WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemistry archaeology mechanisms

  1. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  2. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  3. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  4. Allenes and computational chemistry: from bonding situations to reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Elena; Fernández, Israel

    2014-05-07

    The present review is focused on the application of computational/theoretical methods to the wide and rich chemistry of allenes. Special emphasis is made on the interplay and synergy between experimental and computational methodologies, rather than on recent developments in methods and algorithms. Therefore, this review covers the state-of-the-art applications of computational chemistry to understand and rationalize the bonding situation and vast reactivity of allenes. Thus, the contents of this review span from the most fundamental studies on the equilibrium structure and chirality of allenes to recent advances in the study of complex reaction mechanisms involving allene derivatives in organic and organometallic chemistry.

  5. The chemistry induced by mechanical load

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Results in the field of mechanochemistry are summarized. For example under mechanical load often a solvolysis is observed instead of a simple homolytic bond rupture. Also a mechanically induced redox reaction was reported experimentally and could be modelled theoretically. With CPMD simulations it is possible to understand multi-step mechanisms in full detail.

  6. New Interference Mechanism Controls Ultracold Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Brian K.; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    A newly discovered interference mechanism has been shown to control the outcome of ultracold chemical reactions. The mechanism originates from the unique properties associated with ultracold collisions, namely: (1) isotropic (s-wave) scattering and (2) an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift (which originates from the bound state structure of the molecule). These two properties can lead to maximum constructive or destructive interference between two interfering reaction pathways (such as exchange and non-exchange in systems with two or more identical nuclei). If the molecular system exhibits a conical intersection, then the associated geometric phase is shown to act as a ``quantum switch'' which can turn the reactivity on or off. Reaction rate coefficients for the O + OH --> H + O2 and H + H2, reactions are presented which explicitly demonstrate the effect. Experimentalists might exploit this new mechanism to control ultracold reactions by the application of external electric or magnetic fields or by the selection of a particular nuclear spin state. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program (Grant No. 20140309ER) at LANL (B.K.) and by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).

  7. A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Chad E.

    2010-01-01

    The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

  8. Statistical mechanics approach to lock-key supramolecular chemistry interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola, Gerardo; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2013-03-08

    In the supramolecular chemistry field, intuitive concepts such as molecular complementarity and molecular recognition are used to explain the mechanism of lock-key associations. However, these concepts lack a precise definition, and consequently this mechanism is not well defined and understood. Here we address the physical basis of this mechanism, based on formal statistical mechanics, through Monte Carlo simulation and compare our results with recent experimental data for charged or uncharged lock-key colloids. We find that, given the size range of the molecules involved in these associations, the entropy contribution, driven by the solvent, rules the interaction, over that of the enthalpy. A universal behavior for the uncharged lock-key association is found. Based on our results, we propose a supramolecular chemistry definition.

  9. Concepts and methods in modern theoretical chemistry statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and Methods in Modern Theoretical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics, the second book in a two-volume set, focuses on the dynamics of systems and phenomena. A new addition to the series Atoms, Molecules, and Clusters, this book offers chapters written by experts in their fields. It enables readers to learn how concepts from ab initio quantum chemistry and density functional theory (DFT) can be used to describe, understand, and predict chemical dynamics. This book covers a wide range of subjects, including discussions on the following topics: Time-dependent DFT Quantum fluid dynamics (QF

  10. Archaeological Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    From July to August of 1995 a jointarchaeological team from the InnerMongolian Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute and Japan’sEast Asian Archaeology Research Society unearthed the remains of a primitive human community dating back 6,000 years.This site was discovered at Wangmu Mountain on the southem bank of Daihai Lake in Liangcheng County Inner Mongolia. Within an area of 200 square meters,17 dwelling remains,22 cellars and over 100 pottery,stone and bone articles were unearthed.

  11. Archaeological Bonanza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s construction boom unearths many important ancient sites China’s top 10 archaeological discoveries in 2008 were released by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH) on March 31. The 10 winners, which were chosen from 25 nominees, include a Bronze-Age graveyard in

  12. Long term corrosion of iron in concrete and in atmospheric conditions: a contribution of archaeological analogues to mechanism comprehension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.; Demoulin, A.; Dillman, Ph.; Neff, D.; Berge, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS, Lab. Pierre Sue, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Burger, E.; Perrin, St. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCCME, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); L' hostis, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCCME, Lab. d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et Argiles, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dillman, Ph. [IRAMAT-CNRS UMR 5060, 33 - Pessac (France); Millard, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SEMT, Lab. de Mecanique Systemes et Simulation, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The prediction of iron (or low alloy steel) corrosion on very long term period is necessary in two different purposes: (i) the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage and (ii) the French storage and repository concept for the radioactive wastes. In order to determine the evolution of corrosion processes for very long period, mechanistic models have been developed. In these models that are based on a phenomenological approach to evaluate the average corrosion rates, two different environments are considered: concrete (steel reinforcements) and atmospheric. The study of archaeological analogues is a very pertinent tool for the validation of these models. First, physico-chemical analysis on old corrosion layers lead to a precise localisation and identification of the phases present in the corrosion system. Moreover, experimental reinduced corrosions of ancient samples under controlled parameters (temperature, relative humidity) bring new insight on the mechanisms involved. In particular, one crucial question related to the wet-dry cycle is the localisation of oxygen reduction sites in the rust layer. For this purpose, specific experiments have been set up to re-corrode the ancient samples in marked medium (using {sup 18}O{sub 2}). Samples were exposed to cycling between high and low relative humidity, produced by saline saturated solutions. Then cross-sections of samples obtained were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) {sup 18}O(p,{alpha}){sup 15}N on the Pierre Sue Laboratory nuclear microprobe. In this presentation the {sup 18}O distribution profiles are discussed and interpreted in order to bring new insight on corrosion mechanisms. A comparative interpretation is made for each medium (concrete and atmosphere)

  13. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  14. Manipulating mechanics and chemistry in precision optics finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p–v, with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 μm×350 μm areas to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical. Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheological finishing (MRF can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  15. Elucidating the coordination chemistry and mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Ian

    2007-08-03

    How does the enzyme nitrogenase reduce the inert molecule N2 to NH3 under ambient conditions that are so different from the energy-expensive conditions of the best industrial practices? This review focuses on recent theoretical investigations of the catalytic site, the iron-molybdenum cofactor FeMo-co, and the way in which it is hydrogenated by protons and electrons and then binds N2. Density functional calculations provide reaction profiles and activation energies for possible mechanistic steps. This establishes a conceptual framework and the principles for the coordination chemistry of FeMo-co that are essential to the chemical mechanism of catalysis. The model advanced herein explains relevant experimental data.

  16. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  17. Molecular Mechanism of Acrylamide Neurotoxicity: Lessons Learned from Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide (ACR) produces cumulative neurotoxicity in exposed humans and laboratory animals through a direct inhibitory effect on presynaptic function. Objectives: In this review, we delineate how knowledge of chemistry provided an unprecedented understanding of the ACR neurotoxic mechanism. We also show how application of the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory led to the recognition that the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl structure of ACR is a soft electrophile that preferentially forms covalent bonds with soft nucleophiles. Methods: In vivo proteomic and in chemico studies demonstrated that ACR formed covalent adducts with highly nucleophilic cysteine thiolate groups located within active sites of presynaptic proteins. Additional research showed that resulting protein inactivation disrupted nerve terminal processes and impaired neurotransmission. Discussion: ACR is a type-2 alkene, a chemical class that includes structurally related electrophilic environmental pollutants (e.g., acrolein) and endogenous mediators of cellular oxidative stress (e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Members of this chemical family produce toxicity via a common molecular mechanism. Although individual environmental concentrations might not be toxicologically relevant, exposure to an ambient mixture of type-2 alkene pollutants could pose a significant risk to human health. Furthermore, environmentally derived type-2 alkenes might act synergistically with endogenously generated unsaturated aldehydes to amplify cellular damage and thereby accelerate human disease/injury processes that involve oxidative stress. Conclusions: These possibilities have substantial implications for environmental risk assessment and were realized through an understanding of ACR adduct chemistry. The approach delineated here can be broadly applied because many toxicants of different chemical classes are electrophiles that produce toxicity by interacting with cellular proteins. PMID:23060388

  18. Organic Chemistry Students' Ideas about Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: The Role of Charges and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) used by practicing organic chemists. Faculty have identified an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles as one conceptual prerequisite to mastery of the EPF, but little is known about organic chemistry students' knowledge of nucleophiles…

  19. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  20. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  1. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans-disciplinary...

  2. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  3. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Backman, R.; Lauren, T.; Uusikartano, T.; Malm, H.; Stenstroem, P.; Vesterkvist, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). During 1996 the work has focused on identifying bed agglomeration mechanisms and analysing bed agglomerates in both full scale and lab scale FB reactors, as well as comparing how well the compression strength based sintering test can predict bed agglomeration in an FB furnace. (orig.)

  4. Comprehensive mechanisms for combustion chemistry: Experiment, modeling, and sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, F.L.; Yetter, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work are conducted in large diameter flow reactors, at pressures from one to twenty atmospheres, temperatures from 550 K to 1200 K, and with observed reaction times from 10{sup {minus}2} to 5 seconds. Gas sampling of stable reactant, intermediate, and product species concentrations provides not only substantial definition of the phenomenology of reaction mechanisms, but a significantly constrained set of kinetic information with negligible diffusive coupling. Analytical techniques used for detecting hydrocarbons and carbon oxides include gas chromatography (GC), and gas infrared (NDIR) and FTIR methods are utilized for continuous on-line sample detection of light absorption measurements of OH have also been performed in an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR), and a variable pressure flow (VPFR) reactor is presently being instrumented to perform optical measurements of radicals and highly reactive molecular intermediates. The numerical aspects of the work utilize zero and one-dimensional pre-mixed, detailed kinetic studies, including path, elemental gradient sensitivity, and feature sensitivity analyses. The program emphasizes the use of hierarchical mechanistic construction to understand and develop detailed kinetic mechanisms. Numerical studies are utilized for guiding experimental parameter selections, for interpreting observations, for extending the predictive range of mechanism constructs, and to study the effects of diffusive transport coupling on reaction behavior in flames. Modeling using well defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H{sub 2}/oxidant systems.

  5. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  6. Art, auto-mechanics, and supramolecular chemistry. A merging of hobbies and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric V. Anslyn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the strict definition of supramolecular chemistry is “chemistry beyond the molecule”, meaning having a focus on non-covalent interactions, the field is primarily associated with the creation of synthetic receptors and self-assembly. For synthetic ease, the receptors and assemblies routinely possess a high degree of symmetry, which lends them an aspect of aesthetic beauty. Pictures of electron orbitals similarly can be seen as akin to works of art. This similarity was an early draw for me to the fields of supramolecular chemistry and molecular orbital theory, because I grew up in a household filled with art. In addition to art, my childhood was filled with repairing and constructing mechanical entities, such as internal combustion motors, where many components work together to achieve a function. Analogously, the field of supramolecular chemistry creates systems of high complexity that achieve functions or perform tasks. Therefore, in retrospect a career in supramolecular chemistry appears to be simply an extension of childhood hobbies involving art and auto-mechanics.

  7. Chemistry enters nucleic acids biology: enzymatic mechanisms of RNA modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi-Muller, S; Motorin, Y

    2013-12-01

    Modified nucleotides are universally conserved in all living kingdoms and are present in almost all types of cellular RNAs, including tRNA, rRNA, sn(sno)RNA, and mRNA and in recently discovered regulatory RNAs. Altogether, over 110 chemically distinct RNA modifications have been characterized and localized in RNA by various analytical methods. However, this impressive list of known modified nucleotides is certainly incomplete, mainly due to difficulties in identification and characterization of these particular residues in low abundance cellular RNAs. In DNA, modified residues are formed by both enzymatic reactions (like DNA methylations, for example) and by spontaneous chemical reactions resulting from oxidative damage. In contrast, all modified residues characterized in cellular RNA molecules are formed by specific action of dedicated RNA-modification enzymes, which recognize their RNA substrate with high specificity. These RNA-modification enzymes display a great diversity in terms of the chemical reaction and use various low molecular weight cofactors (or co-substrates) in enzymatic catalysis. Depending on the nature of the target base and of the co-substrate, precise chemical mechanisms are used for appropriate activation of the base and the co-substrate in the enzyme active site. In this review, we give an extended summary of the enzymatic mechanisms involved in formation of different methylated nucleotides in RNA, as well as pseudouridine residues, which are almost universally conserved in all living organisms. Other interesting mechanisms include thiolation of uridine residues by ThiI and the reaction of guanine exchange catalyzed by TGT. The latter implies the reversible cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond in order to replace the initially encoded guanine by an aza-guanosine base. Despite the extensive studies of RNA modification and RNA-modification machinery during the last 20 years, our knowledge on the exact chemical steps involved in catalysis of RNA

  8. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W; Meltzer, David E; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  9. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Review Homework Exercise: Deriving Potential Mechanisms for Glucose Ring Opening in Mutarotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Margaret; Holman, R. W.; Slade, Tyler; Clark, Shelley L. D.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    A unique homework assignment has been designed as a review exercise to be implemented near the end of the one-year undergraduate organic chemistry sequence. Within the framework of the exercise, students derive potential mechanisms for glucose ring opening in the aqueous mutarotation process. In this endeavor, 21 general review principles are…

  10. Kinetic versus Static Visuals for Facilitating College Students' Understanding of Organic Reaction Mechanisms in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldahmash, Abdulwali H.; Abraham, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Using animated computer-generated graphics to assist instruction has recently attracted the attention of educators and educational researchers. The specific focus of this study is to compare the influence of animated visuals with static visuals on college students' understanding of organic reaction mechanisms in chemistry. This study also focuses…

  11. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  12. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy to Analyze Archaeological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    A course linking chemistry and archaeology was designed to introduce scientific principles and applications to students with little or no science background. The course could provide students an opportunity to explore the role of the sciences in archaeology and to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produce them.

  13. Compound-specific isotope analysis. Application to archaeology, biomedical sciences, biosynthesis, environment, extraterrestrial chemistry, food science, forensic science, humic substances, microbiology, organic geochemistry, soil science and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtfouse, E

    2000-01-01

    The isotopic composition, for example, (14)C/(12)C, (13)C/(12)C, (2)H/(1)H, (15)N/(14)N and (18)O/(16)O, of the elements of matter is heterogeneous. It is ruled by physical, chemical and biological mechanisms. Isotopes can be employed to follow the fate of mineral and organic compounds during biogeochemical transformations. The determination of the isotopic composition of organic substances occurring at trace level in very complex mixtures such as sediments, soils and blood, has been made possible during the last 20 years due to the rapid development of molecular level isotopic techniques. After a brief glance at pioneering studies revealing isotopic breakthroughs at the molecular and intramolecular levels, this paper reviews selected applications of compound-specific isotope analysis in various scientific fields.

  14. Cyclic imines: chemistry and mechanism of action: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alberto; Chapela, María-José; Atanassova, Miroslava; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

    2011-11-21

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the production of shellfish and in global demand for seafood as nutritious and healthy food. Unfortunately, a significant number of incidences of shellfish poisoning occur worldwide, and microalgae that produce phycotoxins are responsible for most of these. Phycotoxins include several groups of small to medium sized natural products with molecular masses ranging from 300 to over 3000 Da. Cyclic imines (CIs) are a recently discovered group of marine biotoxins characterized by their fast acting toxicity, inducing a characteristic rapid death in the intraperitoneal mouse bioassay. These toxins are macrocyclic compounds with imine (carbon-nitrogen double bond) and spiro-linked ether moieties. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore and due to the similarities in their intraperitoneal toxicity in mice. Spirolides (SPXs) are the largest group of CIs cyclic imines that together with gymnodimines (GYMs) are best characterized. Although the amount of cyclic imines in shellfish is not regulated and these substances have not been categorically linked to human intoxication, they trigger high intraperitoneal toxicity in rodents. In this review, the corresponding chemical structures of each member of the CIs and their derivatives are reviewed as well as all the data accumulated on their mechanism of action at cellular level.

  15. Coupling of highly explicit gas and aqueous chemistry mechanisms for use in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, Diana L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study discusses the coupling of a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous-phase mechanism in an accurate chemical solver designed for use in 3-D models. The gas and aqueous mechanisms and the solver used are the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM 3.1), the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism (CAPRAM 3.0i), and the SMVGEAR II ordinary differential solver, respectively. The MCM has over 13,500 reactions and 4600 species, whereas CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). SMVGEAR II is a sparse-matrix Gear solver that reduces the computation time significantly while maintaining any specified accuracy. MCM has been used previously with SMVGEAR II in 3-D, and computer timings here indicate that coupling MCM with CAPRAM in SMVGEAR II is also practical. Gas- and aqueous-phase species are coupled through time-dependent dissolutional growth and dissociation equations. This method is validated with a smaller mechanism against results from a previous model intercomparison. When the smaller mechanism is compared with the full MCM-CAPRAM mechanism, some concentrations are still similar but others differ due to the greater detail in chemistry. We also expand the mechanism to include gas-aqueous transfer of two acids, glycolic acid and glyoxylic acid, and modify the glyoxal Henry's law constant from recent measurements. The average glyoxal partitioning in the cloud changed from 67% aqueous-phase to 87% aqueous-phase with the modifications. The addition of gas-aqueous transfer reactions increased the average gas-phase percentage of glycolic acid to 19% and of glyoxylic acid to 16%. This full gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry module is a potentially useful tool for studying air pollution in a cloud or a fog.

  16. 30 Years of Archaeological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s archaeology has achieved remarkable outcomes during the 30 years after the carrying out of the reform and opening up policy. In theoretical research, various archaeological theories and genres have been introduced to China, which have influenced the development of the archaeology of China.

  17. Building Sustainability in Community Archaeology: the Hendon School Archaeology Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moshenska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hendon School Archaeology Project is a collaboration between Hendon School, the Hendon and District Archaeological Society (HADAS and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to provide students at the school with an experience and understanding of archaeological fieldwork, while investigating an important multi-period site. This paper outlines the results of the first five years of the project: both the archaeological findings, and as an innovative collaborative form of community archaeology. The principal focus of research is the 16th-century residence of John Norden, cartographer to Elizabeth I; however, the most significant discovery to date is a substantial ceramic assemblage of 12th to 14th-century date. As community archaeology, an important aspect is the sustainability of the project, based on cost and resource sharing between the project partners, which we believe may offer a useful model for other such initiatives.

  18. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  19. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnership...

  20. Archaeological Discoveries in Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    LIAONING Province, in northeastern China, has been inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. It is one of the sites of China’s earliest civilization. Since the 1950s many archaeological discoveries from periods beginning with the Paleolithic of 200,000 years ago, and through all the following historic periods, have been made in the province.

  1. Block-adaptive quantum mechanics: an adaptive divide-and-conquer approach to interactive quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Maël; Grudinin, Sergei; Redon, Stephane

    2013-03-05

    We present a novel Block-Adaptive Quantum Mechanics (BAQM) approach to interactive quantum chemistry. Although quantum chemistry models are known to be computationally demanding, we achieve interactive rates by focusing computational resources on the most active parts of the system. BAQM is based on a divide-and-conquer technique and constrains some nucleus positions and some electronic degrees of freedom on the fly to simplify the simulation. As a result, each time step may be performed significantly faster, which in turn may accelerate attraction to the neighboring local minima. By applying our approach to the nonself-consistent Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization Molecular Orbital theory, we demonstrate interactive rates and efficient virtual prototyping for systems containing more than a thousand of atoms on a standard desktop computer.

  2. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  3. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  4. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 predictions generally agree better with the observed data than the CB05TU predictions. RACM2 enhances ozone for all ambient levels leading to higher bias at low (70 ppbv concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. While RACM2 enhances ozone and secondary aerosols by relatively large margins, control strategies developed for ozone or fine particles using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  5. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 enhances ozone compared to CB05TU at all ambient levels. Although it exhibited greater overestimates at lower observed concentrations, it displayed an improved performance at higher observed concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. Any air pollution control strategies developed using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  6. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms.

  7. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer.

  8. Computational organic chemistry: bridging theory and experiment in establishing the mechanisms of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Xinhao; Chung, Lung Wa; Xu, Liping; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2015-02-11

    Understanding the mechanisms of chemical reactions, especially catalysis, has been an important and active area of computational organic chemistry, and close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists represent a growing trend. This Perspective provides examples of such productive collaborations. The understanding of various reaction mechanisms and the insight gained from these studies are emphasized. The applications of various experimental techniques in elucidation of reaction details as well as the development of various computational techniques to meet the demand of emerging synthetic methods, e.g., C-H activation, organocatalysis, and single electron transfer, are presented along with some conventional developments of mechanistic aspects. Examples of applications are selected to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of these techniques. Some challenges in the mechanistic studies and predictions of reactions are also analyzed.

  9. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  10. Calcium phosphate cements for bone substitution: chemistry, handling and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Weizhen; Schnitzler, Verena; Tancret, Franck; Bouler, Jean-Michel

    2014-03-01

    Since their initial formulation in the 1980s, calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been increasingly used as bone substitutes. This article provides an overview on the chemistry, kinetics of setting and handling properties (setting time, cohesion and injectability) of CPCs for bone substitution, with a focus on their mechanical properties. Many processing parameters, such as particle size, composition of cement reactants and additives, can be adjusted to control the setting process of CPCs, concomitantly influencing their handling and mechanical performance. Moreover, this review shows that, although the mechanical strength of CPCs is generally low, it is not a critical issue for their application for bone repair--an observation not often realized by researchers and clinicians. CPCs with compressive strengths comparable to those of cortical bones can be produced through densification and/or homogenization of the cement matrix. The real limitation for CPCs appears to be their low fracture toughness and poor mechanical reliability (Weibull modulus), which have so far been only rarely studied.

  11. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  12. Bioadhesion of mussels and geckos: Molecular mechanics, surface chemistry, and nanoadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeshin

    The adhesive strategies of living creatures are diverse, ranging from temporary to permanent adhesions with various functions such as locomotion, self-defense, communication, colony formation, and so on. The classic example of temporary adhesion is the gecko, which is known for its ability to walk along vertical and even inverted surfaces; this remarkable adhesion arises from the interfacial weak interactions of van der Waals and capillary forces. In contrast, a celerbrated example of permanent adhesion is found in marine mussels which secrete protein adhesives that function in aqueous environments without mechanical failure against turbulent conditions on the seashore. In addition, mussel adhesives stick to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces. However, most commonly used man-made adhesives lack such unique adhesion properties compared to their natural counterparts. For example, many commercial adhesives quickly lose their adhesive strength when exposed to solvents, particularly water. The first part of this thesis focused on adhesion mechanics of mussels at a single-molecule level, in which the adhesive molecule showed surprisingly strong yet reversible adhesion on inorganic surfaces but exhibited irreversible covalent bond formation on organic surfaces. Strong and reversible adhesion on mucin surfaces was found, indicating potential application for drug delivery via mucus layers. Next, inspired by the mussel's versatile adhesion on a wide variety of material surfaces, a material-independent surface modification chemistry called 'polydopamine coating' is described. This concept was subsequently adapted to develop a surface-independent polymeric primer for layer-by-layer assembly of multifunctional coatings. Finally, a new bio-hybrid adhesive 'geckel' was developed by the functional combination of adhesion strategies of geckos and mussels. The new bio-inspired adhesive and material-independent surface chemistry can revolutionize the research areas such as

  13. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  14. Indian Archaeology and Postmodernism: Fashion or Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins by considering the origins and trajectory of growth of Indian Archaeology, from an Antiquarian stage, through to its present state, which may best be described, positioned between cultural historical, Positivist and Post-positivist approaches. The school of archaeological thought informed by Positivist Philosophy has been called variously as the New Archaeology, Hypothetico-Deductive Archaeology, and ...

  15. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  16. Mechanisms before Reactions: A Mechanistic Approach to the Organic Chemistry Curriculum Based on Patterns of Electron Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alison B.; Ogilvie, William W.

