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Sample records for chemistry biological

  1. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  2. Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borlinghaus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L. with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species (RSS and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin’s effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and (green agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule’s chemistry.

  3. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wrede Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are qu...

  4. Molecular biology: Self-sustaining chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrede Paul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular biology is an established interdisciplinary field within biology that deals fundamentally with the function of any nucleic acid in the cellular context. The molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal focusses on the genetically determined chemistry and biochemistry occuring in the cell. How can thousands of chemical reactions interact smoothly to maintain the life of cells, even in a variable environment? How is this self-sustaining system achieved? These are questions that should be answered in the light of molecular biology and evolution, but with the application of biophysical, physico-chemical, analytical and preparative technologies. As the Section Editor for the molecular biology section in Chemistry Central Journal, I hope to receive manuscripts that present new approaches aimed at better answering and shedding light upon these fascinating questions related to the chemistry of livings cells.

  5. A marriage of chemistry and biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Feature: Harvard Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology (ICCB) One of the major challenges of post-genomic world is how to identify functions of all the proteins encoded by our genome and speed up the process of drug discovery. Harvard Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology (ICCB) was set up in 1998 to meet this challenge by pursuing a novel field called "Chemical Biology". ICCB is headed by world-renowned chemist Dr. Stuart Schreiber and biologist Dr. Tim Mitchison. Currently ICCB consists of 14 laboratories from the Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, at Boston and the Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, at Cambridge. Three core facilities, High-throughput Screening, Analytical Chemistry and Biological/Chemical Informatics, are open to the whole Harvard research community for identification of novel chemical ligands for interested biology. ICCB currently employs about 50 researchers and occupies around 10000 sq. ft. of lab space at Harvard Medical School campus. ICCB is supported by grants from NCI and NIGMS as well as by private funding from Merck, Merck KGaA, and the Keck foundation.

  6. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  7. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colepicolo Neto, P.; Bechara, E.J.H. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica)

    1984-12-01

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae.

  8. Chemistry and biology of insect bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic aspects on the Chemistry and Biology of bioluminescence are reviewed, with emphasis on insects. Data from the investigation of Lampyridae (fireflies) are collected from literature. With regard to Elateridae (click beetles) and Phengodidae (rail road worms), the least explored families of luminescent insects, new data are presented on the following aspects: (i) 'in vivo' emission spectra, (ii) chemical nature of the luciferin, (iii) conection between bioluminescence and 'oxygen toxicity' as a result of molecular oxygen storage and (iv) the role of light emission by larvae and pupae. (Author)

  9. Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting entitled 'Nonlinear Oscillations in Biology and Chemistry', which was held at the University of Utah May 9-11,1985. The papers fall into four major categories: (i) those that deal with biological problems, particularly problems arising in cell biology, (ii) those that deal with chemical systems, (iii) those that treat problems which arise in neurophysiology, and (iv), those whose primary emphasis is on more general models and the mathematical techniques involved in their analysis. Except for the paper by Auchmuty, all are based on talks given at the meeting. The diversity of papers gives some indication of the scope of the meeting, but the printed word conveys neither the degree of interaction between the participants nor the intellectual sparks generated by that interaction. The meeting was made possible by the financial support of the Department of Mathe­ matics of the University of Utah. I am indebted to Ms. Toni Bunker of the Department of Mathematics for...

  10. Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Didier; Melendez-Howell, Leda Maria

    2003-02-01

    The fly agaric is a remarkable mushroom in many respects; these are its bearing, history, chemical components and the poisoning that it provokes when consumed. The 'pantherina' poisoning syndrome is characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. The main species responsible are Amanita muscaria and A. pantherina (Amanitaceae); however, some other species of the genus have been suspected for similar actions. Ibotenic acid and muscimol are the active components, and probably, some other substances detected in the latter species participate in the psychotropic effects. The use of the mushroom started in ancient times and is connected with mysticism. Current knowledge on the chemistry, toxicology, and biology relating to this mushroom is reviewed, together with distinctive features concerning this unique species. PMID:12747324

  11. Naturally Occurring Xanthones: Chemistry and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Negi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthones are one of the biggest classes of compounds in natural product chemistry. A number of xanthones have been isolated from natural sources of higher plants, fungi, ferns, and lichens. They have gradually risen to great importance because of their medicinal properties. This review focuses on the types, isolation, characterization, biological applications, and biosynthesis of naturally occurring xanthones isolated so far. Different physicochemical and instrumental methods such as liquid-solid and liquid-liquid extraction, TLC, flash chromatography, column chromatography, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, GLC, HPLC, GC, and LCMS have been widely used for isolation and structural elucidation of xanthones. Hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antileprosy, antimalarial, antioxidant, anticholinergic, mutagenicity, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, antibone resorption, antiparasitic, neuraminidase inhibitory, anticomplement, antibacterial, antifungal, algicidal, anti-HIV, cardioprotective, antitumoral, antidiabetes, antihyperlipidemic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, antiamoebic, diuretic, antidiarrheal, larvicidal, and ovicidal activities have been reported for natural occurring xanthones. To a certain extent, this review provides necessary foundation for further research and development of new medicines.

  12. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M.; Meier, W. P.; Sinner, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology -about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal an...

  13. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, D. Calvin; Jewett, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology ...

  14. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics

  15. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  16. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure thequality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful

  17. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are

  18. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful

  19. Recent advances in the chemistry and biology of pyridopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S

    2015-05-01

    The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines. PMID:25794791

  20. Scents and sensibility: how biology perceives chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Firestein

    2014-07-01

    odor can be detected by several receptors and any given receptor can bind any of several presumably related odors. In our analogy, the keys fit very loosely to differing degrees into many locks. Chemists are particularly interested in those parts of a molecule that are likely to participate in various sorts of reactions and synthetic manipulations. These would include such things as the functional group (aldehyde, acid, ester, etc. or if there are double bonds or charge carrying atoms. However, what is relevant to the synthetic chemist may not be important to the biological system, and in particular to the odor receptor protein. Thus we should begin by taking a biological approach to odor chemistry. For example the definition of an odorant cannot be made chemically – many chemical compounds that appear nearly identical to a known odorant may have a different smell or none at all. The only definition of an odorant is that it binds to an odor receptor to give rise to a biological response. Precisely what parts of a chemical compound influence that binding is one of the most challenging questions in biology. The actual perception of an odorant depends on the particular combination of receptors that are activated. In a complex mixture of tens to hundreds of different odor molecules this can quickly become a very complicated matrix of activated receptors with an astronomical number of combinations. An open question is whether evolution has perhaps found a simplified way of performing this apparently incalculable task. One possible solution would be the existence of a few dozen common chemical structures that would serve as primary features from which all other odors are constructed. This would be similar to the way the visual system can perceive thousands of hues of light by combining only three (blue, green and red primary “colors” or wavelengths. Although the idea of primaries in olfaction has been discussed for several decades it was largely abandoned after the

  1. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  2. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the {gamma} irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain.

  3. Raphanus sativus (Radish): Their Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Martha Pérez Gutiérrez; Rosalinda Lule Perez

    2004-01-01

    Leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus have been used in various parts of the world to treat cancer and as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of this radish is reviewed. The structures of the compounds isolated and identified are listed and aspects of their chemistry and pharmacology are discussed. The compounds are grouped according to structural classes.

  4. Biological contexts for DNA charge transport chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Edward J.; Boal, Amie K.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    Many experiments have now shown that double helical DNA can serve as a conduit for efficient charge transport (CT) reactions over long distances in vitro. These results prompt the consideration of biological roles for DNA-mediated CT. DNA CT has been demonstrated to occur in biologically relevant environments such as within the mitochondria and nuclei of HeLa cells as well as in isolated nucleosomes. In mitochondria, DNA damage that results from CT is funneled to a critical regulatory element...

  5. Notions of radiation chemistry in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper examines some aspects of the direct and indirect biological radiation effects: pair formation, free radicals, superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, oxygen singlet together with the endogen radioprotector mechanisms of organisms and the ways in which an improved radioresistance of biochemical systems can be achieved. (author)

  6. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  7. Gas Plasma Surface Chemistry for Biological Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, Khoren; Larner, Mikki

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems respond to and interact with surfaces. Gas plasma provides a scalable surface treatment method for designing interactive surfaces. There are many commercial examples of plasma-modified products. These include well plates, filtration membranes, dispensing tools, and medical devices. This chapter presents an overview of gas plasma technology and provides a guide to using gas plasma for modifying surfaces for research or product development. PMID:26160577

  8. Molecular knots in biology and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules. (paper)

  9. Molecular knots in biology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nicole C H; Jackson, Sophie E

    2015-09-01

    Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules. PMID:26291690

  10. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the

  11. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles (including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  12. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for

  13. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles(including those published in this issue and those

  14. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the

  15. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles (including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  16. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review, a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles (including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  17. Areas of research in radiation chemistry fundamental to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. The necessity of understanding the chemistry of any system, biological or not, that is to be manipulated and controlled, is so obvious as to make trivial a statement to that effect. If any natural phenomenon is to be put to our use, surely the elements of it must be studied and appreciated fully. In the preliminary statements of the various panels of this general group, the need for additional information on the basic radiation chemistry concerned in radiation-induced biological effects pervades throughout

  18. Chemistry and biology of natural and designed enediynes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Smith, A L; Yue, E W

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the initial reports of the enediyne anticancer antibiotics in the late 1980s, researchers from a number of disciplines have been devoting increasing attention to their chemistry, biology, and potential medical applications. Synthetic chemists and molecular designers have been engaged in attempts to synthesize these molecules and to model their unique architecture. Considerable efforts have been directed at understanding and mimicking the various processes involved in the targeting,...

  19. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles(including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue)during the last editing time period.

  20. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry. The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles (including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  1. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles(including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue)during the last editing time period.

  2. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles(including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue)during the last editing time period.

  3. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles(including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  4. Acknowledgments to reviewers of World Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Many reviewers have contributed their expertise and time to the peer review,a critical process to ensure the quality of World Journal of Biological Chemistry.The editors and authors of the articles submitted to the journal are grateful to the following reviewers for evaluating the articles (including those published in this issue and those rejected for this issue) during the last editing time period.

  5. Making science real: photo-sharing in biology and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Waycott

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine students’ reflections about the value of two photo-sharing activities that were implemented in undergraduate Biology and Chemistry subjects. Both activities aimed, broadly, to provide support for authentic and meaningful learning experiences in undergraduate science. Although the activities were similar – both required students to capture and share images as part of an independent inquiry activity – students in the Biology case study were more positive, overall, than the Chemistry students in their evaluation of the activity. In this paper, we examine the findings from the two case studies in parallel to provide insight into our understanding of meaningful learning in undergraduate science. The results suggest that, for meaningful learning to occur, the learning activity needs to be well aligned with students’ individual learning goals and with the objectives and characteristics of the course. In the two case studies examined in this paper, this alignment was successful for the Biology case study but less successful in the Chemistry case study.

  6. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  7. Miniature spectroscopic instrumentation: Applications to biology and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christina P.; Mattley, Yvette; DeFrece, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a fundamental analytical tool utilized throughout all of the sciences. For chemistry and biology alone, there are thousands of applications. In the past two decades there have been monumental advances in the miniaturization of components used in spectrophotometric systems. The key components include detector arrays, laser diodes, and fiber optics. Currently, there are numerous commercially available miniature spectrometer systems as well as discrete components that are used by researchers in designing their own systems. A comprehensive summary of current instrumentation available for the design and development of miniaturized spectroscopy applications is described, including detectors, wavelength discriminating components, light sources, and sampling assemblies. Recommendations are made for designing spectrometer systems for specific applications. Current literature is reviewed for chemical and biological applications specifically using miniaturized spectrometer systems with the focus being on ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometers. The applications include laboratory applications, environmental sensing, on-site industrial analyses, botany and ecology applications, and finally clinical and biochemical studies. Additionally, microspectrometers, two-dimensional arrays, and photonics crystals are discussed in regards to their future role in chemistry and biology applications.

  8. 2010 Tetrapyrroles, Chemistry & Biology of Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angela Wilks

    2010-07-30

    The objective of the Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles Gordon Conference is to bring together researchers from diverse disciplines that otherwise would not interact. By bringing biologists, chemists, engineers and clinicians with a common interest in tetrapyrroles the conference provides a forum for cross-disciplinary ideas and collaboration. The perspective provided by biologists, chemists, and clinicians working in fields such as newly discovered defects in human porphyrin metabolism, the myriad of strategies for light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms, novel tetrapyrroles that serve as auxiliary chromophores or enzyme cofactors, synthetic strategies in the design of novel tetrapyrrole scaffolds, and tetrapyrrole based cell signaling and regulatory systems, makes this conference unique in the field. Over the years the growing evidence for the role of tetrapyrroles and their reactive intermediates in cell signaling and regulation has been of increasing importance at this conference. The 2010 conference on Chemistry & Biology of Tetrapyrroles will focus on many of these new frontiers as outlined in the preliminary program listed. Speakers will emphasize unpublished results and new findings in the field. The oral sessions will be followed by the highly interactive afternoon poster sessions. The poster sessions provide all conferees with the opportunity to present their latest research and to exchange ideas in a more informal setting. As in the past, this opportunity will continue during the nightly social gathering that takes place in the poster hall following the evening lectures. All conferees are encouraged to submit and present posters. At the conference the best poster in the areas of biology, chemistry and medicine will be selected by a panel of previous conference chairs.

  9. Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pump-probe experiments to study complex transient events has been an area of significant interest in materials science, biology, and chemistry. While the emphasis has been on laser pump with laser probe and laser pump with x-ray probe experiments, there is a significant and growing interest in using electrons as probes. Early experiments used electrons for gas-phase diffraction of photostimulated chemical reactions. More recently, scientists are beginning to explore phenomena in the solid state such as phase transformations, twinning, solid-state chemical reactions, radiation damage, and shock propagation. This review focuses on the emerging area of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), which comprises ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). The topics that are treated include the following: (1) The physics of electrons as an ultrafast probe. This encompasses the propagation dynamics of the electrons (space-charge effect, Child's law, Boersch effect) and extends to relativistic effects. (2) The anatomy of UED and DTEM instruments. This includes discussions of the photoactivated electron gun (also known as photogun or photoelectron gun) at conventional energies (60-200 keV) and extends to MeV beams generated by rf guns. Another critical aspect of the systems is the electron detector. Charge-coupled device cameras and microchannel-plate-based cameras are compared and contrasted. The effect of various physical phenomena on detective quantum efficiency is discussed. (3) Practical aspects of operation. This includes determination of time zero, measurement of pulse-length, and strategies for pulse compression. (4) Current and potential applications in materials science, biology, and chemistry. UEM has the potential to make a significant impact in future science and technology. Understanding of reaction pathways of complex transient phenomena in materials science, biology, and chemistry will provide fundamental

  10. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  11. Oscillatory multiphase flow strategy for chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-07-19

    Continuous multiphase flow strategies are commonly employed for high-throughput parameter screening of physical, chemical, and biological processes as well as continuous preparation of a wide range of fine chemicals and micro/nano particles with processing times up to 10 min. The inter-dependency of mixing and residence times, and their direct correlation with reactor length have limited the adaptation of multiphase flow strategies for studies of processes with relatively long processing times (0.5-24 h). In this frontier article, we describe an oscillatory multiphase flow strategy to decouple mixing and residence times and enable investigation of longer timescale experiments than typically feasible with conventional continuous multiphase flow approaches. We review current oscillatory multiphase flow technologies, provide an overview of the advancements of this relatively new strategy in chemistry and biology, and close with a perspective on future opportunities. PMID:27397146

  12. Consideration of coastal carbonate chemistry in understanding biological calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Feifel, Kirsten M.

    2016-05-01

    Correlations between aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and calcification have been identified in many laboratory manipulation experiments aiming to assess biological responses to ocean acidification (OA). These relationships have been used with projections of ΩAr under continued OA to evaluate potential impacts on marine calcifiers. Recent work suggests, however, that calcification in some species may be controlled by the ratio of bicarbonate to hydrogen ion, or the substrate-to-inhibitor ratio (SIR), rather than ΩAr. SIR and ΩAr are not always positively correlated in the natural environment, which means that ΩAr can be a poor indicator of the calcifying environment when ΩAr->1. Highly variable carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone challenges our ability to monitor fluctuations in ΩAr, SIR, and the ΩAr-SIR relationship making it difficult to assess biological OA exposures and vulnerability. Careful consideration of natural variability throughout ocean environments is required to accurately determine the influence of OA on biological calcification.

  13. Micro-segmented flow applications in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the method and application potential of micro segmented flow. The recent state of development of this powerful technique is presented in 12 chapters by leading researchers from different countries. In the first section, the principles of generation and manipulation of micro-fluidic segments are explained. In the second section, the micro continuous-flow synthesis of different types of nanomaterials is shown as a typical example for the use of advantages of the technique in chemistry. In the third part, the particular importance of the technique in biotechnical applications is presented demonstrating the progress for miniaturized cell-free processes, for molecular biology and DNA-based diagnostis and sequencing as well as for the development of antibiotics and the evaluation of toxic effects in medicine and environment.

  14. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). PMID:26873463

  15. Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership: Using Chemistry and Biology Concepts to Educate High School Students about Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Elizabeth A.; Kwiek, Nicole; Sikes, Suzanne S.; Halpin, Myra J.; Weinbaum, Carolyn A.; Burgette, Lane F.; Reiter, Jerome P.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the Alcohol Pharmacology Education Partnership (APEP), a set of modules designed to integrate a topic of interest (alcohol) with concepts in chemistry and biology for high school students. Chemistry and biology teachers (n = 156) were recruited nationally to field-test APEP in a controlled study. Teachers obtained professional…

  16. PASCAL Data Base File Description and Indexing Rules in Chemistry, Biology and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardin, R.; And Others

    This report on the multidisciplinary PASCAL database describes the files and the indexing rules for chemistry, biology, and medicine. PASCAL deals with all aspects of chemistry within two subfiles whose combined yearly growth is about 100,000 references. The Biopascal file, organized in the two subfiles of Plant Science and Biology and Medicine,…

  17. Introductory Chemistry and Biology Taught as an Interdisciplinary Mini-Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Hall, Mona L.; Allen, Mary M.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the effects of the lack of coordination in the teaching of introductory subjects in chemistry, biology, and physics. Argues that some of the more interesting topics in these fields lie on the border with another field. For example, biochemistry topics may be more interesting to students than chemistry or biology topics. (DDR)

  18. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics

  19. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  20. Cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes--chemistry and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuzan, Paweł; Góra, Maciej; Luczyński, Michał K; Woźny, Maciej

    2013-06-25

    Despite cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAHs) having been detected in the environment, the ability of these compounds to induce cellular and tissue responses remains poorly characterized. In this review, we look at the chemistry and biological activity of the cyclopenta[c]phenanthrenes (CP[c]Phs) as potential chemicals of concern in the process of risk assessment. The first part of the review deals with the environmental occurrence and chemistry of CP-PAHs, focusing on available methods of CP[c]Ph chemical synthesis. The most interesting structural feature of the CP[c]Ph is the presence of a pseudo fjord-region constructed by the cyclopentane ring. This compound can be treated either as a structurally similar one to B[c]Ph, or as a phenanthrene skeleton with an electrodonating alkyl substituent in the bay-region of the molecule. The second thread, providing available data on the adverse effects of CP[c]Ph compounds on cells and tissues of living organisms, mainly fish, improves our understanding of these possible environmental hazards. The data show that CP[c]Ph is less potent at inducing CYP1A gene expression in rainbow trout than benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a well-known Ah-receptor agonist. Interestingly, the CP[c]Ph dependent up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA is positively correlated with the incidences of clastogenic changes in rainbow trout erythrocytes. CP[c]Ph has, comparably to B[a]P, a potential to repress expression of tumor suppressor p53, in the head kidney of rainbow trout. Furthermore, estrogen responsive genes in fish liver, ERα and VTG, are not induced by CP[c]Ph, suggesting that the compound has no endocrine disrupting potential. However, some CP[c]Phs show mutagenic activity when investigated in the Ames test, and exhibit genotoxic properties in in vitro micronucleus assay. The above characteristics suggest that CP-PAHs are chemicals of concern for which potential pathways of exposure should be further identified. PMID:23628509

  1. Does Taking Physics Pay Off Later in Chemistry and Biology Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, R. H.

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between performance of 8474 students enrolled in introductory college biology, chemistry, or physics courses and their prior high school course-taking in physics is investigated in 122 randomly-selected undergraduate classrooms. Employing multiple linear regression, models are constructed that control for variation in student background, socio-economic status, and students' prior achievement in mathematics and English. A small effect size (ES = 0.13 SD, p = 0.01) is found for each year of school coursework in the same subject as a college course in biology, chemistry, or physics. No statistically significant relationship is found (p = 0.05) for any cross-disciplinary preparation, including that of differing amounts of high school physics preparation on college chemistry or biology performance. Our findings do not provide support for the view that students will be better prepared for taking high school chemistry and biology by taking physics in ninth grade.

  2. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  3. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  4. Analyzing Students' Understanding of Models and Modeling Referring to the Disciplines Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Reinisch, Bianca; Krüger, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    In this study, secondary school students' ( N = 617; grades 7 to 10) understanding of models and modeling was assessed using tasks which explicitly refer to the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics and, as a control, to no scientific discipline. The students' responses are interpreted as their biology-, chemistry-, and physics-related or general understanding of models and modeling. A subpopulation ( N = 115; one class per grade) was subsequently asked which models they had in mind when answering the tasks referring to biology, chemistry, and physics (open-ended questions). The findings show significant differences between students' biology-, chemistry-, and physics-related understandings of models and modeling. Based on a theoretical framework, the biology-related understanding can be seen as less elaborated than the physics- and chemistry-related understandings. The students' general understanding of models and modeling is located between the biology- and the physics-related understandings. Answers to the open-ended questions indicate that students primarily think about scale and functional models in the context of biology tasks. In contrast, more abstract models (e.g., analogical models, diagrams) were mentioned in relation to chemistry and physics tasks. In sum, the findings suggest that models may be used in a rather descriptive way in biology classes but in a predictive way in chemistry and physics classes. This may explain discipline-specific understandings of models and modeling. Only small differences were found in students' understanding of models and modeling between the different grade levels 7/8 and 9/10.

  5. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  6. Solving Biology's Iron Chemistry Problem with Ferritin Protein Nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elizabeth C; Tosha, Takehiko; Behera, Rabindra K

    2016-05-17

    cage symmetry (3-fold and 4-fold axes) and amino acid conservation coincide with function, shown by amino acid substitution effects. 3-Fold symmetry axes control Fe(2+) entry (enzyme catalysis of Fe(2+)/O2 oxidoreduction) and Fe(2+) exit (reductive ferritin mineral dissolution); 3-fold symmetry axes influence Fe(2+)exit from dissolved mineral; bacterial ferritins diverge slightly in Fe/O2 reaction mechanisms and intracage paths of iron-oxy complexes. Biosynthesis rates of ferritin protein change with Fe(2+) and O2 concentrations, dependent on DNA-binding, and heme binding protein, Bach 1. Increased cellular O2 indirectly stabilizes ferritin DNA/Bach 1 interactions. Heme, Fe-protoporphyrin IX, decreases ferritin DNA-Bach 1 binding, causing increased ferritin mRNA biosynthesis (transcription). Direct Fe(2+) binding to ferritin mRNA decreases binding of an inhibitory protein, IRP, causing increased ferritin mRNA translation (protein biosynthesis). Newly synthesized ferritin protein consumes Fe(2+) in biomineral, decreasing Fe(2)(+) and creating a regulatory feedback loop. Ferritin without iron is "apoferritin". Iron removal from ferritin, experimentally, uses biological reductants, for example, NADH + FMN, or chemical reductants, for example, thioglycolic acid, with Fe(2+) chelators; physiological mechanism(s) are murky. Clear, however, is the necessity of ferritin for terrestrial life by conferring oxidant protection (plants, animals, and bacteria), virulence (bacteria), and embryonic survival (mammals). Future studies of ferritin structure/function and Fe(2+)/O2 chemistry will lead to new ferritin uses in medicine, nutrition, and nanochemistry. PMID:27136423

  7. Novel types of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: Chemistry and biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko

    La Habana: Cuban Chemical Society, 2015. LO009. [Quimicuba 2015. Congress of Chemical Sciences, Technology and Innovation /9./. 13.10.2015-16.10.2015, La Habana] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * malaria * tuberculosis * inhibitors * 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  8. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hee Jae Shin; Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol; Mohammad Tofazzal Islam

    2013-01-01

    Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activi...

