, models and theories can be used to reinforce the learning content as a media to develop thinking skill (process/competence as demanded by PISA; (3 The modern technology-based ionic liquid can also be used as a discourse to strengthen scientific attitude. The process of synthesis of ionic liquid involves fairly simple organic reagents, so it deserves to be included in the chemistry subject in school.

  5. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)


    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. The Application of SCC-DV-Xα Computational Method of Quantum Chemistry in Cement Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It has been explored why quantum chemistry is applied to the research field of cement chemistry. The fundamental theory of SCC-DV-Xα computational method of quantum chemistry is synopsized. The results obtained by computational quantum chemistry method in recent years of valence-bond structures and hydration activity of some cement clinker minerals, mechanical strength and stabilization of some hydrates are summarized and evaluated. Finally the prospects of the future application of quantum chemistry to cement chemistry are depicted.

  7. Teaching Chemistry in the New Century: Inorganic Chemistry (United States)

    Dorhout, Peter K.


    At the San Diego ACS meeting, members of the academic community came together to share their visions for teaching inorganic chemistry. They discussed new laboratory experiences, virtual textbooks, integration of computers in the laboratory, undergraduate research experiences, and new ways of classifying reactions to enable students to recognize and categorize reaction types. It was clear from the presentations that, while the toolbox of the inorganic chemist is not now as sophisticated as the organic chemist's, that toolbox must evolve (and is evolving) if we are to understand just a fraction of the unique chemistry that is inorganic.

  8. Towards Bildung-Oriented Chemistry Education (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper


    This paper concerns Bildung-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. Bildung-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also knowledge about chemistry, both about the nature of chemistry and about its role in society. In 2004 Mahaffy suggested a tetrahedron model based on Johnstone's chemical triangle. The latter represents the formal aspects of chemistry teaching (macro, submicro, and symbolic) and the top of the tetrahedron represents a human element. In the present paper the following subdivision of the top is suggested (starting from the bottom): (1) applied chemistry, (2) socio-cultural context, and (3) critical-philosophic approach. The professional identity of the Bildung-oriented chemistry teacher differs from that of the chemist and is informed by research fields such as Philosophy of Chemistry, Science and Technology Studies, and Environmental Education. He/she takes a socio-critical approach to chemistry, emphasising both the benefits and risks of chemistry and its applications.

  9. Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Using a Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyst System: A Green, Catalytic Oxidation Reaction for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J.; Hoover, Jessica M.; Stahl, Shannon S.


    Modern undergraduate organic chemistry textbooks provide detailed discussion of stoichiometric Cr- and Mn-based reagents for the oxidation of alcohols, yet the use of such oxidants in instructional and research laboratories, as well as industrial chemistry, is increasingly avoided. This work describes a laboratory exercise that uses ambient air as…

  10. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    , forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...

  11. Organometallic frustrated Lewis pair chemistry. (United States)

    Erker, Gerhard


    Frustrated Lewis pairs are playing an increasingly important role in organometallic chemistry. Examples are presented and discussed where organometallic systems themselves serve as the Lewis base or Lewis acid components in frustrated Lewis pair chemistry, mostly through their attached functional groups. Activation of dihydrogen takes place easily in many of these systems. This may lead to the generation of novel catalyst systems but also in many cases to the occurrence of specific reactions at the periphery of the organometallic frameworks. Increasingly, FLP reactions are used to carry out functional group conversions in organometallic systems under mild reaction conditions. The limits of typical FLP reactivity are explored with selected organometallic examples, a discussion that points toward new developments, such as the discovery of facile new 1,1-carboboration reactions. Learning more and more about the broad spectrum of frustrated Lewis pair chemistry helps us to find novel reactions and applications.

  12. Understanding MAOS through computational chemistry. (United States)

    Prieto, P; de la Hoz, A; Díaz-Ortiz, A; Rodríguez, A M


    The importance of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis today is unquestionable, but in many cases the nature of these improvements remains unknown. Exploiting the benefits that microwave irradiation has in chemistry is still hindered by a lack of understanding of the physical principles of the interaction of microwave irradiation with the components of a reaction. Moreover, dielectric properties vary with temperature and along the reaction coordinate and this makes the situation more complex. Experimental determinations employed to date in Microwave-Assisted Organic Chemistry (MAOS) are characterized by the importance of thermal heating. In this way the separation of thermal heating from any other effect of electromagnetic radiation is completely impossible. This review provides an overview of the use of Computational Chemistry in MAOS to provide a theoretical understanding of the factors that can be used to explain the improvements in MAOS and how computational calculations can be used as a predictive tool.