    2015-01-01

    A significant redesign of the introductory organic chemistry curriculum at the authors' institution is described. There are two aspects that differ greatly from a typical functional group approach. First, organic reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism are taught before students have learned a single reaction. The conservation of…

  17. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains...... of monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period......, by examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  18. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  19. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, B A; Flynn, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realised stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach 0.1 dex and the parameterised MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  20. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 7 papers are interesting for the ETDE database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  1. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  2. Methodology of Parameterization of Molecular Mechanics Force Field From Quantum Chemistry Calculations using Genetic Algorithm: A case study of methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ying; Chan, Maria K Y; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Rouxb, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, force field determines the capability of an individual model in capturing physical and chemistry properties. The method for generating proper parameters of the force field form is the key component for computational research in chemistry, biochemistry, and condensed-phase physics. Our study showed that the feasibility to predict experimental condensed phase properties (i.e., density and heat of vaporization) of methanol through problem specific force field from only quantum chemistry information. To acquire the satisfying parameter sets of the force field, the genetic algorithm (GA) is the main optimization method. For electrostatic potential energy, we optimized both the electrostatic parameters of methanol using the GA method, which leads to low deviations of between the quantum mechanics (QM) calculations and the GA optimized parameters. We optimized the van der Waals (vdW) parameters both using GA and guided GA methods by calibrating interaction energy of various met...

  3. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  4. A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

  5. Teaching the Philosophical Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry Through Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritz, Andoni

    2013-07-01

    This study has the key premise of teaching history and philosophy of physical sciences to illustrate how controversies and rivalries among scientists play a key role in the progress of science and why scientific development is not only founded on the accumulation of experimental data. The author is a defender of teachers who consider philosophical, historical and socio-scientific issues. In particular, the disputes can be used in science teaching to promote students awareness of the "historicity" of science and to facilitate the understanding of scientific progress beyond that of inductive generalizations. The establishment of a theory is accompanied with philosophical interpretations all the way. The author will try to show that it gives excellent results in teaching and learning to bring to the foreground the complexity that surrounds the development of ideas in science, illustrating how controversies, presuppositions, contradictions and inconsistencies find a place in the work of scientists and philosophers alike. In this sense, the case of quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry is very solid because it is historically full of controversies among their heads: Einstein, Bohr, De Broglie, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born, Lewis, Langmuir, Bader, Hoffmann and Pauling, at least.

  6. Quantum chemistry investigation on the reaction mechanism of the elemental mercury, chlorine, bromine and ozone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengyang; Lv, Shaokun; Yang, Weijie; Yang, Pengfei; Ji, Shuo; Meng, Xinxin

    2015-06-01

    Ab initio calculations were performed to study the quantum chemistry reactions mechanisms among Hg(0), elemental halogen and O3. The geometry of reactions, transition states (TS), intermediates (M) and products were optimized using the MP2 method at the SDD basis function level for Hg, and using 6-311++G (3df, 3pd) for other species. Molecular energies were calculated at QCISD (T) level with zero point energy. Activation energies were calculated along with pre-exponential factors . The reaction rate constants within 298-1800 K were calculated according to transition state theory (TST). The influences of O3 on the reaction of Hg(0) with halogen are discussed. Hg(0) can be oxidized to Hg(1+) by halogen and O3, and halogen and O3 can be arranged in decreasing order as: Br2 > BrO > O3 > Br > Cl, BrCl > HBr > HCl, Br2 > Cl2 according to reaction rate constants. When O3 is presented, Br2, HBr, BrCl, Cl2 and HCl react with O3 and are initially converted to BrO and ClO. O3 is unfavorable for oxidation of Hg(0) by Br2. The mixture of HBr and O3 has better oxidizing Hg(0) performance than HBr and O3. Cl is less effective than Br for oxidation of Hg(0).

  7. The contemporary in post-medieval archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Penrose, Sefryn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary archaeology is an emerging field of enquiry within the wider discipline associated with the questioning of temporal boundaries in what we study and why we engage with material remains of the recent past more generally. This article argues that contemporary archaeology should be broadly...... defined at this stage in its development and therefore can be located in Post-Medieval Archaeology through research that explicitly engages with what it is to conduct contemporary archaeology, but also through those implicitly considering how the past intrudes into the present. We believe that Post......-Medieval Archaeology will continue to highlight archaeological studies of the contemporary into the future....

  8. Extracting physical chemistry from mechanics: a new approach to investigate DNA interactions with drugs and proteins in single molecule experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, M S

    2015-01-01

    In this review we focus on the idea of establishing connections between the mechanical properties of DNAligand complexes and the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions. This type of connection is interesting because it opens the possibility of performing a robust characterization of such interactions by using only one experimental technique: single molecule stretching. Furthermore, it also opens new possibilities in comparing results obtained by very different approaches, in special when comparing single molecule techniques to ensemble-averaging techniques. We start the manuscript reviewing important concepts of the DNA mechanics, from the basic mechanical properties to the Worm-Like Chain model. Next we review the basic concepts of the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions, revisiting the most important models used to analyze the binding data and discussing their binding isotherms. Then, we discuss the basic features of the single molecule techniques most used to stretch the DNA-ligand complex...

  9. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eNermoen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa and two temperatures (92℃ and and 130℃. The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium. The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil, pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days, and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  10. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar; Aursjø, Olav; Madland, Merete; Kjørslevik, Trygve Alexander; Østensen, Geir

    2016-02-01

    We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa) and two temperatures (92° and and 130°). The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium). The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV) per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil), pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days), and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  11. Plasma Discharges in Gas Bubbles in Liquid Water: Breakdown Mechanisms and Resultant Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah M. N.

    is created either through flowing gas around the high voltage electrode in the discharge tube or self-generated by the plasma as in the steam discharge. This second method allows for large scale processing of contaminated water and for bulk chemical and optical analysis. Breakdown mechanisms of attached and unattached gas bubbles in liquid water were investigated using the first device. The breakdown scaling relation between breakdown voltage, pressure and dimensions of the discharge was studied. A Paschen-like voltage dependence for air bubbles in liquid water was discovered. The results of high-speed photography suggest the physical charging of the bubble due to a high voltage pulse; this charging can be significant enough to produce rapid kinetic motion of the bubble about the electrode region as the applied electric field changes over a voltage pulse. Physical deformation of the bubble is observed. This charging can also prevent breakdown from occurring, necessitating higher applied voltages to overcome the phenomenon. This dissertation also examines the resulting chemistry from plasma interacting with the bubble-liquid system. Through the use of optical emission spectroscopy, plasma parameters such as electron density, gas temperature, and molecular species production and intensity are found to have a time-dependence over the ac voltage cycle. This dependence is also source gas type dependent. These dependencies afford effective control over plasma-driven decomposition. The effect of plasma-produced radicals on various wastewater simulants is studied. Various organic dyes, halogenated compounds, and algae water are decomposed and assessed. Toxicology studies with melanoma cells exposed to plasma-treated dye solutions are completed, demonstrating the non-cytotoxic quality of the decomposition process. Thirdly, this dissertation examines the steam plasma system, developed through this research to circumvent the acidification associated with gas-feed discharges

  12. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  13. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  14. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  15. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  16. Computational Material Modeling of Hydrated Cement Paste Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Chemistry Structure - Influence of Magnesium Exchange on Mechanical Stiffness: C-S-H Jennite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    material chemistry structure are studied following a molecular dynamics (MD) computational modeling methodology. Calcium ions are replaced with... chemistry structure. Conference Name: 1st Pan-American Conference on Computational Mechanics Conference Date: April 27, 2015 1st Pan-American Congress on...MODELING OF C-S-H Material chemistry level modeling following the principles and techniques commonly grouped under Computational Material Science is

  17. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  18. Marine archaeological explorations off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    The Marine archaeology centre of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India has undertaken marine archaeological explorations in Goa waters to locate shipwrecks and port installations in coastal areas, and riverbanks. The exploration...

  19. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  20. Archaeology as a social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration.

  1. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  2. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory 'of 'time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  3. Archaeology and Science in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Elia Valori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The monuments and historical memories of a people are its non-biological DNA, through which a political system creates its identity. Archaeological research, the protection and valorization of artistic heritage in China envisages the glorification of Beijing’s unifying power, recreating, through the business of cultural and archaeological tourism, sustained economic development, especially in depressed areas, also by taking into consideration the relationship between ecology, cultural heritage and economic development. Protecting Chinese artistic and archaeological structures fosters the interest of the government for leading-edge technologies used in discovering, protecting and managing the most delicate and complex finds.  Italy can supply Beijing with these technologies, together with the know-how, developed over many years of care and analysis of some of the world’s greatest artistic heritage. With the use of these technologies, in accordance with legislation related to environmental  protection, artistic and archaeological finds can be studied thoroughly and rapidly, thus providing the possibility of learning about the context in which a work is inserted and allowing the whole site to be valorized.

  4. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  5. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  6. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  7. Why History of Archaeology Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, in the framework of the wider critical reassessments of archaeological theory and practice, especially in the English-speaking literature, a number of writings have been published, pointing to the origins and theoretical background in which some of the basic concepts of the discipline were developed. The very essence of archaeology has thus been situated into the cultural, political and ideological context of Western Europe at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century. On the other hand, by the end of the 19th century this strategy of study into the past has become a part of the academic life in other contexts (such as Serbia, where the general circumstances were utterly different. However, the basic concepts were transferred from their original setting, inevitably undergone transformations, and then applied with long-lasting consequences. Therefore, the importance of the study of the history of archaeology in various local settings surpasses local concerns, but contributes to deeper understanding of the social role and importance of archaeological research in general.

  8. Physics and archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Aitken, M J

    1995-01-01

    After a general survey of the way in which physics,and indeed chemistry, has opened new vistas archeology these lectures will focus on age determination.Here physics has played a crucial role in providing a timescale prior to recorded history , the latter beginnig about 5000 years ago with the First Dynasty of Egypt and the earliest pyramid. The physics-based timescale was initially provided by radiocarbon dating and this showed the early phases of Neolithic civilisation, e.g.,the earliest Jericho, to have been substiantially more ancient than had been conjectured. Further back in time than the 50000-year limit of that technique other radioisotope methods have been used, as well as electron spin resonance and luminescence; these have been espacially important in dating early human development, notably in throwing light on the relationship of anatomically-modern humans of the Neanderthals. In particular luminescence dating (both thermoluminescence and optically-stimulated luminescence) will be discussed, not o...

  9. Condensing complex atmospheric chemistry mechanisms. 1: The direct constrained approximate lumping (DCAL) method applied to alkane photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.W.; Georgopoulos, P.G. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Li, G.; Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry mechanisms are the most computationally intensive components of photochemical air quality simulation models (PAQSMs). The development of a photochemical mechanism, that accurately describes atmospheric chemistry while being computationally efficient for use in PAQSMs, is a difficult undertaking that has traditionally been pursued through semiempirical (diagnostic) lumping approaches. The limitations of these diagnostic approaches are often associated with inaccuracies due to the fact that the lumped mechanisms have typically been optimized to fit the concentration profile of a specific species. Formal mathematical methods for model reduction have the potential (demonstrated through past applications in other areas) to provide very effective solutions to the need for computational efficiency combined with accuracy. Such methods, that can be used to condense a chemical mechanism, include kinetic lumping and domain separation. An application of the kinetic lumping method, using the direct constrained approximately lumping (DCAL) approach, to the atmospheric photochemistry of alkanes is presented in this work. It is shown that the lumped mechanism generated through the application of the DCAL method has the potential to overcome the limitations of existing semiempirical approaches, especially in relation to the consistent and accurate calculation of the time-concentration profiles of multiple species.

  10. Extracting physical chemistry from mechanics: a new approach to investigate DNA interactions with drugs and proteins in single molecule experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M S

    2015-09-01

    In this review we focus on the idea of establishing connections between the mechanical properties of DNA-ligand complexes and the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions. This type of connection is interesting because it opens the possibility of performing a robust characterization of such interactions by using only one experimental technique: single molecule stretching. Furthermore, it also opens new possibilities in comparing results obtained by very different approaches, in particular when comparing single molecule techniques to ensemble-averaging techniques. We start the manuscript reviewing important concepts of DNA mechanics, from the basic mechanical properties to the Worm-Like Chain model. Next we review the basic concepts of the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions, revisiting the most important models used to analyze the binding data and discussing their binding isotherms. Then, we discuss the basic features of the single molecule techniques most used to stretch DNA-ligand complexes and to obtain "force × extension" data, from which the mechanical properties of the complexes can be determined. We also discuss the characteristics of the main types of interactions that can occur between DNA and ligands, from covalent binding to simple electrostatic driven interactions. Finally, we present a historical survey of the attempts to connect mechanics to physical chemistry for DNA-ligand systems, emphasizing a recently developed fitting approach useful to connect the persistence length of DNA-ligand complexes to the physicochemical properties of the interaction. Such an approach in principle can be used for any type of ligand, from drugs to proteins, even if multiple binding modes are present.

  11. Colistin in pig production: Chemistry, Mechanism of antibacterial action, Microbial resistance emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rhouma

    2016-11-01

    cooperation between physicians, veterinarians, and other scientific health and environmental professionals. This review is an update on the chemistry of colistin, its applications and antibacterial mechanism of action, and on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in pigs. We also detail and discuss the One Health approach and propose guidelines for colistin resistance management.

  12. Different approaches of teaching in chemistry. Membrane targeting mechanism of human sphingosine kinase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Hye

    Part 1. Biochemistry research involves elucidating the mechanism of membrane targeting of human sphingosine kinase 1 (hSK1). Sphingosine kinase (SK) is an enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). hSK1 can be activated by its agonists resulting in rapid and transient increased production of S-1-P, resulting in enhancement of apoptosis. Upon activation by PMA, SK translocates to the plasma membrane. In vitro measurement demonstrated hSK1 selectively bound phosphatidylserine over anionic lipids and showed strong preference for the plasma membrane-mimetics. Mutational analysis of conserved Thr54 and Asn89 on putative membrane-binding surface from the model structure showed both in vivo and in vitro that these two residues are important for the membrane selectivity of hSK1. Part 2. Chemical education research focuses on three different ways of scientific learning and teaching. First, inquiry teaching that involves a writing method called the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is analyzed using grounded theory. This is done in a general education course for pre-service teachers. As a result, (1) students experience understanding of concept through mastery of their own methods and experience different aspects of inquiry processes; (2) SWH method allows instructors to detect misconceptions generated by students' incorrect, but logical interpretations of their data, and helps instructors to make changes to guide students; (3) as students experience meta-cognition, students gain understanding of concepts by relating mathematical progression to different parts of the experiments and also by applying what they learn into other situations. Second, statistical analysis on the long term effects of a combined math/chemistry program is analyzed through multiple linear regression and discriminant function analysis. The results demonstrate the program was beneficial to the underrepresented students when the college success was measured

  13. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    , veterinarians, and other scientific health and environmental professionals. This review is an update on the chemistry of colistin, its applications and antibacterial mechanism of action, and on Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin in pigs. We also detail and discuss the One Health approach and propose guidelines for colistin resistance management. PMID:27891118

  14. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  15. A Writing and Ethics Component for a Quantum Mechanics, Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John T.; Strickland, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A writing-across-the-curriculum and ethics component is presented for a second-semester, physical chemistry course. The activity involves introducing ethical issues pertinent to scientists. Students are asked to read additional material, participate in discussions, and write essays and a paper on an ethical issue. The writing and discussion…

  16. An integrated approach to teaching Aegean archaeology and archaeological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcairn, Erica Glenn

    Outlined here is a course that would serve as an introduction to archaeological science, specifically within the context of Aegean Prehistory. The main objective of this course is to expose students early in their archaeological careers to a variety of methods and questions, and to depart from the culture-historical perspective that typifies introductory survey courses. The class structure is equal parts lecture and discussion, moving between learning how the methods work and evaluating case studies. All graded assignments build on one another, guiding the students through designing their own research project. The ultimate goals of the assignments are to build key writing and professional skills, develop a basic understanding of research design, and to instill confidence that the student can contribute to the production of knowledge, whatever field he or she decides to pursue.

  17. Interfacial Atmospheric Chemistry: Quantum Chemical Calculations on the Mechanism of Protonation and Oligomerization of Isoprene on Aqueous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, H.; Colussi, A. J.; Enami, S.; Nielsen, R. J.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Goddard, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that atmospheric chemistry involves more than gas-phase reactions. Key processes, such as the decay of NO2 in urban plumes and the associated daytime formation of HONO, and the rapid chemistries observed in and over forest canopies at nighttime defy explanation by conventional atmospheric chemistry mechanisms. We have recently reported experimental results on several gas-liquid reactions of atmospheric interest, such as the facile protonation of gaseous isoprene on mildly acidic (pH bioenergetics coupling, 'on-water' catalysis, self-assembly and molecular recognition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of such reactions. Herein we apply quantum mechanics to investigate how biogenic or anthropogenic olefins may get protonated and undergo oligomerization at the air-water interface by performing model calculations on small water clusters carrying an excess proton as surrogates for the surface of mildly acidic water as sensed by gaseous isoprene (ISO). We find that ISO binds weakly to the surface of water and accepts a proton from H+(H2O)3, leading to ISOH+ via a proton transfer hindered by a ΔG1‡ = 5.6 kcal mol-1 kinetic barrier. Subsequently, another ISO attaches loosely to this ensemble, before being attacked by the ISOH+. This process, which represents the first step of the cationic polymerization of ISO, is hindered by a similar ΔG2‡ = 5.7 kcal mol-1 barrier. Our theoretical results are consistent with experimental (~ 10-4) uptake coefficients for ISO measured on acidic water.

  18. Weapons in disguise--activating mechanisms and protecting group chemistry in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jason C; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-11-22

    Bioactive natural products often possess uniquely functionalized structures with unusual modes of action; however, the natural product itself is not always the active species. We discuss molecules that draw on protecting group chemistry or else require activation to unmask reactive centers, illustrating that nature is not only a source of complex structures but also a guide for elegant chemical transformations which provides ingenious chemical solutions for drug delivery.

  19. Archaeology and Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wood

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Some Indonesian archaeologists, however, have focused on the nation's Islamic past. Uka Tjandrasasmita is one of Indonesia's leading archaeologists and is largely behind the writing of Volume III of the Sejarah Nasional Indonesia, the national history that was the "standard text" for the teaching of history in Indonesian schools during the New Order; the volume he worked on dealt with Indonesia's Islamic history. For many years he held the position of the head of the Islamic Antiquities section of the Indonesian Archaeological Service (Bidang Arkeologi Islam, Pusat Penelitian Kepurbakalaan dan Peninggalan Nasional and carried out survey and excavation work in West, Central and East java. He has published many reports on the Islamic archaeology of Indonesia.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v15i2.530

  20. Nigeria’s Archaeological Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka E. Okonkwo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available People have exploited mineral resources for several reasons ranging from the production of metal and ceramic objects to stone and wooden tools. Indigenous extraction and use of mineral resources for production of general goods among others have continued unabated. In this article, archaeological and ethnographic data were used to identify extraction methods for some of these raw materials in the past, and thus, examine how failure to manage such resources has adversely affected technological and resource development in Nigeria

  1. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  2. Visualisation in Archaeology: Connecting Research and Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Gibbons

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Visualisation in Archaeology (www.viarch.org.uk is a three-year research project funded by English Heritage. Established in December 2007, Visualisation in Archaeology (VIA has as its principal mission a commitment to providing a forum in which practitioners and researchers can contribute towards a critical (reassessment of visualising data resulting from archaeological research. This paper will present an overview of the VIA’s research aims and objectives, its methodology, and its proposed future directions.

  3. Understanding Archaeological Authority in a Digital Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "…with the increasing spread of social media and mobile communication, the social networks of knowledge construction are becoming not only vastly bigger and quicker and less limited by space and time constraints than they have been before, but also more of a threat to established authorities." (Hofheinz 2011, 1426 This article considers the issues of archaeological authority, expertise and organisational reputation in the UK from an online perspective, and questions whether the participatory promise of social media technologies can, and should, challenge archaeological authority. It explores how these issues are approached and mediated online, the issues of digital literacy for audience reception, and the approaches used by archaeological organisations to address the challenges of undertaking digital public archaeology projects whilst maintaining archaeological rigour and the visible performance of expertise. It discusses how the concepts of archaeological authority and expertise are demonstrated and practised online, using data from my doctoral research, undertaken from 2011 to 2013. This article questions if the presence of websites dedicated to the promulgation of alternative archaeologies on the Internet can present challenges for the performance of archaeological expertise online, and how organisations monitor and respond to alternative archaeological interpretations and news stories.

  4. The Archaeology of Childhood: Revisiting Mohenjodaro Terracotta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Pratap

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For long archaeologists have been perplexed that the excavated data are usually interpreted from an adult male perspective. The literature locating this and the concomitant rise of gendered archaeology thrives (Conkey and Spector 1984, Conkey and Gero 1999, Conkey 2005. However, in addition to andocentric biases in archaeology, there is also a tendency to overlook the evidence related with children that who are omnipresent, in all cultures. As this is true in the Indian context also, in this paper we shall suggest that terracotta objects provide an invaluable category of archaeological material for considering the archaeology of childhood.

  5. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the public..., information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions... written request for information, concerning the archaeological resources within the requesting...

  6. Two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry re-examination of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films arising from electrolyte decomposition on low-voltage lithium ion battery anode surfaces are critical for battery operations. We review the recent theoretical literature on electrolyte decomposition and emphasize the modeling work on two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate (EC, a key battery organic solvent). One of the two-electron pathways, which releases CO gas, is re-examined using simple quantum chemistry calculations. Excess electrons are shown to preferentially attack EC in the order (broken EC^-) > (intact EC^-) > EC. This confirms the viability of two electron processes and emphasizes that they need to be considered when interpreting SEI experiments. An estimate of the crossover between one- and two-electron regimes under a homogeneous reaction zone approximation is proposed.

  7. Reaction Mechanisms for the Limited Reversibility of Li-O2 Chemistry in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Xu, Kang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-11-15

    The Li-O2 chemistry in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes and the underneath reason of its limited reversibility was exhaustively investigated. The discharge products collected from the air cathode in a Li-O2 battery at different depth of discharge (DOD) were systematically analyzed with X-ray diffraction. It is revealed that, independent of the discharge depth, lithium alkylcarbonate (either lithium propylenedicarbonate - LPDC, or lithium ethylenedicarbonate - LEDC, with other related derivatives) and lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) are always the main products, obviously originated from the electrolyte solvents propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC). These lithium alkylcarbonates are obviously generated from the single-electron reductive decomposition of the corresponding carbonate solvents initiated by the attack of superoxide radical anions. On the other hand, neither lithium peroxide (Li2O2) nor lithium oxide (Li2O) is detected. More significantly, from in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy it is found that Li2CO3 and Li2O cannot be oxidized even when charged up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+, while LPDC, LEDC and Li2O2 are readily able to, with CO2 and CO released with the re-oxidation of LPDC and LEDC. It is therefore concluded that the quasi-reversibility of Li-O2 chemistry observed hitherto in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte is actually reliant on the formation of lithium alkylcarbonates through the reductive decomposition of carbonate solvents during discharge process and the subsequent oxidation of these same alkylcarbonates during charge process. It is the poor oxidizability of these alkylcarbonate species that constitutes the obstruction to an ideal rechargeable Li-O2 battery.

  8. Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil; Analise microestrutural, composicional e propriedades mecanicas das ceramicas indigenas do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P., E-mail: japaum@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J.L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial; Bornal, W.G.; Queiroz, C.M. [Fundacao Cultural de Jacarehy, Jacarei, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Arqueologia do Vale do Paraiba

    2009-07-01

    Archaeological ceramics contain infinity of data about social and cultural indigenous site Caninhas/SP. The ceramics present a gradient of color (ochre to dark gray), when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples. It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction (XRD) and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases (ochre region) and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases (dark gray region). The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics, when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics, reaching approximately 203 HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. (author)

  9. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    Count Eigil Knuth succeeded in finding a Palaeo-Eskimo settlement named “Old Nuulliit” on the well-known Nuulliit site in the Thule area. This site was settled by the first immigrants to Greenland – a hitherto unknown culture group, “the Old Nuulliit Culture”, which was closely related to Pal......¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total...

  10. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández; Tania de la Caridad Bermúdez Camacho

    2016-01-01

    The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.). For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of ...