  9. Vietnam workshop on soil quality: Soil biology and chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    G. B. Reddy

    2007-01-01

    This presentation was presented during the Soil Quality workshop held at Nong Lam University, June 2007. It shows the importance of biological diversity as a gauge of good soil quality. Furthermore, criteria of healthy chemical balances in soil is also explained. Simple measures of biological and chemical indices of soil health are summarized.

  10. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm J. D’Souza; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques...

  11. The unique chemistry and biology of the piericidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Fenical, William

    2016-08-01

    The piericidin family of microbial metabolites features a 4-pyridinol core linked with a methylated polyketide side chain. Piericidins are exclusively produced by actinomycetes, especially members of the genus Streptomyces. The close structural similarity with coenzyme Q renders the piericidins important NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) inhibitors in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the significant activities of the piericidins, which include insecticidal, antimicrobial and antitumor effects, total syntheses of the piericidins were developed using various synthetic strategies. The biosynthetic origin of this class has also been the subject of investigation. This review covers the isolation and structure determination of the natural piericidins, their chemical modification, the total syntheses of natural and unnatural analogs, their biosynthesis, and reported biological activities together with structure-activity relationships. Given the fundamental biology of this class of metabolites, the piericidin family will likely continue to attract attention as biological probes of important biosynthetic processes. PMID:27301663

  12. Morpho-chemistry and functionality of diseased biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marta; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Heart and cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common in the world, in particular - arthrosclerosis. The aim of the research is to distinguish pathological and healthy tissue regions in biological samples, in this case - to distinguish collagen and lipid rich regions within the arterial wall. In the work a specific combination of such methods are used: FLIM and SHG in order to evaluate the biological tissue morphology and functionality, so that this research could give a contribution for creating a new biological tissue imaging standard in the closest future. During the study the most appropriate parameter for fluorescence lifetime decay was chosen in order to evaluate lifetime decay parameters and the isotropy of the arterial wall and deposition, using statistical methods FFT and GLCM. The research gives a contribution or the future investigations for evaluating lipid properties when it can de-attach from the arterial wall and cause clotting in the blood vessel or even a stroke.

  13. Chemistry and Biology of Self-Cleaving Ribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Randi M; Polanco, Julio A; Lupták, Andrej

    2015-11-01

    Self-cleaving ribozymes were discovered 30 years ago, but their biological distribution and catalytic mechanisms are only beginning to be defined. Each ribozyme family is defined by a distinct structure, with unique active sites accelerating the same transesterification reaction across the families. Biochemical studies show that general acid-base catalysis is the most common mechanism of self-cleavage, but metal ions and metabolites can be used as cofactors. Ribozymes have been discovered in highly diverse genomic contexts throughout nature, from viroids to vertebrates. Their biological roles include self-scission during rolling-circle replication of RNA genomes, co-transcriptional processing of retrotransposons, and metabolite-dependent gene expression regulation in bacteria. Other examples, including highly conserved mammalian ribozymes, suggest that many new biological roles are yet to be discovered. PMID:26481500

  14. Differences in Prospective Science Teachers’ Descriptions of the Same Concepts Used in Chemistry and Biology Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Sinan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines biology, chemistry and pre-service science teachers’ ideas about the same concepts used in different courses such as biology and chemistry. Firstly, a pilot study was conducted to reveal what kind of different ideas constructed by the students. Then, a questionnaire consisted of five open-ended questions was prepared and administered to 152 students. Additionally, semi-constructed interviews were made with nine students to get more detailed information about the conceptions. As a result, it was revealed that students constructed different meanings from the same concepts such as radical group, diffusion, osmotic pressure, amphoteric substance, acid and base used in biology and chemistry classes. In the last section of the study, why students constructed different meanings from the same concepts used in different courses were analysed and recommendations were noted to overcome those complications.

  15. Click chemistry mediated functionalization of vertical nanowires for biological applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vutti, Surendra; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bolinsson, Jessica;

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are gaining significant importance in various biological applications, such as biosensing and drug delivery. Efficient and controlled immobilization of biomolecules on the NW surface is crucial for many of these applications. Here, we present for the first time the use...

  16. Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.

  17. Enediyne anticancer antibiotic lidamycin: chemistry, biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong-guang; Zhen, Yong-su

    2008-02-01

    The enediyne antibiotics, the potent anticancer agents that contain diyne-ene functional groups, are appreciated for their novel molecular architecture, their remarkable biological activity and their fascinating mechanism of action. Their anticancer activity is apparently due to their ability to damage DNA through radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction. The enediyne antibiotics show markedly cytotoxicities against cancers in vitro and in vivo. Lidamycin is a member of the enediyne anticancer antibiotic family. This review examines lidamycin with particular emphasis on the discovery, the biological properties and its structure-activity relationships. In addition, the possible mechanisms of action of lidamycin are described. Recent progress, particularly in the areas of biosynthesis, and immunoconjugates are highlighted. Finally, the pharmacological applications of lidamycin in cancer therapy and its potential use as anticancer agents are also discussed. PMID:18288918

  18. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    OpenAIRE

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology ...

  19. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; NGUYEN, NGOC KHOI; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenos...

  20. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Kumar; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about...

  1. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Romminger, Stelamar

    2016-03-01

    Covering: 2012 to 2014. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2012, 29, 1382The present review discusses the isolation, structure determination, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activities of secondary metabolites bearing a guanidine group. Topics include non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, guanidine-bearing terpenes, polyketides and shikimic acid derivatives from natural sources. A critical analysis of some yet underdeveloped aspects of guanidine metabolites is also presented. PMID:26689539

  2. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  3. The Chemistry and Biology of Nakiterpiosin – C-nor-D-Homosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Shuanhu; Wang, Qiaoling; Wang, Gelin; Lomenick, Brett; Liu, Jie; Fan, Chih-Wei; Deng, Lih-Wen; Huang, Jing; Lum, Lawrence; Chen, Chuo

    2012-01-01

    Isolated from the sponge Terpios hoshinota that causes coral black disease, nakiterpiosin was the first C-nor-D-homosteroid discovered from a marine source. We provide in this account an overview of the chemistry and biology of this natural product. We also include a short history of the synthesis of C-nor-D-homosteroids and the results of some unpublished biological studies of nakiterpiosin.

  4. Biological forcing controls the chemistry of the coral exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Cuif, J.; Yurimoto, H.; Dauphin, Y.; Houlbreque, F.; Dunbar, R.; Constantz, B.

    2006-12-01

    A multitude of marine organisms produce calcium carbonate skeletons that are used extensively to reconstruct water temperature variability of the tropical and subtropical oceans - a key parameter in global climate-change models. Such paleo-climate reconstructions are based on the notion that skeletal oxygen isotopic composition and certain trace-element abundances (e.g., Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) vary in response to changes in the water temperature. However, it is a fundamental problem that poorly understood biological processes introduce large compositional deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium and hinder precise calibrations of many paleo-climate proxies. Indeed, the role of water temperature in controlling the composition of the skeleton is far from understood. We have studied trace-element abundances as well as oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of individual skeletal components in the zooxanthellate and non-zooxanthellate corals at ultra-structural, i.e. micrometer to sub-micrometer length scales. From this body of work we draw the following, generalized conclusions: 1) Centers of calcification (COC) are not in equilibrium with seawater. Notably, the Sr/Ca ratio is higher than expected for aragonite equilibrium with seawater at the temperature at which the skeleton was formed. Furthermore, the COC are further away from equilibrium with seawater than fibrous skeleton in terms of stable isotope composition. 2) COC are dramatically different from the fibrous aragonite skeleton in terms of trace element composition. 3) Neither trace element nor stable isotope variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are directly related to changes in SST. In fact, changes in SST can have very little to do with the observed compositional variations. 4) Trace element variations in the fibrous (bulk) part of the skeleton are not related to the activity of zooxanthellae. These observations are directly relevant to the issue of biological versus non-biological

  5. Chemistry and biology of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree, is the oldest living tree, with a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the leaf extracts have been widely sold as phytomedicine in Europe and as a dietary supplement worldwide. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts have been postulated to...... total synthesis. Terpene trilactones are believed to be partly responsible for the neuromodulatory properties of Ginkgo biloba extracts, and several biological effects of the terpene trilactones have been discovered in recent years, making them attractive pharmacological tools that could provide insight...... into the effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts....

  6. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in…

  7. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  8. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  9. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  10. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  11. Biodiesel and Integrated STEM: Vertical Alignment of High School Biology/Biochemistry and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea C.; Breiner, Jonathan M.; Keiner, Jennifer; Behm, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the vertical alignment of two high school classes, biology and chemistry, around the core concept of biodiesel fuel production. High school teachers and university faculty members investigated biodiesel as it relates to societal impact through a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Teachers. Using an action…

  12. Job Satisfaction Levels of Secondary School Physics, Chemistry and Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskan, A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the job satisfaction levels of the teachers participating in the study and to investigate whether their job satisfaction levels differ with respect to certain variables. The participants of the study were 297 science teachers (physics: 104, chemistry: 105, biology: 87 and 1 N/A) from secondary schools in…

  13. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  14. Cyclopamine and hedgehog signaling: chemistry, biology, medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heretsch, Philipp; Tzagkaroulaki, Lito; Giannis, Athanassios

    2010-05-01

    When Odysseus left the devastated city of Troy after ten years of siege he could not foresee the perils he still had to face. The encounter with the cyclops, a giant with only one eye placed in the middle of its forehead, was doubtlessly one of the creepiest and most dangerous of his adventures. In the end, Odysseus could only escape with the help of a sheep. Whether Homers cyclops was inspired by the observation of terribly malformed neonates remains speculative. However, when sheep herders in Idaho in the middle of the 20th century faced an increasing number of cyclops-like sheep in their herds, a unique cascade of chemical, biological, and medicinal discoveries was initiated. This Minireview tells this story and shows its impact on modern biomedical research. PMID:20429080

  15. Chemistry and Biology of Essential Oils of Genus Boswellia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of Boswellia plants have been exploited for millennia in the traditional medicines of Africa, China, and especially in the Indian Ayurveda. In Western countries, the advent of synthetic drugs has obscured the pharmaceutical use of Boswellia, until it was reported that an ethanolic extract exerts anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects. Frankincense was commonly used for medicinal purposes. This paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge of the volatile constituents of frankincense, with explicit consideration concerning the diverse Boswellia species. Altogether, more than 340 volatiles in Boswellia have been reported in the literature. In particular, a broad diversity has been found in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles with respect to different varieties of Boswellia. A detailed discussion of the various biological activities of Boswellia frankincense is also presented.

  16. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  17. Chemistry and biology in femtoliter and picoliter volume droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Daniel T; Lorenz, Robert M

    2009-05-19

    The basic unit of any biological system is the cell, and malfunctions at the single-cell level can result in devastating diseases; in cancer metastasis, for example, a single cell seeds the formation of a distant tumor. Although tiny, a cell is a highly heterogeneous and compartmentalized structure: proteins, lipids, RNA, and small-molecule metabolites constantly traffic among intracellular organelles. Gaining detailed information about the spatiotemporal distribution of these biomolecules is crucial to our understanding of cellular function and dysfunction. To access this information, we need sensitive tools that are capable of extracting comprehensive biochemical information from single cells and subcellular organelles. In this Account, we outline our approach and highlight our progress toward mapping the spatiotemporal organization of information flow in single cells. Our technique is centered on the use of femtoliter- and picoliter-sized droplets as nanolabs for manipulating single cells and subcellular compartments. We have developed a single-cell nanosurgical technique for isolating select subcellular structures from live cells, a capability that is needed for the high-resolution manipulation and chemical analysis of single cells. Our microfluidic approaches for generating single femtoliter-sized droplets on demand include both pressure and electric field methods; we have also explored a design for the on-demand generation of multiple aqueous droplets to increase throughput. Droplet formation is only the first step in a sequence that requires manipulation, fusion, transport, and analysis. Optical approaches provide the most convenient and precise control over the formed droplets with our technology platform; we describe aqueous droplet manipulation with optical vortex traps, which enable the remarkable ability to dynamically "tune" the concentration of the contents. Integration of thermoelectric manipulations with these techniques affords further control. The

  18. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans. Many flavonoids are shown to have antioxidative activity, free radical scavenging capacity, coronary heart disease prevention, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, while some flavonoids exhibit potential antiviral activities. In plant systems, flavonoids help in combating oxidative stress and act as growth regulators. For pharmaceutical purposes cost-effective bulk production of different types of flavonoids has been made possible with the help of microbial biotechnology. This review highlights the structural features of flavonoids, their beneficial roles in human health, and significance in plants as well as their microbial production.

  19. Introducing chemical biology applications to introductory organic chemistry students using series of weekly assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanin, Maralee R; Pontrello, Jason K

    2016-03-01

    Calls to bring interdisciplinary content and examples into introductory science courses have increased, yet strategies that involve course restructuring often suffer from the need for a significant faculty commitment to motivate change. Minimizing the need for dramatic course reorganization, the structure, reactivity, and chemical biology applications of classes of biological monomers and polymers have been integrated into introductory organic chemistry courses through three series of semester-long weekly assignments that explored (a) Carbohydrates and Oligosaccharides, (b) Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, and (c) Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids. Comparisons of unannounced pre- and post tests revealed improved understanding of a reaction introduced in the assignments, and course examinations evaluated cumulative assignment topics. Course surveys revealed that demonstrating biologically relevant applications consistently throughout the semesters enhanced student interest in the connection between basic organic chemistry content and its application to new and unfamiliar bio-related examples. Covering basic material related to these classes of molecules outside of the classroom opened lecture time to allow the instructor to further build on information developed through the weekly assignments, teaching advanced topics and applications typically not covered in an introductory organic chemistry lecture course. Assignments were implemented as homework, either with or without accompanying discussion, in both laboratory and lecture organic courses within the context of the existing course structures. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:168-178, 2016. PMID:26560414

  20. General Chemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology: An Experiment in Curricular Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman Schwartz, A.; Serie, Jan

    2001-11-01

    During the 1998-99 academic year, with the support of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we co-taught integrated courses in general chemistry and cell biology to 23 first-year students. The double course was organized around six units: I. Energetics: Harvesting (Bio)Chemical Energy; II. The Regulation of Biological Processes: Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium; III. Membranes and Electrochemical Gradients; IV. Acids and Bases and the Regulation of pH; V. Intracellular Compartments and Transport; and VI. Cellular Communication. The chemistry and biology were both taught in a manner meant to enhance understanding of these major themes and to emphasize the relationships between the two disciplines. Both of us were present for all class sessions and shared teaching responsibilities. The examinations, which corresponded to the units, also stressed the interdependence of biology and chemistry. The laboratory components were not integrated; rather the students were dispersed among laboratory sections shared with students from more traditional lecture sections. The paper reports on this experiment in curricular symbiosis, which proved to be a challenging and rewarding learning experience for both the students and us.

  1. The pharmaceutical biochemistry group: where pharmaceutical chemistry meets biology and drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kalia, Yogeshvar; Perozzo, Remo; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Successful drug discovery and development of new therapeutics is a long, expensive multidisciplinary process needing innovation and the integration of smart cutting edge science and technology to overcome the challenges in taking a drug from the bench to the bedside. The research activities of the Pharmaceutical Biochemistry group span the drug discovery and development process, providing an interface that brings together pharmaceutical chemistry, biochemistry, structural biology, computation...

  2. Historical records of changes in the chemistry and biology of Italian lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Guilizzoni, Piero; Andrea LAMI

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the palaeoecological reconstruction of past environments from the chemistry and biology of lake sediments. Emphasis has been given to the chromatographic analysis (TLC, HPLC) of algal and photosynthetic bacteria carotenoids and to the diatom and animal remain studies in cores from a number of Italian lakes. Recent nulti disciplinary studies at present in progress on palaeoclimate changes, and history of lake acidification inferred from the stratigraphic core analysis of ...

  3. Inorganic sulfur–nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J. Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S–N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical ...

  4. Diversity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Bacillus Species: Chemistry and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jae Shin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine Bacillus species produce versatile secondary metabolites including lipopeptides, polypeptides, macrolactones, fatty acids, polyketides, and isocoumarins. These structurally diverse compounds exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antialgal activities. Some marine Bacillus strains can detoxify heavy metals through reduction processes and have the ability to produce carotenoids. The present article reviews the chemistry and biological activities of secondary metabolites from marine isolates. Side by side, the potential for application of these novel natural products from marine Bacillus strains as drugs, pesticides, carotenoids, and tools for the bioremediation of heavy metal toxicity are also discussed.

  5. Heterogeneous processes at the intersection of chemistry and biology: A computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterogeneous processes hold the key to understanding many problems in biology and atmospheric science. In particular, recent experiments have shown that heterogeneous chemistry at the surface of sea-salt aerosols plays a large role in important atmospheric processes with far reaching implications towards understanding of the fate and transport of aerosolized chemical weapons (i.e. organophosphates such as sarin and VX). Unfortunately, the precise mechanistic details of the simplest surface enhanced chemical reactions remain unknown. Understanding heterogeneous processes also has implications in the biological sciences. Traditionally, it is accepted that enzymes catalyze reactions by stabilizing the transition state, thereby lowering the free energy barrier. However, recent findings have shown that a multitude of phenomena likely contribute to the efficiency of enzymes, such as coupled protein motion, quantum mechanical tunneling, or strong electrostatic binding. The objective of this project was to develop and validate a single computational framework based on first principles simulations using tera-scale computational resources to answer fundamental scientific questions about heterogeneous chemical processes relevant to atmospheric chemistry and biological sciences

  6. Interconnection of reactive oxygen species chemistry across the interfaces of atmospheric, environmental, and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Martins-Costa, Marilia; Francisco, Joseph S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2015-03-17

    Oxidation reactions are ubiquitous and play key roles in the chemistry of the atmosphere, in water treatment processes, and in aerobic organisms. Ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrogen polyoxides (H2Ox, x > 2), associated hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals (HOx = OH and HO2), and superoxide and ozonide anions (O2(-) and O3(-), respectively) are the primary oxidants in these systems. They are commonly classified as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atmospheric chemistry is driven by a complex system of chain reactions of species, including nitrogen oxides, hydroxyl and hydroperoxide radicals, alkoxy and peroxy radicals, and ozone. HOx radicals contribute to keeping air clean, but in polluted areas, the ozone concentration increases and creates a negative impact on plants and animals. Indeed, ozone concentration is used to assess air quality worldwide. Clouds have a direct effect on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. On one hand, cloud droplets absorb many trace atmospheric gases, which can be scavenged by rain and fog. On the other hand, ionic species can form in this medium, which makes the chemistry of the atmosphere richer and more complex. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that air-cloud interfaces might have a significant impact on the overall chemistry of the troposphere. Despite the large differences in molecular composition, concentration, and thermodynamic conditions among atmospheric, environmental, and biological systems, the underlying chemistry involving ROS has many similarities. In this Account, we examine ROS and discuss the chemical characteristics common to all of these systems. In water treatment, ROS are key components of an important subset of advanced oxidation processes. Ozonation, peroxone chemistry, and Fenton reactions play important roles in generating sufficient amounts of hydroxyl radicals to purify wastewater. Biochemical processes within living organisms also involve ROS. These species can come from pollutants in

  7. Tuning of nanoparticle biological functionality through controlled surface chemistry and characterisation at the bioconjugated nanoparticle surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Delyan R.; Rocks, Louise; Kelly, Philip M.; Thomas, Steffi S.; Pitek, Andrzej S.; Verderio, Paolo; Mahon, Eugene; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2015-12-01

    We have used a silica - PEG based bionanoconjugate synthetic scheme to study the subtle connection between cell receptor specific recognition and architecture of surface functionalization chemistry. Extensive physicochemical characterization of the grafted architecture is capable of capturing significant levels of detail of both the linker and grafted organization, allowing for improved reproducibility and ultimately insight into biological functionality. Our data suggest that scaffold details, propagating PEG layer architecture effects, determine not only the rate of uptake of conjugated nanoparticles into cells but also, more significantly, the specificity of pathways via which uptake occurs.

  8. Teaching contemporary chemistry, biochemistry and biology: free available databases, web tutorials and on-line tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecu CIORSAC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we underline the usefulness of studying bioinformatics both at secondary school and university levels. Also, we emphasise the need of training programs in bioinformatics allowing the secondary school teachers and udergraduate students to be able to utilise the actual resources such as to reflect current practices and state of the art in chemistry, biology and biochemistry. Furthermore, we describe some free available databases and basic bioinformatics tools and illustrate their use for the secondary school and university levels. We also mention the general and specific competences, attitudes and values that are formed to the pupils and students by the use of the bioinformatics resources.

  9. Emerging trends at the interface of chemistry and biology: Applications to the design of human therapeutics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Bhattacharya; Raghavan Varadarajan

    2010-03-01

    This article describes recent developments in the design and implementation of various strategies towards the development of novel therapeutics using first principles from biology and chemistry. Strategies for multi-target therapeutics and network analysis with a focus on cancer and HIV are discussed. Methods for gene and siRNA delivery are presented along with challenges and opportunities for siRNA therapeutics. Advances in protein design methodology and screening are described, with a focus on their application to the design of antibody based therapeutics. Future advances in this area relevant to vaccine design are also mentioned.

  10. What is the purpose of launching World Journal of Biological Chemistry?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first issue of World Journal of Biological Chemistry (WJBC ), whose preparatory work was initiated on July 01, 2009, will be published on January 26, 2010. The WJBC Editorial Board has now been established and consists of 341 distinguished experts from 37 countries. Our purpose of launching WJBC is to publish peer-reviewed, high-quality articles via an open-access online publishing model, thereby acting as a platform for communication between peers and the wider public, and maximizing the benefits to editorial board members, authors and readers.

  11. Teleology in biology, chemistry and physics education: what primary teachers should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTAS KAMPOURAKIS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in cognitive psychology suggests that children develop intuitions that may clash with what is accepted by scientists, thus making certain scientific concepts difficult to understand. Children possess intuitions about design and purpose that make them provide teleological explanations to many different sorts of tasks. One possible explanation for the origin of the bias to view objects as made for something derives from an early sensitivity to intentional agents and to their behavior as intentional object users and object makers. What is important is that teleological explanations may not be exclusively restricted in biological phenomena, as commonly assumed. Consequently, primary school teachers should take that into account when teaching biology, chemistry or physics concepts and try to refrain from enforcing students’ teleological intuitions.