  13. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.


    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  14. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah


    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  15. Computational chemistry, systems biology and toxicology. Harnessing the chemistry of life: revolutionizing toxicology. a commentary. (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Humphris, Colin; Westmoreland, Carl; Alepee, Nathalie; Negro, Gianni Dal; Manou, Irene


    There is a continuing interest in, and increasing imperatives for, the development of alternative methods for toxicological evaluations that do not require the use of animals. Although a significant investment has resulted in some achievements, progress has been patchy and there remain many challenges. Among the most significant hurdles is developing non-animal methods that would permit assessment of the potential for a chemical or drug to cause adverse health effects following repeated systemic exposure. Developing approaches to address this challenge has been one of the objectives of the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA). The EPAA is a unique partnership between the European Commission and industry that has interests in all aspects of reducing, refining and replacing the use of animals (the '3Rs'). One possible strategy that emerged from a broad scientific debate sponsored by the EPAA was the opportunity for developing entirely new paradigms for toxicity testing based upon harnessing the increasing power of computational chemistry in combination with advanced systems biology. This brief commentary summarizes a workshop organized by the EPAA in 2010, that had the ambitious title of 'Harnessing the Chemistry of Life: Revolutionizing Toxicology'. At that workshop international experts in chemistry, systems biology and toxicology sought to map out how best developments in these sciences could be exploited to design new strategies for toxicity testing using adverse effects in the liver as an initial focus of attention. Here we describe the workshop design and outputs, the primary purpose being to stimulate debate about the need to align different areas of science with toxicology if new and truly innovative approaches to toxicity testing are to be developed.

  16. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arseneault


    Full Text Available Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.; Stetter, J.R.


    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Structural chemistry of anhydrous sodium silicates - a review. (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker


    Sodium silicates are of considerable importance for many fields of inorganic chemistry and applied mineralogy, being either raw materials for synthesis or already finished products. In addition to their industrial relevance they have also been studied intensively because of their interesting physico-chemical properties including high ion-exchange capacity and selectivity or two-dimensional sodium diffusion and conductivity. Furthermore, the structural chemistry of crystalline sodium silicates offers the crystallographer challenging tasks such as polytypism, polymorphism, temperature and/or pressure-dependent phase transitions, pseudo-symmetry, complex twinning phenomena as well as incommensurately modulated structures. Many of these structural problems have been solved only recently, although in some cases they have been known for several decades. This article will provide an overview on the structurally characterized sodium silicates and their fascinating crystallochemical characteristics.

  19. Recent applications of microwave irradiation to medicinal chemistry. (United States)

    Alcázar, Jesús; Oehlrich, Daniel


    The demands made on the pharmaceutical industry are changing at an unprecedented pace, making modern drug discovery dependent on high speed organic synthesis. Over the last few years, different technologies have been introduced in medicinal chemistry laboratories in order to improve their productivity. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is proving to be instrumental in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities. This review highlights the application of this approach as a way to explore analogue synthesis in medicinal chemistry over the last 3 years. We describe a number of examples taken from the literature that are related to various targets within different therapeutic areas. Clearly microwave irradiation is becoming a fundamental tool for optimizing key steps in the synthesis of target compounds within the field of drug discovery.

  20. Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. (United States)

    Park, Nam-Gyu


    Special Issue: Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. Sustainable chemistry is key to the development of efficient renewable energies, which will become more and more important in order to combat global warming. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Nam-Gyu Park describes the context of this Special Issue on top-quality research towards sustainability performed at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) in Korea. Scientists at SKKU work on, for example, photovoltaic solar cells to generate low-cost electricity, lithium batteries and capacitors to store electricity, piezoelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectric devices, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.

  1. Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Streitwieser, Andrew


    The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

  2. Knot theory in modern chemistry. (United States)

    Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M


    Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.

  3. An update on chemistry analyzers. (United States)

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B


    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  4. The chemistry of graphene oxide. (United States)

    Dreyer, Daniel R; Park, Sungjin; Bielawski, Christopher W; Ruoff, Rodney S


    The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review. Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure. Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed. This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references).