  11. Snapshots of lignin oxidation and depolymerization in archaeological wood: an EGA-MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Diego; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) was used for the first time to study archaeological wood, in order to investigate its chemical degradation. The archaeological wood was from an oak pile from a stilt house found in the Neolithic 'La Marmotta' village (Lake Bracciano, Rome, Italy). The sampling was performed from the external to the internal part of the pile, following the annual growth rings in groups of five. In addition, sound oak wood and isolated wood components (holocellulose and cellulose) were also analyzed, and the results were used to highlight differences because of degradation. Our study demonstrated that EGA-MS provides information on the thermo-chemistry of archaeological wood along with in-depth compositional data thanks to the use of MS. Our investigations not only highlighted wood degradation in terms of differences between carbohydrates and lignin content, but also showed that lignin oxidation and depolymerization took place in the archaeological wood. Mass spectral data revealed differences among the archaeological samples from the internal to the external part of the pile. An increase in the formation of wood pyrolysis products bearing a carbonyl group at the benzylic position and a decrease in the amount of lignin dimers were observed. These were related to oxidation and depolymerization reactions, respectively.

  12. Case studies in archaeological predictive modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Jacobus Wilhelmus Hermanus Philippus

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a collection of papers is put together dealing with various quantitative aspects of predictive modelling and archaeological prospection. Among the issues covered are the effects of survey bias on the archaeological data used for predictive modelling, and the complexities of testing p

  13. Understanding fossil phytolith preservation: the role of partial dissolution in paleoecology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, Dan; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Opaline phytoliths are important microfossils used for paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions that are primarily based on relative ratios of specific morphotypes. Recent studies have shown that phytolith assemblages are prone to post-depositional alteration involving partial dissolution, however, the manner in which partial dissolution affects morphotype composition is poorly understood. Here we show that morphotype assemblages from four different plant species subjected to controlled partial dissolution are significantly different from the original assemblages, indicating that the stability of various morphotypes differs, mainly depending on their surface area to bulk ratios. This underlying mechanism produces distorted morphotype compositions in partially dissolved phytolith assemblages, bearing vast implications for morphotype-based paleoecological and archaeological interpretation. Together with analyses of phytolith assemblages from a variety of archaeological sites, our results establish criteria by which well-preserved phytolith assemblages can be selected for accurate paleoecological and archaeological reconstructions.

  14. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-12-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  15. Maritime Archaeology and Climate Change: An Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeneva

    2016-08-01

    Maritime archaeology has a tremendous capacity to engage with climate change science. The field is uniquely positioned to support climate change research and the understanding of past human adaptations to climate change. Maritime archaeological data can inform on environmental shifts and submerged sites can serve as an important avenue for public outreach by mobilizing public interest and action towards understanding the impacts of climate change. Despite these opportunities, maritime archaeologists have not fully developed a role within climate change science and policy. Moreover, submerged site vulnerabilities stemming from climate change impacts are not yet well understood. This article discusses potential climate change threats to maritime archaeological resources, the challenges confronting cultural resource managers, and the contributions maritime archaeology can offer to climate change science. Maritime archaeology's ability to both support and benefit from climate change science argues its relevant and valuable place in the global climate change dialogue, but also reveals the necessity for our heightened engagement.

  16. The application of lithic raw material mechanical analysis in Paleolithic archaeology%石料力学性能分析在旧石器考古学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振宇; 郇勇; 刘薇; 董杰

    2016-01-01

    nucleation of cracks that can be reflected on strain vs.stress curves.To investigate the mechanical properties of raw material,compression tests were performed using a MTS 810 material testing machine.Specimen cubes were cut out of pebbles from Paleolithic site for the tests.Force is measured by the load cell,and the deformation of the specimen is measured by a COD displacement sensor fixed between two compression plates.This deformation vs.force relationship was then transformed to a strain vs.stress curve.Six kinds of raw material,dolomite,chert,obsidian,quartz,quartzite,and granite,were involved in the compression test.In Shuidonggou site,dolomite shows higher ductility and brittleness than quartz and quartzite.This result implies that dolomite appears better flaking properties than quartz and quartzite in Shuidonggou.Archaeology remains The quartz from Beitaishanmiao site,Hubei and Xujiacheng site,Gansu present the similar lithology mechanical properties,which might be taken as one explanation for that both two sites shows similar raw material utilization and lithic assemblage.In the chert (Daerwo site,Guanyindong site,Guizhou) and obsidian (Japan) specimens we examined,since of the microfissure,both the dispersion of maximum stress and maximum strain is bigger than dolomite,quartz,sand quartzite,and granite.This suggests that,in some case,the macro-crystal rock maybe appears better flaking properties than microcrystal rock,such as chert,flint,and obsidian.In this study,mechanical properties analysis has been proved quite objective method for raw material utilization analysis.We suggest that knapping experiment should be correlated with mechanical tests.Moreover,more mechanical tests with different raw materials from different sites are necessary for the comparative examination and also significant for building a raw material mechanical properties database.

  17. Archaeologies of Hair: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. Ashby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This collection of short articles represents an original attempt to bring together scholarship that is usually divided along lines of specialism in time, place, method, or discipline. The shared focus of its contributions is on hair: more than an infrequently preserved element of human remains, but a widespread (and arguably cross-cultural symbol of power, of fertility, of identity and the self. Moreover, its care and treatment using various forms of material culture, and its artistic representation in diverse media, offer a unique opportunity to examine the interface between the body and material culture. Where exceptional taphonomic conditions facilitate the preservation of hair and associated organic material, the result is some of the richest assemblages of human remains and associated material culture in the archaeological record (e.g. Wilson et al. 2007; Fletcher 1998. In contrast, 'everyday' objects associated with haircare are among the most taphonomically robust, frequently encountered and recognisable personal items known to archaeologists (e.g. Stephens 2008; Ashby 2011, and provide us with insight into the making of personal and bodily identities, even in the absence of human remains themselves. When studied in an interdisciplinary framework, the interpretative potential of this material is clear, but such work has been rare. This collection aims to set a new agenda for cross-disciplinary research focused on the nexus of human and artefactual remains, by highlighting the rich and diverse potential of this material when studied through archaeological, biochemical, artistic, historical, sociological and anthropological lenses.

  18. The chemistry of simple alkene molecules on Si(100)c(4 × 2): The mechanism of cycloaddition and their selectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Kazuto; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The chemistry of simple alkene molecules on the Si(100) surface is reviewed with the newly-produced visual presentation by theoretical calculations. The early pioneering studies by the Kyoto Group and Pittsburgh group reported the di-σ bond formation and the precursor-mediated chemisorption for acetylene and ethylene on Si(100), respectively. Thereafter, these studies have been stimulating various studies of organic molecules on Si surfaces. Our recent studies have observed the precursor states for alkene chemisorption and elucidated the microscopic mechanisms of the di-σ bond formation (cycloaddition) with the help of theoretical calculations; the site-, stereo- and regio-selective chemisorption of simple alkene molecules on Si(100)c(4 × 2) has been established.

  19. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts. 3. Degradation Mechanisms of Chloronitromethane, Bromonitromethane and Dichloronitromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; William J. Cooper; S. Kirkham Cole; Robert V. Fox; Piero R. Gardinali

    2010-01-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts formed through ozonation and chlorine/ chloramine disinfection processes in drinking waters that contain dissolved organic matter and bromide ions. These species occur at low concentration, but have been determined to have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and therefore may represent a human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the chemistry involved in the mineralization of HNMs to non-hazardous inorganic products through the application of advanced oxidation and reduction processes. We have combined measured absolute reaction rate constants for the reactions of chloronitromethane, bromonitromethane and dichloronitromethane with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron with a kinetic computer model in an attempt to elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. The results are compared to measurements of stable products resulting from steady-state 60Co y-irradiations of the same compounds. The model predicted the decomposition of the parent compounds and ingrowth of chloride and bromide ions with excellent accuracy, but the prediction of the total nitrate ion concentration was slightly in error, reflecting the complexity of nitrogen oxide species reactions in irradiated solution.

  20. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  1. Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-04-08

    Inhibition of cancer can occur via apoptosis, a genetically directed process of cell self-destruction that involves numerous biomarkers and signaling pathways. Glycoalkaloids are nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in numerous Solanaceous plants including eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes. Exposure of cancer cells to glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants (α-solamargine and α-solasonine), potatoes (α-chaconine and α-solanine), and tomatoes (α-tomatine) or their hydrolysis products (mono-, di-, and trisaccharide derivatives and the aglycones solasodine, solanidine, and tomatidine) inhibits the growth of the cells in culture (in vitro) as well as tumor growth in vivo. This overview comprehensively surveys and consolidates worldwide efforts to define the following aspects of these natural compounds: (a) their prevalence in the three foods; (b) their chemistry and structure-activity relationships; (c) the reported factors (biomarkers, signaling pathways) associated with apoptosis of bone, breast, cervical, colon, gastric, glioblastoma, leukemia, liver, lung, lymphoma, melanoma, pancreas, prostate, and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro and the in vivo inhibition of tumor formation and growth in fish and mice and in human skin cancers; and (d) future research needs. The described results may make it possible to better relate the structures of the active compounds to their health-promoting function, individually, in combination, and in food, and allow the consumer to select glycoalkaloid-containing food with the optimal content of nontoxic beneficial compounds. The described findings are expected to be a valuable record and resource for further investigation of the health benefits of food-related natural compounds.

  2. ENGINEERED INTERFACE CHEMISTRY TO IMPROVE THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES CURED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A reactive sizing was designed to achieve high levels of interfacial adhesion and mechanical properties with a carbon fiber-acrylate system cured by electron beam (EB). The sizing was made of a partially cured epoxy sizing with a high density of pendant functional groups (acrylate functionality) able to generate a covalent bonding with the matrix. The interlaminar shear strength was clearly improved from 61 MPa to 81 MPa (+ 33 %) without any post-processing, reaching a similar value to the one obtained with the same system cured by a thermal treatment. Observation of the fracture profiles clearly highlighted a change in the fracture mechanism from a purely adhesive failure to a cohesive failure. Such improvements of the mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites cured by EB, without any post-cure, have not been reported previously to the best of our knowledge. This constitutes a breakthrough for the industrial development of composites EB curing.

  3. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... request for information, concerning the archaeological resources within the requesting Governor's State... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological...

  4. Study of the Stereochemistry and Oxidation Mechanism of Plant Polyphenols, Assisted by Computational Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

     In recent years, plant polyphenols have attracted great attention due to their wide range of biological activities. Certain kinds of polyphenols have complex structures; therefore, it is difficult to elucidate their total structure, including stereochemistry. In this study, we reinvestigated the stereostructures of two major C-glycosidic ellagitannins contained in Quercus plants, vescalagin and castalagin, and revised their stereostructures based on theoretical calculations of spectroscopic data. We also determined the structures of quercusnins A and B, isolated from the sapwood of Quercus crispula, based on theoretical calculations of NMR data. The oxidation mechanism of polyphenols has not been entirely elucidated. Therefore, we have also studied the oxidation mechanism of tea catechins during black tea production. Our investigation of the oxidation mechanism of black tea pigment theaflavins revealed that the difference in the position of the galloyl ester affords different oxidation products of theaflavins. In addition, oxidation products of pyrogallol-type catechins could be classified into three types-dehydrotheasinensins, theacitrins, and proepitheaflagallins; their detailed production and degradation mechanisms were also examined.

  5. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  6. Evaluating Mechanisms of Dihydroxylation by Thin-Layer Chromatography: A Microscale Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingham, Benjamin T.; Rettig, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    A microscale experiment is presented in which cyclohexene is dihydroxylated under three sets of conditions: epoxidation-hydrolysis, permanganate oxidation, and the Woodward dihydroxylation. The products of the reactions are determined by the use of thin-layer chromatography. Teams of students are presented with proposed mechanisms for each…

  7. Characterization of some physicist, mechanics and chemistries properties in the banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Modesto Martínez Hernández

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work approaches the study of some physical-mechanical and chemical properties of the banana (Musa spp.. For its investigation, they took samples in the Municipal Company of Cultivos Varios, municipality Taguasco, provinces of Sancti-Spíritus. They were carried out rehearsals related to some physical, mechanical and chemical variables as: pH, oBrix, total regular acids, static coefficients of friction and mechanical impact damages deal with the established norms. The objective of the work it related to the evaluation of the physical – mechanical and chemical parameters of the banana (Musa spp. for a good postharvest manage. Inside the main obtained results they stand out: longitude half 20.85 cm; circumference 11.25 cm; the depth of the shell 0.25 cm; the depth of the pulp 2.85 cm. The total soluble solids (SST they oscillated between 13 and 16 oBrix; the total regular acidity oscillates between 0, 2 and 1, 6 meq/100 g malic acid. The pH oscillates between 4.42 and 5.27. The content of humidity of the pulp oscillates between 82 and 86 %; while in the shell this value oscillates between 14 and 18%. The impact rehearsals showed little resistance to impacts to the order of 105,94 (J, that which makes that the fruit is very susceptible to mechanical damages, together with their qualities of little shelf life (6 days postharvest. The results in the analyzed banana have been always using the first two hands of the cluster with a range from 1 to 9 days later in the crop of the fruits.

  8. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  9. Critical Reflections on Digital Public Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents critiques and analyses of recent work in digital public archaeology (DPA in the United Kingdom. It first locates different strands of DPA within the wider field of public archaeology, and begins to map out the diverse forms, aims and sources of DPA. Next it critically examines the models of 'communication' that are present in DPA, suggesting that greater attention should be paid to audiences in particular, and monitoring and evaluation in general. Finally the article considers the democratising effects of digital media on archaeological knowledge economies, highlighting some current and potential future areas of interest.

  10. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  11. Digital Archaeological Heritage: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith May

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 17th EAC Symposium (Europae Archaeologiae Consilium in Brighton was convened under a concept note that recognised that 'Digital technologies are developing at an unprecedented speed. As they do, they are opening up many new possibilities for the conduct and presentation of archaeological research and investigation. The digital realm is one which knows few borders and so the sharing of understanding about these new methods, techniques and possibilities across Europe is extremely valuable'. The Brighton Symposium was held over one-and-a-half days (17-18 March 2016 and consisted of three presentation sessions, followed by discussions that included questions and comments from the floor. The presentations were aimed at one of the three broad themes of the symposium although, in actuality, a number of the presenters raised topics that spanned more than one theme. This issue is the outcome of the Symposium.

  12. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  13. ADAPTATION OF N-HEPTANE AUTOIGNITION TABULATION FOR COMPLEX CHEMISTRY MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of auto-ignition tabulation for effective use of complex chemical mechanisms will be presented in this paper. Taking cool flame ignition phenomenon into account could improve numerical simulations of combustion in compression ignition engines. Current approaches of successful simulation of this phenomenon are based on the extraction of ignition delay times, heat releases and also reaction rates from tabulated data dependant on four parameters: temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and exhaust gasses mass fraction. The methods described here were used to create lookup tables including cool flame using a comprehensive chemical mechanism without including reaction rates data (as used by other authors. The method proved to be stable for creating tables and these results will be shown, as well as initial implementation results using the tables in computational fluid dynamics software.

  14. Understanding reaction mechanisms in organic chemistry from catastrophe theory applied to the electron localization function topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Victor; Andres, Juan; Berski, Slawomir; Domingo, Luis R; Silvi, Bernard

    2008-08-07

    Thom's catastrophe theory applied to the evolution of the topology of the electron localization function (ELF) gradient field constitutes a way to rationalize the reorganization of electron pairing and a powerful tool for the unambiguous determination of the molecular mechanisms of a given chemical reaction. The identification of the turning points connecting the ELF structural stability domains along the reaction pathway allows a rigorous characterization of the sequence of electron pair rearrangements taking place during a chemical transformation, such as multiple bond forming/breaking processes, ring closure processes, creation/annihilation of lone pairs, transformations of C-C multiple bonds into single ones. The reaction mechanism of some relevant organic reactions: Diels-Alder, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and Cope rearrangement are reviewed to illustrate the potential of the present approach.

  15. Mechanism and Kinetics of Nitroxide-Controlled Free Radical Polymerization (ORGANIC MATERIALS CHEMISTRY-Polymeric Materials)

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    In the nitroxide-mediated free radical polymerization, the rate of polymerization is determined by the balance of the rates of thermal initiation and bialkyl termination, just like in the conventional system, while the polydispersity is determined by the dissociation-combination frequency of the polymer-nitroxyl adduct and the rate of decomposition of the adduct. These mechanisms were quantitatively confirmed by both experiments and computer simulations.

  16. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-04-10

    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  17. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  18. Research on In-situ Combustion Chemistry Mechanism%火烧油层化学机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冠永; 刘永建; 耿志刚

    2015-01-01

    研究火烧油层化学机理,是为了改善火烧油层燃烧性能参数,而认识火烧油层技术最直接、最有效的研究手段之一是物理模拟实验,所以,借助火烧油层物理模拟实验来开展火烧油层化学机理及其改善方法研究是行之有效的。火烧油层复杂的化学机理使得火驱工艺过程的复杂性大大增加,对火烧油层化学反应的定性及定量分析是完善和发展火驱采油技术的基本途径。%In-situ combustion chemistry mechanism was studied in order to improve the combustion performance parameters of fire flooding. One of the most direct and effective research methods to understand the technology of fire flooding technology is the physical simulation experiment. The complex chemical mechanism of in-situ combustion makes the complexity of fire flooding process greatly increase. The basic way to improve and develop the technology of the fire flooding oil recovery is the qualitative and quantitative analysis of in-situ combustion chemical reaction.

  19. A Potential Mechanism for Perchlorate Formation on Mars: Surface-Radiolysis-Initiated Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is prevalent on Earth, and with observations of perchlorate on lunar samples and chondrite meteorites, along with recent observations indicating the presence of perchlorate (ClO4-) in the Martian surface by the Phoenix lander and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, it appears that the existence of perchlorate is widespread throughout the solar system. However, the abundance and isotopic composition of Martian perchlorate suggest that the perchlorate formation mechanism on Mars may involve a different path than perchlorate found elsewhere in the solar system. Motivated by this, we employ a one-dimensional chemical model to investigate the viability of perchlorate formation in the atmosphere of Mars, instigated by the radiolysis of the Martian surface by galactic cosmic rays. The surface-atmosphere interaction to produce Martian perchlorate involves the sublimation of chlorine oxides into the atmosphere, through surface radiolysis, and their subsequent synthesis to form perchloric acid (HClO4), followed by surface deposition and mineralization to form surface perchlorates. Considering the chlorine oxide, OClO, we find an OClO surface flux as low as 3.2x107 molecules cm-2 s-1, sublimated into the atmosphere from the surface could produce sufficient HClO4 to explain the perchlorate concentration on Mars, assuming an accumulation depth of 30 cm and integrated over the Amazonian period. Radiolysis provides an efficient pathway for the oxidation of chlorine, bypassing the efficient Cl/HCl recycling mechanism that characterizes HClO4 formation mechanisms proposed for the Earth but not Mars.

  20. Development and application of a chemistry mechanism for mesoscale simulations of the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, E.; Hendricks, J.; Petry, H. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    A new chemical mechanism is applied for mesoscale simulations of the impact of aircraft exhausts on the atmospheric composition. The temporal and spatial variation of the tropopause height is associated with a change of the trace gas composition in these heights. Box and three dimensional mesoscale model studies show that the conversion of aircraft exhausts depends strongly on the cruise heights as well as on the location of release in relation to the tropopause. The impact of aircraft emissions on ozone is strongly dependent on the individual meteorological situation. A rising of the tropopause height within a few days results in a strong increase of ozone caused by aircraft emissions. (author) 12 refs.

  1. Ultrasonic and mechanical behavior of green and partially sintered alumina: Effects of slurry consolidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, C.H.; Garcia, V.J.; Smith, R.M. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Roberts, R.A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Green and partially sintered compacts of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were made by filtration of aqueous suspensions under three conditions: (i) electrostatic stabilization without any organic additive, (ii) strong flocculation near the isoelectric point without any organic additive, and (iii) weak flocculation by the use of maltodextrin or oxalic acid additives. The authors evaluated relationships between the macroscopic and interparticle mechanical behavior of these compacts using model correlations with measurements of diametral compression, ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation. Although type iii green specimens were less dense than type i, type iii exhibited significant increases in velocity, macroscopic Young`s modulus, interparticle-contact stiffness, and diametral compressive strength, suggesting that the mechanism of stiffening/strengthening entailed interparticle bridging of maltodextrin or oxalic acid. These properties were significantly reduced upon heating type iii specimens to 500 C, suggesting that pyrolysis of surface-adsorbed maltodextrin and oxalic acid may have reduced the interparticle stiffness and strength. In contrast, negligible changes in these properties occurred upon heating type i specimens to the same temperature. Despite small increases in packing density, significant decreases in attenuation and significant increases in velocity, interparticle-contact stiffness, and Young`s modulus occurred upon heating all specimens to {ge}700 C, suggesting the formation of interparticle necks by solid-state sintering.

  2. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  3. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    of questions and answers in a lucid manner. It narrates the beginning of Maritime Archaeological explorations in India, starting from a modest presentation of the tools, techniques, conservation and dating methods in comparison to international scenario...

  4. Alkali-activated fly ash. Relationship between mechanical strength gains and initial ash chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated fly ash is the primary component of a new generation of high-strength, durable binders with excellent mechanical properties and durability (on occasion bettering traditional Portland cement performance. Moreover, development of these cements may contribute to mitigating CO2 emissions, since the base material is an industrial by-product. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the composition of the initial materials (SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/Al2O3 ratios on the mechanical properties, nature and composition of the reaction products. The results obtained indicate that there is no linear relationship between these ratios and mechanical strength, but rather a series of optimal values above and below which strength declines. In the specific case of the ratios studied in the present paper, these values were: SiO2/Al2O3= 4.0 and Na2O/Al2O3= 1.0 (molar ratios.Las cenizas volantes activadas alcalinamente constituyen la base de una nueva generación de cementos con muy interesantes propiedades mecánicas, adherentes y durables (a veces incluso mejores que las de los cementos Portland tradicionales. Adicionalmente el desarrollo de estos cementos podría contribuir a mitigar las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, ya que el material base de los mismos puede estar formado por subproductos industriales. En la presente investigación se realizó un estudio para determinar la influencia de la composición de los materiales iniciales (ratios SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/Al2O3 en las propiedades mecánicas y en la naturaleza y composición de los productos de reacción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no existe una relación lineal de dichas ratios con las resistencias mecánicas, sino que existen unos valores óptimos, por encima y debajo de los cuales las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. En el caso concreto de las ratios estudiadas en el presente trabajo estos valores serian: SiO2/Al2O3= 4,0 y Na2O/Al2O3= 1,0 (relaciones molares

  5. Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shizgal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...

  6. Studying at UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Frearson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ranked first in the UK for archaeology, for the fifth year in a row, in 'The Guardian' 'University Guide' League Tables, with a top score of 100/100. Ranked in the top five for student satisfaction in 'The Complete University Guide' 2016 League Table of UK archaeology departments (published in May 2015. Twitter: @UCLarchaeology Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/UCLArchaeology_

  7. EFFICIENT PREDICTIVE MODELLING FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, A.; Pavlogeorgatos, G.; Tsiafakis, D.; Pavlidis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents a general methodology for designing, developing and implementing predictive modelling for identifying areas of archaeological interest. The methodology is based on documented archaeological data and geographical factors, geospatial analysis and predictive modelling, and has been applied to the identification of possible Macedonian tombs’ locations in Northern Greece. The model was tested extensively and the results were validated using a commonly used predictive gain,...

  8. A computational chemistry investigation of the mechanism of the water-assisted decomposition of trichloroethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinqing; Yeung, Chi Shun; Ma, Jiani; Gayner, Emma R; Phillips, David Lee

    2014-03-06

    Trichloroethylene oxide is a downstream product in the oxidative metabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) and it may be involved in cytochrome P450 inactivation, protein function destruction, and nucleic acid base alkalization. To explore the hydrolysis mechanism of the decomposition of TCE oxide, an investigation using Second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory in conjunction with density functional theory has been conducted to analyze the effect of the water solvation shell on probable reaction steps. The decomposition of TCE oxide is accelerated by coordinated water molecules (up to seven), which reveals that water molecules can help to solvate the TCE oxide molecule and activate the release of the Cl(-) leaving group. After the opening of the epoxide ring, several pathways are proposed to account for the dehalogenation step along with the formation of CO as well as three carboxylic acids (formic acid, glyoxylic acid, and dichloroacetic acid). The predominant pathways were examined by comparing the computed activation energies for the formation of the products to each other for the possible reaction steps examined in this work. After rationally analyzing the computational results, the ring-opening reaction has been identified as the rate-determining step. The rate constant estimated for the TCE oxide decomposition from the calculations performed here was found to be reasonably consistent with previous experimental observations reported in the literature.