  12. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Womack

    Full Text Available This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  13. Review and needs in actinide chemistry in relation with biological purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in the environment, actinides could occur and may present an healthy risk for human beings. In order to study their behavior in human organism (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know solution actinide chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation: speciation governs biological availability and toxicity of elements and is also of great interest for decorporation purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides. The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art on actinide speciation within biological media and to focus on the lack of information in order to orientate future research. (authors)

  14. Review and needs in actinide chemistry in relation with biological purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Moulin, V.; Bion, L.; Doizi, D.; Moulin, C.; Cote, G.; Madic, C.; Van der Lee, J

    2004-07-01

    In case of accidental release of radionuclides in the environment, actinides could occur and may present an healthy risk for human beings. In order to study their behavior in human organism (metabolism, retention, excretion), it is of prime importance to know solution actinide chemistry, and more particularly thermodynamic constants, which will allow to determine their speciation: speciation governs biological availability and toxicity of elements and is also of great interest for decorporation purposes. In this framework, a CEA working group on speciation has been created in order to share data both on thermodynamic constants and on speciation analytical methods, interesting chemists, environmentalists and biologists. It has been focused, in a first time, on actinides. The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art on actinide speciation within biological media and to focus on the lack of information in order to orientate future research. (authors)

  15. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  16. X-ray-induced photo-chemistry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological samples

    OpenAIRE

    George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt; Hackett, Mark J.; Ascone, Isabella; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Aitken, Jade B.; Levina, Aviva; Glover, Christopher; Lay, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray-induced photo-chemistry of metal sites within biological molecules is a concern for X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and other techniques in which samples are illuminated with X-rays. The effects of X-ray-induced photo-chemistry are reviewed and the methods used to mitigate these in X-ray absorption spectroscopy are outlined.

  17. Differences in Prospective Science Teachers' Descriptions of the Same Concepts Used in Chemistry and Biology Classes-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Sinan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines biology, chemistry and pre-service science teachers’ ideas about the same concepts used in different courses such as biology and chemistry. Firstly, a pilot study was conducted to reveal what kind of different ideas were constructed by the students. Then, a questionnaire consisted of five open-ended questions was prepared, and administered to 152 students. Additionally, semi-constructed interviews were made with nine students to get more detailed information about the conceptions. As a result, it was revealed that students constructed different meanings from the same concepts such as organic and inorganic substance, reduction and oxidation, aim of evaporation used in biology and chemistry classes. In the last section of the study, the reasons why students constructed different meanings from the same concepts used in different courses were analysed. Finally, recommendations were noted to overcome those complications.

  18. Bioorthogonal chemistry:a covalent strategy for the study of biological systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIM; Reyna; K.V.

    2010-01-01

    The development of genetically encoded,wavelength-tunable fluorescent proteins has provided a powerful imaging tool to the study of protein dynamics and functions in cellular and organismal biology.However,many biological functions are not directly encoded in the protein primary sequence,e.g.,dynamic regulation afforded by protein posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation.To meet this challenge,an emerging field of bioorthogonal chemistry has promised to offer a versatile strategy to selectively label a biomolecule of interest and track their dynamic regulations in its native habitat.This strategy has been successfully applied to the studies of all classes of biomolecules in living systems,including proteins,nucleic acids,carbohydrates,and lipids.Whereas the incorporation of a bioorthogonal reporter site-selectively into a biomolecule through either genetic or metabolic approaches has been well established,the development of bioorthogonal reactions that allow fast ligation of exogenous chemical probes with the bioorthogonal reporter in living systems remains in its early stage.Here,we review the recent development of bioorthogonal reactions and their applications in various biological systems,with a detailed discussion about our own work―the development of the tetrazole-based,photoinducible 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction.

  19. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in pedagogical discourse (i.e., textbooks and the science education literature): energy as a substance that can be accounted for, can flow, can be carried, can change forms, can be lost, and can be an ingredient, a product or stored in some way. Each of these conceptual metaphors highlight and obscure various characteristics of energy, and provide a set of frameworks that each afford a different understanding of the energy concept.

  20. Templating effect in DNA proximity ligation enables use of non-bioorthogonal chemistry in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiropulos, Nicholas G; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2012-07-01

    Here we describe the first example of selective reductive amination in biological fluids using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL). Utilizing the cocaine split aptamer, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of target concentrations in buffer, human blood serum and artificial urine medium. We explore the substrate binding preferences of the split aptamer and find that the cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine bind to the aptamer with higher affinity than cocaine. This increased affinity leads to improved detection limits for these small-molecule targets. We also demonstrate that linker length and hydrophobicity impact the efficiency of split aptamer ligation. The ability to carry out selective chemical transformations using non-bioorthogonal chemistry in media where competing reactive groups are present highlights the power of the increased effective molarity provided by DNA assembly. Obviating the need for bioorthogonal chemistry would dramatically expand the repertoire of chemical transformations available for use in templated reactions such as proximity ligation assays, in turn enabling the development of novel methods for biomolecule detection. PMID:23370267

  1. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te

  2. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources

  3. What Are They Thinking? Automated Analysis of Student Writing about Acid–Base Chemistry in Introductory Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Haudek, Kevin C; Prevost, Luanna B.; Moscarella, Rosa A.; Merrill, John; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Students’ writing can provide better insight into their thinking than can multiple-choice questions. However, resource constraints often prevent faculty from using writing assessments in large undergraduate science courses. We investigated the use of computer software to analyze student writing and to uncover student ideas about chemistry in an introductory biology course. Students were asked to predict acid–base behavior of biological functional groups and to explain their answers. Student e...

  4. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states. Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS, 2013). Although assessments of the NGSS have yet to be developed, most students are currently evaluated on their ability to interpret science visuals. While numerous studies exist on particular visuals, it is unclear whether the same types of visuals are emphasized in all science disciplines. The present study is an evaluation of the similarities and differences of visuals used to assess students' knowledge of chemistry, earth science, living environment (biology), and physics on the New York State Regents examination. Analysis of 266 distinct visual representations categorized across the four content examinations reveals that the frequency and type of visuals vary greatly between disciplines. Diagrams, Graphs, Tables, and Maps are the most prevalent across all science disciplines. Maps, Cartograms, and Time Charts are unique to the Earth Science examination, and Network Diagrams are unique to the living environment (biology) examination. This study identifies which representations are most critical for training students across the science disciplines in anticipation of the implementation and eventual assessment of the NGSS.

  5. Amplification without instability: applying fluid dynamical insights in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While amplification of small perturbations often arises from instability, transient amplification is possible locally even in asymptotically stable systems. That is, knowledge of a system's stability properties can mislead one's intuition for its transient behaviors. This insight, which has an interesting history in fluid dynamics, has more recently been rediscovered in ecology. Surprisingly, many nonlinear fluid dynamical and ecological systems share linear features associated with transient amplification of noise. This paper aims to establish that these features are widespread in many other disciplines concerned with noisy systems, especially chemistry, cell biology and molecular biology. Here, using classic nonlinear systems and the graphical language of network science, we explore how the noise amplification problem can be reframed in terms of activatory and inhibitory interactions between dynamical variables. The interaction patterns considered here are found in a great variety of systems, ranging from autocatalytic reactions and activator–inhibitor systems to influential models of nerve conduction, glycolysis, cell signaling and circadian rhythms. (paper)

  6. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Two properties are particularly germane to the transition from chemistry to biology. One is the emergence of complex molecules (polymers) capable of performing non-trivial functions, such as catalysis, energy transduction or transport across cell walls. The other is the ability of several functions to work in concert to provide reproductive advantage to systems hosting these functions. Biological systems exhibit these properties at remarkable levels of efficiency and accuracy in a way that appears effortless. However, dissection of these properties reveals great complexities that are involved. This opens a question: how a simple, ancestral system could have acquired the required properties? Other questions follow. What are the chances that a functional polymer emerges at random? What is the minimum structural complexity of a polymer to carry out a function at a reasonable level of efficiency? Can we identify concrete, protobiologically plausible mechanisms that yield advantageous coupling between different functions? These and similar questions are at the core of the main topic of this session: how soulless chemistry became life? Clearly, we do not have complete answers to any of these questions. However, in recent years a number of new and sometimes unexpected clues have been brought to light. Of particular interest are proteins because they are the main functional polymers in contemporary cells. The emergence of protein functions is a puzzle. It is widely accepted that a well ]defined, compact structure (fold) is a prerequisite for function. It is equally widely accepted that compact folds are rare among random amino acid polymers. Then, how did protein functionality start? According to one hypothesis well folded were preceded by their poorly folded, yet still functional ancestors. Only recently, however, experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been presented. In particular, a small enzyme capable of ligating two RNA fragments with the rate of 106

  7. Water as Life, Death, and Power: Building an Integrated Interdisciplinary Course Combining Perspectives from Anthropology, Biology, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willermet, Cathy; Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik

    2013-01-01

    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power", brought together topics from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  8. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  9. A Study of Motivation and Other Factors as Relating to Course Achievement in Introductory College Biology, Chemistry, and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Brooke M.; Halyard, Rebecca A.

    Results of a preliminary study that examined various factors relating to achievement in introductory level biology, chemistry, and physics classes at a public junior college are presented. Background variables, including age, sex, college major, grade point average, SAT-Verbal and SAT-Quantitative, and the sixteen-part scores of Academic…

  10. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  11. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  12. Beyond prostaglandins - chemistry and biology of cyclic oxygenated metabolites formed by free-radical pathways from polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Galano, J. M.; Durand, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 32 (2008), s. 5894-5955. ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biological activity * fatty acids * isoprostanes * oxidation * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.879, year: 2008

  13. A spatially extensive, 25-year time series of urbanization impacts on stream chemistry and biological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. E.; Schley, M. L.; Martin, H. M.; Sexton, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past quarter-century, urban expansion has posed an increasingly serious threat to freshwater systems, yet most studies investigating urban impacts rely on space-for-time analysis to characterize chemical and biological responses or infer causal mechanisms. Despite a well-articulated rationale, such inference is often confounded by inability to separate gradients of urbanization from strong spatial covariates and historical legacies. Temporal analysis of monitoring can control for these covariates, but continuous urbanization data have been lacking. Thus, we know relatively little about the chemical and biological trajectories of streams during urbanization, from which to derive expectations following mitigation. We used a newly developed 25-y annual time series of 30m impervious cover (IC) encompassing the DC-Baltimore metropolitan corridor to relate urbanization patterns to long-term stream biota and water quality monitoring data in 50 watersheds from Maryland's core/trend program. We assessed seasonal chemical data (3 month average) for trends in magnitude and variation, as well as the frequency of extreme values. Stream macroinvertebrates were analyzed for taxon-specific changes in abundance and/or occurrence frequency using Threshold Indicator Taxon Analysis (TITAN), and change points were compared with shifts in both impervious surface and stream chemistry. At surprisingly low (0-3% IC) levels of watershed urbanization, we noted marked increases in measures of fall and winter dissolved material and pulses of alkalinity corresponding with increases in impervious cover. At moderate (3-8% IC) levels, we found continued correspondence between increasing impervious cover and both dissolved material and alkalinity in all seasons, and marked changes in macroinvertebrate community composition. Changes in macroinvertebrates appeared more closely associated with pulses of development than changes in monthly water chemistry. However, at higher levels of

  14. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  15. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems—or parts of them—within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. PMID:26857674

  16. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. PMID:26857674

  17. The Clarinet Reed: AN Introduction to its Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadonte, Donald Jay

    Although clarinet reeds have been used for over two-hundred years, there has been little scientific study of the reed, either from a material science or engineering perspective. This document is intended to be the first large-scale study of the clarinet reed covering its biology, chemistry and physics. The reed is made, most often, from cane--Arundo donax. We present a complete atlas of the anatomy of Arundo donax, and examine the role of each of the cellular components in the clarinet reed performance. We examine the three principal chemical components of the processed clarinet reed: cellulose, xylan, and lignin through the use of instrumental analysis. We examine the breakdown pathways of the clarinet reed, and isolate five: (1) decrystallization of the cellulose microstructure, (2) removal of xylan by saliva, (3) plasticization of the reed material due to alkalai attack in saliva, (4) the culturing of a bacterium, Staph Epidermitis, in the cell wall matrix, (5) density changes due to salival coating of the reed. The physics of the reed is examined, and a finite element model of the modal shapes is presented. We present a theoretical treatment of the two modes of excitation of the reed, a low frequency mode (normal playing mode) due to vortex shedding, and a high frequency mode which is associated with reed squeak.

  18. REDOX CHEMISTRY OF MOLYBDENUM IN NATURAL WATERS AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeliWang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition element molybdenum (Mo possesses diverse valances (+II to +VI, and is involved in forming cofactors in more than 60 enzymes in biology. Redox switching of the element in these enzymes catalyzes a series of metabolic reactions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the element therefore plays a fundamental role in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling. In the present oxygenated waters, oxidized Mo(VI predominates thermodynamically, whilst reduced Mo species are mainly confined within specific niches including cytoplasm. Only recently has the reduced Mo(V been separated from Mo(VI in sulfidic mats and even in some reducing waters. Given the presence of reduced Mo(V in contemporary anaerobic habitats, it seems that reduced Mo species were present in the ancient reducing ocean (probably under both ferrigenous and sulfidic conditions, prompting the involvement of Mo in enzymes including nitrogenase and nitrate reductase. During the global transition to oxic conditions, reduced Mo species were constrained to specific anaerobic habitats, and efficient uptake systems of oxidized Mo(VI became a selective advantage both for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Some prokaryotes are still able to directly utilize reduced Mo if any exists in ambient environments. In total, this mini-review describes the redox chemistry and biogeochemistry of Mo over the Earth’s history.

  19. XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry. Summaries of reports in five volumes. Volume 5. IV Russian-French symposium Supramolecular systems in chemistry and biology. II Russian-Indian symposium on organic chemistry. International symposium on present-day radiochemistry Radiochemistry: progress and prospects. International symposium Green chemistry, stable evolution and social responsibility of chemists. Symposium Nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5 volume of the XVIII Mendeleev congress on general and applied chemistry includes summaries of reports on the subjects of sypramolecular systems in chemistry and biology, organic chemistry, modern radiochemistry, green chemistry - development and social responsibility of chemists, nucleophilic hydrogen substitution in aromatic systems and related chemical reactions

  20. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  1. The common extremalities in biology and physics maximum energy dissipation principle in chemistry, biology, physics and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This book is the first unified systemic description of dissipative phenomena, taking place in biology, and non-dissipative (conservative) phenomena, which is more relevant to physics. Fully updated and revised, this new edition extends our understanding of nonlinear phenomena in biology and physics from the extreme / optimal perspective. The first book to provide understanding of physical phenomena from a biological perspective and biological phenomena from a physical perspectiveDiscusses emerging fields and analysisProvides examples

  2. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L

    2016-05-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has

  3. Influence of Biological Macromolecules and Aquatic Chemistries on the Inhibition of Nitrifying Bacteria by Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radniecki, T. S.; Anderson, J. W.; Schneider, M. C.; Stankus, D. P.; Nason, J. A.; Semprini, L.

    2010-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) as a broad spectrum biocide in a wide range of consumer goods has grown exponentially since 2006 (1), which may result in an increased release of Ag-NP into wastewater streams and ultimately the receiving bodies of water. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a critical role in the global nitrogen cycle through the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and are widely considered to be the most sensitive microbial fauna in the environment being readily inhibited by contaminants, including Ag-NP (2). This research used physiological techniques in combination with physical/chemical assays to characterize the inhibition of Nitrosomonas europaea, the model AOB, by silver ions (Ag+), 3-5 nm Ag-NP, 20 nm Ag-NP and 80 nm Ag-NP under a variety of aqueous chemistries. In addition, the stability of Ag-NP suspensions was examined under a variety of aqueous chemistries including in the presences of divalent cations, chloride anions, natural organic matter (NOM), proteins (BSA) and lipopolysaccharides (alginate). Using the stable Ag-NP/test media suspensions, N. europaea was found to be extremely sensitive to Ag+, 3-5 nm Ag-NP, 20 nm Ag-NP and 80 nm Ag-NP with concentrations of 0.1, 0.12, 0.5 and 1.5 ppm, respectively, resulting in a 50% decrease in nitrification rates. The inhibition was correlated with the amount of Ag+ released into solution. It is suspected that the inhibition observed from Ag-NP exposure is caused by the liberated Ag+. The aquatic chemistry of the test media was found to have a profound influence on the stability of Ag-NP suspensions. The presence of Ag ligands (e.g. EDTA and Cl-) reduced toxicity of Ag-NP through the formation of Ag-ligand complexes with the liberated Ag+. The presence of divalent cations (e.g. Ca2+ or Mg2+) resulted in the rapid aggregation of Ag-NP leading to a decrease in Ag+ liberation and thus a decrease in N. europaea inhibition. The presence of 5 ppm NOM resulted in a highly stable Ag

  4. The Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Cohorts' Early Enrollment in Physics: concurrent with enrollment in mathematics, biology and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert Bruce Rodes

    Cohorts of 48 entering biological science majors was recruited in the fall of 2007 and again in 2008 and 2009 for the Interdisciplinary Science Experience (ISE). These ISE students enrolled in their own sections of standard courses of physics, chemistry, and biology. In these courses average ISE student out-performed their non-cohort peers by up to a full letter grade. A qualitative analysis of ISE student interviews illuminates the student experience and shows how the ISE students perceived themselves to be different than their non-cohort peers. Quantitative modeling of student performance shows that higher grades are correlated with multiple factors. These factors includes admissions characteristics such as high school GPA, and SAT scores, as well as demographic information. These trends support and elaborate on the selection narratives told by participants. Additionally the quantitative model found that higher student performance is predicted by structural aspects of the ISE program, specifically the timing of course, enrolling as a freshmen in many of their courses, and the sequencing of physics and chemistry courses. There is a statistically significant benefit to student performance in general and organic chemistry courses associated with completing the first quarter of the Physics for Bio-Science majors prior to enrollment. Further the combination of quantitative and qualitative data suggest that there is a epistemological transfer of problem solving skills and outlook from the physics to the chemistry courses.

  5. Secondary Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (PCB) Teachers’ Views about In-service Training Related to Curricular Change

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Çağlayan Mercan

    2015-01-01

    In Turkey the Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB) curricula were renewed in 2008. However, little in-service training for teachers has been conducted to disseminate the ideas in the new curricula. The purpose of this study was to investigate PCB teachers’ views on in-service training, which may serve as the base knowledge of educational change in Turkey that can be used in further curricular development. In Istanbul 99 teachers voluntarily participated in this qualitative case study. Data we...

  6. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  7. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  8. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  9. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-01

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  10. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    These are Proceedings of the Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, held August 25-26, 1989, at Lahti (Finland). The Symposium belongs to an annual series of Meetings, the first one of which was arranged in 1987 at Lund (Sweden) and the second one in 1988 at Kolle-Kolle near Copenhagen (Denmark). Although these Symposia have thus far been essentially Nordic events, their international character has increased significantly; the trend is vividly reflected through contributions in the present Topical Issue. The interdisciplinary nature of Computational Science is central to the activity; this fundamental aspect is also responsible, in an essential way, for its rapidly increasing impact. Crucially important to a wide spectrum of superficially disparate fields is the common need for extensive - and often quite demanding - computational modelling. For such theoretical models, no closed-form (analytical) solutions are available or they would be extremely difficult to find; hence one must rather resort to the Art of performing computational investigations. Among the unifying features in the computational research are the methods of simulation employed; methods which frequently are quite closely related with each other even for faculties of science that are quite unrelated. Computer simulation in Natural Sciences is presently apprehended as a discipline on its own right, occupying a broad region somewhere between the experimental and theoretical methods, but also partially overlapping with and complementing them. - Whichever its proper definition may be, the computational approach serves as a novel and an extremely versatile tool with which one can equally well perform "pure" experimental modelling and conduct "computational theory". Computational studies that have earlier been made possible only through supercomputers have opened unexpected, as well as exciting, novel frontiers equally in mathematics (e.g., fractals

  11. Dovetailing biology and chemistry: integrating the Gene Ontology with the ChEBI chemical ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. P.; Adams, N.; Bada, M.; Batchelor, C.; Berardini, T. Z.; H. Dietze; Drabkin, H.J.; Ennis, M.; Foulger, R. E.; Harris, M. A.; Hastings, J.; Kale, N. S.; Matos, P.; Mungall, C. J.; Owen, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gene Ontology (GO) facilitates the description of the action of gene products in a biological context. Many GO terms refer to chemical entities that participate in biological processes. To facilitate accurate and consistent systems-wide biological representation, it is necessary to integrate the chemical view of these entities with the biological view of GO functions and processes. We describe a collaborative effort between the GO and the Chemical Entities of Biological Inte...

  12. Syntheses of Sulfo-Glycodendrimers Using Click Chemistry and Their Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Fukuda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel glycol-clusters containing sulfonated N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc have been synthesized using click chemistry. Three dendrimers with aromatic dendrons were synthesized using chlorination, azidation and click chemistries. The resulting dendrimers were modified with azide-terminated sulfonated GlcNAc using click chemistry. The sulfonated dendrimers showed affinity for proteins, including the lectin wheat germ agglutinin and amyloid beta peptide (1-42. The dendrimers of G1 and G2 in particular showed the largest affinity for the proteins. The addition of the sulfonated GlcNAc dendrimers of G1 and G2 exhibited an inhibition effect on the aggregation of the amyloid beta peptide, reduced the b-sheet conformation, and led to a reduction in the level of nanofiber formation.

  13. Oxygen chemistry in biology: Vibrational spectroscopy, stable isotopes, and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, G.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Dioxygen is an ideally suited substrate for enzymatic manipulation in oxidation-reduction chemistry and in substrate transformation. It is a powerful oxidant with a midpoint potential of 0.815 at neutral pH; at the same time, however, it exists in a triplet state in its most stable electronic configuration. This latter property confers kinetic inertness as a result of spin-conservation restrictions on reaction chemistry. If these restrictions can be overcome and controlled, dioxygen`s high redox potential can be used to maximize efficiency in free-energy conversion processes and to effect activation of relatively inert substrates.

  14. Derivatization chemistry of the double-decker dicobalt sandwich ion targeted to design biologically active substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Švec, Petr; Hájková, Zuzana; Císařová, I.; Pokorná, Jana; Konvalinka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2012), s. 2243-2262. ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00320901 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : AIDS treatment * boranes * canastide ion * carboranes * dicarbollides * HIV -protease Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2012

  15. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  16. Some aspects of the organic, biological and inorganic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astatine has no stable isotopes and the radioactive isotopes with half-lives sufficiently long for chemical experiments (209At, 210At, 211At) must be produced artificially with a cyclotron or with a high energy accelerator by spallation of Th. This thesis deals with the synthesis and chemistry of At-compounds and the determination of some of their properties. (C.F.)

  17. APPLICABILITY OF DENDRIMERS IN REAL LIFE PRACTICES: AN INTERFACE BETWEEN CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Bina Rani; Raaz Maheshwari; Upma Singh; Magan Prasad; Chauhan, A K

    2012-01-01

    It is very tough to achieve 100 per cent branching in monodispersed samples and macromolecules. The profound branching makes the material unique for specialized applications. The objective of the article is to highlight the different dendritic morphologies in different kind of materials. Also, this article delineates the chemistry and numerous applications of dendrimers in day-to-day life.