  5. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry


    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  6. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry


    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 2 covers all aspects of theoretical chemistry.This book reviews the techniques that have been proven successful in the study of interatomic potentials in order to describe the interactions between complex molecules. The ground state properties of the interacting electron gas when a magnetic field is present are also elaborated, followed by a discussion on the Gellman-Brueckner-Macke theory of the correlation energy that has applications in atomic and molecular systems.This volume considers the instability of the Hartree-Fock ground state


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil


    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  8. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.


    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  9. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.


    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  10. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum (United States)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas


    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  11. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan


    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  12. Chemistry, physico-chemistry and applications linked to biological activities of β-glucans. (United States)

    Barsanti, Laura; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo


    β-Glucans is the common name given to a group of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides. They are long- or short-chain polymers of (1-->3)-β-linked glucose moieties which may be branched, with the branching chains linked to the backbone by a (1-->6)-β linkage. β-(1-->3)-Glucans are widely distributed in bacteria, algae, fungi and plants, where they are involved in cell wall structure and other biological function. β-Glucans have been shown to provide a remarkable range of health benefits, and are especially important against the two most common conventional causes of death in industrialized countries, i.e. cardiovascular diseases (where they promote healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels) and cancer (where they enhance immune system functions). This Highlight provides a comprehensive and up-to-date commentary on β-glucans, their chemistry, physico-chemistry, functional role in immunological responses, and possible applications as therapeutic tools. In addition, we discuss the mechanism behind their health benefits, which are not yet fully understood.

  13. Developing an online chemistry laboratory for non-chemistry majors (United States)

    Poole, Jacqueline H.

    Distance education, also known as online learning, is student-centered/self-directed educational opportunities. This style of learning is expanding in scope and is increasingly being accepted throughout the academic curriculum as a result of its flexibility for the student as well as the cost-effectiveness for the institution. Nevertheless, the introduction of online science courses including chemistry and physics have lagged behind due to the challenge of re-creation of the hands-on laboratory learning experience. This dissertation looks at the effectiveness of the design of a series of chemistry laboratory experiments for possible online delivery that provide students with simulated hands-on experiences. One class of college Chemistry 101 students conducted chemistry experiments inside and outside of the physical laboratory using instructions on Blackboard and Late Nite Labs(TM). Learning outcomes measured by (a) pretests, (b) written laboratory reports, (c) posttest assessments, (d) student reactions as determined by a questionnaire, and (e) a focus group interview were utilized to compare both types of laboratory experiences. The research findings indicated learning outcomes achieved by students outside of the traditional physical laboratory were statistically greater than the equivalent face-to-face instruction in the traditional laboratory. Evidence from student reactions comparing both types of laboratory formats (online and traditional face-to-face) indicated student preference for the online laboratory format. The results are an initial contribution to the design of a complete sequence of experiments that can be performed independently by online students outside of the traditional face-to-face laboratory that will satisfy the laboratory requirement for the two-semester college Chemistry 101 laboratory course.

  14. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case (United States)

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong


    Objectives This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. Methods The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of “greenness” i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. Results The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. Conclusions The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market. PMID:26206363

  15. Green Chemistry; Sviluppo sostenibile. L'industria ha bisogno del contributo di tutti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingallina, P. [EniTecnologie SpA, San Donato Milanese, MI (Italy)


    Everyone acknowledges that chemistry is a key science in order to study and solve the problems of the environment: a successful arranging technological progress with environment protection is one of the main challenge of the next millennium. The Green Chemistry (or Sustainable Chemistry) represents the specific contribution that chemists can supply for an environmentally compatible development. [Italian] Fabrizio d'Adda, attualmente Presidente di EniChem e membro di Cefic (European Chemical Industry Council), ha aperto il seminario {sup T}he Greening of Chemistry{sup (}EniTecnologie - 31 Ottobre 2000) con un breve discorso. Ha espresso parole di fiducia riguardo al futuro dell'industria chimica, l'unica a suo giudizio, in grado di avviare un nuovo modello di sviluppo nel rispetto delle implicazioni ambientali, sociali ed economiche.

  16. 2001 Industry Studies: Munitions (United States)


    industry can pay, and the munitions industry has difficulty providing the lucrative stock options and other equity attractions that other industries...improve the financial strength of the munitions industry, and result in an enhanced ability to provide stock options and equity attractions to both

  17. Athletic Apparel Industry Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Industry Overview The athletic apparel industry is the fastest growing segment of global clothing industry differentiated by offering high quality athletic apparel made of technically advanced fabrics.The athletic apparel is made for a variety of sports and physical activities for children,men and women and enhances comfort and performance of athletes.The industry consists of companies that design and market

  18. 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Development of the Olefin Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis (United States)

    Casey, Charles P.