  9. Studies on Chemistry and Immuno-modulating Mechanism of a Glycoconjugate from Lycium barbarum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Xue-Mei(彭雪梅); HUANG,Lin-Juan(黄琳娟); QI,Chun-Hui(齐春会); ZHANG,Yong-Xiang(张永详); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed structure of an O-glycan derived from the fruitof Lyciun barbariun L.was elucidated based on glycosidiclinkage analysis,comnplete and partial acid hydrolysis,1H-NMR amd 13C NMR spectroscopy.According to the experi-ments,the carbohydrate was in the form of polysacchride(arabinogalactan) chains with highly branched 3,4-galactans and terminal arabinofuranosyl substituents.``The irmmmo-modulating mechanism of glycoconjugate ami its glycan were investigated using tritium thymidine lucor-poration assay,flow cytometry assay and electrophoreticalmobility shift assay (EMSA).The results suggested that theimmunoncfive components of the fruit of Lycium barbarum L.could enlance the splenocyte proliferation in normal mice andthe effects of glycan chain were stronger than those of glyco-conjugate.The target cell was most likely to be B-lympho-cyte,on which existed receptor binding site acting with theglycan.In addition,the immuno-stimulatory effect of glyco-conjugate (LbGp4) amd its glycan (LbGp4-OL) was associat ed with activating the expression of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) and activator protein 1 (AP-l).``

  10. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the offline-coupled WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  11. Making space for an archaeology of place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than attempt to write a balanced or complete overview of the application of GIS to archaeology (which would inevitably end up being didactic and uncritical this article sets out to present a discursive and contentious position with the deliberate aim of stimulating further debate about the future role of GIS within our discipline. To this end, existing applications of GIS to archaeology are reviewed, concentrating on two areas of application, predictive modelling and visibility analyses, and on their wider disciplinary context. It is argued that GIS cannot be simplistically held to have been a 'good thing' or a 'bad thing' for archaeology, but rather that these different application areas may be analysed separately and found to have quite different qualities. Although they are in no sense alternatives to one another, the areas of predictive modelling and visibility analysis can be seen to represent quite different agendas for the development of an archaeology of space and/or place. The development of correlative predictive models is considered first, both from the perspective of explanation and of cultural resource management. The arguments against predictive modelling as a means of explanation are rehearsed and it is found to be over-generalising, deterministic and de-humanised. As a consequence, it is argued that predictive modelling is now essentially detached from contemporary theoretical archaeological concerns. Moreover, it is argued to be an area with significant unresolved methodological problems and, far more seriously, that it presents very real dangers for the future representativity of archaeological records. Second, the development of GIS-based visibility analysis is reviewed. This is also found to be methodologically problematic and incomplete. However, it is argued that visibility studies — in direct contrast to predictive modelling — have remained firmly situated within contemporary theoretical debates, notably about

  12. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered.

  13. Marx, Production, Society and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lull, Vicente

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.

    La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.

  14. Teaching Experimental Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level....

  15. 40 years of medieval archaeology at Aarhus University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012......The history of medieval archaeology as a university discipline in Denmark (at Aarhus University), 1971-2012...

  16. Towards the Enhancement of "MINOR" Archaeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S.; Tremari, M.; Mandelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    The research is an analysis of the recording, reconstruction and visualisation of the 3D data of a XVIII century watermill, identified in an emergency archaeological excavation during the construction of the mini-hydroelectric plant on the bank of the Adda river in the municipality of Pizzighettone (Cremona, Lombardy, Italy). The work examines the use and the potentials of modern digital 3D modelling techniques applied to archaeological heritage aimed to increase the research, maintenance and presentation with interactive products. The use of three-dimensional models managed through AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies with mobile devices gives several opportunities in the field of study and communication. It also improves on-site exploration of the landscape, enhancing the "minor" archaeological sites, daily subjected to numerous emergency works and facilitating the understanding of heritage sites.

  17. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  18. “Neutron metallography” of archaeological bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, S.; Bartoli, L.; Kockelmann, W.; Zoppi, M.; Miccio, M.

    2004-07-01

    Following a first demonstration on the potentials of time-of-flight neutron diffraction in the microstructural characterisation of archaeological bronzes, we present here the results of a further systematic study on the topic. The experiments were performed on standardised specimens and original archaeological bronze findings at the powder diffractometer ROTAX. The possibility to achieve various metallographic data concerning alloy composition, homogeneity, dendritic structure, metal and mineral phases, as well as the effects of hardening, annealing, and re-crystallisation processes was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, we also report a texture analysis on a Roman coin, which provided a clear striking fingerprint thus demonstrating a powerful authentication method.

  19. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  20. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  1. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available to... provision of law, information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with...

  2. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not... provision of law, information concerning the nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the... archaeological resource or area about which information is sought; (ii) The purpose for which the information...

  3. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... specific archaeological resource or area about which information is sought. (2) The purpose for which the... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological...

  4. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  5. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  6. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  7. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  8. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K. B.; Wang, K.; Zheng, G. J.; Duan, F. K.; Ma, Y. L.; Kimoto, T.

    2015-02-01

    Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. As the parameterization of heterogeneous reactions on different types of particles is not well established yet, we arbitrarily selected the uptake coefficients from reactions on dust particles and then conducted several sensitivity runs to find the value that can best match observations. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  9. Probing Nucleobase Interactions and Predicting Mechanisms of Synthetic Interest Using Computational Chemistry, and Furthering the Development of BVI Education in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jason Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) and molecular docking methods are used to probe systems of biological and synthetic interest. Probing interactions of nucleobases within proteins, and properly modeling said interactions toward novel nucleobase development, is extremely difficult, and of great utility in RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics. The issues in…

  10. Digitising the Archaeological Process at the Swedish National Heritage Board: producing, managing and sharing archaeological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Larsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Archaeological Process (DAP programme was initiated by the Swedish National Heritage Board in order to create a more seamless process for storing and sharing digital information generated through archaeological surveys and excavations. The programme aims to increase the availability of digital data as well as the quality and usefulness of the information. The Cultural Environment Register is being developed, which will contain and/or link to information about where fieldwork has been done and what was found: archaeological sites, field documentation, finds, as well as the reports and publications. In addition to creating a new system for storing this information, a large amount of old digital projects previously kept by museums and archaeological contractors is being collected to be made publicly available. Our goal is to make heritage management more efficient, and in the process the information will also become more useful to researchers, museums and the general public.

  11. Crowd-sourcing archaeological research: HeritageTogether digital public archaeology in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists are increasingly working with crowd-sourced digital data. Using evidence from other disciplines about the nature of crowd-sourcing in academic research, we suggest that archaeological projects using donated data can usefully be differentiated between generative projects (which rely on data collected by citizen scientists, and analytical projects (which make use of volunteers to classify, or otherwise analyse data that are provided by the project. We conclude that projects which privilege hyper-local research (such as surveying specific sites might experience tension if the audience they are appealing to are 'cyber local'. In turn, for more 'traditional' archaeological audiences (when the primary motivating interests may be the tangible, physical nature of portable material culture or the archaeological site itself, then intangible, digital simulacra may not provide an effective medium through which to undertake digital public archaeology.

  12. Quantum-chemistry based calibration of the alkali metal cation series (Li(+)-Cs(+)) for large-scale polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudev, Todor; Devereux, Mike; Meuwly, Markus; Lim, Carmay; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Gresh, Nohad

    2015-02-15

    The alkali metal cations in the series Li(+)-Cs(+) act as major partners in a diversity of biological processes and in bioinorganic chemistry. In this article, we present the results of their calibration in the context of the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics/dynamics procedure. It relies on quantum-chemistry (QC) energy-decomposition analyses of their monoligated complexes with representative O-, N-, S-, and Se- ligands, performed with the aug-cc-pVTZ(-f) basis set at the Hartree-Fock level. Close agreement with QC is obtained for each individual contribution, even though the calibration involves only a limited set of cation-specific parameters. This agreement is preserved in tests on polyligated complexes with four and six O- ligands, water and formamide, indicating the transferability of the procedure. Preliminary extensions to density functional theory calculations are reported.

  13. Concerning the work of the II international field archaeological school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitdikov Ayrat G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The II international field archaeological school was held in Bolgar, 17-30 August, 2015. Basic theoretical lectures were included into syllabus, as well as methodical studies and work of such scientific sections as: History of ancient metallurgy and metal processing; Palaeoanthropology; Archeobiological methods in archaeology; Techniques of field conservation and restoration; Geoinformational systems in archaeology; History of ancient ceramics; Experimental and traseology study of ancient tools; Archaeological glass. The Bolgar school is an example of organisation an academic educational centre which is focused on practical acquisition of contemporary techniques of complex archaeological monuments’ study with wide usage of experimental research methods.

  14. Experimental Archaeology and the Denticulate Mousterian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Arnold

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available The following· essay is a summary of preliminary experimental work carried out in connection with my doctoral research on the nature of the Denticulate Mousterian facies, which was presented to the postgraduate seminar of the Institute of Archaeology, UCL on October 24th 1990.

  15. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  16. Interactions In Space For Archaeological Models

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, T S; Knappett, C

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine a variety of quantitative models for describing archaeological networks, with particular emphasis on the maritime networks of the Aegean Middle Bronze Age. In particular, we discriminate between those gravitational networks that are most likely (maximum entropy) and most efficient (best cost/benefit outcomes).

  17. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  18. What Kind of Archaeology do We Need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available From the time of the constitution of archaeology as an academic discipline to the present, two radical changes have taken place of theoretical postulates, aims, methods, relationships with other disciplines. However, potentially farreaching consequences of these fundamental changes have not had the same impact in all the academic communities. The critical assessment of the epistemological foundations of archaeology in Serbia indicates that our professional community has remained resistant to the large extent to the paradigm changes in the wider disciplinary surrounding, so the culture-historical approach still prevails, even though it was severely criticized as early as by the middle of the 20th century. Facing this significant delay raises many important questions, starting by the issue of selection among various, sometimes mutually conflicting theoretical approaches, being a part of archaeological research for several decades and implying certain consequences in terms of methodological aspects of the discipline. Partial, non-critical and insufficiently theoretically informed borrowing of individual elements of research may lead to equally bad results as the total rejection of influences from other archaeological environments. It is therefore necessary to bring into the discipline the comprehension of the social responsibility of archaeologists, the importance of the academic narratives we produce and the ways of their creation.

  19. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  20. Archaeological Investigations at Tarague Beach, Guam,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    parallel rows. There is considerable variation in size and height of such structures; some are clearly of megalithic proportions while others may be...Engineer Division, Pacific Ocean, Fort Shafter, Hawaii. J. Stephen Athens, archaeological consultant, Honolulu, Hawaii. Craib, John L. n.d. Megaliths as

  1. Editorial: Portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the archaeological sector. Perhaps the most successful and best known of these is the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS, active across England and Wales. Add to this mix those that provide the commercial demand for metal-detected finds, the dealers and private collectors, and a clash of interests and motivations seems inevitable. Most would hope that relationships, positive in many cases but also problematic, will improve, both in the interests of enhancing the recording of non-stratified finds, and of promoting a publicly accessible and inclusive archaeology. However, is this an inevitable progression, or ultimately unachievable?

  2. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  3. The fifth issue of Archaeology International

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Harris

    2001-01-01

    With the appearance of this issue, Archaeology International (AI) reaches its fifth birthday. Since it was launched, as a successor to the former Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Institute, my aim each year has been to feature short articles on current research by Institute staff and research students, and to supplement them with summary information about other research-related matters.

  4. Authority and the production of archaeological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Ćosić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of archaeology is founded upon the interaction of various practices, in the network of individuals and institutions, jointly shaping and formulating the explanations of the past. The registered sites and material remains represent the places where undefined layers and physical structures are converted from heaps of dirt and discarded material into the knowledge of the past. From the perspective of production of knowledge and construction of facts about the times past, the archaeological excavations are not only a process of research. The production of archaeological knowledge, in the field and beyond, always takes place under specific circumstances, including not only the relations among professionals and institutions, but also the relations between material remains and the individuals “discovering” them and translating them into interpretations. Metaphorically speaking, in the complex relationship between archaeologists and material culture, an individual in the process of creating the knowledge of an object creates his/her own professional identity, while an object creates an archaeologist in the process of identification. The final outcome presents a chosen and formulated explanation about the past, stemming from a specific logic of disciplinary practice. However, the question arises: what or who decides which interpretations are more valid than the others, and who is in the position to declare an authentic interpretation of the excavated material. Thus the discussion enters the field of problematizing the concept of authority and its role in the production of archaeological knowledge. The analyses show that authority should not be understood as a definite source, periodically appearing and disappearing, but rather as an achievement of social and cultural interactions and changes. The theoretical grounds for the research of authority is formulated based upon Foucault’s interpretation of relation between power and

  5. Social Archaeological Approaches in Port and Harbour Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of the Journal of Maritime Archaeology offers a comparative perspective on the theme of archaeological theory and social archaeological approaches to ports and harbours. As a specialist in Roman archaeology I was keen to explore the way in which specialists in other areas of archaeology approached the archaeology of ports and harbours and whether different approaches and perspectives may be able to add nuances to the way in which material is interpreted. The volume brings together a collection of exciting new studies which explore social themes in port and harbour studies with the intention to encourage debate and the use of new interpretative perspectives. This article examines a number of interpretative themes including those relating to architectural analyse, human behaviour, action and experience and artefact analysis. These themes help us to move towards a more theoretically informed ports and harbour archaeology which focuses on meaning as well as description. The emphasis on theory within archaeology allows us to be more ambitious in our interpretative frameworks including in Roman archaeology which has not tended to embrace the theoretical aspects of the archaeological discipline with as much enthusiasm as some other areas of archaeology.

  6. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  7. Archaeologic analogues: Microstructural changes by natural ageing in carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Esther Bravo [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, Jorge Chamon [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Arasanz, Javier Guzman [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Peces, Raquel Arevalo [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Criado, Antonio Javier [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dietz, Christian [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, Juan Antonio [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Criado Portal, Antonio Jose [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antoniocriado@quim.ucm.es

    2006-02-15

    When discussing the container material for highly active radionuclear waste, carbon steel is one of the materials most frequently proposed by the international scientific community. Evidently, security with respect to the container behaviour into deep geological deposits is fundamental. Among other parameters, knowledge about material mechanical properties is essential when designing the container. Time ageing of carbon steel, apart from possible alterations of the chemical composition (e.g. corrosion) involves important microstructural changes, at the scale of centuries and millenniums. The latter may cause variations of the mechanical properties of carbon steel storage containers, with the corresponding risk of possible leakage. In order to properly estimate such risk and to adjust the corresponding mathematical models to reality, the microstructural changes observed in this study on archaeologic samples are evaluated, comparing ancient and modern steels of similar chemical composition and fabrication processes.

  8. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  9. Design, synthesis and bioactivity of novel ALS enzyme inhibitors (II)——Molecular mechanics, quantum chemistry and structure-activity relationship studies on the herbicidal heterocyclic sulfonamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆荣健; 杨华铮; 尚贞锋; 汪惟为; 潘荫明; 赵学庄

    1996-01-01

    In view of quantum pharmacology, the structure-activity relationships of different kinds of fused heterocydic sulfonamides with the same mode of action were first investigated using molecular mechanics, quantum chemistry and discriminatory analysis. It has been found that the process of the interaction of the fused heterocydic sulfonamide with ALS enzyme involves the electropositive region of the sulfonyl bridge chain and the electronegative region of the heterocydic moiety. The herbicidal activity is related to the potency of electric charge translocation of the related regions.

  10. Encyclopaedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan:conceptual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullin Khalim M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and methodological problems of creation the glossary for the preparation of encyclopedic dictionary, which is related to the Republic of Tatarstan archaeology are considered in this article. It is noticed that creation of such generalizing editions determines a new important stage of science and its theoretic and methodological basis development. Encyclopedias and dictionaries are the terminological thesaurus and functioning as a source of norms. They are forming the uniform, unifying and conventional approach to archaeological definitions and their content. They are also able to provide an insight into the basic archaeological concepts in the accessible form, to give the characteristic to archaeological monuments on Republic territory, to acquaint with archaeologists, who has ever worked on territory of Tatarstan, to present the last archaeological discoveries, and to popularize achievements of the Kazan Archaeology school. The complete information about archaeology in Republic is supposed to be included in the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan (the special attention will be focused on the conceptual system of archaeology, monuments and antiquity subjects, about objects and monuments of historic and archaeological heritage, as well as biographic data of all archaeologists who has ever worked in Tatarstan and information about all organizations related to archaeology in region. There are all preconditions to claim that the considerable source study and theoretical base for creation of the encyclopedic dictionary on archaeology of Tatarstan is created. It is gathered the significant experience on complex studying and generalization of considerable volume of a material which is referring to an ancient and medieval history of region and on research and ordering of archaeological monuments. It is suggested that at the first investigation phase will be created a glossary and after that the collective of authors can pass

  11. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  12. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  13. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  14. Biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  15. Heterocyclic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds is presented\\ud 2010 offered highlights in pericyclic chemistry, particularly 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry, asymmetric synthesis, gold catalysis, organocatalysis, hydroamination, C–H activation and multicomponent reactions.

  16. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  17. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  18. Archaeology of Architecture and Archaeology of houses in Early Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe» dossier, the object of which is to explore the different approaches, methodologies and themes analysed in the study of early medieval architecture in western Europe. More specifically, in what follows, analysis is undertaken of the contexts which explain the recent development of studies on this topic, as well as the main contributions of the seven papers which form this dossier. In addition, the main historical and archaeological problems raised by the analysis of this material record are also discussed.En este trabajo se presenta el dossier «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe», que pretende explorar los distintos enfoques, metodologías y temáticas analizadas en el estudio de las arquitecturas altomedievales en el marco de Europa occidental. Más concretamente se analizan los contextos que explican el desarrollo reciente de los estudios sobre esta materia, las principales aportaciones de los siete trabajos que conforman este dossier y se discuten los principales problemas históricos y arqueológicos que plantea el análisis de este registro material.

  19. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  20. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  1. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  2. Quantitative paleoparasitology applied to archaeological sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín H Fugassa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three techniques to extract parasite remains from archaeological sediments were tested. The aim was to improve the sensibility of recommended paleoparasitological techniques applied in archaeological remains. Sediment collected from the pelvic girdle of a human body found in Cabo Vírgenes, Santa Cruz, Argentina, associated to a Spanish settlement founded in 1584 known as Nombre de Jesús, was used to search for parasites. Sediment close to the skull was used as control. The techniques recommended by Jones, Reinhard, and Dittmar and Teejen were used and compared with the modified technique presented here, developed to improve the sensibility to detect parasite remains. Positive results were obtained only with the modified technique, resulting in the finding of Trichuris trichiura eggs in the sediment.

  3. Presentation of Archaeoastronomy in Introductions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Victor B.

    In order to gain insights into how archaeoastronomy is presented (if at all) in introductory archaeology courses at universities, a study of introductory textbooks was undertaken in 2004 and again in 2012. In both instances the results were mixed. The quality of future coverage and the reputation of archaeoastronomy may depend upon archaeoastronomers' ability to confine themselves to good exemplars in the next editions of their books.

  4. Alternative Archaeological Representations within Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jonathan C.; Ryan, Nick S.

    1997-01-01

    Traditional VR methods allow the user to tour and view the virtual world from different perspectives. Increasingly, more interactive and adaptive worlds are being generated, potentially allowing the user to interact with and affect objects in the virtual world. We describe and compare four models of operation that allow the publisher to generate views, with the client manipulating and affecting specific objects in the world. We demonstrate these approaches through a problem in archaeological ...

  5. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  6. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  7. From Web to Grid, a new perspective for archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Pelfer, Pier Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in Archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualisation. In the last years the amount of information coming from remote sensing. from precise and fast acquisition of 3-D artefacts images by scanners laser, from GPS precise reference of geographical points and from other human and natural sciences are increasing at a large extent the amount of data that it need to be stored and made available for analysis. Moreover the use of Virtual Archaeology as a new approach to the narration and visualisation in Archaeology, is expanding rapidly, not only in the museum and archaeology professions, but also in the broadcast media, tourism and heritage industries. From another side recent natural and social disasters (wars) created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively any information about ancient civilisations. It is urgent a longterm project for saving archaeological...

  8. Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeology at Beedings, West Sussex: new contexts for Pleistocene archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pope

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The site of Beedings in Sussex was first recognized as the source of some exceptional Upper Palaeolithic flintwork in 1900, but subsequently disappeared from the archaeological literature. In the 1980s it was recognized again, but it was not until 2007–8 that in situ Palaeolithic archaeology was found at the site. In this article, the director of the excavations describes the discovery, within a network of geological fissures, of two separate industries, one Middle Palaeolithic and the other Early Upper Palaeolithic. The archaeology at Beedings spans a crucial cultural transition in the European Palaeolithic and therefore provides an important new dataset for the analysis of late Neanderthal groups in northern Europe and their replacement by modern human populations.

  9. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  10. Design of a modular autonomous underwater vehicle for archaeological investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Reggiannini, Marco; Pascali, Maria Antonietta; Moroni, Davide; Salvetti, Ovidio; Allotta,Benedetto; Bartolini, Fabio; Bellavia, Fabio; Colombo, Carlo; Conti, Roberto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Fanfani, Marco; Gelli, Jonathan; Monni, Niccol?; Natalini, Marco; Pazzaglia, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    MARTA (MARine Tool for Archaeology) is a modular AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) designed and developed by the University of Florence in the framework of the ARROWS (ARchaeological RObot systems for the World's Seas) FP7 European project. The ARROWS project challenge is to provide the underwater archaeologists with technological tools for cost affordable campaigns: i.e. ARROWS adapts and develops low cost AUV technologies to significantly reduce the cost of archaeological operations, cove...

  11. The Application of SCC-DV-Xα Computational Method of Quantum Chemistry in Cement Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been explored why quantum chemistry is applied to the research field of cement chemistry. The fundamental theory of SCC-DV-Xα computational method of quantum chemistry is synopsized. The results obtained by computational quantum chemistry method in recent years of valence-bond structures and hydration activity of some cement clinker minerals, mechanical strength and stabilization of some hydrates are summarized and evaluated. Finally the prospects of the future application of quantum chemistry to cement chemistry are depicted.

  12. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  13. Unbiased Cultural Transmission in Time-Averaged Archaeological Assemblages

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Unbiased models are foundational in the archaeological study of cultural transmission. Applications have as- sumed that archaeological data represent synchronic samples, despite the accretional nature of the archaeological record. I document the circumstances under which time-averaging alters the distribution of model predictions. Richness is inflated in long-duration assemblages, and evenness is "flattened" compared to unaveraged samples. Tests of neutrality, employed to differentiate biased and unbiased models, suffer serious problems with Type I error under time-averaging. Finally, the time-scale over which time-averaging alters predictions is determined by the mean trait lifetime, providing a way to evaluate the impact of these effects upon archaeological samples.

  14. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  15. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  16. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  17. 77 FR 46120 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-1100-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... objects in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University... Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA...

  18. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  19. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  20. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  1. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  2. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  3. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  4. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  5. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  6. Archaeology of childhood: an ethnoarchaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politis, Gustavo G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The material production of children has not usually been considered in the analysis of the hunter-gatherer archaeological record. However, ethnographic data shows that children are significant producers of material culture, especially in residential camps. In this paper, information about the activity of children among the Nukak from the Colombian Amazon, is summarized. Based on this, and on data from other hunter-gatherers, archaeological expectations are generated and compared with the archaeological record of the Pampean Region of Argentina. A methodology for the identification of children's activity is proposed as a first step towards the discussion of diversity in the agency of social actors in past societies.

    La producción material de los niños no ha sido habitualmente considerada en el análisis del registro arqueológico de los cazadores-recolectores, a pesar de que los datos etnográficos muestran que los niños son generadores importantes de cultura material, especialmente en los campamentos residenciales. En este trabajo se resume la información obtenida entre el grupo indígena Nukak, de la Amazonia colombiana, respecto a la participación infantil en la producción de objetos. A partir de esto, y de información de otros grupos cazadores-recolectores, se derivan expectativas arqueológicas que se confrontan con los materiales de los sitios arqueológicos de la región Pampeana de Argentina. Se propone una metodología para la identificación de la actividad infantil en los contextos arqueológicos, como un primer paso para discutir la agencia de actores sociales diversos en las sociedades del pasado.