  18. Biological sources and sinks of methane in tropical habitats and tropical atmospheric chemistry. Doctoral thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this study include: two methods for measuring methane emission from a tropical lake; methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama; methane emission from wetlands in central Panama; consumption of atmospheric methane in soils of central Panama: effects of agricultural development; a seasonal study of soil-atmosphere methane, carbon dioxide, and 222Rn flux in a tropical moist forest; and the effects of tropical deforestation on global and regional atmospheric chemistry

  19. Distribution of Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones, Iridoids and Flavonoids from Morinda genus: Chemistry and Biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Phakhodee, Wong

    2012-01-01

    The present review covers chemistry and bioactivities of anthraquinones, iridoids, and flavonoids from the Morinda genus. The plants of Morinda species, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, have been used as traditional folk medicine with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-helmin, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. They are rich sources of anthraquinones and iridoids. The relevant 2-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone is one of the most potent quinone reduc...

  20. Etymology of transition metal biomolecules as a learning aid in Biological Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous functional biomolecules are associated with metals, i.e. the metallobiomolecules; more specifically, some are dependent on transition metals required for several crucial biological roles. Nevertheless, their names can lead to ambiguous interpretations concerning the properties and performances of this group of biological molecules. Their etymology may be useful by providing a more perceptive insight into their features. However, etymology can lead to incongruous conclusions, requiring an especially careful approach to prevent errors. Examples illustrating these subjects shall be examined (author)

  1. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  2. On-Demand Targeting: Investigating Biology with Proximity-Directed Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Proximity enhancement is a central chemical tenet underpinning an exciting suite of small-molecule toolsets that have allowed us to unravel many biological complexities. The leitmotif of this opus is “tethering”—a strategy in which a multifunctional small molecule serves as a template to bring proteins/biomolecules together. Scaffolding approaches have been powerfully applied to control diverse biological outcomes such as protein–protein association, protein stability, activity, and improve imaging capabilities. A new twist on this strategy has recently appeared, in which the small-molecule probe is engineered to unleash controlled amounts of reactive chemical signals within the microenvironment of a target protein. Modification of a specific target elicits a precisely timed and spatially controlled gain-of-function (or dominant loss-of-function) signaling response. Presented herein is a unique personal outlook conceptualizing the powerful proximity-enhanced chemical biology toolsets into two paradigms: “multifunctional scaffolding” versus “on-demand targeting”. By addressing the latest advances and challenges in the established yet constantly evolving multifunctional scaffolding strategies as well as in the emerging on-demand precision targeting (and related) systems, this Perspective is aimed at choosing when it is best to employ each of the two strategies, with an emphasis toward further promoting novel applications and discoveries stemming from these innovative chemical biology platforms. PMID:26907082

  3. Sensitization and protection in the radiation chemistry of biologically active DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of a study of the effects of the well-known sensitizers paranitroacetophenone (PNAP), triacetone-amine-N-oxyl (TAN) and oxygen, and of the protector cysteamine on the radiosensitivity of purified biologically active DNA of bacteriophages. Irradiation conditions are stated. The results are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Chemistry and biology of the potent endotoxin from a Burkholderia dolosa clinical isolate from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Flaviana Di; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lembo-Fazio, Luigi; Paciello, Ida; Coutinho, Carla P; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Bernardini, MariaLina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Garozzo, Domenico; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2013-06-17

    This is the first report of the chemical and biological properties of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) endotoxin isolated from Burkholderia dolosa IST4208, an isolate recovered from a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient in a Portuguese CF center. B. dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of closely related species that are highly problematic and opportunistic pathogens in CF. B. dolosa infection leads to accelerated loss of lung function and decreased survival. The structural determination of its endotoxin was achieved using a combination of chemistry and spectroscopy, and has revealed a novel endotoxin structure. The purified LOS was tested for its immunostimulatory activity on human HEK 293 cells expressing TLR-4, MD-2, and CD-14. In these assays, the LOS showed strong proinflammatory activity. PMID:23733445

  5. Distribution of Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones, Iridoids and Flavonoids from Morinda genus: Chemistry and Biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong PHAKHODEE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present review covers chemistry and bioactivities of anthraquinones, iridoids, and flavonoids from the Morinda genus. The plants of Morinda species, belonging to the Rubiaceae family, have been used as traditional folk medicine with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor, anti-helmin, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. They are rich sources of anthraquinones and iridoids. The relevant 2-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyanthraquinone is one of the most potent quinone reductase enzyme inducers with no cytotoxicity with normal cells. Damnacanthol-3-O-b-D-primeveroside and lucidin-3-O-b-D-primeveroside displayed a significant reduction of the blood glucose levels in anti-diabetic tests. Additionally, iridoids, 9-epi-6a-methoxy geniposidic acid, scandoside methyl ester, asperulosidic acid, showed a more potent inhibitory effect of melanogenesis than the commercial available depigmented arbutin used in cosmetic industry.

  6. 'Nothing of chemistry disappears in biology': the Top 30 damage-prone endogenous metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Jeffryes, James G; Cooper, Arthur J L; Niehaus, Thomas D; Thamm, Antje M K; Frelin, Océane; Aunins, Thomas; Fiehn, Oliver; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Henry, Christopher S; Hanson, Andrew D

    2016-06-15

    Many common metabolites are intrinsically unstable and reactive, and hence prone to chemical (i.e. non-enzymatic) damage in vivo Although this fact is widely recognized, the purely chemical side-reactions of metabolic intermediates can be surprisingly hard to track down in the literature and are often treated in an unprioritized case-by-case way. Moreover, spontaneous chemical side-reactions tend to be overshadowed today by side-reactions mediated by promiscuous ('sloppy') enzymes even though chemical damage to metabolites may be even more prevalent than damage from enzyme sloppiness, has similar outcomes, and is held in check by similar biochemical repair or pre-emption mechanisms. To address these limitations and imbalances, here we draw together and systematically integrate information from the (bio)chemical literature, from cheminformatics, and from genome-scale metabolic models to objectively define a 'Top 30' list of damage-prone metabolites. A foundational part of this process was to derive general reaction rules for the damage chemistries involved. The criteria for a 'Top 30' metabolite included predicted chemical reactivity, essentiality, and occurrence in diverse organisms. We also explain how the damage chemistry reaction rules ('operators') are implemented in the Chemical-Damage-MINE (CD-MINE) database (minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov/#/top30) to provide a predictive tool for many additional potential metabolite damage products. Lastly, we illustrate how defining a 'Top 30' list can drive genomics-enabled discovery of the enzymes of previously unrecognized damage-control systems, and how applying chemical damage reaction rules can help identify previously unknown peaks in metabolomics profiles. PMID:27284066

  7. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Terpenoids from Copaiba (Copaifera spp.) Oleoresins

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilly Kelly Oliveira Neves; José Alexsandro da Silva; Paula Cristina Souza Barbosa; Fabiano de Sousa Vargas; Lidiam Maia Leandro; Valdir Florêncio da Veiga-Junior

    2012-01-01

    Copaiba oleoresins are exuded from the trunks of trees of the Copaifera species (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae). This oleoresin is a solution of diterpenoids, especially, mono- and di-acids, solubilized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The sesquiterpenes and diterpenes (labdane, clerodane and kaurane skeletons) are different for each Copaifera species and have been linked to several reported biological activities, ranging from anti-tumoral to embriotoxic effects. This review presents all the subs...

  8. Resource Letter: Bio-molecular Nano-machines: where Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Technology meet

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. This Resource Letter serves as a guide to the literature on nano-machines which drive not only intracellular movements, but also motility of the cell. These machines are usually proteins or macromolecular assemblies which require appropriate fuel for their operations. Although, traditionally, these machines were subjects of investigation in biology and biochemistry, increasing use of the concepts and techniques of physics in recent years hav...

  9. Templating effect in DNA proximity ligation enables use of non-bioorthogonal chemistry in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Spiropulos, Nicholas G.; Heemstra, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the first example of selective reductive amination in biological fluids using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL). Utilizing the cocaine split aptamer, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of target concentrations in buffer, human blood serum and artificial urine medium. We explore the substrate binding preferences of the split aptamer and find that the cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine bind to the aptamer with ...

  10. Biomimetic Chemistry and Synthetic Biology: A Two-way Traffic Across the Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Crossing the boundaries - between nature and artifact and between inanimate and living matter - is a major feature of the convergence between nanotechnology and biotechnology. This paper points to two symmetric ways of crossing the boundaries: chemists mimicking nature's structures and processes, and synthetic biologists mimicking synthetic chemists with biological materials. However to what extent are they symmetrical and do they converge toward a common view of life and machines? The questi...

  11. Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane Sulfur: New Chemistry and New Regulatory Roles in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Toohey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of sulfur bonding is undergoing change. Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems. The two fields are inter-related because the new understanding of the thiosulfoxide bond helps to explain the newfound roles of sulfur in biology. This review examines the nature of thiosulfoxide (sulfane, S0 sulfur, the history of its regulatory role, its generation in biological systems, and its functions in cells. The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor, iron-sulfur clusters, sulfuration of tRNA, modulation of enzyme activities, and regulating the redox environment by several mechanisms (including the enhancement of the reductive capacity of glutathione. A brief review of the analogous form of selenium suggests that the toxicity of selenium may be due to over-reduction caused by the powerful reductive activity of glutathione perselenide.

  12. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Terpenoids from Copaiba (Copaifera spp. Oleoresins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilly Kelly Oliveira Neves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Copaiba oleoresins are exuded from the trunks of trees of the Copaifera species (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae. This oleoresin is a solution of diterpenoids, especially, mono- and di-acids, solubilized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The sesquiterpenes and diterpenes (labdane, clerodane and kaurane skeletons are different for each Copaifera species and have been linked to several reported biological activities, ranging from anti-tumoral to embriotoxic effects. This review presents all the substances already described in this oleoresin, together with structures and activities of its main terpenoids.

  13. Chemistry and biological activities of terpenoids from copaiba (Copaifera spp.) oleoresins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, Lidiam Maia; Vargas, Fabiano de Sousa; Barbosa, Paula Cristina Souza; Neves, Jamilly Kelly Oliveira; da Silva, José Alexsandro; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

    2012-01-01

    Copaiba oleoresins are exuded from the trunks of trees of the Copaifera species (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae). This oleoresin is a solution of diterpenoids, especially, mono- and di-acids, solubilized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The sesquiterpenes and diterpenes (labdane, clerodane and kaurane skeletons) are different for each Copaifera species and have been linked to several reported biological activities, ranging from anti-tumoral to embriotoxic effects. This review presents all the substances already described in this oleoresin, together with structures and activities of its main terpenoids. PMID:22466849

  14. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Melaleuca L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Almeida Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from species Melaleuca genus, especially M. alternifolia (Maiden & Betche Cheel, have been widely used worldwide in various industries. This review is a contribution to Melaleuca knowledge and describes five important essential oil-producing species and two subspecies of Melaleuca in terms of their essential oil chemical composition, medicinal applications, and leaf morphoanatomy. Some relationships between essential oil composition of these species and important biological activities are presented. Useful parameters for the certification of the essential oils are also highlighted.

  15. Chemistry and biological activities of essential oils from Melaleuca L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Almeida Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from species Melaleuca genus, especially M. alternifolia (Maiden & Betche Cheel, have been widely used worldwide in various industries. This review is a contribution to Melaleuca knowledge and describes five important essential oil-producing species and two subspecies of Melaleuca in terms of their essential oil chemical composition, medicinal applications, and leaf morphoanatomy. Some relationships between essential oil composition of these species and important biological activities are presented. Useful parameters for the certification of the essential oils are also highlighted.

  16. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  17. Site-selective protein-modification chemistry for basic biology and drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Nikolaus; da Cruz, Filipa P.; Boutureira, Omar; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Nature has produced intricate machinery to covalently diversify the structure of proteins after their synthesis in the ribosome. In an attempt to mimic nature, chemists have developed a large set of reactions that enable post-expression modification of proteins at pre-determined sites. These reactions are now used to selectively install particular modifications on proteins for many biological and therapeutic applications. For example, they provide an opportunity to install post-translational modifications on proteins to determine their exact biological roles. Labelling of proteins in live cells with fluorescent dyes allows protein uptake and intracellular trafficking to be tracked and also enables physiological parameters to be measured optically. Through the conjugation of potent cytotoxicants to antibodies, novel anti-cancer drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects may be obtained. In this Perspective, we highlight the most exciting current and future applications of chemical site-selective protein modification and consider which hurdles still need to be overcome for more widespread use.

  18. The ChEBI reference database and ontology for biologically relevant chemistry: enhancements for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; de Matos, Paula; Dekker, Adriano; Ennis, Marcus; Harsha, Bhavana; Kale, Namrata; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Owen, Gareth; Turner, Steve; Williams, Mark; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    ChEBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi) is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. Over the past few years, ChEBI has continued to grow steadily in content, and has added several new features. In addition to incorporating all user-requested compounds, our annotation efforts have emphasized immunology, natural products and metabolites in many species. All database entries are now 'is_a' classified within the ontology, meaning that all of the chemicals are available to semantic reasoning tools that harness the classification hierarchy. We have completely aligned the ontology with the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry-recommended upper level Basic Formal Ontology. Furthermore, we have aligned our chemical classification with the classification of chemical-involving processes in the Gene Ontology (GO), and as a result of this effort, the majority of chemical-involving processes in GO are now defined in terms of the ChEBI entities that participate in them. This effort necessitated incorporating many additional biologically relevant compounds. We have incorporated additional data types including reference citations, and the species and component for metabolites. Finally, our website and web services have had several enhancements, most notably the provision of a dynamic new interactive graph-based ontology visualization. PMID:23180789

  19. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  20. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity Gênero Pouteria: química e atividade biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.O gênero Pouteria pertence à família Sapotaceae e pode ser encontrado em muitos continentes. As plantas desse gênero têm sido utilizadas na construção civil, na alimentação e também na medicina popular. Algumas atividades biológicas são reportadas às espécies desse gênero, tais como, antioxidante, anti-inflamatória, antibacteriana e antifúngica, mas seu real potencial como fonte de novos fármacos ainda é pouco conhecido. Assim, uma revisão sobre a composição química e as atividades biológicas de Pouteria é apresentada, com o intuito de estimular a continuação dos estudos das espécies aqui citadas, e a investigação de outras espécies para as quais não foram encontrados relatos.

  1. Resource Letter: Bio-molecular Nano-machines: where Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Technology meet

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. This Resource Letter serves as a guide to the literature on nano-machines which drive not only intracellular movements, but also motility of the cell. These machines are usually proteins or macromolecular assemblies which require appropriate fuel for their operations. Although, traditionally, these machines were subjects of investigation in biology and biochemistry, increasing use of the concepts and techniques of physics in recent years have contributed to the quantitative understanding of the fundamental principles underlying their operational mechanisms. The possibility of exploiting these principles for the design and control of artificial nano-machines has opened up a new frontier in the bottom-up approach to nano-technology.

  2. Electrophoretic separation techniques and their hyphenation to mass spectrometry in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis. This article is a followup to previous reviews about CE methods in metallodrug research (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis, 2007, 28, 3436-3446; Electrophoresis, 2012, 33, 622-634), also providing a comprehensive overview of metal species studied by electrophoretic methods hyphenated to MS. It highlights the latest CE developments, takes a sneak peek into gel electrophoresis, traces biomolecule labeling, and focuses on the importance of early-stage drug development. PMID:26643265

  3. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PMID:10641040

  4. Biological chemistry as a foundation of DNA genealogy: the emergence of "molecular history".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyosov, A A

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the basis of DNA genealogy, a new field of science, which is currently emerging as an unusual blend of biochemistry, history, linguistics, and chemical kinetics. The methodology of the new approach is comprised of chemical (biological) kinetics applied to a pattern of mutations in non-recombinant fragments of DNA (Y chromosome and mtDNA, the latter not being considered in this overview). The goal of the analysis is to translate DNA mutation patterns into time spans to the most recent common ancestors of a given population or tribe and to the dating of ancient migration routes. To illustrate this approach, time spans to the common ancestors are calculated for ethnic Russians, that is Eastern Slavs (R1a1 tribe), Western Slavs (I1 and I2 tribes), and Northern (or Uralic) Slavs (N1c tribe), which were found to live around 4600 years before present (R1a1), 3650 ybp (I1), 3000 and 10,500 ybp (I2, two principal DNA lineages), and 3525 ybp (N1c) (confidence intervals are given in the main text). The data were compared with the respective dates for the nearest common ancestor of the R1a1 "Indo-European" population in India, who lived 4050 years before present, whose descendants represent the majority of the upper castes in India today (up to 72%). Furthermore, it was found that the haplotypes of ethnic Russians of the R1a1 haplogroup (up to 62% of the population in the Russian Federation) and those of the R1a1 Indians (more than 100 million today) are practically identical to each other, up to 67-marker haplotypes. This essentially solves a 200-year-old mystery of who were the Aryans who arrived in India around 3500 years before the present. Haplotypes and time spans to the ancient common ancestors were also compared for the ethnic Russians of haplogroups I1 and I2, on one hand, and the respective I1 and I2 populations in Eastern and Western Europe and Scandinavia, on the other. It is suggested that the approach described in this overview lays the

  5. [Our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products. With the object of exploitation for structure determination methods, and elucidation of vital function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, T

    1993-03-01

    Our investigation on the chemistry of biologically active natural products during the last 40 years since 1953 are reviewed in this paper. The following subjects are discussed: I. photochemical relationship between rhodopsin and compounds related to areca alkaloid, II. furanoid diterpenoid constituents from dioscoreaceae plants and colombo root, III. field desorption and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of biologically active natural glycosides and glycosphingolipids, IV. investigation of biologically active marine natural products, 1) constituents of steroid glycoside sulfates from Asteroidea, 2) spine toxins from Acanthaster planci, 3) constituents of triterpenoid glycoside sulfates from Holothuroidea, 4) constituents of isoprenoids from Opisthobranchia and Octocorallia, 5) constituents of glycosphingolipids from Asteroidea. PMID:8509990

  6. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  7. Modification of chitosan derivatives of environmental and biological interest: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Magdy Y; Sobahi, Tariq R; Al-Shareef, Hossa F

    2013-04-01

    Chitosan is a non-toxic polyaminosaccharide that is available in a variety of useful forms, and its chemical and biological properties make it a very attractive biomaterial that could be used in a wide variety of medicinal applications. This work focuses on the preparation of different chitosan derivatives by treatment with ethyl cellulose, cellulose triacetate and different carbohydrates in both neutral and slightly acidic media. It also addresses modification with glycidyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, phthalic anhydride and succinic acid derivatives. The obtained derivatives were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and FT-IR spectroscopic analyses and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the obtained products and demonstrate the success of the chitosan-modification process. The obtained products were tested for their ability to uptake transition metal ions from aqueous solutions, and their ion-uptake efficiency was determined with the aid of the ICP-AES technique. The bioactivity of some selected products was tested to study the effect of their concentrations on selected microorganisms. Burkholderia cepaci, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were selected as representative examples of bacteria, yeasts and fungi, respectively. PMID:23376358

  8. Effective molarity redux: Proximity as a guiding force in chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Elissa M; Doerner, Amy E; Walker, Allison S; Schepartz, Alanna

    2013-08-01

    The cell interior is a complex and demanding environment. An incredible variety of molecules jockey to identify the correct position-the specific interactions that promote biology that are hidden among countless unproductive options. Ensuring that the business of the cell is successful requires sophisticated mechanisms to impose temporal and spatial specificity-both on transient interactions and their eventual outcomes. Two strategies employed to regulate macromolecular interactions in a cellular context are co-localization and compartmentalization. Macromolecular interactions can be promoted and specified by localizing the partners within the same subcellular compartment, or by holding them in proximity through covalent or non-covalent interactions with proteins, lipids, or DNA- themes that are familiar to any biologist. The net result of these strategies is an increase in effective molarity: the local concentration of a reactive molecule near its reaction partners. We will focus on this general mechanism, employed by Nature and adapted in the lab, which allows delicate control in complex environments: the power of proximity to accelerate, guide, or otherwise influence the reactivity of signaling proteins and the information that they encode. PMID:25418998

  9. The Chemistry and Flow Dynamics of Molecular Biological Tools Used to Confirm In Situ Bioremediation of Benzene, TBA, and MTBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, K. P.; Mackay, D. M.; Scow, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    In situ bioremediation has typically been confirmed by collecting sediment and groundwater samples to directly demonstrate a degradation process in a laboratory microcosm. However, recent advances in molecular biological tools present options for demonstrating degradation processes with field-based tools that are less time-consuming. We have been investigating the capability of some of these molecular biological tools to evaluate in situ biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and benzene at two field sites in California. At both sites, we have deployed Bio-Traps® (“traps”), made of Bio-Sep® beads in slotted PVC pipe, which provide ideal environments for microbial colonization. Stable Isotope Probing can be accomplished by sorbing the13C-labeled organic contaminant of concern onto Bio-Sep® beads (“baiting”); incorporation of 13C into the biomass collected by the trap would indicate that the microbial community was capable of degrading the labeled compound. In addition, we examined the chemistry and flow dynamics of these traps and present those results here. We performed a field experiment and a lab experiment to, in part, define the rate that different baits leached off various traps. At a TBA- and MTBE-contaminated site at Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc, CA, the TBA-dominant plume was effectively treated by recirculation/oxygenation of groundwater, decreasing TBA and MTBE concentrations to detection limits along predicted flowpaths created by two pairs of recirculation wells. We used the generated aerobic treatment zone to deploy traps baited with 13C-labeled MTBE or TBA in a novel, ex situ experimental setup. The groundwater flow extracted from the aerobic treatment zone was split through several chambers, each containing a trap and monitoring of influent and effluent. The chamber effluent was measured throughout a six-week deployment and analyzed for both TBA and MTBE; the majority of mass leached from the baited traps did

  10. Bioorganic chemistry à la baguette: studies on molecular recognition in biological systems using rigid-rod molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matile, S

    2001-01-01

    Initial studies using rigid-rod molecules or "baguettes" to address bioorganic topics of current scientific concern are reported. It is illustrated how transmembrane oligo(p-phenylene)s as representative model rods can be tuned to recognize lipid bilayer membranes either by their thickness or polarization. The construction of otherwise problematic hydrogen-bonded chains along transmembrane rods yields "proton wires," which act by a mechanism that is central in bioenergetics but poorly explored by means of synthetic models. Another example focuses on multivalent ligands assembling rigid-rod cell-surface receptors into transmembrane dynamic arene arrays. The potassium transport mediated by these ligand-receptor complexes provides experimental support for the potential biological importances of the controversial cation-pi mechanism. More complex supramolecular architecture is portrayed in the first artificial beta-barrels. It is shown how programmed assembly of toroidal rigid-rod supramolecules in detergent-free water permits control of diameter of the chemical nature of their interior. Reversed rigid-rod beta-barrels are assembled to function as self-assembled ionophores, ion channel models, and transmembrane nanopores. The potential of future intratoroidal chemistry is exemplified by encapsulation and planarization of beta-carotene in water and the construction of transmembrane B-DNA at the center of a second-sphere host-guest complex à al baguette. PMID:11893065

  11. AN INTEGRATIVE WAY OF TEACHING MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY AND PROTEIN CHEMISTRY USING ACTIN IMMOBILIZATION ON CHITIN FOR PURIFYING MYOSIN II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Souza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our intent is to present our experience on teaching Molecular Cell Biology andProtein Chemistry at UNIRIO through an innovative approach that includes myosin IIextraction and purification. We took advantage of the properties of muscle contractionand propose a simple method for purifying myosin II by affinity chromatography. Thisoriginal method is based on the preparation of an affinity column containing actinmolecules covalently bound to chitin particles. We propose a three-week syllabus thatincludes lectures and bench experimental work. The syllabus favors the activelearning of protein extraction and purification, as well as, of scientific concepts suchas muscle contraction, cytoskeleton structure and its importance for the living cell. Italso promotes the learning of the biotechnological applications of chitin and theapplications of protein immobilization in different industrial fields. Furthermore, theactivities also target the development of laboratorial technical abilities, thedevelopment of problem solving skills and the ability to write up a scientific reportfollowing the model of a scientific article. It is very important to mention that thissyllabus can be used even in places where a facility such as ultra-centrifugation islacking.