    The 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis". The discoveries of the laureates provided a chemical reaction used daily in the chemical industry for the efficient and more environmentally friendly production of important pharmaceuticals, fuels, synthetic fibers, and many other…

  19. The 13th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haroun, Samar; Givskov, Alex David; Jensen, Mikael

    of the WTTC is to advance the science associated with radioisotope production targetry. The Workshops are designed to bring experienced targetry scientists together with newcomers to the field, both from industry and academia, to discuss issues of targetry and target chemistry and approaches to exploring...

  20. Arsenolipids in marine oils and fats: A review of occurrence, chemistry and future research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens J.; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine


    of this review is to present current knowledge on the occurrence and chemistry of arsenolipids in marine oils, and to identify future research needs. The occurrence of arsenolipids and their relevance in marine organisms will be discussed, in addition to their relevance for consumers and industry, with respect...

  1. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1. (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  2. Research methodology on interfaces of physics and chemistry in micro and nanoscale materials

    CERN Document Server

    Guarrotxena, Nekane


    This book covers a selection of recent research studies and new developments in physics and chemistry in micro and nanoscale materials. It brings together research contributions from eminent experts in the field from both academic and industry, providing the latest developments in advanced materials chemical domains.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  4. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts (United States)

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan


    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  5. Problems in Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    A collection of 22 introductory exercise problems for the course "Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy (QCS)".......A collection of 22 introductory exercise problems for the course "Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy (QCS)"....

  6. Halogen Chemistry in the CMAQ Model (United States)

    Halogens (iodine and bromine) emitted from oceans alter atmospheric chemistry and influence atmospheric ozone mixing ratio. We previously incorporated a representation of detailed halogen chemistry and emissions of organic and inorganic halogen species into the hemispheric Commun...

  7. Outlook Bright for Computers in Chemistry. (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.


    Discusses the recent decision to close down the National Resource for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC), implications of that decision, and various alternatives in the field of computational chemistry. (CS)

  8. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974


    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  9. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry. (United States)

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  10. Surface chemistry in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    the usual single surface ('2D') process because indirect adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in the transition state are absent in the '3D' case. The prospects for STM-induced single molecule chemistry and for '3D' catalysts are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Synthesis: Click chemistry gets reversible (United States)

    Fulton, David A.


    'Click' chemistry allows for the linking together of chemical modules, however, there are currently no methods that also allow for facile 'declicking' to unlink them. Now, a method has been developed to click together amines and thiols, and then allow a chemically triggered declick reaction to release the original molecular components.

  12. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.


    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  13. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong


    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  14. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der B.H.; Bergveld, P.; Bousse, L.J.


    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in rapi

  15. Supramolecular chemistry of pyrazolyl complexes



    The purpose of this review is to describe the progress in the supramolecular chemistry of the pyrazolyl-based metal complexes. The text is written under the structural point of view, emphasizing the role of the covalent and non-covalent interactions in the rational construction of super and supramolecules.

  16. Research in Inorganic Fluorine Chemistry (United States)


    Constants/ Pergamon, Oxford, 1977. 11 W. A. Sheppard and C. M. Sharts, ’Organic Fluorine Chemistry,’ W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1969. 12 M. Hudlicky...Wilson, W. W., Inorg. Chem., (1988) 27, 3763. 24. Grison, E., Eriks , K., and De Vries, J. L., Acta Crystallogr., (1950), 3, 290. 25. Wilson, W. W. and

  17. Organometallic chemistry: A new metathesis (United States)

    Hennessy, Elisabeth T.; Jacobsen, Eric N.


    Carbonyls and alkenes, two of the most common functional groups in organic chemistry, generally do not react with one another. Now, a simple Lewis acid has been shown to catalyse metathesis between alkenes and ketones in a new carbonyl olefination reaction.

  18. Chemistry without borders: An overview (United States)

    As chemistry becomes more globalized, it is important for an organization to be interconnected and adaptable, and for an individual to keep up with changes and latest scientific findings and keep options open. Many of the challenges and the opportunities of globalization are in the areas of jobs, re...