  7. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: vora@nio.org Abstract During the late... Coastal areas of the continents have been the focal points of the emergence of the civilization. For in- stance, the Indian Ocean witnessed the rise of 3 major the Bronze Age Civilizations around it during the mid- Holocene period. Ocean has played...

  8. Asteroseismology for Galactic archaeology: bridging two fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luca; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of field stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. An overview of the ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is presented, along with recent results using asteroseismology to investigate the vertical age structure of the Milky Way disc.

  9. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood...... task to produce data representative for the actual precorroded objects. However, in an attempt to characterise the corrosivity of the present environment electrochemical soil corrosion probes with carbon steel electrodes have been buried at 1-m depth. Results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  10. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  11. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  12. The Politics and Practice of Archaeology in Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, van der S.J.; Perring, D.

    2010-01-01

    This introductory paper reviews recent writings on archaeology and conflict, setting the other contributions to this volume into context. We draw attention to the political nature of archaeological work, and to the problems of reconciling professional interest in the protection and management of cul

  13. Mexican Underwater Archaeology and Some of its Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Luna Erreguerena

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Carver’s lead article, I’d like to highlight an easily overlooked aspect of archaeology: underwater archaeology. I will offer some examples and experiences from Mexico, which will perhaps resonate in other cities and nations around the world with a rich underwater cultural heritage.

  14. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  15. Environmental archaeology at the Institute: the early years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Sheldon

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998/99 issue of Archaeology International, Geoffrey Dimbleby reflected on the period, from 1964 to 1979, when he was head of the Institute's former Department of Human Environment. Here Joan Sheldon (Fig. 1, who joined the Institute in 1948 as assistant to Frederick Zeuner, recalls how environmental archaeology developed during her 35 years on the staff.

  16. Archaeology and Memory. Former WWII Camps in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Ooijen, van I.M.A.

    The archaeology of 20th-century war, terror and conflict is a growing field of research. The archaeological research of ‘terrorscapes’ often overlaps with personal and collective memories. Besides memory, the heritage of the camps has been dominated in the last decades by historical research. What t

  17. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  18. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  19. Mechanism of Magnetostructural Transitions in Copper-Nitroxide-Based Switchable Molecular Magnets: Insights from ab Initio Quantum Chemistry Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julie; Guennic, Boris Le; Fedin, Matvey V; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Calzado, Carmen J

    2015-07-20

    The gradual magnetostructural transition in breathing crystals based on copper(II) and pyrazolyl-substituted nitronyl nitroxides has been analyzed by means of DDCI quantum chemistry calculations. The magnetic coupling constants (J) within the spin triads of Cu(hfac)2L(Bu)·0.5C8H18 have been evaluated for the X-ray structures reported at different temperatures. The coupling is strongly antiferromagnetic at low temperature and becomes ferromagnetic when the temperature increases. The intercluster magnetic coupling (J') is antiferromagnetic and shows a marked dependence on temperature. The magnetostructural transition can be reproduced using the calculated J values for each structure in the simulation of the magnetic susceptibility. However, the μ(T) curve can be improved nicely by considering the coexistence of two phases in the transition region, whose ratio varies with temperature corresponding to both the weakly and strongly coupled spin states. These results complement a recent VT-FTIR study on the parent Cu(hfac)2L(Pr) compound with a gradual magnetostructural transition.

  20. Starry Messages: Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatu...

  1. Connection of Geodesy and Archaeology in Modern Geovisualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poslončec-Petrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One type of thematic maps is also the map of archeological sites. In order to obtain high-quality cartographic presentation on thematic maps of archaeological sites, a cartographer must know the basic terms and classification of archaeology. The paper presents a few existing archaeological maps (static and interactive and there is also the interactive map of archaeological sites on the island Pag presented. The map has been made within the frame of the diploma thesis by a student Martina Triplat, and the data presented are the result of research made at the archaeological sites of the island Pag and of the geodetic works made at the excavation sites in Uvala Vlaška, the locality Blato and at the economic objects in the vicinity of the locality Blato.

  2. Virtual Diving in the Underwater Archaeological Site of Cala Minnola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F.; Lagudi, A.; Barbieri, L.; Muzzupappa, M.; Mangeruga, M.; Pupo, F.; Cozza, M.; Cozza, A.; Ritacco, G.; Peluso, R.; Tusa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the technologies and methods defined in the VISAS project for the case study of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola located in the island of Levanzo, in the archipelago of the Aegadian Islands (Sicily, Italy). The VISAS project (http://visas-project.eu) aims to improve the responsible and sustainable exploitation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage by means the development of new methods and technologies including an innovative virtual tour of the submerged archaeological sites. In particular, the paper describes the 3D reconstruction of the underwater archaeological site of Cala Minnola and focus on the development of the virtual scene for its visualization and exploitation. The virtual dive of the underwater archaeological site allows users to live a recreational and educational experience by receiving historical, archaeological and biological information about the submerged exhibits, the flora and fauna of the place.

  3. The Archaeologist Undeceived: Selecting Quality Archaeological Information from the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of unreliable information and actual misinformation available via the Internet makes its use problematic for academic purposes, particularly for data-intensive disciplines such as archaeology. Whilst there are many sources for reviews of websites, few apply the type of criteria most appropriate to archaeology. Information and library professionals have developed sets of criteria that can be adapted for the evaluation of archaeological websites. An evaluative tool for archaeological websites, using al-ready-available criteria, was developed and tested on twenty archaeological web sites. It proved capable of allowing its user to make clear distinctions between sites on the basis of quality. Further refining of the evaluative tool is possible on the basis of testing by both archaeologists and information professionals.

  4. Surface chemistry in the interstellar medium - I - H2 formation by Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Bourlot, Jacques Le; Pinto, Cecilia; Roueff, Evelyne; Roy, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    H2 formation remains a major issue for the understanding of interstellar physics. We investigate H2 formation in the interstellar medium at the light of the most recent experimental and theoretical data. We implemented detailed H2 formation mechanisms on grains surface in the Meudon PDR code : i) Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism taking into account the contribution of the different sizes of dust grains in the diffusion processes and ii) the Eley-Rideal mechanism. We show that, thanks to these processes, H2 can be formed even in regions where dust temperature is larger than 25 K. We also show that formation by Eley-Rideal mechanism can be a significant source of heating of the gas. We derive line intensities for various astrophysical conditions. Such an approach results in an enhanced H2 formation rate compared to the standard formation determined by observations in absorption in the UV. We derive some H2 line intensities for isobaric and isochoric models.

  5. Review of Ramsey Abbey - An Archaeological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaffney

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The CD is designed to be read using most standard web browsers and is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. Occasionally in order to view a diagram you are transported into Adobe Acrobat, a copy of which is on the CD. The CD is the culmination of a community based project based on the medieval abbey at Ramsey in Cambridgeshire, England. According to the sleeve of the CD the project was paid for by a Royal Society and British Association Millennium Award, which was funded by the Millennium Commission to 'encourage people's understanding of science, engineering and technology in the community'. The science in question largely involves the small-scale, perhaps even surgical, use of resistance, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The project, however, had a more interesting agenda, one that involves the testing of an archaeological problem. In short, the Archaeological Field Unit (AFU of Cambridgeshire County Council found that there were competing hypotheses concerning the location of the former church on the now-ruined abbey site. The CD pieces together the evidence for the church, collected with the help of the children at the school that now occupies the site. The CD can be seen as part of the remit to reach the wider community that also involved open days, seminars and a web site.

  6. Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Heard, Dwayne E; Hood, Christina; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Lee, James; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Whalley, Lisa K

    2016-07-18

    Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health in Europe. Understanding the key processes driving air quality across the relevant spatial scales, especially during pollution exceedances and episodes, is essential to provide effective predictions for both policymakers and the public. It is particularly important for policy regulators to understand the drivers of local air quality that can be regulated by national policies versus the contribution from regional pollution transported from mainland Europe or elsewhere. One of the main objectives of the Coupled Urban and Regional processes: Effects on AIR quality (CUREAIR) project is to determine local and regional contributions to ozone events. A detailed zero-dimensional (0-D) box model run with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) is used as the benchmark model against which the less explicit chemistry mechanisms of the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and the Common Representative Intermediates (CRIv2-R5) schemes are evaluated. GRS and CRI are used by the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) and the regional chemistry transport model EMEP4UK, respectively. The MCM model uses a near-explicit chemical scheme for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is constrained to observations of VOCs, NOx, CO, HONO (nitrous acid), photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters measured during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. The sensitivity of the less explicit chemistry schemes to different model inputs has been investigated: Constraining GRS to the total VOC observed during ClearfLo as opposed to VOC derived from ADMS-Urban dispersion calculations, including emissions and background concentrations, led to a significant increase (674% during winter) in modelled ozone. The inclusion of HONO chemistry in this mechanism, particularly during wintertime when other radical sources are limited, led to substantial increases in the ozone levels predicted

  7. Politics and the World Archaeological Congress [-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao, Nandini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The recognition in the West that every discipline is influenced by its socio-political context led to the demand for reflexive archaeology and to the formation in 1986, by the 'politically aware', of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC. WAC explicitly recognises the socio-political context of archaeological practice, and archaelogy's political, social and academic responsibilities. The Congress, which meets every four years, met in India in December 1994. Indian archaeologists have largely denied the influence of socio-political contexts on academics. But this has not prevented some from (misusing archaeological evidence to further political ends with catastrophic results. No discussion on the issue was permitted at the Congress so that eight years after it was formed. the WAC compromised and suppressed free debate on a vital matter. This essay outlines the genesis of WAC and the reasons why it was formed, before analysing the Indian context of the third meeting of the Congress. It also examines the response of Indian archaeologists at WAC to the protest against such political abuse of archaeology and calls for a reflection on whether WAC has achieved its objective of becoming a relevant world organisation.

    El reconocimiento en Occidente de que cada disciplina está influida por su contexto socio-político llevó a la reivindicación de una arqueología reflexiva y a la formación en 1986, por los arqueólogos ”políticamente conscientes”, del Congreso Arqueológico Mundial (WAC. El WAC reconoce explícitamente el contexto sociopolítico de la práctica arqueológica y las responsabilidades políticas, sociales y académicas de la arqueología. El Congreso, que se celebra cada cuatro años, tuvo lugar en India en diciembre de 1994. Los arqueólogos indios han negado durante mucho tiempo la influencia de los contextos socio-políticos sobre los investigadores. Pero ello no ha impedido que algunos de ellos hayan utilizado de

  8. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  9. Resin Systems and Chemistry-Degradation Mechanisms and Durability in Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    In choosing a polymer-matrix composite material for a particular application, a number of factors need to be weighed. Among these are mechanical requirements, fabrication method (e.g. press-molding, resin infusion, filament winding, tape layup), and use conditions. Primary among the environmental exposures encountered in aerospace structures are moisture and elevated temperatures, but certain applications may require resistance to other fluids and solvents, alkaline agents, thermal cycling, radiation, or rapid, localized heating (for example, lightning strike). In this chapter, the main classes of polymer resin systems found in aerospace composites will be discussed. Within each class, their responses to environmental factors and the associated degradation mechanisms will be reviewed.

  10. Integrating Statistical Mechanics with Experimental Data from the Rotational-Vibrational Spectrum of HCl into the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Bret R.; Mylon, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a computer exercise that bridges spectroscopy and thermodynamics using statistical mechanics and the experimental data taken from the commonly used laboratory exercise involving the rotational-vibrational spectrum of HCl. Based on the results from the analysis of their HCl spectrum, students calculate bulk thermodynamic properties…

  11. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  12. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  13. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  14. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  15. Contribution of archaeological analogs to the estimation of average corrosion rates and long term corrosion mechanisms of low carbon steel in soil; Apport des analogues archeologiques a l'estimation des vitesses moyennes et a l'etude des mecanismes de corrosion a tres long terme des aciers non allies dans les sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, D

    2003-11-15

    In the context of the French nuclear waste storage, a multi-barriers disposal is envisaged. Wastes could be put in metallic overpacks disposed in a clay soil. As these overpacks could be made of low carbon steel, it is important to understand the corrosion behaviour of this material in soil during period of several centuries. Indeed, it is necessary to consolidate the empirical data by a phenomenological approach. This includes laboratory experiments and modelling of the phenomenon which have to be validated and completed by the study of archaeological artefacts. This was the aim of this PhD-work. To this purpose, an analytical protocol has been elaborated: about forty archaeological artefacts coming from five dated sites (2. to 16. centuries) have been studied on cross section in order to observe on the same sample all the constituents of the system: metallic substrate/corrosion products/environment. The corrosion products are divided into two zones: the Dense Product Layer (DPL) in contact with the metal, and the Transformed Medium (TM) which are the corrosion products formed around soil minerals (quartz grains). The metallic substrate has been studied by the classical methods of materials science (optical and scanning electron microscope, energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies). It has been verified that despite their heterogeneity of structure and composition, they are all hypo-eutectoids steels that can contain phosphorous until 0.5 wt%. The corrosion products have been analysed by local structural analytical methods as micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation ({mu}XRD) and Raman micro-spectroscopy. These two complementary techniques and also the elemental composition analysis conducted to the characterisation of the corrosion forms. On the majority of the samples coming from four sites, the DPL are constituted by goethite including marbles of magnetite/maghemite. On the artefacts from the fifth site, a particular corrosion form has been

  16. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  18. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  19. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  20. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  1. Distant Neighbours: Different Visions about Mexican Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez Gastélum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Mexican archaeology experienced a major transformation due to the enactment of a Federal Law about archaeological, artistic, and historical monuments and zones, which changed the Mexican Government’s administration of Mexican archaeological heritage. In 1972, in West Mexico, an active group of archaeologists from the U.S.A. was working. They came from several universities and were also members of an academic association, the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, that was based in Ajijic, Mexico, and comprised both U.S. and Mexican archaeologists. This group wrote to the government about their views of the new laws, and the government department concerned with their implementation, the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH – Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, then responded with the Mexican Government’s official standpoint. In this paper, we analyze the positions of the West Mexican Society for Advanced Study, and INAH. We observe the sociopolitical and academic contexts from both U.S. and Mexican perspectives, and we offer explanations about their opposing views. We consider this episode to be a manifestation of the ideas circulating between U.S. and Mexican archaeologies.En 1972 la arqueología mexicana tuvo un cambio radical. En ese año fue promulgada la Ley Federal de Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicos, Artísticos e Históricos. Esta ley cambió la manera en que el gobierno mexicano administraba el patrimonio arqueológico nacional. En dicho año, en el occidente de México, estuvo trabajando un grupo muy activo de arqueólogos estadounidenses, que si bien procedían de diversas universidades, también fueron miembros de una institución académica. La Sociedad de Estudios Avanzados del Occidente de México, con sede en Ajijic, México, reunió tanto a arquéologos estadounidenses como mexicanos. Los primeros escribieron un documento que contenía sus opiniones sobre la nueva ley y lo

  2. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATION OF A DEFUNCT IRAQI TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šedina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  3. Marine Robots : Applications in Marine Archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.K.; Pascoal, A.; Gaur, A.

    stream_size 15055 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Marit_Archaeol_India_2015_226a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Marit_Archaeol_India_2015_226a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Citation: Recent Researches on Indus Civilization & Maritime Archaeology in India. ed by: Gaur, A.S.;  Sundaresh,; Agam Kala Prakashan, New Delhi; 2015; 226‐229    Marine robots: Applications in marine archeology  Pramod...

  4. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  5. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in South American Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, U.; Haeusler, W.; Wagner, F. E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany); Shimada, I. [Southern Illinois University, Institute of Anthropology (United States)

    2003-06-15

    We report on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of early pottery finds from the Poma Archaeological Reserve, North Coast of Peru. The material is from a Formative kiln site at Batan Grande (1000-800 BC) and a ceramics workshop at Huaca Sialupe pertaining to the Middle Sican period (900-1100 AD). Moessbauer spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, optical thin-section microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the material. Numerous sherds of Sican black- and redware, bricks, moulds and kiln linings were studied. Local clay from the kiln site at Batan Grande, lumps of clay, and unfired sherds from Huaca Sialupe were used as model material for firing experiments under controlled conditions. By comparing the Moessbauer spectra from laboratory and field firings with the ancient materials, methods of early pottery making can be assessed.

  6. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  7. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  8. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  9. Influence of nanometer scale film structure of ZDDP tribofilm on Its mechanical properties: A computational chemistry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Tasuku; Kuriaki, Takanori; Morita, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ai; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Kubo, Momoji; Minfray, Clotilde; Martin, Jean-Michel; Miyamoto, Akira

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the influence of a nanometer scale film structure of a tribofilm generated from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive on its mechanical properties using a combined molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) method. The frictional behavior of an interface between a native iron oxide layer on steel surface and zinc metaphosphate - regarded as a model material of ZDDP tribofilm - was firstly studied using the MD method. The results showed that the iron atoms in the oxide layer diffused into the phosphate layer during the friction process. The zinc atoms in the phosphate layer also diffused into the oxide layer. Significant interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms was observed with increasing simulation time. Thus, metallic phosphate with a gradient composition of iron and zinc atoms was formed on the phosphate/oxide interface. We then constructed an axisymmetric nanoindentation simulation model from the MD-derived structures at a certain simulation time and carried out a FE calculation. As a result, we found that the rubbed ZDDP tribofilm, including the phosphate with the gradient composition of metallic atoms, showed larger contact stiffness and hardness. The combined MD/FE simulation indicates that the tribofilm becomes stiffer and harder due to the interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms on the tribofilm/oxide interface. We have found that the gradient composition formation in ZDDP tribofilm during friction process influences on its mechanical properties.

  10. Structure, spectra, and rearrangement mechanism of PH2F3: revisiting a classic problem in structural inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, Sébastien; Strich, Alain; Perera, S Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2007-03-22

    The structure, spectra, and rearrangement mechanisms of PH2F3, the first member of the PHnF5-n series and a prototype for molecules that undergo rotational isomerism, have been studied. Aided by the tools developed to compute coupled-cluster (CC) Raman intensities and NMR spin-spin couplings, a full spectroscopic characterization of PH2F3 is presented. Moreover, the structures and the energetics of the various stereoisomers are computed at the CC level (CCSD(T)) to assess the validity of proposed rearrangement mechanisms. While corroborating prior experimental IR and NMR assignments, the results are also able to remedy the "speculative" Raman and NMR assignments that lacked reliable computed values when the experiments were done. More importantly, the results identify "spectral fingerprints" that could distinguish various rotational isomers. These data, when used concurrently along with high resolution measurements, form a powerful basis for the characterization of various rotational isomers of PH2F3. A "new" stability diagram and a rearrangement path based on the computed energetic and structure data are obtained. That is far superior to what has been available in the literature.

  11. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  12. Effect of Y220C mutation on p53 and its rescue mechanism: a computer chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Shah Md Abdur; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Miyamoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Mutation causes inactivation of 'p53' tumor suppressor protein in almost fifty percent of cancers in humans. Outside the DNA-binding surface of p53, Y220C is the most common cancerous mutation. Previous studies have shown that a surface cavity is created by this mutation which destabilizes p53. PhiKan083, a carbazole derivative capable of binding with that cavity, and slows down its thermal denaturation rate. We investigated, theoretically, on mechanisms of structural stability loss due to Y220C mutation and mechanisms of stability restoration by PhiKan083 at the atomic level. From this study it is found that in Tp53C, Tyr220 has five electrostatic interactions with residues Val 147, Prol51, Pro153 and Pro223 located on S3/S4 loop and S7/S8 loop. The S7/S8 loop is stabilized by these electrostatic interactions. Due to the Y220C mutation all these electrostatic interactions are lost. As a result the structural fluctuation occurs at S7/S8 loop, and the loop is displaced from its original position after 6 ns MD simulation. When PhiKan083 is present (inserted) at the mutation site it provides five electrostatic interactions with Pro155, Glu221 and Thr230, and two hydrogen bonds with Leu145 and Asp228, respectively. These interactions provided by Pkikan083 stabilized the S7/S8 loop, and as a result it couldn't be displaced. Our results showed that due to Y220C mutation p53 became destabilized through structural fluctuations surrounding the mutation site. When PhiKan083 is present at the Y220C mutation site (in 2vuk), it provides electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions among residue-220, its neighboring residues and PhiKan08. These interactions give additional stability to Y220C mutant p53, thus Y220C mutant p53 doesn't destabilize.

  13. The active Nea Anchialos Fault System (Central Greece: comparison of geological, morphotectonic, archaeological and seismological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caputo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nea Anchialos Fault System has been studied integrating geological, morphological, structural, archaeological and seismic data. This fault system forms the northern boundary of the Almyros Basin which is one of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonic basins of Thessaly. Specific structural and geomorphological mapping were carried out and fault-slip data analysis allowed the Late Quaternary palaeo-stress field to be estimated. The resulting N-S trending purely extensional regime is consistent with the direction of the T-axes computed from the focal mechanisms of the summer 1980, Volos seismic sequence and the April 30, 1985 Almyros earthquake. A minor set of structural data indicates a WNW-ESE extension which has been interpreted as due to a local and second order stress field occurring during the N-S regional extension. Furthermore, new archaeological data, discovered by the author, have improved morphology and tectonics of the area also allowing a tentative estimate of the historic (III-IV century AD. to Present fault slip rate. Several topographic profiles across the major E- W topographic escarpment as well as along the streams, have emphasised scarps and knick-points, further supporting the occurrence of very recent morphogenic activity. In the last section, the structural, morphological and archaeological data are compared with the already existing seismological data and their integrated analysis indicates that the Nea Anchialos Fault System has been active since Lower(?-Middle Pleistocene.

  14. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  15. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  16. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  17. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  18. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  19. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape...

  20. Archaeological Reconnaissance of Lewiston and Portage Levees, Portage, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    Years of Eastern Wisconsin Oneota Prehistory:" Foreign Language proficiency: Spanish, French, Minor Studies: Linguistics) Membership in Professional...Excavation Analyses of Archaeological Materials and data Hominid Paleontology North American Prehistory North American Indians (*indicates Graduate course

  1. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  2. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  3. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology; Metodos analiticos modernos aplicados al arte y la arqueologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  4. Immobilization of mercury by carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles: reaction mechanisms and effects of stabilizer and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-04-01

    Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles were prepared with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer, and tested for enhanced removal of aqueous mercury (Hg(2+)). CMC at ≥0.03 wt % fully stabilized 0.5 g/L of FeS (i.e., CMC-to-FeS molar ratio ≥0.0006). FTIR spectra suggested that CMC molecules were attached to the nanoparticles through bidentate bridging and hydrogen bonding. Increasing the CMC-to-FeS molar ratio from 0 to 0.0006 enhanced mercury sorption capacity by 20%; yet, increasing the ratio from 0.0010 to 0.0025 diminished the sorption by 14%. FTIR and XRD analyses suggested that precipitation (formation of cinnabar and metacinnabar), ion exchange (formation of Hg0.89Fe0.11S), and surface complexation were important mechanisms for mercury removal. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to interpret the sorption kinetics, whereas a dual-mode isotherm model was proposed to simulate the isotherms, which considers precipitation and adsorption. High mercury uptake was observed over the pH range of 6.5-10.5, whereas significant capacity loss was observed at pH 106 mg/L) and organic matter (5 mg/L as TOC) modestly inhibited mercury uptake. The immobilized mercury remained stable when preserved for 2.5 years at pH above neutral.

  5. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  6. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  7. Integrating Archaeological Modeling in DoD Cultural Resource Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    and 3 environmental data. To build models efficiently, relevant archaeological data should be maintained in computerized databases usable by GIS...processes. 7 Most of the concerns raised about archaeological predictive modeling are epistemological : how do we know that the model works short of... compute and thus serve as useful initial measures. However, for a performance standard, a statistic that mirrors stakeholders’ perceptions of what

  8. Narrating the postcolonial landscape : archaeologies of race at Hadrian's Wall.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya P Tolia-Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research completed as part of an interdisciplinary project entitled ‘Tales of the Frontier’; both between the disciplines of geography and archaeology; and on the landscape narratives of Hadrian’s Wall. In particular, the paper unravels the currency of race-geographies present in the collaboration, material interpretation and dissemination processes which included the curating of a public exhibition ‘An Archaeology of “Race”‘. In public museums and popular narratives of Ro...