  12. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Mixed-Valence Compounds : Theory and Applications in Chemistry, Physics, Geology, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro­ vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre­ hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec­ trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...

  14. The influence of the biological pump on ocean chemistry: implications for long-term trends in marine redox chemistry, the global carbon cycle, and marine animal ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, KM; Ridgwell, A.; Payne, JL

    2016-01-01

    The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quan...

  15. Proceedings of the 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society; 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These 17. Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and 7. National Symposium on Inorganic Chemistry present several subjects of different interests for the participants, including sections about inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; environmental chemistry; technological chemistry; electrochemistry; physical chemistry; photochemistry; chemical education; natural products; analytical chemistry and biological chemistry. (C.G.C.)

  16. Facets of coordination chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwala, BV

    1993-01-01

    A concise account of coordination chemistry since its inception is given here together with some of the newer significant facets. This book covers a broad spectrum of various topics on Environment, Cyclic Voltammetry, Chromatography, Metal Complexes of biological interest, Alkoxides, NMR spectroscopy and others. These are useful to the scientific community engaged in the field of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry.

  17. Radiochemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia. A joint venture with chemistry, nuclear engineering, molecular biology, biochemistry, and the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missouri University, a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy Radiochemistry Education Award Program (REAP) grant in 1999, has significantly expanded its education and research mission in radiochemistry. While MU had a viable radiochemistry program through existing faculty expertise and the utilization of the Missouri University Research Reactor, the REAP award allowed MU to leverage its resources in significantly expanding capabilities in radiochemistry. Specifically, the grant enabled the: (1) hiring of a new faculty member in actinide radiochemistry (Dr. Paul Duval); (2) support of six graduate students in radiochemistry; (3) purchase of new radiochemistry laboratory equipment; (4) more extensive collaboration with DOE scientists through interactions with faculty and graduate students, and (5) revised radiochemical curriculum (joint courses across disciplines and new courses in actinide chemistry). The most significant impact of this award has been in encouraging interdisciplinary education and research. The proposal was initiated by a joint effort between Nuclear Engineering and Chemistry, but also included faculty in biochemistry, radiology, and molecular biology. Specific outcomes of the REAP grant thus far are: (1) increased educational and research capabilities in actinide chemistry (faculty hire and equipment acquisition); (2) increased integration of biochemistry and radiochemistry (e.g., radiochemical analysis of uranium speciation in biological systems); (3) stronger interdisciplinary integration of molecular biology and radiochemical sciences (alpha-emitters for treating cancer); (4) new and more extensive interactions with national laboratory facilities (e.g., student internships at LANL and LLBL, faculty and lab scientist exchange visits, analytical measurements and collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source), and (7) new research funding opportunities based on REAP partnership. (author)

  18. Changes in stream chemistry and biology in response to reduced levels of acid deposition during 1987-2003 in the Neversink River Basin, Catskill Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bode, R.W.; Passy, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition has decreased in the northeastern United States since the 1970s, resulting in modest increases in pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), and decreases in inorganic monomeric aluminum (AlIM) concentrations since stream chemistry monitoring began in the 1980s in the acid-sensitive upper Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Stream pH has increased by 0.01 units/year during 1987-2003 at three sites in the Neversink basin as determined by Seasonal Kendall trend analysis. In light of this observed decrease in stream acidity, we sampled 12 stream sites within the Neversink River watershed for water chemistry, macroinvertebrates, fish, and periphytic diatoms in 2003 to compare with a similar data set collected in 1987. Metrics and indices that reflect sensitivity to stream acidity were developed with these biological data to determine whether changes in stream biota over the intervening 16 years parallel those of stream chemistry. Statistical comparisons of data on stream chemistry and an acid biological assessment profile (Acid BAP) derived from invertebrate data showed no significant differences between the two years. For pH and ANC, however, values in 2003 were generally lower than those in 1987; this difference likely resulted from higher streamflow in summer 2003. Despite these likely flow-induced changes in summer 2003, an ordination and cluster analysis of macroinvertebrate taxa based on the Acid BAP indicated that the most acidic sites in the upstream half of the East Branch Neversink River form a statistically significant separate cluster consistent with less acidic stream conditions. This analysis is consistent with limited recovery of invertebrate species in the most acidic reaches of the river, but will require additional improvement in stream chemistry before a stronger conclusion can be drawn. Data on the fish and periphytic diatom communities in 2003 indicate that slimy sculpin had not extended their habitat

  19. Role of the local environment on the radiation chemistry of biological molecules: proline in single crystals. Progress report, August 1, 1984-July 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the nature of local influences on the radiation-induced chemistry of biological molecules. The long-range idea is that radiation biology results from molecular events. However, study of molecular events is most effectively performed using model systems. On the other hand, biological systems present a complex molecular environment to any single molecular system. Thus, extrapolation of the results from model systems to truly biological ones requires knowledge of the possible effects arising from neglect of the true environment. Efforts in this study are focussed on the amino acid proline. This system was chosen for primarily pragmatic reasons. In several preliminary studies evidence was found that the local environment (e.g., water, HCl) affected the quantity and type of end products. Moreover, the proline system was available in several different environments which had been fully characterized structurally by x-ray or neutron diffraction. As discussed more fully in this report, additional results from the proline family have been obtained. Also, significant results were obtained from a non-proline system, guanine hydrochloride monohydrate. 4 reference, 2 figures

  20. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  1. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  2. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  3. Preparation of 18F labeled octreotide derivatives 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA by click chemistry and its biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 18F labeled peptides usually need many reaction steps, long time, harsh reaction conditions, which greatly limits the application of 18F labeled PET probe. Using click chemistry for the synthesis of 18F labeled peptides make the reaction conditions more reliable, efficient and selective. The reaction conditions are mild, low cost, and fast. The purpose of this research was to synthesize the glycosylated octreotide derivative quickly and easily, to develop a method of 18F labeled peptides by click chemistry. We also discussed the exploration of the feasibility with 18F labeled glycosylated octreotide derivatives as a somatostatin receptor positive tumor probe. This work prepared 2-18F-azide ethane precursor compounds by nucleophilic substitution and then labeled Pr-Gluc-TOCA by click chemistry, finally we got the product 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA by purification. In addition, the in vitro stability and octanol-water partition coefficient of 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA were measured. The biodistribution studies of 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA in normal mice and tumor bearing nude mice were investigated. The radiochemical purity of 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA was 91%. The vitro stability was good. The octanol-water partition coefficient was -0.43± 0.05. The results of biodistribution in normal mice showed rapid clearance from blood, and excreted mainly through the hepatobiliary metabolism, and also through the renal metabolism. The results of the biodistribution in tumor bearing nude mice showed high uptake in the tumor (4.34±0.47% ID/g, 60 min). The finding's suggest that 18F-Ta-Gluc-TOCA is a potential radiotracer for PET imaging of somatostatin receptor positive tumors. (authors)

  4. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  5. Chemistry and biology of the potent endotoxin from a Burkholderia dolosa clinical isolate from a cystic fibrosis patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Flaviana Di; Sturiale, Luisa; Palmigiano, Angelo; Lembo-Fazio, Luigi; Paciello, Ida; Coutinho, Carla P.; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Bernardini, Marialina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Garozzo, Domenico; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report of the chemical and biological properties of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) endotoxin isolated from Burkholderia dolosa IST4208, an isolate recovered from a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient in a Portuguese CF center. B. dolosa is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of closely related species that are highly problematic and opportunistic pathogens in CF. B. dolosa infection leads to accelerated loss of lung function and decreased survival. The structural d...

  6. [JSPS Asia and Africa scientific platform program development for the medicinal chemistry based on biologically active natural products in the subtropical zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoki; Morita, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the independent administrative institution the "Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS)" initiated the "Asia and Africa Science Platform Program", which is a new project aimed to create high potential research hubs in selected fields within the Asian and African region, while fostering the next generation of leading researchers. Another goal is to establish sustainable collaborative relationships among universities and research institutes in Japan and other Asian and African countries. In this project, we consider natural sources existing in partner countries to be the most important factor in the production of medicine. We will search for target compounds and analyze their structures by screening biologically active natural products. Additionally, we will design functional molecules and create process for retrieving a large supply of target compounds based on a bioprospecting strategy. Thailand, Indonesia, and India share the vision of enhancing collaborative efforts. By conducting this researche, we will focus on academic research that is necessary for the development of the pharmaceutical and medical products industry in partner countries. There are four selected research topics as followeds: 1) Development of New Antitumor Agents based on Marine Natural Products; 2) Development of New Anticoagulants and Anti-VEGF; 3) Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Development of Novel Diagnosis and Therapeutic Agents; and 4) Medicinal Chemistry on Biologically Active Natural Products from the Traditional Condiments and Medicines. The exchanges might take the form of joint research seminars. The first Medicinal Chemistry Seminar of the AA Scientific Platform Program was co-organized with the 23th Annual Research Conference on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Thailand at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, on December 14-15, 2006. The 2nd JSPS seminar was co-organized with the 1st Bioactive Natural Products from Marine

  7. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  8. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  9. The "Other" Inositols and Their Phosphates: Synthesis, Biology, and Medicine (with Recent Advances in myo-Inositol Chemistry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mark P; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling via inositol phosphates, in particular via the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoinositides comprises a huge field of biology. Of the nine 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol isomers, myo-inositol is pre-eminent, with "other" inositols (cis-, epi-, allo-, muco-, neo-, l-chiro-, d-chiro-, and scyllo-) and derivatives rarer or thought not to exist in nature. However, neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphates were recently revealed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, thus highlighting the paucity of knowledge of the origins and potential biological functions of such stereoisomers, a prevalent group of environmental organic phosphates, and their parent inositols. Some "other" inositols are medically relevant, for example, scyllo-inositol (neurodegenerative diseases) and d-chiro-inositol (diabetes). It is timely to consider exploration of the roles and applications of the "other" isomers and their derivatives, likely by exploiting techniques now well developed for the myo series. PMID:26694856

  10. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and biological processes along a river-sea gradient (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Cibic, Tamara; Karuza, Ana; Kralj, Martina; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigated, for two years and with a bi-monthly frequency, how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect the marine carbonate system in a coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). By combining synoptic measurements of the carbonate system with in situ determinations of the primary production (14C incorporation technique) and secondary prokaryotic carbon production (3H-leucine incorporation) along a river-sea gradient, we showed that the conservative mixing between river endmember and off-shore waters was the main driver of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distribution and seasonal variation. However, during spring and summer seasons also the influence of biological uptake and release of DIC was significant. In the surface water of June 2012, the spreading and persistence of nutrient-rich freshwater stimulated the primary production (3.21 μg C L- 1 h- 1) and net biological DIC decrease (- 100 μmol kg- 1), reducing the dissolved CO2 concentration and increasing the pHT. Below the pycnocline of August 2012, instead, an elevated bacterial carbon production rate (0.92 μg C L- 1 h- 1) was related with net DIC increase (92 μmol kg- 1), low dissolved oxygen concentration, and strong pHT reduction, suggesting the predominance of bacterial heterotrophic respiration over primary production. The flux of carbon dioxide estimated at the air-sea interface exerted a low influence on the seasonal variation of the carbonate system. A complex temporal and spatial dynamic of the air-sea CO2 exchange was also detected, due to the combined effects of seawater temperature, river discharge, and water circulation. On annual scale the system was a sink of atmospheric CO2. However, in summer and during elevated riverine discharges, the area close to the river's mouth acted as a source of carbon dioxide. Also the wind speed was crucial in controlling the air-sea CO2

  11. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research

  12. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Natural Products from Northern African Plant Families: From Taccaceae to Zygophyllaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Njume, Leonel E; Malange, Yvette I; Günther, Stefan; Sippl, Wolfgang; Yong, Joseph N

    2016-04-01

    Traditional medicinal practices have a profound influence on the daily lives of people living in developing countries, particularly in Africa, since the populations cannot generally afford the cost of Western medicines. We have undertaken to investigate the correlation between the uses of plants in Traditional African medicine and the biological activities of the derived natural products, with the aim to validate the use of traditional medicine in Northern African communities. The literature is covered for the period 1959-2015 and part III of this review series focuses on plant families with names beginning with letters T to Z. The authors have focused on curating data from journals in natural products and phytomedicine. Within each journal home page, a query search based on country name was conducted. All articles "hits" were then verified, one at a time, that the species was harvested within the Northern African geographical regions. The current data partly constitutes the bases for the development of the Northern African natural compounds database. The review discusses 284 plant-based natural compounds from 34 species and 11 families. It was observed that the ethnobotanical uses of less than 40 % of the plant species surveyed correlated with the bioactivities of compounds identified. PMID:26931529

  13. The Chemistry Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Fontecave, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry at the Collège de France has received particular attention over the last few years. After the departures of Profs Jean-Marie Lehn and Jacques Livage, new ambition for developing this discipline has led to the creation of several Chairs: Prof. Marc Fontecave’s Chair of Chemistry of Biological Processes in 2008, Prof. Clément Sanchez’ Chair of Chemistry of Hybrid Materials in 2011, and the Chair of Chemistry of Materials and Energy, which Prof. Jean-Marie Tarascon has held since 2014....

  14. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  15. Comparative chemistry and biological properties of the solid residues from hydrodistillation of Spanish populations of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Vioque, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues from the hydrodistillation of selected Spanish populations of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. have been analyzed for their polyphenol composition, and antioxidant and bioplaguicide activities. The objective was to evaluate and select the most suitable plant materials as sources of natural antioxidants and crop protectants. Total polyphenol content and polyphenol composition of rosemary populations were very dependent on the growth location: populations from Aranjuez showed a higher content of total polyphenols and were richer in rosmarinic acid as compared with their equivalent populations from Cuenca, whereas these latter were characterized by an overall higher content in genkwanin and carnosol. Most of the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the total content of polyphenols although some polyphenols like carnosic acid and carnosol seemed to favor such activities. The extracts from R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and moderate against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and Myzus persicae Sulzer, according to their feeding ecologies. The biological effects of the active samples cannot be accounted by their chemical composition, suggesting additive or synergistic effects. Both the phytotoxic and stimulating effects on Lactuca sativa L., and Lolium perenne L. leaf and/or root growth were observed.Se ha analizado la composición en polifenoles y las actividades antioxidante y bioplaguicida de los residuos sólidos procedentes de la hidrodestilación de poblaciones seleccionadas de romero (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. El objetivo fue evaluar y seleccionar los materiales vegetales más adecuados como fuente de antioxidantes y bioplaguicidas naturales. El contenido total y la composición en polifenoles de las poblaciones de romero dependieron mucho de la localidad de cultivo: las poblaciones de Aranjuez mostraron un mayor contenido en polifenoles y fueron más ricas en

  16. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  17. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  18. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  19. Six Phases of Cosmic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasz Lamza

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a conceptually unified, quantitative account of the development of chemical phenomena throughout the cosmic history, with a detailed discussion of the cosmological, astrophysical, geological, biological, and anthropological context. The totality of cosmic chemistry is represented by a list of 176 classes of phenomena, drawn from the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) library cataloguing system, and divided into 6 phases: of no chemistry, of prestellar chemistry, of ga...

  20. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  1. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  2. Predicting the host range of Nystalea ebalea: secondary plant chemistry and host selection by a surrogate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The safety of weed biological control depends upon the selection and utilization of the target weed by the agent while causing minimal harm to non-target species. Selection of weed species by biological control agents is determined by the presence of behavioral cues, generally host secondary plant c...

  3. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451. ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  4. Social Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Robert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This article is both an essay to propose social chemistry as a new scientific discipline, and a preface of the book Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. Environmental chemistry is a fast emerging discipline aiming at the understanding the fate of pollutants in ecosystems and at designing novel processes that are safe for ecosystems. Past pollution should be cleaned, future pollution should be predicted and avoided (Lichtfouse et al., 2005a). Such advices ...

  5. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  6. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  7. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  8. Exploring Natural Product Chemistry and Biology with Multicomponent Reactions. 5. Discovery of a Novel Tubulin-Targeting Scaffold Derived from the Rigidin Family of Marine Alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Frolova, Liliya V.; Magedov, Igor V.; Romero, Anntherese E.; Karki, Menuka; Otero, Isaiah; Hayden, Kathryn; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Rastogi, Shiva K.; Smith, W. Ross; Lu, Shi-Long; Kiss, Robert; Shuster, Charles B.; Hamel, Ernest; Betancourt, Tania

    2013-01-01

    We developed synthetic chemistry to access the marine alkaloid rigidins and over forty synthetic analogues based on the 7-deazaxanthine, 7-deazaadenine, 7-deazapurine and 7-deazahypoxanthine skeletons. Analogues based on the 7-deazahypoxanthine skeleton exhibited nanomolar potencies against cell lines representing cancers with dismal prognoses, tumor metastases and multidrug resistant cells. Studies aimed at elucidating the mode(s) of action of the 7-deazahypoxanthines in cancer cells reveale...

  9. Report on the meeting of the working groups on neutron scattering applied to studying condensed matter, and neutron scattering and complementary methods applied in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume consists of 55 lectures. The subjects are: 1) Elastic neutron diffraction, 2) Lattice dynamics, 3) Diffusion, 4) Polymers, 5) Biology, 6) Methods and tools, 7) Magnetism. For distinct papers see hints under relevant topics. (BHO)

  10. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

  11. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  12. Etymology of transition metal biomolecules as a learning aid in Biological Chemistry; A etimologia de biomoleculas com metais de transicao como auxiliar na aprendizagem de Quimica Biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose A.L. da, E-mail: pcd1950@ist.utl.pt [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico. Centro de Quimico Estrutural

    2013-11-01

    Numerous functional biomolecules are associated with metals, i.e. the metallobiomolecules; more specifically, some are dependent on transition metals required for several crucial biological roles. Nevertheless, their names can lead to ambiguous interpretations concerning the properties and performances of this group of biological molecules. Their etymology may be useful by providing a more perceptive insight into their features. However, etymology can lead to incongruous conclusions, requiring an especially careful approach to prevent errors. Examples illustrating these subjects shall be examined (author)

  13. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  14. Good chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The subject matter in chemistry courses reflects almost nothing of the issues that chemists are interested in. It is important to formulate a set of topics - and a Medical College Admissions Test reflecting them - that would leave chemistry departments no choice but to change their teaching.

  15. Coordination Chemistry of Polyaromatic Thiosemicarbazones 2: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Zinc, Cobalt, and Copper Complexes of 1-(Naphthalene-2-yl)ethanone Thiosemicarbazone

    OpenAIRE

    Marc-Andre LeBlanc; Antonio Gonzalez-Sarrías; Beckford, Floyd A.; P. Canisius Mbarushimana; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel thiosemicarbazone from 2-acetonaphthone (represented as acnTSC) has been synthesized and its basic coordination chemistry with zinc(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) explored. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques and are best formulated as [M(acnTSC)2Cl2] with the metal likely in an octahedral environment. The anticancer activity of the complexes was determined against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and Caco-2). The co...

  16. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  17. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  18. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Designing Professional Development to Support Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine V.; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathleen; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    AAAS and BSCS are collaborating to develop and study a curriculum unit that supports students' ability to explain a variety of biological processes such as growth in chemical terms. The unit provides conceptual coherence between chemical processes in nonliving and living systems through the core idea of atom rearrangement and conservation during…

  19. Scientific projection paper for radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms. Areas covered in some detail in this report include: the early chemical events involved in the deposition of radiation energy; the kinetics of free radical and excited state reactions; the application of radiation chemistry to radiation biology; and the availability of instrumentation

  20. Cross-Connections of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-02-01

    We are in desperate need of qualified chemistry teachers. Are the teachers who have biology, physics, or some psychology degrees qualified to teach chemistry? Have they taken enough chemistry to be prepared to teach outside their degree field? If remediation is necessary, what courses should be required? Attracting pre-service science teachers to the study of pure chemistry is not an easy task when more attractive course offerings are available. Maybe we should concentrate on cross-training in-service teachers by providing appropriate graduate courses to encourage them and bring them into the family. Many teachers with degrees outside the traditional discipline of chemistry have adequate backgrounds in the applications of chemistry. Requiring hours of undergraduate education before they enter the hallowed halls of the chemistry building as graduate students only serves to discourage a large segment of in-service teachers who wish to broaden their perspective. The National Science Education Standards make a compelling argument for connecting and integrating science courses for practicing teachers (3). We are at the crossroads. At a time when we so desperately need qualified chemistry teachers, shouldn't we be more open in our graduate teaching programs, inviting those with degrees in other disciplines to start on a graduate degree without insisting on undergraduate or survey coursework first? Many potential chemical education graduate students have a background in chemistry--it is just known by another name.

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  3. Coordination Chemistry of Polyaromatic Thiosemicarbazones 2: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Zinc, Cobalt, and Copper Complexes of 1-(Naphthalene-2-ylethanone Thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel thiosemicarbazone from 2-acetonaphthone (represented as acnTSC has been synthesized and its basic coordination chemistry with zinc(II, cobalt(II, and copper(II explored. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques and are best formulated as [M(acnTSC2Cl2] with the metal likely in an octahedral environment. The anticancer activity of the complexes was determined against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and Caco-2. The compounds bind to DNA via an intercalative mode with binding constants of 9.7×104 M-1, 1.8×105 M-1, and 9.5×104 M-1 for the zinc, cobalt, and copper complexes, respectively.

  4. Coordination Chemistry of Polyaromatic Thiosemicarbazones 2: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Zinc, Cobalt, and Copper Complexes of 1-(Naphthalene-2-yl)ethanone Thiosemicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Marc-Andre; Gonzalez-Sarrías, Antonio; Beckford, Floyd A.; Mbarushimana, P. Canisius; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2012-01-01

    A novel thiosemicarbazone from 2-acetonaphthone (represented as acnTSC) has been synthesized and its basic coordination chemistry with zinc(II), cobalt(II), and copper(II) explored. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques and are best formulated as [M(acnTSC)2Cl2] with the metal likely in an octahedral environment. The anticancer activity of the complexes was determined against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and Caco-2). The compounds bind to DNA via an intercalative mode with binding constants of 9.7 × 104 M−1, 1.8 × 105 M−1, and 9.5 × 104 M−1 for the zinc, cobalt, and copper complexes, respectively. PMID:22303515

  5. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  6. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  7. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  8. Biological activity determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madronová, L.; Novák, J.; Kubíček, J.; Antošová, B.; Kozler, J.; Novák, František

    New York: Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 85-103. (Chemistry Research and Applications). ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : biological activity * determination * potassium humate samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  9. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies ...