  19. Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwini Nangia


    Advances in supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering reported from India within the last decade are highlighted in the categories of new intermolecular interactions, designed supramolecular architectures, network structures, multi-component host-guest systems, cocrystals, and polymorphs. Understanding self-assembly and crystallization through X-ray crystal structures is illustrated by two important prototypes - the large unit cell of elusive saccharin hydrate, Na16(sac)16 . 30H2O, which contains regular and irregular domains in the same structure, and by the Aufbau build up of zinc phosphate framework structures, e.g. ladder motif in [C3N2H12][Zn(HPO4)2] to layer structure in [C3N2H12][Zn2(HPO4)3] upon prolonged hydrothermal conditions. The pivotal role of accurate X-ray diffraction in supramolecular and structural studies is evident in many examples. Application of the bottomup approach to make powerful NLO and magnetic materials, design of efficient organogelators, and crystallization of novel pharmaceutical polymorphs and cocrystals show possible future directions for interdisciplinary research in chemistry with materials and pharmaceutical scientists. This article traces the evolution of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering starting from the early nineties and projects a center stage for chemistry in the natural sciences.

  20. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds (United States)

    Phillips, Donald H.


    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  1. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry. (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  2. Some advances in atmospheric chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the recent decade, researches have been carried out by our group on some aspects of atmospheric chemistry through field observation, mechanism analysis and model simulation. Here some main results on greenhouse gas (CH4, N2O) emission from Chinese agricultural fields, aerosol, global carbon cycle and ozone variation in surface laver over China are briefly reported.

  3. Chemistry of the Burning Surface (United States)


    control voltage of the Pt filament is highly terial. This chemistry cannot be extracted by slowly heat- sensitive to the thermochemistry of the thin...azines. the residues formed at teach iernperature ’)ascd ýucli as melon, arc known to be thcriaalLv -.) tile absorhanice value ot ouhgaseous prod

  4. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis (United States)

    Tezuka, M.


    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  5. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere (United States)

    Scattergood, T.


    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  6. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis


    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.


    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  7. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.


    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  8. Visualizing Chemistry: Investigations for Teachers. (United States)

    Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.

    This book contains 101 investigations for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…

  9. The Chemistry of Color Photography (United States)

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.


    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  10. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  11. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  12. Structural Chemistry of Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ This innovative research group on structural chemistry of functional materials was approved by NSFC in 2005.Headed by Prof.HONG Maochun, the team consists of several young research scientists from the CAS Fujian Institute of Research on the Structures of Matter, including Profs CAO Rong, LU Canzhong, GUO Guocong, CHEN Zhongning, MAO Jianggao Mao and CHEN Ling.

  13. Chemistry--The Big Picture (United States)

    Cassell, Anne


    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  14. IV. Health physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, N.B.; Moyer, B.J.


    This report describes progress on the development of equipment and techniques to accomplish the goal of control and trapping of radioactive sustances. Emphasis is on simplicity reproducibiolity, and universal use. Also illustrated is the Health Chemistry Organization set-up of personnel.

  15. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  16. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, H.E. [NNL Sellafield (United Kingdom); Dey, G.R. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IPNL, 69 - Lyon (France); Boucher, J.L. [Lab. de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, UMR 8601 CNRS 45 rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris cedex 06, Univ Paris 5, 75 (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay (France); Bererd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); IUT Departement Chimie, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France); Koppenol, W.H. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Janata, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany); Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C. [Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, DEN/DPC/Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur yvette (France)


    Water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO{sub 2}- and NO{sub 3}-. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  17. DanceChemistry: Helping Students Visualize Chemistry Concepts through Dance Videos (United States)

    Tay, Gidget C.; Edwards, Kimberly D.


    A visual aid teaching tool, the DanceChemistry video series, has been developed to teach fundamental chemistry concepts through dance. These educational videos portray chemical interactions at the molecular level using dancers to represent chemical species. Students reported that the DanceChemistry videos helped them visualize chemistry ideas in a…

  18. The Journal of Kitchen Chemistry: A Tool for Instructing the Preparation of a Chemistry Journal Article (United States)

    Meyers, Jonathan K.; LeBaron, Tyler W.; Collins, David C.


    Writing assignments are typically incorporated into chemistry courses in an attempt to enhance the learning of chemistry or to teach technical writing to chemistry majors. This work addresses the development of chemistry-major writing skills by focusing on the rigorous guidelines and conventions associated with the preparation of a journal…

  19. Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments. (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

  20. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection. (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985


    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  1. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels


    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  2. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth


    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  3. Modern Analytical Chemistry in the Contemporary World (United States)

    Šíma, Jan


    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among…

  4. One-world chemistry and systems thinking (United States)

    Matlin, Stephen A.; Mehta, Goverdhan; Hopf, Henning; Krief, Alain


    The practice and overarching mission of chemistry need a major overhaul in order to be fit for purpose in the twenty-first century and beyond. The concept of 'one-world' chemistry takes a systems approach that brings together many factors, including ethics and sustainability, that are critical to the future role of chemistry.