  9. Orthophoto imaging and GIS for seabed visualization and underwater archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Seinturier, Julien; Drap, Pierre; Durand, Anne; Vincent, N.; Cibecchi, F.; Papani, O.; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We present here the first step of an interdisciplinary work dealing with underwater photogrammetry and archaeological data management. In the framework of a phd project we develop a set of tools from underwater data capture to 3D underwater GIS for archaeological excavation. The phd project, managed by Julien Seinturier, is monitored by Odile Papini for the data fusion aspect and Pierre Drap for the underwater photogrammetrical aspect. The project is financed together by the French Region PAC...

  10. A Review of 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Dupeyron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology' is intended to be a showcase of the discipline’s recent developments and provide a comprehensive - but non-exhaustive - overview of early 21st century work in the region. It is probably one of the most ambitious such projects since the sixteen volume series 'Handbook of Middle American Indians' published in the 1960s. It is primarily intended for professionals and students of Mesoamerican archaeology.

  11. Technical analysis of four archaeological andean painted textiles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the materials and manufacturing techniques used to create four archaeological Andean painted textiles in the collection of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. The textiles are attributed to Peru but have minimal provenience. Building on previous work by other scholars on similar archaeological textiles, the materials and manufacturing techniques are identified and characterized by observation, documentation, and scientific analysis. S...

  12. Archaeology and Religious Landscapes in India: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harding

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Religious and archaeological understandings of topography are usually understood in terms of different spheres of knowledge; where they intersect, it is when one becomes the object of analysis for another. But each is a way of making meaning in the landscape, of relating past and present through identify events with features of this landscape. Each is therefore a cultural activity and product. This is no more clear than when religion and archaeology build upon the work of each other.

  13. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  14. Conformational analysis of a polyconjugated protein-binding ligand by joint quantum chemistry and polarizable molecular mechanics. Addressing the issues of anisotropy, conjugation, polarization, and multipole transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwaser, Elodie; de Courcy, Benoit; Demange, Luc; Garbay, Christiane; Raynaud, Françoise; Hadj-Slimane, Reda; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Gresh, Nohad

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the conformational properties of a potent inhibitor of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in cancer processes and macular degeneration. This inhibitor consists of four aromatic/conjugated fragments: a benzimidazole, a methylbenzene, a carboxythiourea, and a benzene-linker dioxane, and these fragments are all linked together by conjugated bonds. The calculations use the SIBFA polarizable molecular mechanics procedure. Prior to docking simulations, it is essential to ensure that variations in the ligand conformational energy upon rotations around its six main-chain torsional bonds are correctly represented (as compared to high-level ab initio quantum chemistry, QC). This is done in two successive calibration stages and one validation stage. In the latter, the minima identified following independent stepwise variations of each of the six main-chain torsion angles are used as starting points for energy minimization of all the torsion angles simultaneously. Single-point QC calculations of the minimized structures are then done to compare their relative energies ΔE conf to the SIBFA ones. We compare three different methods of deriving the multipoles and polarizabilities of the central, most critical moiety of the inhibitor: carboxythiourea (CTU). The representation that gives the best agreement with QC is the one that includes the effects of the mutual polarization energy E pol between the amide and thioamide moieties. This again highlights the critical role of this contribution. The implications and perspectives of these findings are discussed.

  15. Stacked and H-Bonded Cytosine Dimers. Analysis of the Intermolecular Interaction Energies by Parallel Quantum Chemistry and Polarizable Molecular Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresh, Nohad; Sponer, Judit E; Devereux, Mike; Gkionis, Konstantinos; de Courcy, Benoit; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-07-30

    Until now, atomistic simulations of DNA and RNA and their complexes have been executed using well calibrated but conceptually simple pair-additive empirical potentials (force fields). Although such simulations provided many valuable results, it is well established that simple force fields also introduce errors into the description, underlying the need for development of alternative anisotropic, polarizable molecular mechanics (APMM) potentials. One of the most abundant forces in all kinds of nucleic acids topologies is base stacking. Intra- and interstrand stacking is assumed to be the most essential factor affecting local conformational variations of B-DNA. However, stacking also contributes to formation of all kinds of noncanonical nucleic acids structures, such as quadruplexes or folded RNAs. The present study focuses on 14 stacked cytosine (Cyt) dimers and the doubly H-bonded dimer. We evaluate the extent to which an APMM procedure, SIBFA, could account quantitatively for the results of high-level quantum chemistry (QC) on the total interaction energies, and the individual energy contributions and their nonisotropic behaviors. Good agreements are found at both uncorrelated HF and correlated DFT and CCSD(T) levels. Resorting in SIBFA to distributed QC multipoles and to an explicit representation of the lone pairs is essential to respectively account for the anisotropies of the Coulomb and of the exchange-repulsion QC contributions.

  16. Incorporating a Product Archaeology Paradigm across the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Cormier, Phillip; Lewis, Kemper; Devendorf, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the teaching of design theory in an engineering curriculum has been relegated to a senior capstone design experience. Presently, however, engineering design concepts and courses can be found through the entirety of most engineering programs. Educators have recognized that engineering design provides a foundational platform that can…

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  18. Examining the impacts of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline photochemical production of smog in a fog using near-explicit gas- and aqueous-chemistry mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, Diana L.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the air quality impacts of using a high-blend ethanol fuel (E85) instead of gasoline in vehicles in an urban setting when a morning fog is present under summer and winter conditions. The model couples the near-explicit gas-phase Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v. 3.1) with the extensive aqueous-phase Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism (CAPRAM 3.0i) in SMVGEAR II, a fast and accurate ordinary differential equation solver. Summer and winter scenarios are investigated during a two day period in the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) with all gasoline vehicles replaced by flex-fuel vehicles running on E85 in 2020. We find that E85 slightly increases ozone compared with gasoline in the presence or absence of a fog under summer conditions but increases ozone significantly relative to gasoline during winter conditions, although winter ozone is always lower than summer ozone. A new finding here is that a fog during summer may increase ozone after the fog disappears, due to chemistry alone. Temperatures were high enough in the summer to increase peroxy radical (RO2) production with the morning fog, which led to the higher ozone after fog dissipation. A fog on a winter day decreases ozone after the fog. Within a fog, ozone is always lower than if no fog occurs. The sensitivity of the results to fog parameters like droplet size, liquid water content, fog duration and photolysis are investigated and discussed. The results support previous work suggesting that E85 and gasoline both enhance pollution with E85 enhancing pollution significantly more at low temperatures. Thus, neither E85 nor gasoline is a ‘clean-burning’ fuel.

  19. Electrospun meshes possessing region-wise differences in fiber orientation, diameter, chemistry and mechanical properties for engineering bone-ligament-bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavedi, Satyavrata; Vaidya, Prasad; Gaddam, Prudhvidhar; Whittington, Abby R; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-12-01

    Although bone-patellar tendon-bone (B-PT-B) autografts are the gold standard for repair of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures, they suffer from drawbacks such as donor site morbidity and limited supply. Engineered tissues modeled after B-PT-B autografts are promising alternatives because they have the potential to regenerate connective tissue and facilitate osseointegration. Towards the long-term goal of regenerating ligaments and their bony insertions, the objective of this study was to construct 2D meshes and 3D cylindrical composite scaffolds - possessing simultaneous region-wise differences in fiber orientation, diameter, chemistry and mechanical properties - by electrospinning two different polymers from off-set spinnerets. Using a dual drum collector, 2D meshes consisting of an aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber region, randomly oriented poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fiber region and a transition region (comprised of both PCL and PLGA fibers) were prepared, and region-wise differences were confirmed by microscopy and tensile testing. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured on these meshes exhibited random orientations and low aspect ratios on the random PLGA regions, and high aspect ratios and alignment on the aligned PCL regions. Next, meshes containing an aligned PCL region flanked by two transition regions and two randomly oriented PLGA regions were prepared and processed into 3D cylindrical composite scaffolds using an interpenetrating photo-crosslinkable polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel to recapitulate the shape of B-PT-B autografts. Tensile testing indicated that cylindrical composites were mechanically robust, and eventually failed due to stress concentration in the aligned PCL region. In summary, this study demonstrates a process to fabricate electrospun meshes possessing region-wise differences in properties that can elicit region-dependent cell responses, and be readily processed into scaffolds with the shape of B-PT-B autografts.

  20. Evaluation of 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene degradation in the detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, MCMv3.1, using environmental chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Metzger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The degradation mechanism of 1,3,5-trimethyl- benzene (TMB as implemented in the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM was evaluated using data from the environmental chamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The results show that the MCM provides a consistent description of the photo-oxidation of TMB/NOx mixtures for a range of conditions. In all cases the agreement between the measurement and the simulation decreases with decreasing VOC-NOx ratio and in addition with increasing precursor concentration. A significant underestimation of the decay rate of TMB and thus underestimation of reactivity in the system, consistent with results from previous appraisals of the MCM, was observed.

    Much higher nitrous acid (HONO concentrations compared to simulations and expected from chamber characterization experiments were measured during these smog chamber experiments. A light induced NO2 to HONO conversion at the chamber walls is suggested to occur. This photo-enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion with subsequent HONO photolysis enhances the reactivity of the system. After the implementation of this reaction in the model it describes the decay of TMB properly. Nevertheless, the model still over-predicts ozone at a later stage of the experiment. This can be attributed to a too slow removal of NO2. It is also shown that this photo-enhanced HONO formation is not restricted to TMB photo-oxidation but also occurs in other chemical systems (e.g. α-pinene. However, the influence of HONO as a source of OH radicals is less important in these more reactive systems and therefore the importance of the HONO chemistry is less obvious.

  1. Constraining the primordial initial mass function with stellar archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwig, Tilman; Klessen, Ralf S; Glover, Simon C O

    2014-01-01

    We present a new near-field cosmological probe of the initial mass function (IMF) of the first stars. Specifically, we constrain the lower-mass limit of the Population III (Pop III) IMF with the total number of stars in large, unbiased surveys of the Milky Way bulge and halo. We model the early star formation history in a Milky-Way like halo with a semi-analytic approach, based on Monte-Carlo sampling of dark matter merger trees, combined with a treatment of the most important feedback mechanisms, such as stellar radiation and metal enrichment. Assuming a logarithmically flat Pop III IMF and varying its low mass limit, we derive the number of expected survivors of these first stars, using them to estimate the probability to detect any such Pop III fossil in stellar archaeological surveys. Our model parameters are calibrated with existing empirical constraints, such as the optical depth to Thomson scattering. Following our analysis, the most promising region to find possible Pop III survivors is the stellar ha...

  2. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  3. DECENTRALIZATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT IN THE YUCATECAN LIVING TOWNS. INDICATORS PARTICIPATION AND COORDINATION OF THE PUBLIC AND SOCIAL STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Ligorred Perramon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed against a background of debate arising since the 1990s regarding decentralization processes in archaeological heritage management in Mexico. Therefore this research focuses on the study of management processes in sites in Yucatan: particularly through observation of archaeological sites that make and what they do, and don’t, the different social actors to promote the conservation of this Our main hypothesis is that the lack of strategies for an activation of archaeological heritage in urban areas which is sustained over time and aimed at and/or alliance among the different government levels, and between government and various sectors of society, prohibits the and revaluing of this heritage for sustainable social use. We studied the archaeological situation prevailing in the Yucatecan cities of Mérida, Izamal, Acanceh and Dzilam González. The results us to demonstrate the need for a new management plan of heritage in living towns. Finally, we a series of indicators for measuring the participation, actions and coordination of those involved, with a view to collaborating in the development of mechanisms and strategies for evaluating advances in decentralization processes

  4. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  5. Photorealistic virtual exploration of an archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Abate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study concerning the virtual reconstruction and navigation of an archaeological site located in Moregine, near Pompeii as it appeared to archaeologists after the completion of the excavation and including the reconstruction of face and body appearance of a woman that found death there, during the eruption of 79 BC. The main challenges faced in this study concern the visual engine required to delivering possibly unlimited visual quality and the methodology for achieving an ethnically faithful face reconstruction from skull bones. The first objective is tackled by adopting a pre-rendering based visualization engine, through which environment navigation is achieved following pre-built paths and performing available actions through a context sensitive motion tracking based interface. Secondly, the plausible appearance of the woman's face is reconstructed exploiting an approach based on craniometrical analysis together with a pictorial physiognomic database and content-based image retrieval technology, to the aim of providing more faithful results compared to other methods in literature based solely on statistical data.

  6. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history.

  7. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  8. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  9. Digital Media, Power and (InEquality in Archaeology and Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Perry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decades of Internet study have arguably done little to shed light on the nature and implications of web-based communications in archaeology. Since the late 1990s, the online world has been lauded by archaeologists for its capacities to engender dialogue, participation, intellectual change and even democratic revolution. Yet the dangers associated with its use have barely been probed. Threats to privacy, equality, access, security of data, and personal safety and well-being are seemingly characteristic of all communication technologies. However, the naive zeal with which many archaeological and heritage organisations are employing online platforms for dissemination, profile-building, 'impact' and public accountability is fraught with risk and deserving of interrogation. This article explores the effects of digital culture on the professional identities and careers of archaeologists, heritage specialists and museum workers. Through a multi-disciplinary survey of over 400 individuals, nearly one-third of whom self-identified as archaeological or related heritage practitioners (working both inside and outside of the academic sector, we consider the various ways in which online technologies are used to express, promote, facilitate, strengthen and undermine both professionals themselves and professional practices in archaeology. Situating ourselves in the intersectional and feminist literature, we argue that web-based harassment and lack of adequate e-safety mechanisms are rife in the discipline, putting it in jeopardy of fuelling structural inequalities. Our findings suggest that close to one-third of practitioners report victimisation via online communication; the majority know their abusers offline; and, although the prevalence of such abuse is roughly equal among men and women, its nature is split along gender lines. Of especial concern, most practitioners choose to ignore their abuse, a decision that may be motivated by the non-existent or victim

  10. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  11. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  12. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  13. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  14. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF PARMA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dall’Asta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy. To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  15. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter–protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter–protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  16. Archaeology 2.0? Review of Archaeology 2.0: New Approaches to Communication and Collaboration [Web Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Shanks

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute in Los Angeles has launched a new publishing initiative in 'Digital Archaeology'. Its first book, Archaeology 2.0: New Approaches to Communication and Collaboration, edited by Eric C. Kansa, Sarah Whitcher Kansa and Ethan Watrall, makes a grand claim, if only in its title, that archaeology has undergone, or is about to undergo, changes that bring about a completely new version or kind of archaeology. The analogy is with the World Wide Web. Just as the IT world embraced radical changes of software design and web delivery nearly ten years ago and announced that this was Web version 2.0, so too archaeology is changed, the authors claim, and enough to warrant the designation version 2.0. We disagree and argue that the claim is not well supported. Moreover, we hold that the book misunderstands the implications of Web 2.0 and its aftermath. The well-meaning authors do make a valuable contribution to debates about uses of information technology in archaeology, and particularly data management. But their perspective is hopelessly narrow, looking back to the circumscribed concerns of professional field archaeologists with their data, its dissemination, use and survival. The authors focus mainly upon their own projects, expressing little interest in the scope of contemporary archaeology, digitally enabled as it all is, through heritage and everything to do with the representation of the material past in the present, an interest surely begged by the overt reference to the global changes associated with the notion of Web 2.0.

  17. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  19. The development of a GIS for New Deal Archaeology

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    Bernard K. Means

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I have recently launched an effort to create a GIS of all New Deal-funded archaeological investigations conducted in the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression (Means 2011. This effort was inspired by the persistent notion that New Deal archaeology was largely limited to the southeastern United States, where the generally warmer climate was seen as conducive to the lengthy field seasons that ensured continuous work for the unemployed (Lyon 1996. The large mound sites that dotted the southeastern USA also ensured that there would be sufficient work for the large relief crews seen as ideal from the perspective of federal officials. While it may prove true that the majority of New Deal archaeology was conducted in the southeast, it is also demonstrably true that the various ‘Alphabet Soup’ work relief programs – notably the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC and the Works Progress Administration/Work Projects Administration (WPA – supported archaeological investigations throughout the USA. In my preliminary efforts to create a GIS for New Deal archaeology, I have determined that at least 75 percent of the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression had some form of federally funded work relief survey or excavation.

  20. The National Planning Policy Framework and Archaeology: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Flatman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For twenty years, ‘rescue’ archaeology and cultural resource management in England lived within the certain world of Planning Policy Guidance Note 16: Archaeology and Planning (the PPG (DoE 1990. The PPG gave our profession clear locus and status within the business of development and planning. Those who wished to disturb archaeological remains in order to build were effectively obliged to pay for the excavation and publication of those remains they could not preserve in situ – provided that local planners were prepared to take on board the conservation agenda described for them in the PPG. The PPG provided a new language of investigative procedure, built around deskbased assessments, field evaluations, written schemes of investigation, and programmes of mitigation (usually a combination of excavation and avoidance. Whilst the PPG relied on a series of contestable assumptions it gave archaeologists unprecedented access to sites and funds. A full obituary of the PPG would be long on its flaws, but those in professional practice benefitted from expanded horizons of archaeological employment and research (see Aitchison 2010, 2012. The policies set out within the PPG secured almost all of the advances made during the ‘rescue’ era of British archaeology in the 1970s and 80s whilst reducing our reliance on state funding.

  1. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  2. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  3. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  4. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  5. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Stanford University...

  6. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  7. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  8. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  9. The Invisible Hunger: Is Famine Identifiable from the Archaeological Record?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Morgan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Famine, as defined by an acute (short-term or chronic (long-term or cyclical period of starvation, is identifiable in the historical period from written records and potentially with archaeological corroboration, but in prehistory other approaches must be employed. Several of these are discussed including studies of diet and nutrition, paleodemography, environmental catalysts, and funerary ritual. Despite a multifactorial analysis integrating palynology, dendrochronology, stable isotope analyses, osteoarchaeology, and social archaeology, difficulties in contemporizing paleodemographic events them with osteological assemblages are substantial enough that the detection of a famine is not possible solely from the archaeological record. More significant is the conclusion that all apparent indicators for acute or chronic starvation are also representative of epidemic disease. Because of this uncertainty, it is not possible to identify famine in prehistory.

  10. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  11. Images of Miloje M. Vasić in Serbian Archaeology

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    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Miloje M. Vasić, "the first academically educated archaeologist in Serbia", has a strange destiny in the Serbian archaeology. On the one hand, he has been elevated to the post of the "founding father" of the discipline, with almost semidivine status and iconic importance, while on the other hand, his works have been largely unread and neglected. This paradoxical split is the consequence of the fact that Vasić has been postulated as the universal benchmark of the archaeological practice in Serbia, regardless of his interpretation of the past on the grounds of the archaeological record – the essence of archaeology. Strangely, the life and work of Vasić have not been the subject of much writing, apart from several obituaries, two short appropriate texts (Srejović, Cermanović, and rare articles in catalogues and collections dedicated to the research of Vinča (Garašanin, Srejović, Tasić, Nikolić and Vuković. The critical analysis of his whole interpretive constellation, with "The Ionian colony Vinča" being its brightest star, was limited before the World War II to the rare attempts to rectify the chronology and identify the Neolithic of the Danube valley (Fewkes, Grbić, Holste. After the war, by the middle of the 20th century, the interpretation of Vasić has been put to severe criticism of his students (Garašanin, Milojčić, Benac, which led to the significant paradigm shift, the recognition of the importance of the Balkan Neolithic, and the establishment of the culture-historical approach in the Serbian archaeology. However, from this moment on, the reception of Vasić in the Serbian archaeology has taken a strange route: Vasić as a person gains in importance, but his works are neglected, though referred to, but almost in a cultic fashion, without reading or interpreting them. Rare is a paper on the Neolithic of the Central Balkans that does not call upon the name of Vasić and his four- volume "Vinča", in which Neolithic is not

  12. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

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    Javier Esclapés

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located in the “Sierra del Montgó”, Xàbia (Spain. The product obtained has been exhibited in various museums nationwide.

  13. Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal...... species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic...... environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron...

  14. The GALAH Survey and Galactic Archaeology in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R ~ 28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by of major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary...

  15. Island Archaeology: In Search of a New Horizon

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    Arie Boomert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the academic development of “island archaeology” from its roots in Darwinist and anthropological island studies through island biogeography to processual and post-processual archaeology. It is argued that the rarely made explicit yet fundamental premise of island archaeology that insular human societies show intrinsic characteristics essentially dissimilar from those on mainlands is false. The persistence of this misconception is due in part to the emphasis on islands as ideal units of analysis. It is suggested that island societies should be studied at the level of the archipelago and/or mainland coastal setting within their maritime cultural framework, ultimately leading up to an archaeology of maritime identity.

  16. Coulometry for the detection of water content in archaeological findings

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    Vincenza Crupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we performed coulometric measurements to detect the water content in archaeological pottery in order to get information on the manufacture technique. The samples under study were the so-called "Ionian Cups" coming from various archaeological sites in eastern Sicily (South-Italy. In particular, we tentatively achieved the estimation of firing temperatures of the archaeological samples by comparing the coulometric results with those obtained in the case of raw materials fired under controlled conditions. The results were in good agreement with those previously obtained on the same samples by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS. It is worth underlying that for the first time, the detection of water content as revealed by this analytical technique was related to archaeometric issues.

  17. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  18. A Digital Registry for Archaeological Find Spots and Excavation Documentation in IANUS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbmann, Wibke

    2014-01-01

    Grey literature (site notebooks, reports etc.) and research data in archaeology are invaluable sources of information currently lacking a central reference registry in Germany. This paper discusses requirements and the underlying data model of a registry to be developed for find spots and archaeological excavation data within the IANUS project at the German Archaeological Institute. This registry is to collect information on archaeological investigations data for a finding aid service. The fo...

  19. Megaliths, myths and men an introduction to astro-archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter Lancaster

    2000-01-01

    As commonly used, the term ""megaliths"" refers to huge, free-standing, neolithic stones whose origin and meaning have long been debated by archaeologists and students of prehistory. Perhaps the most famous neolithic site is Stonehenge, the great circle of giant stones on Salisbury Plain in England. Twentieth-century studies of Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments have given rise to the science of astra-archaeology, i.e, the study of early astronomical knowledge through the interpretation of ancient monuments and other archaeological data.The present volume, by a noted British astronomer

  20. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  1. The Sustainability of Dental Calculus for Archaeological Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Meaghan Emma; Radini, Anita; Speller, Camilla

    Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs and pres......Dental calculus is a mineralized plaque biofilm formed by microbiota of the oral microbiome. Until recently, the information potential of dental calculus for archaeological study was not fully realised and it was often discarded. However, it is now recognized that dental calculus entombs...... and preserve biomolecules related to diet, health and disease....

  2. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  3. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Cossío, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sánchez, S.; Calligaro, T. F.; Tenorio, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, M.; Rios, M. De Los

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purísima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, México, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraíso Querétaro, Ucareo Michoacán and mainly from Zacualtipán/Metzquititlán Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  4. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospect and of a community and museum-based strategy as a key to integrate the value of said sites as educational, cultural, economic, and tourist assets and contributing factors to the region’s sustainable

  5. Testing Corrosion Inhibitors for the Conservation of Archaeological Copper and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a synopsis of the Ph.D. research undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. The aim was to evaluate corrosion inhibitors for use in the conservation of copper and copper alloy archaeological artefacts. The objective of this work was to acquire an insight into the performance of copper corrosion inhibitors, when applied to archaeological copper.

  6. 77 FR 59968 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center... Archaeology Center, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items... affiliated with the cultural items may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center....

  7. 75 FR 33328 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... objects in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard ] University, 11 Divinity Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138, telephone (617)...

  8. A Brief Discussion of New Archaeology%新考古学论纲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颂金

    2001-01-01

    Neoarchaeology in America began in the 1950s, which challenged the traditional archaeology. Neoarchaeologists focused their attention on cultural ecology, used advanced scientific techniques such as computer and 14C dating, and applied new theory and method in the study of archaeological data. This approach was a revolution in the history of archaeology.