  10. Radiation chemistry of heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical aspects of the energy deposit of fast particles in matter initiate chemical effects which are merged with the early physical processes. Here only radiation chemistry and its relationship to the initial energy deposit are of concern. The primary objective of our track studies is, however, application to biology. In the radiolytic decomposition of water energy is absorbed almost exclusively in water, and the principal chemistry is that of radiation decomposition of water. The track structure in water is expected to be virtually the same as that in a biological system. The study of radiation chemistry of dilute solutions, therefore, provides another method to investigate the structure of tracks as they are likely to be present in an irradiated biological system but at times much longer than they are accessible to purely physical measurements

  11. ADVANCES IN ORGANIC, BIOORGANIC AND NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY IN THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Pavel F.; Fliur Z. Macaev

    2009-01-01

    This overview deals with the advances in the investigation in the fi eld of organic, bioorganic and naturalproducts chemistry as well as the biologically active compounds in the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova.

  12. 金丝桃属植物中的金丝桃素:化学、植物来源和生物活性%Hypericin in hypericum: chemistry, botanical sources and biological activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄林芳; 陈士林

    2012-01-01

    Hypericin,a secondary metabolite first reported in 1830,is a natural photosensitizing naphtodianthrone and is mainly from the natural plant sources of genus Hypericum.Hypericin exhibits a wide variety of biological and pharmacological activities,such as antiviral,antidepressant,antitumor,antimicrobial,and antioxidant activity.Hypericin can also be utilized in photodynamic diagnosis.Accumulating evidence is pointing to the effects of hypericin with potential pharmaceutical and clinical interests in the past decades.The present review gives a comprehensive outline of the chemistry,botanical occurrence and biological activities of this powerful compound.%金丝桃素是金丝桃属植物中一种重要的次生代谢产物,1830年首次被正式报道,它是一种天然光敏型的二蒽酮类化合物.金丝桃素具有抗病毒,抗抑郁、抗肿瘤、抗菌、抗氧化等广泛的生物和药理活性,并用于光动力治疗.在过去的几十年中越来越多的证据表明金丝桃素具有很大的药用潜力年和临床价值.本篇综述了金丝桃素的化学、植物来源和生物活性.

  13. Site-specific antibody-liposome conjugation through copper-free click chemistry: a molecular biology approach for targeted photodynamic therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Girgis; Wang, Yucheng; Kuriakose, Jerrin; Broekgaarden, Mans; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Bulin, Anne-Laure; Hui, James; Tsourkas, Andrew; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Nanocarriers, such as liposomes, have the ability to potentiate photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment regimens by the encapsulation of high payloads of photosensitizers and enhance their passive delivery to tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. By conjugating targeting moieties to the surface of the liposomal nanoconstructs, cellular selectivity is imparted on them and PDT-based therapies can be performed with significantly higher dose tolerances, as off-target toxicity is simultaneously reduced.1 However, the maximal benefits of conventional targeted nanocarriers, including liposomes, are hindered by practical limitations including chemical instability, non-selective conjugation chemistry, poor control over ligand orientation, and loss of ligand functionality following conjugation, amongst others.2 We have developed a robust, physically and chemically stable liposomal nanoplatform containing benzoporphyrin derivative photosensitizer molecules within the phospholipid bilayer and an optimized surface density of strained cyclooctyne moieties for `click' conjugation to azido-functionalized antibodies.3 The clinical chimeric anti-EGFR antibody Cetuximab is site-specifically photocrosslinked to a recombinant bioengineered that recognizes the antibody's Fc region, containing a terminal azide.4 The copper-free click conjugation of the bioengineered Cetuximab derivative to the optimized photosensitizing liposome provides exceptional control over the antibody's optimal orientation for cellular antigen binding. Importantly, the reaction occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, bioorthogonally (selectively in the presence of other biomolecules) and without the need for toxic copper catalysis.3 Such state-of-the-art conjugation strategies push the boundaries of targeted photodynamic therapy beyond the limitations of traditional chemical coupling techniques to produce more robust and effective targeted therapeutics with applications beyond

  14. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lowe's new edition assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry. It can serve as a primary text in quantum chemistry courses, and enables students and researchers to comprehend the current literature. This third edition has been thoroughly updated and includes numerous new exercises to facilitate self-study and solutions to selected exercises.* Assumes little initial mathematical or physical sophistication, developing insights and abilities in the context of actual problems* Provides thorough treatment

  15. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  16. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  17. Fundamental studies on the radiation chemical dose-response with use of thymine. Is activation of the surface between radiation biology and radiation chemistry possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review described the importance and difficulty of radiation chemical assessment of dose-response. The assessment has the tasks of the unit, low dose region evaluation and direct/indirect effects in biology. The authors' vacuum evaporated thymine for G-value determination is appropriate for XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structures) measurement with monochromic ultrasoft X-rays (-550 eV photon) generated by SPring-8. However, the data of yielded thymine derivatives as well as those yielded after 60Co γ-ray (1.5 MeV photon) irradiation are not suitable for direct application in DNA damage evaluation of living cells due to trans-scientific uncertainty. Efforts are required for reducing the uncertainty present in dose-response assessment. (K.H.)

  18. Dapson in heterocyclic chemistry, part VIII: synthesis, molecular docking and anticancer activity of some novel sulfonylbiscompounds carrying biologically active 1,3-dihydropyridine, chromene and chromenopyridine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Said Mansour S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several new sulfonebiscompounds having a biologically active 1,2-dihydropyridine-2-one 3–19, acrylamide 20, chromene 21, 22 and chromenopyridine 23, 24 moieties were synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents. The structures of the products were confirmed via elemental analyses and spectral data. The screening tests showed that many of the biscompounds obtained exhibited good anticancer activity against human breast cell line (MCF7 comparable to doxorubicin which was used as reference drug. Compounds 11, 17 and 24 showed IC50 values 35.40 μM, 29.86 μM and 30.99 μM, respectively. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthesized compounds as anticancer agents, docking on the active site of farnesyltransferase and arginine methyltransferase was also performed and good results were obtained.

  19. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the mycotoxin research group are discussed. This includes the isolation and structure determination of mycotoxins, plant products, the biosyntheris of mycotoxins, the synthesis and characteristics of steroids, the synthesis and mechanistic aspects of heterocyclic chemistry and the functionality of steroids over long distances. Nmr spectra and mass spectroscopy are some of the techniques used

  20. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  1. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  2. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed. PMID:26702928

  3. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  4. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  5. New trends and developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It uses radiation as the initiator of chemical reactions. Practical applications of radiation chemistry today extend to many fields, including health care, food and agriculture, manufacturing, industrial pollution abatement, biotechnology and telecommunications. The important advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used to produce, and study, almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reactions, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. The techniques are applicable to gaseous, liquid, solid, and heterogeneous systems. By combining different techniques of radiation chemistry with analytical chemistry, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions are studied. In November 1988 in Bologna, Italy, the IAEA convened an advisory group meeting to assess new trends and developments in radiation chemistry. The present publication includes most of the contributions presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Polymer Chemistry and Liposome Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tirrell, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Polymer chemistry has a great deal to offer in the construction of synthetic liposomal membranes for use in biology and medicine. This chapter explores the preparation and properties of polymeric liposomes , with particular emphasis on the use of controlled polyelectrolyte adsorption to manipulate liposomal membrane properties.

  7. Chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Rehder, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic field of extraterrestrial chemistry brings together ideas of chemistr, astrophysics, and biology to the study of molecules between stars, around stars, and on plantes. This book serves as an introduction to chemial processes under ?unearthly? and hence usually extreme conditions (temperature, pressure, high or low density, bombardment by cosmic rays), and their impact on the early development of our solar system, as well as providing a deeper understanding of processes in earthly regions where conditions approach those of extraterrestrial areas.A unique and extraordinary perspe

  8. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included

  9. Organometallic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkin, James K.; M.L.H. Green; Dr. M. L. H. Green

    1982-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic chemistry is a rapidly expanding field, which has an important relationship to industrial problems of petrochemical catalysis. This thesis describes studies of fundamental organometallic reaction processes, such as C-H and C-C bond formation and cleavage, and investigations of the structure and bonding of organometallic compounds. A number of techniques were used to pursue these studies, including synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and semi-em...

  10. Disk Chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals wit...

  11. Interstellar chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species o...

  12. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  13. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  14. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  15. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  16. 酿酒专业《生物化学》课程混和式教学设计与实施的探讨%Teaching Design of Blended Learning in Biologic Chemistry of the Wine Professional Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚洲; 吴琴; 刘海林

    2016-01-01

    以酿酒专业学生的《生物化学》课程为例,针对该课程的特点和存在的问题,阐述了在日常教学中使用混合式教学的必要性,并对生物化学中混合式教学进行了教学设计,如前期分析、教学资源的设计、学习活动的设计和学习评价等几个方面。结果发现通过《生物化学》的混合式教学改革可以在一定的程度上提高学生在学习上的主动性和积极性,并取得较好的教学成果。%With the diversification of education resources and teaching methods, it is a new idea and method for the teaching reform of higher education. Taking the Biological Chemistry course of the wine professional students as an example, the necessity of using blended teaching from several aspects in daily teaching was expounded, such as the design of pre-analysis, the design of teaching resources, and the design and evaluation of learning activity.

  17. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  18. Catching the cheats: advances in the detection of endogenous steroid abuse in sport. Chemistry, pharmacology and biology have a pivotal role in doping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Merely elevated levels of A and Et are insufficient proof of a doping offence, but gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) confirms the presence of synthetic copies of endogenous steroids. This technology uses differences in stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) that reflect the source of origin of the carbon in a compound. In the case of steroids, synthetic copies of endogenous steroids are derived from plant sources, such as soy, that have a low 13C content. This isotopic signature is carried forward to urinary steroid metabolites that are 13C depleted in relation to their endogenous analogues that are derived from dietary sources. The differences between the body and the bottle are very small, but measurable using a δ13C scale that is now referenced to the international standard, Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB). This enables 13C/12C measurements to be interpreted in a meaningful manner, where one per mille (%0) represents a one-thousandth difference in 13C content relative to VPDB; 1%0 = 0.001099 atom %. While the differences that GC-C-IRMS instruments measure are small, the precision of the IRMS technique is very high, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.2%0. Biological internal standards: the δ13C value on an endogenous reference compound (ERC) was also measured to minimise inter-individual variations (diet, ethnicity, age, gender). The ERC used was produced by metabolic pathways distinct from the androgen biosynthetic pathway. The averaged difference of δ13C A and δ13C Et to δ13C ERC was observed to increase from 1.1%0 to 14.5%0. To demonstrate that the 13C depleted values of A and Et observed following endogenous steroid administration are not within natural variations across different populations a comprehensive δ13C profiling study was undertaken using 1120 urine samples collected from erythropoietin validation for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Comparison of these δ13C values to those observed following Adione

  19. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  20. Hypercarbon chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text points out the emerging significance of higher-valent carbon compounds. It describes the compounds of carbon with coordination numbers greater than four and explores the delocalized bonds of π aromatic molecules as a basis for rational description of orbitals; localized multicentered orbitals; the interactions of metallic ions with other atoms and molecules; the skeletal electron counts as a guide for synthesis; and the isolobal concept. Illustrated are the ways in which these subjects bring together structure and reactivity in the great diversity of novel carbon chemistry and its relationship to that of boron, lithium, hydrogen, the metals, and others

  1. From Metalloproteins to Coordination Chemistry: A Learning Exercise to Teach Transition Metal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.

  2. Ultrafast chemistry in complex and confined systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Dutta; Kankan Bhattacharyya

    2004-01-01

    Self-organized molecular assemblies play a crucial role in many natural and biological processes. Recent applications of ultrafast laser spectroscopy and computer simulations revealed that chemistry in a confined environment is fundamentally different from that in ordinary solutions. Many recent examples of slow dynamics in constrained environments and their biological implications are discussed.

  3. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  4. 构建地方院校生物专业化学课程教学体系的实践与研究%Practice and Research on the Construction of a Chemistry Teaching System for Biology Major in Local Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志鸿

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is always an important foundation course for biology major. Through a research and analysis on the application of chemistry in biology major and the existing problems, combin-ing with the cultivation with the education features of local uni-versities, this paper proposes that the construction of a chemistry teaching system for biology major in local undergraduate univer-sities should not only adapt to the needs for chemistry knowledge in the development of biology major, but also meet the require-ments for talent cultivation in the development of local social e-conomy. Relying on the development and research of local char-acteristic resources, the setting of curriculum system and the re-form of teaching contents and methods should reflect"endemici-ty"and"professionalism".%化学课程在生物专业中一直是一门重要的基础课程,通过化学课程在生物专业领域的应用和存在的问题进行研究和分析,结合地方本科院校办学特色的培育,提出地方本科院生物专业化学课程教学体系的构建,既要适应生物专业自身发展对化学学科知识的需求,同时也要适应地方社会经济发展对人才培养的需求,依托地方特色资源开发与研究,在课程体系设置、教学内容、教学方法上的改革上体现“地方性”和“专业性”。

  5. Research progress and trend analysis of biology and chemistry of Taxus medicinal resources%红豆杉药物资源的生物学和化学研究进展及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝大程; 肖培根; 彭勇; 刘明; 霍利

    2012-01-01

    Taxus is the source plant of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel and its biosynthetic precursor, analogs and derivatives, which has been studying for decades. There are many endemic Taxus species in China, which have been studied in the field of multiple disciplines. Based on the recent studies of the researchers, this review comments on the study of Taxus biology and chemistry. The bibliometric method is used to quantify the global scientific production of Taxus-related research, and identify patterns and tendencies of 7axus-related articles. Gaps are present in knowledge about the genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics of Taxus and their endophytic fungi. Systems biology and various omics technologies will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades.%红豆杉是抗癌药紫杉醇及其半合成前体的重要来源,近几十年受到了广泛关注.我国拥有多种特有的红豆杉物种,研究者已经对其进行了多学科综合研究.本文结合作者近年研究,综述了多种红豆杉药物资源的,生物学和化学研究技术、现状及具体面临的问题,运用信息计量方法考察红豆杉相关SCI文献的词频分布,为红豆杉研究趋势的分析预测提供定量依据.本文结合近年系统生物学和组学技术的研究进展,指出应尽快深入研究各种红豆杉及其内生真菌的基因组、表观基因组、转录组、蛋白质组、代谢组和生物信息学,全面推动红豆杉药物资源的可持续开发利用.

  6. Qu’est-ce qui fait courir les filles vers la classe préparatoire scientifique Biologie, Chimie, Physique et Sciences de la Terre (BCPST ? What attracts girls in science classes: Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Earth Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fontanini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objectif de comprendre pourquoi les filles sont nombreuses (70 % à s’engager vers la classe préparatoire scientifique Biologie, Chimie, Physique, Sciences de la Terre (BCPST alors qu’elles restent minoritaires dans les autres préparations scientifiques (Pons, 2007. Comment se sont construits pour ces étudiants et étudiantes, leur projet et leur parcours scolaire vers cette classe préparatoire « bio-véto » ? Quelles sont leurs motivations pour cette filière menant aux professions de vétérinaire et d’ingénieur agronome ? Quelles sont les écoles les plus convoitées ? Quels sont leurs projets professionnels ? Sont-ils différents entre les filles et les garçons ? Pour tenter de répondre à ces questions, nous avons mené une recherche par questionnaire, courant septembre 2008, auprès de 163 élèves de 4 classes préparatoires BCPST de première année (113 filles et 50 garçons des 3 lycées toulousains proposant cette filière dans l’académie. Les filles sont largement majoritaires en classes préparatoires BCPST car leurs débouchés apparaissent comme plus attractifs pour les filles, notamment les écoles vétérinaires.This paper examines why girls are more numerous (70% in the scientific preparatory classes BCPST (Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Earth whereas they are a minority in the other scientific preparatory classes (Pons, 2007. How have female and male built their occupational preferences and their school choices for this preparatory class “biology – vet science”? What are their motivations for this pathway which prepares for veterinarian and agricultural engineer? What are the most desired schools? What are their professional plans? Are they different between girls and boys? In order to answer these questions, a questionnaire survey was conducted in September 2008, on a sample of 163 pupils (113 girls and 50 boys from 4 first year preparatory classes BCPST in 3 Toulousian high

  7. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  8. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  9. How does biology emerge from chemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Proper theory for the origins-of-life should propose a logical chain of events that would start with prebiotic soup and end with a living organism. RNA-world seems to be the only theory for the origin-of-life that succeeds at this task. Despite heavy criticism directed at it no alternative theories...

  10. Biology, chemistry and pathology of collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmajer, R.; Olsen, B.R.; Kuhn, K.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of five parts and a section of poster papers. Some of the articles are: Structure of the Type II Collagen Gene; Structural and Functional Analysis of the Genes for ..cap alpha..2(1) and ..cap alpha..1(III) collagens; Structure and Expression of the Collagen Genes of C. Elegans; Molecular Basis of Clinical Heterogeneity in the Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; and Normal and Mutant Human Collagen Genes.

  11. DNA Triplexes in chemistry biology and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor, Radha

    2011-01-01

    The formation of DNA triple helices offers the possibility of selectively targeting specific genes to control their expression in vivo. This anti-gene strategy provides powerful tools for the development of therapeutics (anti-cancer drugs, drugs for viral infections) at the transcriptional level. DNA triplexes are formed when an oligonucleotide binds to the major groove of double helical DNA; the third strand can bind in either a parallel motif, or an anti-parallel motif. The requirement of l...

  12. Virtual Laboratories in Chemistry, Biochemistry, & Molecular Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Report (state-of-the-art review) from a research and development project on virtual laboratories supported by Markedmodningsfonden (tidl. "Fornyelsesfonden")(2012-2014). http://markedsmodningsfonden.dk/projekt/0/34/495....

  13. Scents and sensibility: how biology perceives chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Firestein

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system plays a leading role in the perception of flavors, even though we experience this perception in our oral cavity as "taste". Without a sense of smell, food loses all but its most elementary flavor qualities. Smell begins in the periphery with the olfactory epithelium, a thin tissue lining the bones of the upper nasal cavity (1). Residing in this tissue are upwards of several million bipolar shaped cells which are the primary olfactory sensory neurons. At one end of ...

  14. Biology and Chemistry of Thrombopoietic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kuter, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous thrombopoietin (eTPO) regulates platelet production by increasing the number, ploidy and maturation rate of bone marrow megakaryocytes. Early attempts to treat thrombocytopenia by the administration of recombinant TPO were successful but were complicated by the development of antibodies to one of the recombinant proteins. Two new TPO mimetics have recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Romiplostim is a peptide ...

  15. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced. PMID:26860297

  16. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  17. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  18. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  19. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  20. Teaching Green and Sustainable Chemistry: A Revised One-Semester Course Based on Inspirations and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An elective course, "Toward the Greening of Our Minds": Green and Sustainable Chemistry, has been offered at Washington College since 2005. This new course without laboratory is designed for chemistry and biology majors and minors who have previously taken two semesters of general chemistry and organic chemistry. Due to the popularity of…

  1. Trace Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  2. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  3. Synthetic Biology in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Lam, C.M.C.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Suarez Diez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology draws on the understanding from genetics, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computational sciences to (re-)design and (re-)engineer biological functions. Here we address how synthetic biology can be possibly deployed to promote health and tackle disease. We discuss how

  4. Bioorthogonal Chemistries for Labeling Living Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal is defined as not interfering or interacting with biology. Chemical reactions that are bioorthogonal have recently become valuable tools to visualize biomolecules in their native environments, particularly those that are not amenable to traditional genetic modification. The field of bioorthogonal chemistry is rather young, with the first published account of the term bioorthogonal in 2003, yet it is expanding at a rapid rate. The roots of this unique subset of chemistry are i...

  5. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water radiolysis in presence of N2 is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N2 and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO2- and NO3-. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N2O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  6. Industrial Chemistry and School Chemistry: Making Chemistry Studies More Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Avi; Kesner, Miri

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the development and implementation over the period of more than 15 years of learning materials focusing on industrial chemistry as the main theme. The work was conducted in the Department of Science Teaching at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. The project's general goal was to teach chemistry concepts in the…

  7. Combining Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last advances inside the field of the chemical synthesis involve mainly two classes of methods, the parallel and that of separation and it mixes. Each one of them offers different possibilities in the obtaining of the looked for substance. In this article it is described in succinct form the procedures that are continued in each case, the same thing that their advantages and disadvantages. In the synthesis process, especially in pharmacology, the main interest of the chemists is centered in finding indications of clinical activity in the compounds that synthesize. In the realization of this work class it leaves initially of the basic structure of a substance, in general derived of natural products as bacteria, mushrooms, etc; With well-known clinical activity the one which once selected, and fully identified, it takes as molecule mother or series head with the purpose of making different transformations in their structure it stops then to check if the new compound presents a bigger or smaller activity that the initial. Although this synthesis method has been refined with the use of different tests that they are made in a form but quick and reliable; the appearance of new illnesses and the necessity of quick treatments on the part of the drugs, the necessity of quick and efficient production of medications has increased with great biological activity that they allow to assure a better acting

  8. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry......The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials and...

  9. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  10. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  11. Chemistry Rocks: Redox Chemistry as a Geologic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Mary Sue

    2001-01-01

    Applies chemistry to earth science, uses rocks in chemistry laboratories, and teaches about transition metal chemistry, oxidation states, and oxidation-reduction reactions from firsthand experiences. (YDS)

  12. Crevice chemistry estimation from bulk water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first PWR plant in Japan started commercial operation in 1970, 22 plants are running in Japan as of the end of 1994. The main purpose of secondary water chemistry control is to minimize the corrosion possibility of the secondary system equipment, especially steam generators (SG). To achieve this objective, much effort has been concentrated on improving secondary water chemistry control. As a result of this effort, the recent secondary water chemistry in Japanese plants is well maintained in every stage of operation. However, to ensure and improve the reliability of SG, it is necessary to control crevice environments, which are located at tube/tube support plate intersections and under the sludge pile on the tube sheet. According to recent crevice monitoring examination results, the concentration behavior impurities in SG bulk water at the crevice is different for each species, and SG bulk water and crevice chemical compositions are not always equal. From these results, to control the crevice chemistry, improving bulk water chemistry control methods and a new type of molar ratio control index is needed. This paper introduces a brief summary of a recent crevice chemistry evaluation technique and bulk water chemistry control method, which is employed for crevice chemistry control, based on crevice monitoring examination results

  13. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  14. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  15. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  17. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  18. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  19. Decoration of silk fibroin by click chemistry for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongshi; Heusler, Eva; Jones, Gabriel; Li, Linhao; Werner, Vera; Germershaus, Oliver; Ritzer, Jennifer; Luehmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz

    2014-06-01

    Silkfibroin (SF) has an excellent biocompatibility and its remarkable structure translates into exciting mechanical properties rendering this biomaterial particularly fascinating for biomedical application. To further boost the material's biological/preclinical impact, SF is decorated with biologics, typically by carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling (EDC/NHS). For biomedical application, this chemistry challenges the product risk profile due to the formation of covalent aggregates, particularly when decoration is with biologics occurring naturally in humans as these aggregates may prime for autoimmunity. Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click chemistry) provides the necessary specificity to avoid such intermolecular, covalent aggregates. We present a blueprint outlining the necessary chemistry rendering SF compatible with CuAAC and with a particular focus on structural consequences. For that, the number of SF carboxyl groups (carboxyl-SF; required for EDC/NHS chemistry) or azido groups (azido-SF; required for click chemistry) was tailored by means of diazonium coupling of the SF tyrosine residues. Structural impact on SF and decorated SF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The click chemistry yielded a better controlled product as compared to the EDC/NHS chemistry with no formation of inter- and intramolecular crosslinks as demonstrated for SF decorated with fluorescent model compounds or a biologic, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), respectively. In conclusion, SF can readily be translated into a scaffold compatible with click chemistry yielding decorated products with a better risk profile for biomedical application. PMID:24576682

  20. Organic Chemistry Trivia: A Way to Interest Nonchemistry Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of in-class stories is an excellent way to keep a class interested in subject matter. Many organic chemistry classes are populated by nonchemistry majors, such as pre-med, pre-pharm, and biology students. Trivia questions are presented that are designed to show how organic chemistry is an important subject to students regardless of their…

  1. International Congress on Analytical Chemistry. Abstracts. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection of materials of the international congress on analytical chemistry taken place in Moscow in June 1997 is presented. The main directs of investigations are elucidated in such regions of analytical chemistry as quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis, sample preparation, express test methods of environmental and biological materials, clinical analysis, analysis of food and agricultural products

  2. Role of analytical chemistry in environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical chemistry plays an important role in the protection of human health from biological, chemical and radiological hazards in the environment. It is highly useful in the areas of environmental health sciences, such as air pollution, environmental chemistry, environmental management; environmental toxicology, industrial hygiene, and water quality

  3. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  4. Environmental Chemistry Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackland, Thomas; And Others

    The authors of this curriculum supplement believe in a laboratory approach to chemistry and express the feeling that environmental chemistry provides the students an opportunity to apply theoretical chemistry to important practical problems. There are eighteen activities presented, each accompanied with behavioral objectives, one or more suggested…

  5. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  6. Applying medicinal chemistry strategies to understand odorant discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Poivet, Erwan; Peterlin, Zita; Tahirova, Narmin; Xu, Lu; Altomare, Clara; Paria, Anne; Zou, Dong-Jing; Firestein, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Associating an odorant's chemical structure with its percept is a long-standing challenge. One hindrance may come from the adoption of the organic chemistry scheme of molecular description and classification. Chemists classify molecules according to characteristics that are useful in synthesis or isolation, but which may be of little importance to a biological sensory system. Accordingly, we look to medicinal chemistry, which emphasizes biological function over chemical form, in an attempt to...