  5. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  6. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  7. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane. (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  8. A Student Guide to Studying General Chemistry. (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a guide for introductory college chemistry students who are new to the subject of chemistry and who have been exposed to linear and second-order algebra equations and the concept of slope. The guide presents directions on the following topics: (1) How to prepare for lectures and take notes; (2) How to study chemistry outside of class using…

  9. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Murov, Steven


    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  10. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: A Workshop Summary (United States)

    Sawyer, Keegan; Alper, Joe


    "Undergraduate Chemistry Education" is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2013 by the Chemical Science Roundtable of the National Research Council to explore the current state of undergraduate chemistry education. Research and innovation in undergraduate chemistry education has been done for many years, and one goal of this…

  11. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals (United States)

    van Arnum, Susan D.


    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  12. Environmental Chemistry Update (United States)


    111 pg, leading to a body fat concentration of about 40 ppt (12). Lithium Battery AdvancesRechargeable Power SourceRecent advances in lithium ion battery technology may allow these devices to become the rechargeable power source of choice in electric cars of the future. Due to their high voltage, they can store a large amount of energy per given mass or volume of battery. In the past, however, such batteries have been somewhat impractical because they had to be hermetically sealed and required nonaqueous electrolytes due to lithium's violent reaction with water. In the newly developed battery, the electrolyte is water that already contains a high concentration of Li+ ions; elemental lithium (present as LiMn2O4 in one electrode) is unreactive in this medium unless an external connection to the other electrode is made (13). Air-Pollution Control for Power PlantsA process called SNOX, which removes both NOx and SO2 from the flue gases produced by coal-fired power plants, has been developed and demonstrated. The nitrogen oxides are first reduced to N2. The resulting gas is then heated and catalytically oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which is then hydrated to sulfuric acid. More than 90% of the NOx and SO2 were removed from the flue gases in the demonstration held at an Ohio Edison plant (14). Literature Cited Williams, D. Nature 1994, 371, 556. Emsley, J. New Scientist 1994, (Oct 1), 14. McMichael, A. J. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994, 140, 489-499. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Oct 10), 5. Santee, M. L. Science 1995, 267, 849-852. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Nov 14). Solomon, S. Journal of Geophysical Research 1994, 99, 20491-20499. Wennberg, P. O. Science 1994, 266, 398-404. Viggiano, A. A. Science 1995, 267, 82-84. Summary in Chemistry and Engineering News 1995, (Jan 9), 23. Schottler, S. P.; Eisenreich, S. J. Environmental Science and Technology 1994, 28, 2228-2232. Lang, L. Environmental Health Perspectives 1993, 101, 578-583. Chemical and

  13. From Physical Chemistry to Quantum Chemistry: How Chemists Dealt with Mathematics


    Kostas Gavroglu; Ana Simões


    Discussing the relationship of mathematics to chemistry is closely related to the emergence of physical chemistry and of quantum chemistry. We argue that, perhaps, the most significant issue that the 'mathematization of chemistry' has historically raised is not so much methodological, as it is philosophical: the discussion over the ontological status of theoretical entities which were introduced in the process. A systematic study of such an approach to the mathematization of chemistry may, pe...

  14. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)


    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  15. Industrial communication technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard


    The Industrial Communication Technology Handbook focuses on current and newly emerging communication technologies and systems that are evolving in response to the needs of industry and the demands of industry-led consortia and organizations.Organized into two parts, the text first summarizes the basics of data communications and IP networks, then presents a comprehensive overview of the field of industrial communications. This book extensively covers the areas of fieldbus technology, industrial Ethernet and real-time extensions, wireless and mobile technologies in industrial applications, the

  16. Parallel chemistry in the 21st century. (United States)

    Long, Alan


    The tool chest of techniques, methodologies, and equipment for conducting parallel chemistry is larger than ever before. Improvements in the laboratory and developments in computational chemistry have enabled compound library design at the desks of medicinal chemists. This unit includes a brief background in combinatorial/parallel synthesis chemistry, along with a discussion of evolving technologies for both solid- and solution-phase chemistry. In addition, there are discussions on designing compound libraries, acquisition/procurement of compounds and/or reagents, the chemistry and equipment used for chemical production, purification, sample handling, and data analysis.