  9. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  10. Formation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears: Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Mechanics Study of the Electrophilic Addition of o-Benzyne to Fullerenes, Graphene, and Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in chemical functionalization of fullerene molecules. In some cases, the predominant reaction products are different from those obtained (using the same reactants) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One such example is the cycloaddition of o-benzyne to C60. It is well established that benzyne adds across one of the rings in naphthalene, anthracene and other PAHs forming the [2+4] cycloaddition product (benzobicyclo[2.2.2.]-octatriene with naphthalene and triptycene with anthracene). However, Hoke et al demonstrated that the only reaction path for o-benzyne with C60 leads to the [2+2] cycloaddition product in which benzyne adds across one of the interpentagonal bonds (forming a cyclobutene ring in the process). Either reaction product results in a loss of aromaticity and distortion of the PAH or fullerene substrate, and in a loss of strain in the benzyne. It is not clear, however, why different products are preferred in these cases. In the current paper, we consider the stability of benzyne-nanotube adducts and the ability of Brenner's potential energy model to describe the structure and stability of these adducts. The Brenner potential has been widely used for describing diamondoid and graphitic carbon. Recently it has also been used for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of fullerenes and nanotubes. However, it has not been tested for the case of functionalized fullerenes (especially with highly strained geometries). We use the Brenner potential for our companion nanogear simulations and believe that it should be calibrated to insure that those simulations are physically reasonable. In the present work, Density Functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the preferred geometric structures and energetics for this calibration. The DFT method is a kind of ab initio quantum chemistry method for determining the electronic structure of molecules. For a given basis set

  11. Pioneers, publishers and the dissemination of archaeological knowledge: A study of publishing in British archaeology 1816-1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the nineteenth century was a formative period in the development of archaeology as a discipline and archaeological publishing played a key role in this. Libraries were an essential marker of social and intellectual status and there now exists a considerable body of scholarship on the most impressive publications of the day and on the factors influencing their presentation; for example, in relation to the publication of Mediterranean classical antiquities. The crucial role which publishers played in the selection and dissemination of scholarship has been addressed in recent studies of the history of the book, and there is a growing literature on the role of publishers in the dissemination of scientific knowledge, but there has to date been very limited evaluation of the role of publishers in the selection and dissemination of archaeological knowledge in Britain in this period. This study will investigate the extent to which the publication and dissemination of archaeological knowledge, and hence the discipline itself, was shaped by the intellectual and/or commercial concerns of publishers, with a view to providing a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which knowledge was filtered and the impact that this had. Key trends in archaeological publishing in the period 1816-51 will be identified, based on the London Catalogue of Books, and will show how and why this kind of study should be seen as an essential component of any research which considers the history of the discipline. Selected case studies will show the immense, and previously unacknowledged, importance of decisions made during the publication process on the development of archaeology in Britain, and directions for further study will be identified.

  12. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  13. Integrating Computational Chemistry into a Course in Classical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Sheridan R.; Hartzell, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Computational chemistry is commonly addressed in the quantum mechanics course of undergraduate physical chemistry curricula. Since quantum mechanics traditionally follows the thermodynamics course, there is a lack of curricula relating computational chemistry to thermodynamics. A method integrating molecular modeling software into a semester long…

  14. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  15. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  16. Modeling group size and scalar stress by logistic regression from an archaeological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Alberti

    Full Text Available Johnson's scalar stress theory, describing the mechanics of (and the remedies to the increase in in-group conflictuality that parallels the increase in groups' size, provides scholars with a useful theoretical framework for the understanding of different aspects of the material culture of past communities (i.e., social organization, communal food consumption, ceramic style, architecture and settlement layout. Due to its relevance in archaeology and anthropology, the article aims at proposing a predictive model of critical level of scalar stress on the basis of community size. Drawing upon Johnson's theory and on Dunbar's findings on the cognitive constrains to human group size, a model is built by means of Logistic Regression on the basis of the data on colony fissioning among the Hutterites of North America. On the grounds of the theoretical framework sketched in the first part of the article, the absence or presence of colony fissioning is considered expression of not critical vs. critical level of scalar stress for the sake of the model building. The model, which is also tested against a sample of archaeological and ethnographic cases: a confirms the existence of a significant relationship between critical scalar stress and group size, setting the issue on firmer statistical grounds; b allows calculating the intercept and slope of the logistic regression model, which can be used in any time to estimate the probability that a community experienced a critical level of scalar stress; c allows locating a critical scalar stress threshold at community size 127 (95% CI: 122-132, while the maximum probability of critical scale stress is predicted at size 158 (95% CI: 147-170. The model ultimately provides grounds to assess, for the sake of any further archaeological/anthropological interpretation, the probability that a group reached a hot spot of size development critical for its internal cohesion.

  17. Archaeological and Geological dating by means of thermoluminescence; Fechamiento geologico y arqueologico por termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis an specific method for dating local archaeological and geological samples based on the phenomenon of thermoluminescence (TL) using the fine grain and quartz inclusion techniques is developed. Taking into account that this work is interesting for professionals working in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Archaeology, Anthropology and related sciences, some basic concepts are described to have a better comprehension. Chapter 1 describes the concept of radioactivity, remarking the importance of the different decay types as well as the main radioactive series and the energy liberated in the process. The causes of radioactive desequilibrium are also considered in the case for radon. Another important aspect taken into account in this chapter is the radioisotope production and its relationship with the neutron activation analysis used for the determination of the Uranium and Thorium concentrations in the samples. The TL phenomenon is described in Chapter 2, emphasizing the importance of the process of thermally stimulated luminescence best known as TL and its application for dating minerals of different origin. Chapter 3 shows some important antecedents remarking some aspects of the techniques commonly used for dating purposes. Chapter 4 shows the different methods used for the sample preparation. The techniques used for the {sup 40} K, {sup 238} U and {sup 232} Th determination as well as for the cosmic radiation measurement using locally made TLD are also described. The methods used for the determination of the paleodosis as a function of the TL intensity of each sample are described: special emphasis is taken on the moisture effects as well as in the error limits in the age estimation. Results and conclusions of this study are presented in Chapter 5. These results gave an age of 980 {+-} 90 years for the Edzna ceramic and 1520 {+-} 90 years for the Calixtlahuaca ceramics. The age of the Teotihuacan ceramics was not estimated due to the lack of a stable

  18. One century of aryne chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Hans Henning; Winkler, Michael; Sander, Wolfram

    2003-02-03

    Arynes, which are formally derived from aromatic rings by abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, have been a focus of organic chemistry for 100 years. In contrast to ortho-benzyne, which is mentioned in almost every introductory textbook on organic reaction mechanisms as a reactive intermediate of nucleophilic aromatic substitution, the meta and para isomers were regarded as rather exotic until recently. This situation has changed dramatically with the discovery of the enediyne antibiotics, a promising new class of antitumor drugs, and has aroused the interest of research groups from all branches of chemistry. Nowadays, arynes and related compounds are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet. In this review we outline the historical developement with an emphasis on recent progress in this challenging field of research.

  19. Publication trends and interdisciplinary collaboration across the archaeological science/humanities-divide: Investigations into the epistemological structure of the archaeological discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Erlend Kirkeng

    2015-01-01

    The present master thesis is an article-based dissertation, comprising two individual research papers and an introductory essay. Both papers correspond to a shared set of overarching aims: 1. To investigate the composition and state of archaeological epistemology, focusing on comparability and integration between sub-fields of the archaeological discipline. 2. To better understand the potential impact of the science/humanities-divide upon archaeological practice in publishing and applied epis...

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on the Use of the Internet for Archaeological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available These survey results are from an online survey of 577 UK-based archaeological volunteers, professional archaeologists and archaeological organisations. These data cover a variety of topics related to how and why people access the Internet for information about archaeology, including demographic information, activity relating to accessing information on archaeological topics, archaeological sharing and networking and the use of mobile phone apps and QR codes for public engagement. There is wide scope for further qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data.

  1. Archaeological analogs and corrosion; Analogues archeologiques et corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, D

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  2. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  3. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  4. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.

  5. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  6. Cone Penetration Testing: A Sound Method for Urban Archaeological Prospection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cone Penetration Testing (CPT) is a geotechnical in situ site investigation method and is widely applied in urbanized areas of the Netherlands. Approximately 20,000 CPTs are conducted in the Netherlands each year. The frequency of such testing, and the presence of archaeological deposits within the

  7. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  8. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  9. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  10. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  11. Saxon Obsequies: the Early Medieval Archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.

  12. Mössbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yuanfu; Huang, Hongbo

    2003-09-01

    The Mössbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  13. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  14. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  15. 10 years of the Archaeology Museum of Tatarstan Republic of Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullin Khalim M.,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the 10th anniversary of the Archaeology Museum of Tatarstan Republic of the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov, AN RT. The issues of formation archaeological structures in the region, creation of archaeological collections, formation and development of the Museum are considered. The activities of Archaeology Museum are characterized, including the “acquisition, classification and inventory verification of archaeological collections”, “acquisition, cataloging and ordering of Science Fund’s materials”, “office processing of the archaeological field data”, “inclusion of collections of the Institute of Archaeology AN RT in the Museum Fund of the Russian Federation”. The main archaeological collections and research funds are taken into consideration, as well as the main results of the research unit, including the participation in exhibitions of such museums as the Museum of Islamic Culture, the Museum of History of the State, Museum- Reserve “Kazan Kremlin”, National Cultural Center “Kazan”, Bulgarian State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, the State Historical and Architectural Museum “The Island of Sviyazhsk”, “Laishevo Land Museum”.

  16. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Thornton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration.

  17. Domain-Specific Formal Ontology of Archaeology and Its Application in Knowledge Acquisition and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Xia Zhang; Cun-Gen Cao; Fang Gu; Jin-Xin Si

    2004-01-01

    Inherent heterogeneity and distribution of knowledge strongly prevent knowledge from sharing and reusing among different agents and software entities, and a formal ontology has been viewed as a promising means to tackle this problem. In this paper, a domain-specific formal ontology of archaeology is presented. The ontology mainly consists of three parts: archaeological categories, their relationships and axioms. The ontology not only captures the semantics of archaeological knowledge, but also provides archaeology with an explicit and formal specification of a shared conceptualization, thus making archaeological knowledge shareable and reusable across humans and machines in a structured fashion. Further, we propose a method to verify ontology correctness based on the individuals of categories. As applications of the ontology, we have developed an ontology-driven approach to knowledge acquisition from archaeological text and a question answering system for archaeological knowledge.

  18. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  19. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  20. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  1. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  2. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  3. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  4. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  5. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  6. Assessment of Commonly Used Cleaning Methods on the Anatomical Structure of Archaeological Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Abdelkader Mohamed HAMED

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to diagnose and evaluate the effect of commonly used cleaning methods in Egypt on the anatomical structure of archaeological wood samples. Beech wood samples, which were taken from anonymous mashrabia, have been cleaned mechanically and chemically, then a scanning electron microscope (SEM study was undertaken, to monitor any significant structural changes in wood samples due to cleaning processes. SEM data, however, show that cleaning procedures, both mechanical and chemical, affect the anatomical structure of wood, and do not achieve the best result. The main problem is that the effect of reagents cannot be easily removed from the wood structure. Ethyl alcohol proved to have the minimal effect on the wood structure in this study.

  7. Organometallic chemistry in non-classical environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    A summary of our on-going research on organometallic chemistry is provided with an emphasis on the function, reactivity and mechanisms of organometallic compounds in water, ionic liquids and in living systems. The role of organometallic compounds in both catalysis and medicinal chemistry are briefly described.

  8. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  9. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  10. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  11. Physical chemistry a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter

    2014-01-01

    With the development of a variety of exciting new areas of research involving computational chemistry, nano- and smart materials, and applications of the recently discovered graphene, there can be no doubt that physical chemistry is a vitally important field. It is also perceived as the most daunting branch of chemistry, being necessarily grounded in physics and mathematics and drawing as it does on quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics. With his typical clarity and hardly a formula in sight, Peter Atkins' Very Short Introduction explores the contributions physical chemistry has made to all branches of chemistry. Providing insight into its central concepts Atkins reveals the cultural contributions physical chemistry has made to our understanding of the natural world.

  12. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  13. Some advances in atmospheric chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the recent decade, researches have been carried out by our group on some aspects of atmospheric chemistry through field observation, mechanism analysis and model simulation. Here some main results on greenhouse gas (CH4, N2O) emission from Chinese agricultural fields, aerosol, global carbon cycle and ozone variation in surface laver over China are briefly reported.

  14. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreiro Martínez, David

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practical sense, it tries to compose a Handbook of Practice to apply to research and commercial projects. As an example, this paper deals with the Evaluation of Archaeological Impact, proposing a methodological scheme to be applied to this new practice, which is an important part of the Evaluation of Environmental Impact.

    Este texto plantea la necesidad de establecer procedimientos y convenciones de práctica arqueológica para resolver los problemas y demandas en la gestión actual del Patrimonio Arqueológico. En concreto se presenta el programa CAPA (criterios y convenciones en Arqueología del Paisaje y Patrimonio Arqueológico en vía de realización por nuestro Grupo de Investigación. El objetivo de este programa es contribuir al desarrollo de sistemas y metodologías de gestión y evaluación del Patrimonio Arqueológico y llegar a componer un Manual de Usos Internos que nuestro grupo aplicaría en los diferentes proyectos de investigación y de asistencia técnica. Como ejemplo de estos desarrollos, se considera la Evaluación de Impacto Arqueológico y se propone un esquema metodológico para la realización de este nuevo tipo de práctica arqueológica, que forma parte importante de la Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental.

  15. From Information to Message: Archaeology and Media in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vuković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the image of archaeology and archaeologists created in the public by various media. On the grounds of analysis of the texts in which the subject of archaeology figures in newspapers and on social networks, it is demonstrated that archaeologists are mainly perceived in the public as inert “concealers” of the real truth of the past. The reason behind this is equally in the insufficient knowledge of the media, but as well in the reluctance of professional archaeologists to communicate. The paper offers an outline of long-term strategy to bridge the existing gap and inform the public about the mission and social relevance of the discipline.

  16. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  17. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  18. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high...... those employed in several detailed studies of known wreck sites and from the way in which geologists map the sea floor and the geological column beneath it. The strategy has been developed on the basis of extensive practical experience gained during the use of an off-the-shelf 2D chirp system and, given......-resolution subbottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for cost-effective, large-scale mapping of previously undetected sediment-embedded sites and wrecks based on subbottom profiling with chirp systems. The mapping strategy described includes (a) definition of line spacing depending on the target; (b...

  19. Terahertz and Cultural Heritage Science: Examination of Art and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage scientists need methodologies to examine Art and Archaeology in order to understand artistic materials and techniques and devise better conservation procedures. This review discusses the most successful and promising applications of Terahertz (THz technology in Cultural Heritage Science. THz is used in homeland security and for plenty of other industrial sectors and it presents a number of valuable features specifically for the investigation of Art and Archaeology: No radiation risk, low power, non-contact and reflection mode. Recent technical advancements are also making its application fast, mobile and relatively affordable creating a potential for its diffused implementation in museums. While THz is most promising for the investigation of multilayered art, such as paintings, it has been tested on a very large range of artifacts, from manuscripts to mummies and lacquered historical furniture.

  20. The Development of the Scientific Aesthetic in Archaeological Site Photography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Carter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I shall introduce some core ideas from my research on the character of photographic representations published in archaeological journals during the mid-twentieth century. The aim of this study is to show the connection between the employment of certain scientific visual aesthetics in site photography at a time when the discipline of archaeology wanted to be seen as more scientific. Using the rod scale as a key visual metaphor for the identity of the discipline, I will argue that the increasing presence of the rod scale in published site photographs played a key part in the development of a specific scientific visual vocabulary which was driven by the contemporary culture-historical context.

  1. Automated Extraction of Archaeological Traces by a Modified Variance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana D'Orazio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of detecting archaeological traces in digital aerial images by analyzing the pixel variance over regions around selected points. In order to decide if a point belongs to an archaeological trace or not, its surrounding regions are considered. The one-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA is applied several times to detect the differences among these regions; in particular the expected shape of the mark to be detected is used in each region. Furthermore, an effect size parameter is defined by comparing the statistics of these regions with the statistics of the entire population in order to measure how strongly the trace is appreciable. Experiments on synthetic and real images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to some state-of-the-art methodologies.

  2. Protective Structures for the Conservation and Presentation of Archaeological Sites

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of the effectiveness of shelters or enclosed buildings as a means of preserving 'in situ' archaeological features is required. This paper identifies some of the key problems related to site preservation and the use of built structures, as well as an assessment of selected examples of both shelters and enclosures. From these examples a range of problems, from practical to aesthetic, are identified. The need to establish guidelines and planning procedures for design an...

  3. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige.

  4. China’s Top 10 Archaeological Discoveries in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s Top 10 Archaeological Discoveries in 2010 were announced in Beijing on June 9 by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage(SACH).The 10 significant finds weres elected from 25 final candidates and date from the Qing Dynasty(1644-1911)to the Xia Dynasty(21st century-16th century B.C.).The top 10 discoveries are: The Wangjinglou City Site in Xinzheng,Henan Province

  5. Interpretation of archaeological small-scale features in spectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Palmer, Susanna; Stylegar, Frans-Arne;

    2011-01-01

    The paper's focus is the use of spectral images for the distinction of small archaeological anomalies on the basis of the authors work. Special attention is given to the ground-truthing perspective in the discussion of a number of cases from Norway. Different approaches to pattern-recognition are......-recognition are considered in the light of the increasing availability of hyper-spectral images that are difficult to analyse using visual inspection alone....

  6. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  7. Application of Magnetic and Geotechnical Methods for Archaeological Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Pits ................................................................................... 12  9  Fire Feature at the Bottom of an Excavated Pit and the...Figure 8. Schematic of Drive-Over Test Pits (not to scale) Figure 9. Fire Feature at the Bottom of an Excavated Pit and the M1A1 Tank Driving...volumetric susceptibility measurements. Archaeological analysis would include lithic analysis, faunal analysis, organic matter float analysis, pottery

  8. Archaeological investigations in Palanda, Santa Ana-La Florida (Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Recent archaeological research carried out in Zamora Chinchipe (Ecuador) have shown the presence of a previously unknown prehispanic culture, that was present throughout the Mayo Chinchipe-Marañón hydraulic basin; thus it was designated with the same name. Archaeologial work in the Santa Ana-La Florida site (Palanda) has given a precise chronological dimension and has produced evidence on the ideology, architecture, funerary customs and the material culture in general ...

  9. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M F; Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V

    1978-01-01

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables. (DLC)

  10. Archaeological Survey and Testing at Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1978; DePratter 1975; DePratter and Howard 1977). Apparently at least some of these materials were deposited as terrestial sites during a low stand...DePratter, Chester B. and J. D. Howard 1977 History of Shoreline Changes Determined by Archaeological Dating: Georgia Coast, U.S.A. Transactions of the Gulf...relationships. Des Barres, J-F. W. 1780 The Coast, Rivers and Inlets of the Province of Georgi -. Map Collection (#61), Georgia Historical Society

  11. Atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol: kinetics, mechanisms, and products of Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation in the presence and absence of NOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M D; Wallington, T J; Bjarrum, M; Javadi, M S; Nielsen, O J

    2008-09-04

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol and determine rate constants of k(Cl+3-pentanol) = (2.03 +/- 0.23) x 10 (-10) and k(OH+3-pentanol) = (1.32 +/- 0.15) x 10 (-11) cm (3) molecule (-1) s (-1) in 700 Torr of N 2/O 2 diluent at 296 +/- 2 K. The primary products of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the absence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (26 +/- 2%), propionaldehyde (12 +/- 2%), acetaldehyde (13 +/- 2%) and formaldehyde (2 +/- 1%). The primary products of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the presence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (51 +/- 4%), propionaldehyde (39 +/- 2%), acetaldehyde (44 +/- 4%) and formaldehyde (4 +/- 1%). The primary products of the OH radical initiated oxidation of 3-pentanol in the presence of NO were (with molar yields) 3-pentanone (58 +/- 3%), propionaldehyde (28 +/- 2%), and acetaldehyde (37 +/- 2%). In all cases the product yields were independent of oxygen concentration over the partial pressure range 10-700 Torr. The reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with 3-pentanol proceed 26 +/- 2 and 58 +/- 3%, respectively, via attack on the 3-position to give an alpha-hydroxyalkyl radical, which reacts with O 2 to give 3-pentanone. The results are discussed with respect to the literature data and atmospheric chemistry of 3-pentanol.

  12. Geomorphic and archaeological -historical evidence for past ealihquakes in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maroukian

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic observations focused on landforms of marine and fluvial origin such as notches, beachrocks, stream channel shifts, alluvial terraces and knickpoints, when combined with historical and archaeological information are able to date seismic events that took place in the past in some places of the Peloponnesus. At thc Eastern Gulf of Corinth, a seismically active area, all the geomorphic observations fit quite well with the deformation field induced by the action of an offshore fault. At Mycenae, a seismically inactive area with no historical evidence of earthquakes, the archaeological information is the only evidence for past earthquakes while geomorphic data indicate the most probable activated fault. At Sparta, an area of low seismicity but with historical evidence of destructive earthquakes, the geomorphic evidence helps to identify the most likely ruptured fault. At Eliki, a seismically active area with well documented historical activity, the geomorphic data serve to define the causative fault.This paper shows that although historical and archaeological data provide evidence far the occurrence of past earthquakes and often their date, geomorphic observations must be used to identify the causative fault.

  13. Genetics and southern African prehistory: an archaeological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Southern African populations speaking languages that are often - but inaccurately - grouped together under the label 'Khoisan' are an important focus of molecular genetic research, not least in tracking the early stages of human genetic diversification. This paper reviews these studies from an archaeological standpoint, concentrating on modern human origins, the introduction of pastoralism to southern Africa and admixture between the region's indigenous foragers and incoming Bantu-speaking farmers. To minimise confusion and facilitate correlation with anthropological, linguistic and archaeological data it emphasises the need to use ethnolinguistic labels accurately and with due regard for the particular histories of individual groups. It also stresses the geographically and culturally biased nature of the genetic studies undertaken to date, which employ data from only a few 'Khoisan' groups. Specific topics for which the combined deployment of genetic and archaeological methods would be particularly useful include the early history of Ju-Hoan- and Tuu-speaking hunter-gatherers, the expansion of Khoe-speaking populations, the chronology of genetic exchange between hunter-gatherers and farmers, and the origins of the Sotho/Tswana- and Nguni-speaking populations that dominate much of southern Africa today.

  14. archAR: an archaeological augmented reality experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Bridgette; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2015-03-01

    We present an application for Android phones or tablets called "archAR" that uses augmented reality as an alternative, portable way of viewing archaeological information from UCSD's Levantine Archaeology Laboratory. archAR provides a unique experience of flying through an archaeological dig site in the Levantine area and exploring the artifacts uncovered there. Using a Google Nexus tablet and Qualcomm's Vuforia API, we use an image target as a map and overlay a three-dimensional model of the dig site onto it, augmenting reality such that we are able to interact with the plotted artifacts. The user can physically move the Android device around the image target and see the dig site model from any perspective. The user can also move the device closer to the model in order to "zoom" into the view of a particular section of the model and its associated artifacts. This is especially useful, as the dig site model and the collection of artifacts are very detailed. The artifacts are plotted as points, colored by type. The user can touch the virtual points to trigger a popup information window that contains details of the artifact, such as photographs, material descriptions, and more.

  15. The empirical case against the 'demographic turn' in Palaeolithic archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Mark; Vaesen, Krist; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size. Instead, ethnographic and archaeological data suggest that hunter-gatherer cultural complexity is most strongly influenced by environmental factors. Because all hominins were hunter-gatherers until the Holocene, this means using population size to interpret patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record is problematic. In future, the population size hypothesis should be viewed as one of several competing hypotheses and its predictions formally tested alongside those of its competitors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.