  7. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indispensable patient care tool. Learn more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ddPCR Quantification of Lymphoma Mutations Researchers have developed ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  8. Some aspects of chelation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notions used in chelation chemistry are defined and the possibilities of the experimental recognition of complex formation are described. A review of the quantitative aspects of chelation is given, especially under biological conditions. Some rules concerning the general behaviour of the various metal ions and the organic ligands in chelation phenomena are presented and the specificity problem is discussed. The present status of the decontamination of the main fission products, e.g. rare-earth metals and strontium, with the aid of complexing agents is analysed from a chemical point of view. (author)

  9. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  10. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  11. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  12. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  13. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  14. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  15. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    OpenAIRE

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.

  16. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  17. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  18. Philosophy of Chemistry or Philosophy with Chemistry?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry deserves more philosophical attention not so much to do justice to a long-neglected science or to enhance its cultural prestige, but to undermine a number of taken-for-granted assumptions about scientific rationality and more importantly to diversify our metaphysical views of nature and reality. In brief, this paper does not make the case for a philosophy of chemistry. It rather urges philosophers of science to listen to chemists and discuss what they learn from them. Because over t...

  19. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  20. Scientific projection paper for radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the environmental hazards to which man is exposed, ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated and the most responsibly monitored and controlled. Nevertheless, because of the importance of radiation in modern society from both the hazard as well as the utilitarian standpoints, much more information concerning the biological effects induced and their modification and reversal is required. Together with radiation physics, an understanding of radiation chemistry is necessary for full appreciation of biological effects of high and low energy radiations, and for the development of prophylactic, therapeutic and potentiating methods and techniques in biological organisms

  1. Mukilteo water sensor time series - Field work coupling measurements of carbon chemistry and distribution of free-living organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To estimate the carbon chemistry conditions experienced by free-living organisms, we will conduct coupled biological/carbon chemistry sampling for key zooplankton...

  2. Energy utilization in fluctuating biological energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Szőke, Abraham; Hajdu, Janos

    2016-01-01

    We have argued previously [Szoke et al., FEBS Lett. 553, 18–20 (2003); Curr. Chem. Biol. 1, 53–57 (2007)] that energy utilization and evolution are emergent properties based on a small number of established laws of physics and chemistry. The relevant laws constitute a framework for biology on a level intermediate between quantum chemistry and cell biology. There are legitimate questions whether these concepts are valid at the mesoscopic level. Such systems fluctuate appreciably, so it is not ...

  3. The Chemistry of Curcumin: From Extraction to Therapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavirayani Indira Priyadarsini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested.

  4. Journal of Business Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Business Chemistry examines issues associated with leadership and management for chemists and managers working in chemical research or industry. This journal is devoted to improving and developing the field of Business Chemistry. The Journal of Business Chemistry publishes peer-reviewed papers (including case studies) and essays. Areas for possible publication in include: leadership issues in the chemical and biochemical industry, such as teamwork, team building, mentoring, coa...

  5. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Villaveces; Guillermo Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...

  6. Elementary physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Linder, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This book is designed for a one-semester course, for undergraduates, not necessarily chemistry majors, who need to know something about physical chemistry. The emphasis is not on mathematical rigor, but subtleties and conceptual difficulties are not hidden. It covers the essential topics in physical chemistry, including the state of matter, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, phase and chemical equilibria, introduction to quantum theory, and molecular spectroscopy.

  7. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  8. The 1989 progress report: Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Fine Chemistry of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the following subjects: nuclear magnetic resonance study of adsorbates, origin of claid inflating phenomena, models on water-claid thin films interaction, re-orientation of benzene adsorbed on aluminia, oxydation of cyclohexene, kaolinites, obtention of acrylates, recognition of molecules, biological chloration, distribution of addition products of N-benzylidene aniline and end ethers, epistemological reflection about representations in chemistry. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed

  9. Striving toward a More "Precise" Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jiannian

    2011-01-01

    @@ On multiple temporal and spatial scales, chemistry explores the composition, structure and form of matter, its physical properties and biological activity as well as the chemical changes and synthesis reactions, striving to describe the colorful world of matter and reveal the molecular secrets of matter transformations and life processes using its theories and its unique language.As a fundamental and creative discipline of science, chemistry not only helps us to understand the nature of substances and make high-performing materials to serve economic development, but is distinctively characterized by the ability to invent novel and marvelous matters.

  10. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  12. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  13. Physics and Biology Collaborate to Color the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how life works, it is essential to understand physics and chemistry. Most biologists have a clear notion of where chemistry fits into their life sciences research and teaching. Although we are physical beings, physics does not always find a place in the biology curriculum. Physics informs and enlightens biology in myriad dimensions,…

  14. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    OpenAIRE

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a ...

  15. Isotope and nuclear chemistry division. Annual report, FY 1987. Progress report, October 1986-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1987 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. The report includes articles on radiochemical weapons diagnostics and research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production and separation; chemical biology and nuclear medicine; element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced concepts and technology; and atmospheric chemistry

  16. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  17. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  18. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  19. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  20. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  1. 生物类专业无机及分析化学教学改革研究——以淮南师范学院为例%On teaching reform of inorganic and analytical chemistry in the major of biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道富; 陈永红; 胡云虎

    2012-01-01

    无机及分析化学是生物类专业的学科基础课,课程的教学质量和学生的学习效果,对后续课程的学习有较大影响。为切实提高无机及分析化学的教学质量,在实际教学过程中,从构建新课程体系、精练教学内容、更新教学手段、应用网络资源等方面进行了一系列教学改革,取得了良好的效果。%Inorganic and analytical chemistry is discipline-based courses in the Major of Biology. Quality of teaching and students" learning effect has a great influence on the study of Follow-up courses. In order to improve the teaching quality of inorganic and analytical chemistry, a series of teaching reform was carried out in the practical teaching process, which includes building the new course system, concising teaching contents, updatin teaching method, and applying the network resources and so on. The result is that the better effect has been obtained.

  2. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...... chemical biology, drug repurposing, and off-target effects prediction....

  3. Movies in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Le Marechal, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews numerous studies on chemistry movies. Movies, or moving pictures, are important elements of multimedia and signify a privileged or motivating means of presenting knowledge. Studies on chemistry movies show that the first movie productions in this field were devoted to university lectures or documentaries. Shorter movies were…

  4. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  5. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  6. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  7. Titanocene sulfide chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 314, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 83-102. ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene sulfide chemistry * photolysis * titanocene hydrosulfides Ti-(SH)n Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.239, year: 2014

  8. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  9. A review of the chemistry and uses of crocins and crocetin, the carotenoid natural dyes in saffron, with particular emphasis on applications as colorants including their use as biological stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Z; Farajzade, A; Hoshyar, R

    2014-08-01

    The perennial flowering plant, saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.), is the source of the most expensive spice in the world. The dried stigmas of saffron flowers are the source of a natural dye, saffron, which has been used from ancient times for dyeing silk and fabric rugs, and for painting; it also has been used for cooking and in medicine. The yellow compounds present in the dye include crocins, which are 20-carbon water soluble glycosyl derivatives of the carotenoid, crocetin, and the dicarboxylic acid itself. We review the chemistry of these compounds and discuss various applications of saffron as a natural dye. We review in particular the use of saffron or its constituents in histopathologic techniques. PMID:24665936

  10. Mathematical Thinking in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Villaveces

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.

  11. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  12. Radiation chemistry research education in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry techniques may be used to solve research problems in other fields of chemistry and biology particularly when free radicals, excited states or reduction-oxidation reactions are involved. Using pulse radiolysis, absolute kinetic rate constants can be measured. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering is an organization jointly funded by universities, ANSTO and CSIRO. Over the past several years it has provided fares, accommodation and specialized supplementary equipment to enable PhD students and post doctoral fellows to make use of the unique electron beam and gamma irradiation facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. It also arranges biennial conferences at which this work is presented and discussed. This talk will discuss the contribution made to the education of students in the undergraduate final year and in physical, metal-organic, organic, polymer and enzyme chemistry research

  13. Third Chemistry Conference on Recent Trends in Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third chemistry conference 2011 on recent trends in chemistry was held from October 17-19, 2001 at Islamabad, Pakistan. More than 65 papers and oral presentation. The scope of the conference was wide open and provides and opportunity for participation of broad spectrum of chemists. This forum provided a platform for the dissemination of the latest research followed by discussion pertaining to new trends in chemistry. This con fence covered different aspects of subjects including analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and nano chemistry etc. (A.B.)

  14. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  15. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As we move into the new millennium, it is important that we understand the effect which radiation has on biological tissues. An understanding of the importance of these effects is essential in a number of areas including radiation therapy for cancer treatment and space travel as we attempt to proceed further from Earth for longer periods of time. Nanodosimetry enables the energy deposition of ionizing radiation on a DNA scale to be determined. This is extremely important for not only biological applications but also electronic applications, as the effect of radiation on microelectronics needs to be determined before they are deployed or installed. However, further investigation is required to link the output of the gas nanodosimeter to the actual effect of the radiation on a biological system. The purpose of this research is to conduct nanodosimetric measurements of proton radiation fields at the proton accelerator of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) in an attempt to verify a Monte Carlo simulation system. To achieve this, these measurements will be compared to the output from a Monte Carlo simulation system that is being developed to simulate the nanodosimetric spectra of the LLUMC beamline. Once verified, this Monte Carlo system will provide a very powerful tool with which to measure the effect of radiation fields on a nanoscopic level without submitting humans or expensive electronics to such a potentially damaging environment

  16. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  17. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  18. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  19. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  20. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  1. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  2. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  3. Chemistry in water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international conference Chemistry in Water Reactors was arranged in Nice 24-27/04/1994 by the French Nuclear Energy Society. Examples of technical program areas were primary chemistry, operational experience, fundamental studies and new technology. Furthermore there were sessions about radiation field build-up, hydrogen chemistry, electro-chemistry, condensate polishing, decontamination and chemical cleaning. The conference gave the impression that there are some areas that are going to be more important than others during the next few years to come. Cladding integrity: Professor Ishigure from Japan emphasized that cladding integrity is a subject of great concern, especially with respect to waterside corrosion, deposition and release of crud. Chemistry control: The control of the iron/nickel concentration quotient seems to be not as important as previously considered. The future operation of a nuclear power plant is going to require a better control of the water chemistry than achievable today. One example of this is solubility control via regulation in BWR. Trends in USA: means an increasing use of hydrogen, minimization of SCC/IASCC, minimization of radiation fields by thorough chemistry control, guarding fuel integrity by minimization of cladding corrosion and minimization of flow assisted corrosion. Stellite replacement: The search for replacement materials will continue. Secondary side crevice chemistry: Modeling and practical studies are required to increase knowledge about the crevice chemistry and how it develops under plant operation conditions. Inhibitors: Inhibitors for IGSCC and IGA as well for the primary- (zinc) as for the secondary side (Ti) should be studied. The effects and mode of operation of the inhibitors should be documented. Chemical cleaning: of heat transfer surfaces will be an important subject. Prophylactic cleaning at regular intervals could be one mode of operation

  4. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  5. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  6. Computational quantum chemistry website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

  7. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  8. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  9. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  10. Chemistry and sustainable environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemistry is one of the oldest branches of science; the human beings had ever come across. It has consistently contributed towards meeting the human needs from the dawn of civilization. However, its role has multiplied since the inception of industrial revolution. Although anthropogenic activities have made the human life comfortable and even luxurious yet their impacts on the physical, biological and socio-economic environments had been destructive. Numerous kinds of chemicals have engulfed us and our environment. Modern chemistry has leading role in sculpting the present as well as future of human lifestyle. It is serving the man and other biodiversity by providing countless products in every sphere of life. At the same time it is playing villain role in the destruction of environment at an alarming rate. Today the world is confronted with heinous environmental issues hitherto unknown to the living beings mostly triggered by chemicals. Thousands of chemicals are used in industrial products, agricultural chemicals, persistent organic pollutants, freezers, pharmaceuticals, chemical and radiological warfare, construction industry, synthetic materials, electrical goods, medical gadgets etc. Some natural sources of chemicals are acid rains, volcanic eruptions, eutrophication and photochemical smog. The fact of matter is that chemicals are being consistently added into atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. For the sustainable environment it is imperative that the chemicals must not be added into human environment beyond its carrying capacity. It is responsibility of chemists to introduce environmentally benign and biodegradable chemicals. All types of chemistry need to be green and environment friendly. The scientists and engineers should develop chemicals and technologies which do not harm the living creatures during any stage of their life-cycle. (author)

  11. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  12. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Australia there have been reported more than 200 species of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) including: cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens. Working at the species level of BSC poses particular difficulties for different aspects of environmental management because of the problems caused by in taxonomy, small size, lack of experts for identification and the intermixing of taxa. From the 1970s BSC classification based on the morphology has been utilised for ecological studies. This study explores the possibility of spectral classification of BSC components for ecological studies and considers the use of hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. Although, in some locations the percentage cover of BSC exceeds 70% of land cover, many previous remote sensing studies of land cover have either neglected BSC, or considered it as one group. In this study visible and near-infrared (350-1100 nm) reflectance spectra of BSC were collected with a UniSpec PPSystem spectrometer in the laboratory under a 1000 W Halogen lamp. Biological components varied in chlorophyll, physiological status, colour and other pigment contents. The measured spectra demonstrate considerable variation both within and between species. Factors contributing to spectral variation were identified by principal components analysis. Functional, taxonomic and morphological groups of BSC species were classified using discriminant analysis of the narrow-bands (3.3 nm) spectra. Both principal components and discriminant analysis showed promising results for grouping BSC variation and finally 9 groups from 21 field groups (33 species) were classified

  13. Chemistry at large

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Jeremy K. M.

    2007-01-01

    A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  14. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  15. Bringing chemistry to life

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Michael; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry allows a wide variety of biomolecules to be specifically labeled and probed in living cells and whole organisms. Here we discuss the history of bioorthogonal reactions and some of the most interesting and important advances in the field.

  16. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  17. Beauty in chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Atkins

    2006-01-01

    Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  18. Magnetism in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R. W.; McFadyen, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the technical aspects of paramagnetism and an electrostatic model called Crystal Field Theory (CFT), very often used in the case of transition metal compounds. Suggests that this discussion be included as an option for college chemistry courses. (MLH)

  19. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  20. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  1. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  2. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  3. Impact of surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  4. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  5. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  6. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  7. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments

  8. Chemistry in the News: 1997 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Chemistry The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with one half to Paul D. Boyer (University of California, Los Angeles, USA) and John E. Walker (Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK) for elucidation of the mechanism of action of ATP synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and one half to Jens C. Skou (Aarhus University, Denmark) for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+,K+-ATPase. The three laureates have performed pioneering work on enzymes that catalyze reactions of the "high-energy" compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

  9. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  10. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is a controlled/'living' free radical polymerisation process that was invented in Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSRIO) group led by Ezio Rizzardo. RAFT polymerisation has proven to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weight and low polydispersity. The RAFT process is capable of effecting living free radical polymerisation control over a great variety of monomers (eg (meth)acrylates, styrenes, acrylamides, vinyl acetate). The RAFT technique uses thiocarbonylthio compounds to mediate the polymerisation via a reversible chain transfer process. This leads to the establishment of an equilibrium under which all the propagating chains have approximately the same chain length at the same instant of time. The RAFT agent typically possesses a thiocarbonylthio group (S=C-S) with substituents R (radical leaving group) and Z (activating/stabilising group), which govern the reaction kinetics and the degree of structural control. In 2001, we reported the synthesis of RAFT agents (phenyl dithio acetates) that can be applied at low/ambient temperatures in the polymerization of alkyl acrylates and styrene. Low/ambient temperature RAFT agents allow the application of γ-radiation as source of initiation. The combination of γ-radiation and ambient temperature RAFT agents allows performing living polymerization at ambient temperature up to high conversions. This technique also opens the possibility to graft narrow polydisperse polymers from existing polymer surfaces. We have applied RAFT polymerization in conjunction with γ-radiation to graft various monomers (e.g. styrene, m-isopropenyl-α,α'-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide) from solid polypropylene phases that can be used for applications in combinatorial chemistry (eg peptide synthesis and scavenger reactions)

  11. Planetary Organic Chemistry and the Origins of Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Steven A Benner; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myung-Jung; Ricardo, Alonso

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemistry on a planetary scale is likely to have transformed carbon dioxide and reduced carbon species delivered to an accreting Earth. According to various models for the origin of life on Earth, biological molecules that jump-started Darwinian evolution arose via this planetary chemistry. The grandest of these models assumes that ribonucleic acid (RNA) arose prebiotically, together with components for compartments that held it and a primitive metabolism that nourished it. Unfortunat...

  12. Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Uranium Chemistry Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huanwen; Luo, Mingbiao; Xiao, Saijin; OUYANG Yongzhong; Zhou, Yafei; Zhang, Xinglei

    2013-01-01

    Uranium chemistry is of sustainable interest. Breakthroughs in uranium studies make serious impacts in many fields including chemistry, physics, energy and biology, because uranium plays fundamentally important roles in these fields. Substantial progress in uranium studies normally requires development of novel analytical tools. Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) is a sensitive technique for trace detection of various analytes in complex matrices without sample pre...

  13. Applications of Molecular Dynamics in Atmospheric and Solution Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the applications of molecular dynamics simulation techniques in the fields of solution chemistry and atmospheric chemistry. The work behind the thesis takes account of the fast development of computer hardware, which has made computationally intensive simulations become more and more popular in disciplines like pharmacy, biology and materials science. In molecular dynamics simulations using classical force fields, the atoms are represented by mass points with partial ch...

  14. Book Notes: College Chemistry Faculties 1996, 10th ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.

    1998-02-01

    This comprehensive directory of the most current information on two-, three-, and four-year college and university teachers of chemistry, biochemistry, biotechnology, chemical engineering, chemical technology, medicinal chemistry, and other chemistry-related fields in the United States, its territories, and Canada will be of great use and interest not only to chemistry faculty members but to graduate and undergraduate students, librarians, and departmental secretaries as well. For each of the more than 2,150 academic departments devoted to these disciplines the entire staffs (except for emeriti, emeritae, adjunct, or visiting professors; persons on temporary appointment; postdoctoral fellows; research associates; or graduate students) are listed, along with major teaching fields, highest degree earned, and academic rank. Other departments, such as biology or physical science, in which these disciplines are taught are also included, but only persons who teach chemistry or related subjects are listed for these departments.

  15. Nanoindentation of biological composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, M, E-mail: m.dickinson@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    This investigation studied the effect of storage conditions on the mechanical properties as measured by nanoindentation of mineralised tissue samples. The three storage solutions were Hanks balanced salt solution, phosphate buffered saline and deionised water and all had a significant effect on the surface properties, namely hardness and modulus of enamel, dentin and bone tested. The effect was significant with a greater than 70% reduction in surface mechanical properties after 8 days immersion in the solutions. This study highlights the importance of testing biological tissues immediately after extraction, and the possible structural and chemistry changes that may occur by artificially storing the tissues.

  16. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistry students in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialists of the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) into the world of the chemical applications. Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, other

  17. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  18. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well

  19. Chemistry beyond positivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Werner W

    2003-05-01

    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education. PMID:12796119

  20. Collaborative Physical Chemistry Projects Involving Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M.; Howe, Jerry J.; Lever, Lisa S.

    2000-02-01

    The physical chemistry classes from three colleges have collaborated on two computational chemistry projects using Quantum CAChe 3.0 and Gaussian 94W running on Pentium II PCs. Online communication by email and the World Wide Web was an important part of the collaboration. In the first project, students used molecular modeling to predict benzene derivatives that might be possible hair dyes. They used PM3 and ZINDO calculations to predict the electronic spectra of the molecules and tested the predicted spectra by comparing some with experimental measurements. They also did literature searches for real hair dyes and possible health effects. In the final phase of the project they proposed a synthetic pathway for one compound. In the second project the students were asked to predict which isomer of a small carbon cluster (C3, C4, or C5) was responsible for a series of IR lines observed in the spectrum of a carbon star. After preliminary PM3 calculations, they used ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d) level to model the molecules and predict their vibrational frequencies and rotational constants. A comparison of the predictions with the experimental spectra suggested that the linear isomer of the C5 molecule was responsible for the lines.

  1. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  2. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  3. Introductory quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on quantum chemistry is primarily intended for university students at the senior undergraduate level. It serves as an aid to the basic understanding of the important concepts of quantum mechanics introduced in the field of chemistry. Various chapters of the book are devoted to the following : (i) Waves and quanta, (ii) Operator concept in quantum chemistry, (iii) Wave mechanics of some simple systems, (iv) Perturbation theory, (v) Many-electron atoms and angular momenta (vi) Molecular orbital theory and its application to the electronic structure of diatomic molecules, (vii) Chemical bonding in polyatomic molecules and (viii) Chemical applications of Hellmann-Feynman theorem. At the end of each chapter, a set of problems is given and the answers to these problems are given at the end of the book. (A.K.)