  17. Philosophy of Mathematical Chemistry: A Personal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Basak


    Full Text Available This article discusses the nature of mathematical chemistry, discrete mathematical chemistry in particular. Molecules and macromolecules can be represented by model objects using methods of discrete mathematics, e.g., graphs and matrices. Mathematical formalisms are further applied on the model objects to distill various quantitative characteristics. The end product of such an exercise can be a better understanding of chemistry, the development of quantitative scales for qualitative notions of chemistry, or an illumination of the structural basis of chemical and biological properties. The aforementioned aspects of mathematical chemistry are discussed based on my own practitioner’s perspective.

  18. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R


    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  19. The slow birth of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, I.


    Mainstream chemistry is beginning to look at environmental chemistry as an important solution to environmental problems. This can include research into developing cleaner-burning liquid fuels, cleaning up oil spills, or developing better process methods which engender less pollution, as opposed to previous practices of detecting pollutants without preventing their release to begin with. This article discusses the progress of this chemistry discipline, describes some of the ongoing research, and describes the future for environmental chemistry. An impetus for future growth will be generational change, as young scientists in training are beginning to push faculities into creating programs for environmental chemistry.

  20. A química orgânica na consolidação dos conceitos de átomo e molécula Organic chemistry in the consolidation of the concepts of atom and molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia de Oliveira Camel


    Full Text Available The present work discusses the appearance of the concepts of valence and molecular structure, and describes the appropriation and evolution of the concept of molecule in the period following the publication of Avogadro's Hypothesis. The point of reference is the development of what became known as Organic Chemistry, which encompassed Pharmacy, Physiological Chemistry, Animal and Plant Chemistry, Chemistry of Dyestuffs, Agricultural Chemistry, and the fledgling Organic Synthesis industry in the early 19th century. The theories formulated in these areas and the quest for accurate atomic weights led to those concepts of valence and molecular structure and to a precise differentiation between atom and molecule.

  1. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab


    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  2. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger


    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  3. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.


    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation—a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students—to isolate an unknown compound. Then, using spectroscopy (IR and NMR), the students collaborate to determine the structure of the product of the reaction. This application of a standard experiment allows general chemistry students to gain exposure to modern spectroscopic instrumentation and to enhance their problem-solving skills. Organic chemistry students improve their understandings of laboratory techniques and spectroscopic interpretation by acting as the resident experts for the team.

  4. Gold and other mines - History, Chemistry and Environment (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla; Moutinho, Amélia


    The Castromil gold mines is near to our school, and they were explored by the Romans around 2000 years ago, which sows the seeds of an eTwinning project about mines. Although an important source of resources, mines and their industry can lead to a negative impact on the environment. It is important for students to understand the pros and cons of the mining industry using the Castromil gold mine as an example. With a European project as eTwinning, students can share the stories of "their" mines from different countries and since it is a trans-disciplinary subject, it can involve different subjects, from Chemistry to Environment Education, from Geology to ITC. The project's profile can be found at and because the project is ongoing, we expect that more schools will join us.

  5. Ionic liquids in analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Soukup-Hein, Renee J; Warnke, Molly M; Armstrong, Daniel W


    The role of ionic liquids (ILs) in analytical chemistry is increasing substantially every year. A decade ago there were but a handful of papers in this area of research that were considered curiosities at best. Today, those publications are recognized as seminal articles that gave rise to one of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in chemical analysis. In this review, we briefly highlight early work involving ILs and discuss the most recent advances in separations, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical chemistry. Many of the most important advances in these fields depend on the development of new, often unique ILs and multifunctional ILs. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of ILs is also essential.

  6. Chemistry Of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey


    Organic carbon (OC) accounts for a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing. Molecular composition of the OC and its evolution during common processes of atmospheric aging have been a subject of extensive research over the last decade (see reviews of Ervens et al.,1 Hallquist et al.,2 Herckes et al.,3 Carlton et al.,4 Kroll and Seinfeld,5 Rudich et al.,6 and Kanakidou et al.7). Even though many fundamental advances have been reported in these studies, our understanding of the climate-related properties of atmospheric OC is still incomplete and the specific ways in which OC impacts atmospheric environment and climate forcing are just beginning to be understood. This review covers one topic of particular interest in this area –environmental chemistry of light-absorbing aerosol OC and its impact on radiative forcing.