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  5. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Selenium is an environmentally relevant trace metal, recognised not only for its role as an essential trace nutrient in living systems, but also for its devastating impacts at elevated concentrations, including fish deformities and death from selenium-laden waters and sediment. There are escalating concerns that the consumption of selenium-contaminated foods (e.g. fish and bivalves) will have an impact on human health. A comprehensive understanding of organic and inorganic selenium tissue concentrations is required if we are to assess the toxic effects of selenium in marine organisms and the flow-on effects to human consumers. Currently, whole sediment bioassays measuring total metal concentration effects are being used to assess the toxicity of metal contaminated sediments. However, for most sediment-dwelling organisms, sediments particles, pore waters and overlying waters, as well as food sources (e.g. algae) may all contribute to the accumulation of metal contaminants. Furthermore, the species of metal (and not the total metal concentration) in each of these compartments will also modify metal toxicity and uptake rates. For most species routinely used in toxicity tests, the relative importance of the different contaminant exposure pathways (overlying waters, sediment, food) has not been evaluated. If we know which compartment(s) induce toxic responses in the test organisms, we can use that knowledge to more effectively manage contaminated environments. The radiotracer 75Se produced in HIFAR was used to determine the uptake routes and accumulation sites in biological organisms. Comparatively, high sensitivity of gamma counter techniques and minimal sample preparation to ICP-MS and AAS provided for a faster and more efficient method to monitor the uptake of selenium. Biodistribution studies evaluating the bioavailability of Se from water, sediment and algae in the endemic Australian marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is presently under investigation and

  6. 'DRF-G - Grenoble Department of Fundamental Research. Activity report 1985, Nr 20. Volume II: 'Chemical Physics' 'Biology'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains synthetic reports of researches performed in chemistry, in the field of biological and medical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance, and in biology during the 1981-1983 period or only during 1983. As far as chemistry is concerned, the following topics have been addressed: conducting organic polymers, organic and analytic electrochemistry, coordination chemistry, molecular dynamics, vegetal macromolecules, nucleic acids. As far as biology is concerned, the following topics have been addressed: systems associated with membranes, metalloproteins, cell biology and differentiation, immuno-chemistry, haematology, vegetal physiology, structural studies of proteins. Staff lists of researchers are provided for chemistry laboratories and biology laboratories, as well a list of publications

  7. ChemProt: A disease chemical biology database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of chemistry, biology, and informatics to study drug actions across multiple biological targets, pathways, and biological systems is an emerging paradigm in drug discovery. Rather than reducing a complex system to simplistic models, fields such as chemogenomics and translational...

  8. Third workshop on heavy charged particles in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book of abstracts contains 67 papers presented at the workshop. Main topics are: Physics, chemistry, DNA, cell biology, cellular and molecular repair, space biology, tumor and tissue biology, predictive assays, cancer therapy, and new projects. Separate entries in the database are prepared for all of these papers. (MG)

  9. Physics and Biology Collaborate to Color the World

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2013-01-01

    To understand how life works, it is essential to understand physics and chemistry. Physics informs and enlightens biology in myriad dimensions, yet many biology courses proceed with little or no consideration of physical properties or principles. The intersection between physics and biology is explored in this review of online media.

  10. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  11. Cloud chemistry on Jupiter

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, B. E.; Prather, M. J.; W. B. Rossow

    1987-01-01

    Aqueous chemistry on Uranus affects the atmospheric abundances of NH3 and H2S below the methane cloud base. Here a complete thermochemical equilibrium model for the H2O-NH3-H2S system is presented. Inclusion of H2S increases the aqueous removal of NH3 to 20-30 percent, but aqueous chemistry alone cannot account for the depletion of NH3 in the 150-200-K region of the atmosphere required to fit microwave observations. Formation of NH4SH clouds can account for the observed depletion provided the...

  12. Chemistry of Transactinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, J. V.

    In this chapter, the chemical properties of the man-made transactinide elements rutherfordium, Rf (element 104), dubnium, Db (element 105), seaborgium, Sg (element 106), bohrium, Bh (element 107), hassium, Hs (element 108), and copernicium, Cn (element 112) are reviewed, and prospects for chemical characterizations of even heavier elements are discussed. The experimental methods to perform rapid chemical separations on the time scale of seconds are presented and comments are given on the special situation with the transactinides where chemistry has to be studied with single atoms. It follows a description of theoretical predictions and selected experimental results on the chemistry of elements 104 through 108, and element 112.

  13. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  14. Nanophotonics and supramolecular chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    Supramolecular chemistry has become a key area in emerging bottom-up nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, supramolecular systems that can produce a photonic output are increasingly important research targets and present various possibilities for practical applications. Accordingly, photonic properties of various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale are important in current nanotechnology. In this short review, nanophotonics in supramolecular chemistry will be briefly summarized by introducing recent examples of control of photonic responses of supramolecular systems. Topics are categorized according to the fundamental actions of their supramolecular systems: (i) self-assembly; (ii) recognition; (iii) manipulation.

  15. Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Phil Blake

    This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on

  16. Computational organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the author highlights the tremendous impact that density functional theory has had on computational chemistry over the last decade. This robust and efficient theoretical technique (for which John Pople and Walter Kohn were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1998) has opened up many new possibilities for chemists, allowing to study large systems with a degree of reliability hitherto uncontemplated. Examples which illustrate how both density functional theory and hybrid method have been successfully used in solving difficult problems in quantum chemistry of catalysis are briefly discussed

  17. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  18. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  19. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  20. Environmental chemistry. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book Environmental Chemistry deals with the basic aspects of environmental chemistry, the natural cycles of the environment, composition of atmosphere and various effects in it by pollutants due to human activities, like energy production, industrial endeavours etc. Details pertaining to the effect of various pollutants on ecosystem are also explained. A number of instrumented techniques in environmental chemical analysis including neutron activation analysis, spectroscopic methods are given. The correlation between energy and environment is dealt with consideration to the global aspects of it. Paper relevant to INIS database is indexed separately. (M.K.V.)

  1. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  2. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  3. Chemistry in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Jean-Claude

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review will focus on the current level on chemistry research, education, and visualization possible within the multi-user virtual environment of Second Life. We discuss how Second Life has been used as a platform for the interactive and collaborative visualization of data from molecules and proteins to spectra and experimental data. We then review how these visualizations can be scripted for immersive educational activities and real-life collaborative research. We also discuss the benefits of the social networking affordances of Second Life for both chemists and chemistry students.

  4. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma

    2011-01-01

    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  5. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Bioorthogonal Chemistry-Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carell, Thomas; Vrabel, Milan

    2016-02-01

    Bioorthogonal chemistry has emerged as a new powerful tool that facilitates the study of structure and function of biomolecules in their native environment. A wide variety of bioorthogonal reactions that can proceed selectively and efficiently under physiologically relevant conditions are now available. The common features of these chemical reactions include: fast kinetics, tolerance to aqueous environment, high selectivity and compatibility with naturally occurring functional groups. The design and development of new chemical transformations in this direction is an important step to meet the growing demands of chemical biology. This chapter aims to introduce the reader to the field by providing an overview on general principles and strategies used in bioorthogonal chemistry. Special emphasis is given to cycloaddition reactions, namely to 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions and Diels-Alder reactions, as chemical transformations that play a predominant role in modern bioconjugation chemistry. The recent advances have established these reactions as an invaluable tool in modern bioorthogonal chemistry. The key aspects of the methodology as well as future outlooks in the field are discussed. PMID:27572992

  7. BENZIMIDAZOLES: THE LATEST INFORMATION ON BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurvinder; Kaur Maninderjit; Chander Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is an important pharmacophore and a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry. Benzimidazole and its derivatives play an important role in medical field with large number of Pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer activity. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of different derivatives of benzimidazoles along with their biological actions such as antioxidant, antimi...

  8. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Voisin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved and fundamental data gathered before a comprehensive, accurate model of organic species in the cryosphere will be possible. For example, more information is needed regarding the quantitative impacts of chemical and biological processes, ice morphology, and snow formation on the fate of organic material in cold regions. Interdisciplinary work at the interfaces of chemistry, physics and biology is needed in order to fully characterize the nature and evolution of organics in the cryosphere and predict the effects of climate change on the Earth's carbon cycle.

  9. How to teach chemistry? Is Chemistry a new universal language

    OpenAIRE

    López Guerrero, María del Mar; López Guerrero, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry has been developed greatly throughout the 20th century. Chemistry is included in the curriculum of elementary and secondary education. In general, students are not interested in science, and because of this ,students tend not to make an effort to learn and understand the meaning of concepts and the chemistry language that are being taught to them. If we consider that there is a little bit analogy between chemistry and foreign languages, we should learn the s...

  10. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  11. Chromatin chemistry goes cellular.

    OpenAIRE

    W. Fischle; D. Schwarzer; Mootz, H.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing post-translational modifications of histone proteins as they occur within chromatin is challenging due to their large number and chemical diversity. A major step forward has now been achieved by using split intein chemistry to engineer functionalized histones within cells.

  12. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Thomas; Semenov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  13. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  14. Chemistry Cook-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  15. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  16. Nuclear Chemistry, exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those exercises have as objective to introduce the student in the basic concepts of nuclear chemistry: a) way of decline b) balances of mass used in nuclear reactions c) how to calculate activities, activity concentrations and specific activity d) radiotracers use in biomedical sciences pharmaceutical

  17. The chemistry of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book dedicated to chemistry of polyatomic alcohols, in particular, to glycerin and its numerous derivatives. These compounds are very widespread in the natural objects and carry out several functions in alive organism. Big part of these matters are arrange in industry production of base organic synthesis

  18. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  19. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  20. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  1. Metaphorical Models in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart; Bhusan, Nalini

    1995-01-01

    What happens when students of chemistry fail to recognize the metaphorical status of certain models and interpret them literally? Suggests that such failures lead students to form perceptions of phenomena that can be misleading. Argues that the key to making good use of metaphorical models is a recognition of their metaphorical status. Examines…

  2. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  3. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  4. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  5. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  6. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  7. Chemistry between the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A unit is presented for the secondary school teacher of physics, chemistry, astronomy, or earth sciences. Included are a list of reference materials, teaching aids, and projects. Discussion questions and a glossary are also provided. Concepts developed are: the nature of interstellar space, spectroscopy, molecular signals from space and interstellar molecules and other areas of astronomy.

  8. Chemistry: A Science of Discovery and Creation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunli

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chemistry is the science of the structure, properties and transformation of matter.It is also a science that creates new materials and explores new applications.Together with such disciplines as mathematics, physics and biology, it constitutes the foundation of the natural sciences.As shown by its development daring the past century, this branch of scientific knowledge has played a crucial role in inventing novel and intriguing materials, and become the key to access the "inexhaustible" treasure of resources in the natural world.Meanwhile, chemistry keeps pace with the progress of human society, and plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the advancement of science and society and the improvement of human life.

  9. Organics in environmental ices: sources, chemistry, and impacts

    OpenAIRE

    V. F. McNeill; A. M. Grannas; J. P. D. Abbatt; M. Ammann; Ariya, P.; T. Bartels-Rausch; Domine, F.; Donaldson, D. J.; M. I. Guzman; Heger, D.; T. F. Kahan; P. Klán; Masclin, S.; C. Toubin; Voisin, D.

    2012-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and biological processes involving organics in ice in the environment impact a number of atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles. Organic material in snow or ice may be biological in origin, deposited from aerosols or atmospheric gases, or formed chemically in situ. In this manuscript, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the sources, properties, and chemistry of organic materials in environmental ices. Several outstanding questions remain to be resolved an...

  10. Accurate modeling of molecular optical properties by a combination of molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Bouř, Petr

    Katowice : University of Silesia, 2014. O6. [Chemistry towards Biology. Central Europe Conference /7./. 09.09.2014-12.09.2014, Katowice] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics * quantum chemistry * multi-scale spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. Theme-Based Bidisciplinary Chemistry Laboratory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Phyllis A.; Szczerbicki, Sandra K.

    1996-12-01

    A thematic approach to each of the two introductory chemistry laboratory sequences, general and organic chemistry, not only provides an element of cohesion but also stresses the role that chemistry plays as the "central science" and emphasizes the intimate link between chemistry and other science disciplines. Thus, in general chemistry the rubric "Environmental Chemistry" affords connections to the geosciences, whereas experiments on the topic of "Plant Assays" bridge organic chemistry and biology. By establishing links with other science departments, the theme-based laboratory experiments will satisfy the following multidisciplinary criteria: (i) to demonstrate the general applicability of core methodologies to the sciences, (ii) to help students relate concepts to a broader multidisciplinary context, (iii) to foster an attitude of both independence and cooperation that can transcend the teaching laboratory to the research arena, and (iv) to promote greater cooperation and interaction between the science departments. Fundamentally, this approach has the potential to impact the chemistry curriculum significantly by including student decision-making in the experimental process. Furthermore, the incorporation of GC-MS, a powerful tool for separation and identification as well as a state-of-the-art analytical technique, in the modules will enhance the introductory general and organic chemistry laboratory sequences by making them more instrument-intensive and by providing a reliable and reproducible means of obtaining quantitative analyses. Each multifaceted module has been designed to meet the following criteria: (i) a synthetic protocol including full spectral characterization of products, (ii) quantitative and statistical analyses of data, and (iii) construction of a database of results. The database will provide several concrete functions. It will foster the idea that science is a continuous incremental process building on the results of earlier experimentalists

  12. Biological activity of guanidino purines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Holý, Antonín

    Marburg : University of Marburg, 2006. s. 85. ISBN 3-89703-685-1. [Joint Meeting of the Czech, German and Hungarian Pharmaceutical Societies. 04.10.2006-07.10.2006, Marburg] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0508 Grant ostatní: Descartes Prize(XE) HPAW-2002-100096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biological activity * guanidino purines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Structure and function in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the history of the developments of structural chemistry in biology beginning with the work of the bacteriologist Ehrlich leading to a comprehensive examination of the influence of size and configuration on the interaction between specific antibodies and side-chain determinants. Recent developments include the recognition of a higher order of specificity in the interaction of proteins with one another

  14. Synthetic Tools for Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dervan, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry has made tremendous advances over the past four decades in the broad fields of synthesis and understanding chemical reactivity. In that same time span, a series of revolutionary events occurred in biology. First came the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s by Watson and Crick. This discovery allowed the elucidation of the mechanisms of DNA replication -- how DNA makes copies of itself -- and DNA transcription and translation -- the processes that allow the ...

  15. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  16. Conference 'Chemistry of hydrides' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of thesis of conference of Chemistry hydrides presents the results of investigations concerning of base questions of chemistry of nonorganic hydrides, including synthesis questions, studying of physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry, investigation of structure, equilibriums in the systems of metal-hydrogen, behaviour of nonorganic hydrides in non-water mediums and applying investigations in the chemistry area and technology of nonorganic hydrides

  17. Effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on benthic communities and sediment chemistry 2009-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on the ecology of biological communities and chemistry of benthic sediments were investigated through a series of...

  18. Comparing Outcomes from Two Case Studies on Chemistry Teachers' Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laius, Anne; Kask, Klaara; Rannikmae, Miia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of two in-service courses, which targeted the development of chemistry teachers' skills to promote inquiry or reasoning and creative thinking skills among their students. Sixteen chemistry and four biology teachers participated in two intervention studies, both designed according to the philosophy of scientific and…

  19. One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD)of the American Chemical Society was 100 years old in 2008. ACS grouped papers into sections at its national meetings starting in 1904, including one dealing with agricultural, biological, and sanitary chemistry. This section became AGFD on Dec...

  20. Charting an Alternate Pathway to Reaction Orders and Rate Laws in Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Criswell, Brett A.; McAllister, Nicole D.; Polizzi, Samuel J.; Moore, Lamesha A.; Pierre, Michelle S.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction kinetics is an axiomatic topic in chemistry that is often addressed as early as the high school course and serves as the foundation for more sophisticated conversations in college-level organic, physical, and biological chemistry courses. Despite the fundamental nature of reaction kinetics, students can struggle with transforming their…

  1. Teaching High School Chemistry in the Context of Pharmacology Helps Both Teachers and Students Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Halpin, Myra J.; Reiter, Jerome P.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies demonstrate the impact of teaching chemistry embedded in a context that has relevance to high school students. We build upon our prior work showing that pharmacology topics (i.e., drugs), which are inherently interesting to high school students, provide a useful context for teaching chemistry and biology. In those studies, teachers…

  2. Taninos: uma abordagem da química à ecologia Tannis: from chemistry to ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcelino Monteiro; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque; Elcida de Lima Araújo; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim

    2005-01-01

    Tannins are compounds of great interest in chemistry and ecology. They have various effects on food digestibility and the performance of animals. In this work, the chemistry, the biological activity and the ecology of tannins are examined. A brief discussion of several analytical methods for the determination of tannins is presented.

  3. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  4. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  5. 2010 Gordon Research Conference On Radiation Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry will present cutting edge research regarding the study of radiation-induced chemical transformations. Radiation Chemistry or 'high energy' chemistry is primarily initiated by ionizing radiation: i.e. photons or particles with energy sufficient to create conduction band electrons and 'holes', excitons, ionic and neutral free radicals, highly excited states, and solvated electrons. These transients often interact or 'react' to form products vastly different than those produced under thermal equilibrium conditions. The non-equilibrium, non-thermal conditions driving radiation chemistry exist in plasmas, star-forming regions, the outer solar system, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, radiation-based medical/clinical treatment centers and in radiation/materials processing facilities. The 2010 conference has a strong interdisciplinary flavor with focus areas spanning (1) the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in ultrafast (atto/femtosecond) energy deposition events, (2) radiation-induced processes in biology (particularly spatially resolved studies), (3) radiation-induced modification of materials at the nanoscale and cosmic ray/x-ray mediated processes in planetary science/astrochemistry. While the conference concentrates on fundamental science, topical applied areas covered will also include nuclear power, materials/polymer processing, and clinical/radiation treatment in medicine. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present work in poster format or as contributors to the Young Investigator session. The program and format provides excellent avenues to promote cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  6. Predictors of General Chemistry Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsogomonyan, Ardas; Loftus, Drew

    1979-01-01

    Chemistry pretest scores, high school chemistry grades and, to a greater extent, math SAT scores were useful predictors of college general chemistry grades. Regression analysis of all these predictors combined was used to construct an expectancy table which is being used to identify and advise underprepared students. (BB)

  7. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  8. Combinatorial chemistry and the Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, J G; Bradley, M.; Essex, J.W.; Hursthouse, M. B.; Lewis, S. M.; Luck, M.M.; Moreau, L; De Roure, D C; Surridge, M.; Welsh, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    Chemistry has always made extensive use of the developing computing technology and available computing power though activities such as modelling, simulation and chemical structure interpretational - activities conveniently summarised as computational chemistry. Developing procedures in chemical synthesis and characterisation, particularly in the arena of parallel and combinatorial methodology, have generated ever increasing demands on both Computational Chemistry and Computer Technology. Si...

  9. HMI scientific report - chemistry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the R and D activities of the Radiation Chemistry Department, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, are reported, primarily dealing with the following subjects: Interface processes and energy conversion, high-energy photochemistry and radiation chemistry as well as trace elements chemistry. A list of publications and lectures is added and gives a view on results obtained in research and development. (EF)

  10. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes the activities carried out in 1985 by the Chemistry Department in the following fields: Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemistry (Interphases, Surfaces), General Chemical Analysis, Active Materials Analysis, X Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Mass Spectroscopy (Isotopic Analysis, Instrumentation) and Optical Spectroscopy. A list of publications is enclosed. (M.E.L.)

  11. Applications of Azide-Based Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry in Glycobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Click chemistry is a powerful chemical reaction with excellent bioorthogonality features: biocompatible, rapid and highly specific in biological environments. For glycobiology, bioorthogonal click chemistry has created a new method for glycan non-invasive imaging in living systems, selective metabolic engineering, and offered an elite chemical handle for biological manipulation and glycomics studies. Especially the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloadditions of azides with strained alkynes and the Staudinger ligation of azides and triarylphosphines have been widely used among the extant click reactions. This review focuses on the azide-based bioorthogonal click chemistry, describing the characteristics and development of these reactions, introducing some recent applications in glycobiology research, especially in glycan metabolic engineering, including glycan non-invasive imaging, glycomics studies and viral surface manipulation for drug discovery as well as other applications like activity-based protein profiling and carbohydrate microarrays.

  12. A Novel Loom of Click Chemistry in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Verma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Click chemistry is an interesting and novel approach for drug discovery, material science, bioconjugation, radiochemistry and nanoscience. It meets an ever-increasing need for rapid reaction as it fulfills the criterion of an ideal synthesis: efficiency, versatility, selectivity and high yield with variety of starting materials. The present review summarizes all the aspects of 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction “click reaction” between azides and alkynes catalyzed by copper salts. The ease of purification of products and simplicity of this reaction has opened new pathways in generating vast arrays of compounds with biological potential. Many important reactions fit the concept of click chemistry than others such as cycloaddition of unsaturated species. The present review will outline the deeds of click reaction and its medicinal chemistry application in which click chemistry might be relevant in future.

  13. E Pluribus Tres: The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry celebrates a multitude of research areas, making the difficult selection of those most responsible for providing atomic details of the nanomachine that makes proteins according to genetic instructions. The Ribosome and RNA polymerase (recognized in 2006) structures highlight a puzzling asymmetry at the origins of biology. PMID:20004159

  14. E Pluribus Tres: The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry celebrates a multitude of research areas, making the difficult selection of those most responsible for providing atomic details of the nanomachine that makes proteins according to genetic instructions. The Ribosome and RNA polymerase (recognized in 2006) structures highlight a puzzling asymmetry at the origins of biology.

  15. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  16. Some applications of radiation chemistry to biochemistry and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter illustrate the use of radiation chemistry as a tool in investigating biologically important radical reactions, and also outline some studies of models for radiobiological damage. Because aqueous solutions usually offer the most important matrix, an appreciation of the main features of water radiolysis will be essential. Most of the illustrations involve pulse radiolysis, and some familiarity with chemical kinetics is assumed. In addition to these and other chapters in this book, readers find the proceedings of a recent NATO Advanced Study Institute most useful. The authors shall not try to review here all the applications of radiation chemistry to biochemistry and biology, but they will illustrate, using selected examples, the main principles and practical advantages and problems. Another recent volume covers the main contributions of flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis to the chemistry of biology and medicine, complementing earlier reviews. Papers from symposia on radical processes in radiobiology and carcinogenesis, and on super-oxide dismutases, and proceedings of recent international congresses of radiation research, together with the other publications referred to above will enable the reader to gain a comprehensive overview of the role of radicals in biological processes and the contributions of radiation chemistry

  17. Proceedings of the 4. National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4. National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry includes analysis of nuclear interest elements with nuclear and non nuclear methods and the elements not interest of nuclear energy with nuclear methods. The materials analysed are rocks, ores, metals alloys, waters, plants and biological materials. (C.G.C.)

  18. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  19. Controlling Chemistry in Dynamic Nanoscale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesorka, Aldo; Lizana, Ludvig; Konkoli, Zoran; Czolkos, Ilja; Orwar, Owe

    Spatial organization and shape dynamics are inherent properties of biological cells and cell interiors. There are strong indications that these features are important for the in vivo control of reaction parameters in biochemical transformations. Nanofluidic model devices founded on surfactant...... concept. Controlled release of chol-DNA molecules from SU-8 surfaces gives the possibility to dynamically change surface and/or solution properties in micro and nanoreactor applications, opening access to stable 2D chemistry on surface-based devices with potential for easy interfacing with conventional...

  20. Radiation chemistry of oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Primary investigations have been conducted at the end of the 1950th years in the area of radiation chemistry of the oils, the physical-chemical properties of crude oil have been investigated the influence of ionizing rays. This report by M. Malikzadeh is about the results of investigations carried out in the field of development of radiation chemistry. The power of the radiation dose and temperature-thermal effect of the collapse of Phentadekan -Oil, and oil fractions (200-400 degrees Celsium, 230-310 degrees Celsium) of radiation-thermal separation of olefins - Conversion of hydrogen from the transormation of black oil, bitumen and tar Kinetics of the above-mentioned processes was studied, the technical-economic indicators of the products were determined