  7. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery. (United States)

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S


    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  8. Combining supramolecular chemistry with biology. (United States)

    Uhlenheuer, Dana A; Petkau, Katja; Brunsveld, Luc


    Supramolecular chemistry has primarily found its inspiration in biological molecules, such as proteins and lipids, and their interactions. Currently the supramolecular assembly of designed compounds can be controlled to great extent. This provides the opportunity to combine these synthetic supramolecular elements with biomolecules for the study of biological phenomena. This tutorial review focuses on the possibilities of the marriage of synthetic supramolecular architectures and biological systems. It highlights that synthetic supramolecular elements are for example ideal platforms for the recognition and modulation of proteins and cells. The unique features of synthetic supramolecular systems with control over size, shape, valency, and interaction strength allow the generation of structures fitting the demands to approach the biological problems at hand. Supramolecular chemistry has come full circle, studying the biology and its molecules which initially inspired its conception.

  9. Ideograms for Physics and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    García-Risueño, Pablo; Verges, Natalia


    Ideograms (symbols that represent a word or idea) have great communicative value. They refer to concepts in a simple manner, easing the understanding of related ideas. Moreover, ideograms can simplify the often cumbersome notation used in the fields of Physics and physical Chemistry. Nonetheless only a few specific ideograms for these fields have been defined to date. In this work we propose that the scientific community follows the example of Mathematics -as well as that of oriental languages- and bestows a more important role upon ideograms. To support this thesis we propose ideograms for essential concepts in Physics and Chemistry. They are designed to be intuitive, and their goal is to make equations easier to read and understand. Our symbols are included in a publicly available Latex package (svrsymbols).

  10. An Emerging Pillar Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ The Fifth Beijing International Cultural and Creative Industry Exposition (ICCIE), held November 17-21 in Beijing, was a feast for the eyes and mind. It showcased the enormous glamour and commercial opportunities promised by the cultural and creative industry.

  11. Industry Lecture 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge


    Sammendrag af "Industry Lecture", Norsk Kjemisk Selskap, Universitetet i Oslo, givet 15/10 2010.......Sammendrag af "Industry Lecture", Norsk Kjemisk Selskap, Universitetet i Oslo, givet 15/10 2010....

  12. The Industry That Can. (United States)

    Aguirre, Edward

    This speech by the U.S. Commissioner of Education reviews the education industry and education-industry relations. Examples illustrate the effective partnership that can be created to fashion and achieve successful vocational and career education programs. (MML)

  13. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired (United States)

    Ratliff, Judy L.


    Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined. A conductivity tester that cost less than $4.00 to construct, is easy to assemble, very rugged, and provides a great deal of entertainment for sighted and non-sighted students is described.

  14. Patterns in clinical chemistry requests


    Hemel, Jan B.; Hindriks, Frans R.; van der Voet, Hilko; Rijnveld, Leo R.


    For each patient sample that is presented to the clinical chemistry laboratory a combination of various tests can be requested. This combination or profile will depend on the condition of the patient, and hence also on the requesting hospital department. Several techniques were applied to detect and describe patterns in tests requested by the cardiology, hepatology and nephrology sections of the out-patient's Department for Internal Medicine. Comparison of the frequencies of ordering the test...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas


    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.


    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

  17. Handbook of computational quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David B


    Quantum chemistry forms the basis of molecular modeling, a tool widely used to obtain important chemical information and visual images of molecular systems. Recent advances in computing have resulted in considerable developments in molecular modeling, and these developments have led to significant achievements in the design and synthesis of drugs and catalysts. This comprehensive text provides upper-level undergraduates and graduate students with an introduction to the implementation of quantum ideas in molecular modeling, exploring practical applications alongside theoretical explanations.Wri

  18. Combinatorial chemistry in the agrosciences. (United States)

    Lindell, Stephen D; Pattenden, Lisa C; Shannon, Jonathan


    Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening have had a profound effect upon the way in which agrochemical companies conduct their lead discovery research. The article reviews recent applications of combinatorial synthesis in the lead discovery process for new fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. The role and importance of bioavailability guidelines, natural products, privileged structures, virtual screening and X-ray crystallographic protein structures on the design of solid- and solution-phase compound libraries is discussed and illustrated.

  19. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  20. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.


    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....