  16. Manufacturing details by Neutron Radiography of Archaeological Pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Maria Ines Silvani; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara Maribondo [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The aim of the present work was to investigate manufacturing details of archaeological pot-sherds ceramics by Neutron Radiography. Pottery is perhaps the most important artefact found in excavation. Its archaeological importance relies on the fact that it can reveal cultural traditions and commercial influences in ancient communities. These pottery was recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil and the characteristics of clay used in their manufacture have been studied by modern scientific techniques such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Thermoluminescence Dating and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Different fragments of pottery were submitted to a neutron flux of the order of 10{sup 5}n.cm{sup -2}2:s{sup -1} for 3 minutes in the research reactor Argonauta at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear/CNEN. Digital processing techniques using imaging plate were applied to the image of the selected sample. The Neutrongraphy shows two different manufacturing details: palette and rollers. The fragment made by the technique of palette show a homogeneous mass and the neutrongraphy of ceramic fragments made by the technique of the rollers, pottery funeral, can be seen horizontal traces of the junction of rollers, overlapping, forming layers supported on each other. This technique allows you to create more stable structures. Thus, both the technique of the pallet as the roller can be characterized by Neutron Radiography. (author)

  17. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  18. History of Bolivian Archaeology: Geraldine Byrne de Caballero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Today the principal archaeological museum of Cochabamba, Bolivia is called the Museo Geraldine Byrne de Caballero. Yet there is surprisingly little information on Byrne de Caballero at the museum, or elsewhere in Bolivian sources. Fortunately, Walter Sánchez Canedo (2006 has written a brief article, providing some more information about her career. Byrne de Caballero investigated and wrote articles on Cochabamba sites, from the formative period up through historical periods. I knew most of the eight journal articles cited for her, but she wrote another five dozen articles for local newspapers. All of these publications, however, were written when she was director of the museum in Cochabamba, from 1972 to 1986, so we lack information on her earlier archaeological contributions. Although publishing in special supplemental newspaper sections has been a well-accepted practice or tradition for informing the public and specialists about Bolivian archaeology, it obviously makes it difficult for the non-Cochabambinos to track down her publications. But at least now with title, newspaper, and date, it may be possible to go back into old local archives and retrieve some of these articles.

  19. Archaeological and genetic insights into the origins of domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Zhao, Zhijun

    2014-04-29

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal grains in the world today and serves as a staple food source for more than half of the world's population. Research into when, where, and how rice was brought into cultivation and eventually domesticated, along with its development into a staple food source, is thus essential. These questions have been a point of nearly continuous research in both archaeology and genetics, and new information has continually come to light as theory, data acquisition, and analytical techniques have advanced over time. Here, we review the broad history of our scientific understanding of the rice domestication process from both an archaeological and genetic perspective and examine in detail the information that has come to light in both of these fields in the last 10 y. Current findings from genetics and archaeology are consistent with the domestication of O. sativa japonica in the Yangtze River valley of southern China. Interestingly, although it appears rice was cultivated in the area by as early 8000 BP, the key domestication trait of nonshattering was not fixed for another 1,000 y or perhaps longer. Rice was also cultivated in India as early as 5000 BP, but the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica. These findings are reshaping our understanding of rice domestication and also have implications for understanding the complex evolutionary process of plant domestication.

  20. Adaptation of Industrial Hyperspectral Line Scanner for Archaeological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljković, V.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral characteristic of the visible light reflected from any of archaeological artefact is the result of the interaction of its surface illuminated by incident light. Every particular surface depends on what material it is made of and/or which layers put on it has its spectral signature. Recent archaeometry recognises this information as very valuable data to extend present documentation of artefacts and as a new source for scientific exploration. However, the problem is having an appropriate hyperspectral imaging system available and adopted for applications in archaeology. In this paper, we present the new construction of the hyperspectral imaging system, made of industrial hyperspectral line scanner ImSpector V9 and CCD-sensor PixelView. The hyperspectral line scanner is calibrated geometrically, and hyperspectral data are geocoded and converted to the hyperspectral cube. The system abilities are evaluated for various archaeological artefacts made of different materials. Our experience in applications, visualisations, and interpretations of collected hyperspectral data are explored and presented.

  1. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  2. Iron corrosion in an anoxic soil: Comparison between thermodynamic modelling and ferrous archaeological artefacts characterised along with the local in situ geochemical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb, M.; Neff, D.; Michelin, A.; Dillmann, P. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, LAPA SIS2M, UMR3299, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saheb, M. [ANDRA, F-92298 Chatenay Malabry (France); Descostes, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR, Lab Radionuclides Migrat Measurements and Modelling, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Descostes, M. [Univ Evry, CEA, CNRS, UMR 8587, Evry (France); Dillmann, P. [CNRS, Inst Rech Archeomat, UMR 5060, F-75700 Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    This article is part of an ongoing study on the long-term corrosion behaviour of ferrous archaeological artefacts. The aim of this study is to correlate the corrosion products formed on ancient artefacts in an anoxic medium to the environmental data using thermodynamic modelling. For this purpose, measurement campaigns have been conducted on the archaeological site of Glinet (16. century, High Normandy (Seine-Maritime), France) where the evolution of the pore water chemistry has been recorded for a period of one year. Three evolution steps have been distinguished after the oxidizing perturbation which was induced by the piezometers installation. The first step was related to an oxidizing environment in which pore water was in equilibrium with a Fe(III) precipitated phase: ferri-hydrite (FeOOH center dot 0.4 H{sub 2}O). The second step was considered as an intermediate step and Fe speciation had evolved; equilibrium was achieved between ferri-hydrite and a Fe(II) carbonate phase: siderite (Fe(II)CO{sub 3}). The last step of the evolution was related to a reducing stage where pore water was in equilibrium with magnetite (Fe(II, III){sub 3}O{sub 4}) and with chukanovite (Fe(II){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). As these phases were present in the corrosion layers formed on the archaeological samples, it is possible to conclude that the thermodynamic approach was helpful in developing a better understanding of the effect of geochemical conditions on the composition and mineralogy of the corrosion products formed on archaeological artefacts. This work could be used as a reference for further corrosion studies, especially on long-term corrosion processes applied to nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  3. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lightfoot

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals' homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific

  4. Quantum Chemistry via the Periodic Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an approach to quantum mechanics exploiting the periodic structure of the elements as a foundation for the quantum theory of matter. Indicates that a quantum chemistry course can be developed using this approach. (SK)

  5. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  6. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  7. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  8. Archaeological Investigations at Nelson Wash, Fort Irwin, California. Fort Irwin Archaeological Project Research Report Number 23. Volume 2. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Lithic Use-Wear Research ., Archaeometry 26:49- * 61. Kowta, Makoto 1969 The Sayles Complex: A Late Millingstone Assemblage from Cajon Pass and the...8217Deposit Versus Abrasion’ Controversy. Journal of Archaeological Research 11:91-98. United States Army Environmental Hygiene Agency 1984 Water Quality...1981 Pleistocene High-Silica Rhyolites of the Coso Volcanic Field, Inyo County, California. Journal of Geophysical Research , Vol. 86, No. Bll: 10223

  9. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  10. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  11. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential.

  12. Physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    In this third edition, core applications have been added along with more recent developments in the theories of chemical reaction kinetics and molecular quantum mechanics, as well as in the experimental study of extremely rapid chemical reactions.* Fully revised concise edition covering recent developments in the field* Supports student learning with step by step explanation of fundamental principles, an appropriate level of math rigor, and pedagogical tools to aid comprehension* Encourages readers to apply theory in practical situations

  13. One-step synthesis of collagen hybrid gold nanoparticles and formation on Egyptian-like gold-plated archaeological ivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Apchain, Emilande; Albéric, Marie; Fontan, Elisabeth; Reiche, Ina

    2014-08-04

    A one-step method is reported to synthesize hybrid gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by reduction of HAuCl4 in acetic solution in the presence of collagen (Col), dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG), and cetyltetrammonium bromide (CTAB) mixed with hydoxyapatite (HAP) as surfactants. Such formation process of AuNPs was shown to be responsible for purple stains naturally formed on Egyptianizing archaeological gilded ivories from 8th BC Syria. The understanding of this formation mechanism, which most likely involves a step with hybrid AuNPs, allows the establishing of an authenticity marker of ancient gold-plated ivories.

  14. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  15. Solid-State Chemistry as a Formation Mechanism for C 4N 2 Ice and Possibly the Haystack (220 cm -1 ice emission feature) in Titan's Stratosphere as Observed by Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; McLain, Jason L.; Nna Mvondo, Delphine; Romani, Paul; Flasar, F. Michael

    2016-10-01

    A profusion of organic ices containing hydrocarbons, nitriles, and combinations of their mixtures comprise Titan's complex stratospheric cloud systems, and are typically formed via vapor condensation. These ice particles are then distributed throughout the mid-to-lower stratosphere, with an increased abundance near the winter poles (see Anderson et al., 2016). The cold temperatures and the associated strong circumpolar winds that isolate polar air act in much the same way as on Earth, giving rise to compositional anomalies and stratospheric clouds that provide heterogeneous chemistry sites.Titan's C4N2 ice emission feature at 478 cm-1 and "the Haystack," a strong unidentified stratospheric ice emission feature centered at 220 cm-1, share a common characteristic. Even though both are distinctive ice emission features evident in Cassini Composite InfraRed (CIRS) far-IR spectra, no associated vapor emission features can be found in Titan's atmosphere. Without a vapor phase, solid-state chemistry provides an alternate mechanism beside vapor condensation for producing these observed stratospheric ices.Anderson et al., (2016) postulated that C4N2 ice formed in Titan's stratosphere via the solid-state photochemical reaction HCN + HC3N → C4N2 + H2 can occur within extant HCN-HC3N composite ice particles. Such a reaction, and potentially similar reactions that may produce the Haystack ice, are specific examples of solid-state chemistry in solar system atmospheres. This is in addition to the reaction HCl + ClONO2 → HNO3 + Cl2, which is known to produce HNO3 coatings on terrestrial water ice particles, a byproduct of the catalytic chlorine chemistry that produces ozone holes in Earth's polar stratosphere (see for example, Molina et al., 1987 Soloman, 1999).A combination of radiative transfer modeling of CIRS far-IR spectra, coupled with optical constants derived from thin film transmittance spectra of organic ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes

  16. Towards a Socio-Political History of Archaeology in the Middle East: The Development of Archaeological Practice and Its Impacts on Local Communities in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Gillot

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No longer is Archaeology regarded as a neutral or a purely scientific discipline, but as a process influenced by the aims of its practitioners, who are, in turn, deeply affected by contemporary intellectual, social and political agendas. As well, research undertaken on archaeological practice in non-western settings, that is closely related to colonial issues, has highlighted how archaeology could be a tool of scientific, cultural, political and socio-economic domination (e.g. Diaz-Andreu 2007; Kane 2003; Silberman 1989; Trigger 1984.

  17. Quantitative Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Slag Material Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca B; Eekelers, Kim; Degryse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) has seen a dramatic increase in use for archaeological projects. The attraction of the technique is its portable and nondestructive nature. In many cases, the archaeological artefacts in question cannot be destructively sampled, or the piece itself cannot be sent to an analytical laboratory. One of the current research interests associated with the Sagalassos project is the study of the Roman iron industry. Previously exported iron slag and ore from the site and the surrounding area was subjected to laboratory chemical analyses. These indicated that different ores were being utilized in the production of iron in different periods. In order to further the project the slag material still in the site depot needed to be analyzed. However, recent legislative changes mean that materials can only be analyzed on-site. Since samples could not be taken and destructive chemical analysis was no longer feasible, a portable, nondestructive technique was required. Handheld XRF can easily provide qualitative data, but these data are only comparable to other handheld XRF qualitative data, from the same device. Quantitative data gathering is possible, but can be more problematic, particularly when the material in question is heterogeneous in nature. A calibration file was created using the manufacturer's software and "in-house" standards made from the pre-quantified samples of iron slag available in the laboratory. In order to make the calibration as robust as possible, the composition of the standards was analyzed statistically to determine which of these created bias and leverage for specific elements. These standards were then omitted from the calibration for that element. The calibration was tested in the laboratory using samples of iron slag previously analyzed with wet chemistry, and the results indicated that most sample analyses showed 30% error were found in samples which contained very low or very high quantities of the

  18. Is the Truth Down There?: Cultural Heritage Conflict and the Politics of Archaeological Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Barber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The selective pressures and processes of cultural heritage management effectively disinherit some interest groups. Where this occurs in the context of postcolonial or nationalist conflict, the material archaeological record may be referenced to support or reject particular views. The disciplinary assumptions behind the archaeological evidence so produced are not usually contested in judicial contexts. A review of archaeology’s theoretical foundations suggests that this naivety itself may be problematic. A descriptive culture history approach dominated archaeology over the first half of the twentieth century with a strong political appeal to nationalist politics. Subsequently archaeology became concerned with processual explanation and the scientific identification of universal laws of culture, consistent with postwar technological optimism and conformity. A postprocessual archaeology movement from the 1970s has promoted relativism and challenged the singular authority of scientific explanation. Archaeologists caught within this debate disagree over the use of the archaeological record in situations of political conflict. Furthermore, the use of archaeology in the sectarian debate over the Ayodhya birthplace of Rama suggests that the material record of the past can become highly politicized and seemingly irresolvable. Archaeological research is also subject to other blatant and subtle political pressures throughout the world, affecting the nature and interpretation of the record. A system that privileges archaeological information values may be irrelevant also to communities who value and manage their ancestral heritage for customary purposes. Collectively this review of theory and applied knowledge suggests that it is unrealistic to expect that archaeology can authoritatively resolve strident claims and debates about the past. Instead, an important contemporary contribution of archaeology may be its potential to document cultural and

  19. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  20. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  1. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  2. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  3. Chemistry for Potters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  4. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  6. Functional Group Chemistry (by James R. Hanson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karty, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    Given its density and brevity and the apparent requirement of previous organic chemistry knowledge, Functional Group Chemistry is inappropriate as a stand-alone text for first-year organic students. It is also difficult to imagine using it as a supplement to a traditional textbook, since the textbook would presumably provide the same material in greater depth and with better clarity. The end-of-chapter problems in Functional Group Chemistry, however, would provide excellent exam and supplemental homework questions, and would be appropriate given the greater emphasis on reaction mechanisms in the traditional textbook. Perhaps the best use for Functional Group Chemistry, then, is for students returning after having had a year of organic chemistry, either for a quick reference, or for an in-depth review in studying for a standardized exam.

  7. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  8. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  9. Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of Pool 10, Upper Mississippi River, Grant and Crawford Counties, Wisconsin, and Allamakee and Clayton Counties, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Hundred Years of Eastern Wisconsin Oneota Prehistory. " Foreign Language proficiency: Spanish and French. Minor Studies: Linguistics) Membership in...Field Archaeology--Survey and Excavation Analyses of Archaeological Materials and Data Hominid Paleontology North American Prehistory North American

  10. The Future of GLOSS Sea Level Data Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Bradshaw, E.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Aarup, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long term climate records are rare, consisting of unique and unrepeatable measurements. However, data do exist in analogue form in archives, libraries and other repositories around the world. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts aims to provide advice on locating hidden tide gauge data, scanning and digitising records and quality controlling the resulting data. Long sea level data time series are used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and climate studies, in oceanography to study changes in ocean currents, tides and storm surges, in geodesy to establish national datum and in geography and geology to monitor coastal land movement. GLOSS has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, which have mainly involved sending member organisations questionnaires on their repositories. The Group of Experts is now looking at future developments in sea level data archaeology and how new technologies coming on line could be used by member organisations to make data digitisation and transcription more efficient. Analogue tide data comes in two forms charts, which record the continuous measurements made by an instrument, usually via a pen trace on paper ledgers containing written values of observations The GLOSS data archaeology web pages will provide a list of software that member organisations have reported to be suitable for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts. Transcribing of ledgers has so far proved more labour intensive and is usually conducted by people entering numbers by hand. GLOSS is exploring using Citizen Science techniques, such as those employed by the Old Weather project, to improve the efficiency of transcribing ledgers. The Group of Experts is also looking at recent advances in Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology, which mainly relies on patterns in the written word, but could be adapted to work with the patterns inherent in sea level data.

  11. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  12. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  13. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  14. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    to the advent of modern Raman spectroscopy it was difficult to analyze archaeological materials, due to difficulties arising principally from the generation of fluorescence by shorter-wavelength visible radiation. There was also the real possibility of sample degradation occurring from the use of the relatively...... high laser powers that years ago were necessary for sufficient sample excitation. The major advantages of Raman spectroscopy over infrared spectroscopy, namely the weak Raman scattering of water, could not be fully exploited. This situation has changed recently, as shown below in this review...

  15. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for ...... for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar....

  16. Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Evidence Relating to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    The sky is a link between us and our remote ancestors. When we look at the sky, we are aware that our human ancestors were watching our sun, our moon, our planets, and our stars. Evidence of the peoples' different relations with the sky in the past, today, is found by historians and archaeologists. Archaeologists, who keep track of the earliest human history, infer the past lives of human societies from the physical remains of the past found in the soil. Archaeoastronomy holds that from the same archaeological record, we can get insights into the significance of celestial objects and events for the human life in the remote past.

  17. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  18. Plant remains of archaeological site Casa Vieja, Callango (Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleoethnobotanical study was carried out at the Middle Horizon archaeological site of Casa Vieja, located in Callango within the Lower Ica Valley. A total of 23 species were identified, all determined to be of the Magnoliopyta Division, 78 % (or 18 species were Magnoliopsid and 22% (or 15 species Liliopsid. The Fabaceae are the best represented family with 6 species. Most of the analyzed samples correspond to seeds of Gossypium barbadense “cotton”. Seventy percent of the species were probably used as food; 48% for artifact-making and construction and 52% for medicinal and curative purposes.

  19. Crowd-sourced Archaeological Research: The MicroPasts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonacchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief introduction to MicroPasts, a web-enabled crowd-sourcing and crowd-funding project whose overall goal is to promote the collection and use of high quality research data via institutional and community collaborations, both on- and off-line. In addition to introducing this initiative, the discussion below is a reflection of its lead author’s core contribution to the project and will dwell in more detail on one particular aspect of MicroPasts: its relevance to research and practice in public archaeology, cultural policy and heritage studies.

  20. Spanish Civil War caves of Asturias in archaeology and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, J.; Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    As the Spanish Civil War drew to a close, retreating Republican troops in the northern region of Asturias took refuge in caves in the mountains from the brutal victor’s justice of the Francoist forces. In this paper we examine three of these caves in the context of the Civil War experiences of the rural municipality of Santo Adriano, based on a combination of archaeological recording and oral history interviews. The paper focuses on the role of the La Ponte-Ecomuseum, a grassroots heritage or...

  1. Probing Luminescence Dating Of Archaeologically Significant Carved Rock Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Kitis, George; Galloway, Robert B.; Vafiadou, Asimina; Tsirliganis, Nestoras C.; Polymeris, George S.

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of crystalline materials, first applied to calcites (limestone buildings), has been extended to carved megalithic monuments made of granites, basalt and sandstones derived from archaeological sites. Various applied criteria for potential dating included pulsed blue light stimulation, different preheating and solar simulator bleaching, while the single (and multiple) aliquot regeneration and additive dose procedures were used for equivalent dose determination. The decay curves of signal loss follow a power law, n-p; for blue stimulation the signal loss of quartz and feldspar is better approached by an exponential law, 1-aln(n).

  2. Protective Structures for the Conservation and Presentation of Archaeological Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Aslan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A critical review of the effectiveness of shelters or enclosed buildings as a means of preserving 'in situ' archaeological features is required. This paper identifies some of the key problems related to site preservation and the use of built structures, as well as an assessment of selected examples of both shelters and enclosures. From these examples a range of problems, from practical to aesthetic, are identified. The need to establish guidelines and planning procedures for design and implementation for future projects is highlighted and suggestions for future study and design modification are given.

  3. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  4. An XML-based information model for archaeological pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU De-zhi; RAZDAN Anshuman; SIMON Arleyn; BAE Myungsoo

    2005-01-01

    An information model is defined to support sharing scientific information on Web for archaeological pottery. Apart from non-shape information, such as age, material, etc., the model also consists of shape information and shape feature information. Shape information is collected by Lasers Scanner and geometric modelling techniques. Feature information is generated from shape information via feature extracting techniques. The model is used in an integrated storage, archival, and sketch-based query and retrieval system for 3D objects, native American ceramic vessels. A novel aspect of the information model is that it is totally implemented with XML, and is designed for Web-based visual query and storage application.

  5. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Terras

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL TAXA IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL WATERLOGGED WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Palla; Giovanna Barresi; Enza Di Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic and molecular techniques described in this study are aimed at understanding the degradation processes of the anatomical structure of submerged archaeological wood, correlating it to the degradation induced by bacteria. The SEM micrographs showed alterations of the wooden structure due to bacterial colonization, as well as the presence of pyrite framboids. The difficulty of extracting bacterial DNA from wooden fragments belonging to submerged finds is well-known, due to the pre...

  7. Nanoplasmonics tuned ``click chemistry''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijunelyte, I.; Guenin, E.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Colas, F.; Ibrahim, J.; Toury, T.; Lamy de La Chapelle, M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry.Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR study on reaction initiation, SERS spectra and temperature calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09018k

  8. Treasures from the Past: Using Archaeology in Upper-Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Cynthia C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fourth grade teacher's interdisciplinary efforts at imparting the joys of archaeology to her students. The students read fiction and non-fiction materials about the physical environments and participated in a series of hands-on learning activities. These involved simulated archaeological digs, personal artifacts, and realia. (MJP)

  9. Grounding the past : the praxis of participatory archaeology in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurds, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    "Grounding the Past" addresses archaeological field praxis and its role in the political present of Santiago Tilantongo and Santiago Apoala, two communities in the Mixteca Alta region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Efforts to involve local stakeholder communities in archaeology have become an important issue wo

  10. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age... material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer era. The restrictions, which were originally... archaeological material from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR...

  11. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  12. Arizona Archaeology Week: Promoting the Past to the Public. Archeological Assistance Program Technical Brief No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Teresa L.; Lerner, Shereen

    The federal archaeological community has identified a need for an organized and comprehensive public outreach effort at the national level that can provide a framework for regional and local public support for archaeological resources. This document presents one part of the program and provides guidance in developing public awareness. Arizona…

  13. 75 FR 58431 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The human remains were... the Lower Mississippi Survey expedition. The Lower Mississippi Survey was a project of...

  14. 75 FR 28648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The human remains were removed from Iosco County, MI. This... Coordinator, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Ave., Cambridge,...

  15. 76 FR 62842 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University has completed an inventory of human remains, in... and Ethnology, Harvard University. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  16. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  17. Digging holes abroad. An ethnography of Dutch archaeological research projects abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, Sjoerd Jaap van der

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, western archaeology increasingly abandoned its ‘ivory tower’ in order to investigate, negotiate and develop its position and role in global society. The way in which we deal with other peoples views in the interpretation of archaeological materials, the way in which we int

  18. David Hurst Thomas and the Historical Archaeology of the Spanish Borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses David Hurst Thomas' archaeological work on the Spanish borderlands, which integrates field archaeology and documentary history. Focuses on locating and studying the Santa Catalina de Guale. Addresses his project on the Pueblo San Marcos that will further test his ideas about the Spanish mission period. (CMK)

  19. 文献考古方法论刍议%On the Methodology of Documentary Archaeology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何驽

    2002-01-01

    The application of historical literature in archaeological research has been lack of methodological formalization. This situation has retarden the establishment of epistemological consentience, leading to dispute about historical records among Chinese archaeologists. The article argues that the systematic correspondence between potential logic of historical literature and archaeological contexts could serve as the datum point for the utilization of ancient literature.

  20. Prehistoric Archaeology and Poetic Wisdom%史前考古学与诗性智慧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    户晓辉

    2001-01-01

    Archaeological remains of the prehistoric times are the results of poetic wisdom of the prehistoric people. They are spiritual rather than material remains. Thus archaeological studies need not only giving explanations on the materials but also understanding them in a multidiscipline background.

  1. A Review of the International Academic Symposium on Tibetan Archaeology and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangChanghong

    2004-01-01

    To date at least two aspects of Tibetan studies have become prominent. One is Tibetan archaeology which has grown from a base of ever-enriching fieldwork, and the other is Tibetan art studies which is dominated by Tibetan Buddhist art. In western humanity disciplines,archaeology and art history have always been regarded

  2. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  3. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  4. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, Villa Rica, Georgia Archaeology Sites Map, Published in 2006, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Chattahoochee-Flint Regional Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It...

  5. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  6. Elementary and brief introduction of hadronic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangde, Vijay M.

    2013-10-01

    The discipline, today known as Quantum Chemistry for atomic and subatomic level interactions has no doubt made a significant historical contributions to the society. Despite of its significant achievements, quantum chemistry is also known for its widespread denial of insufficiencies it inherits. An Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures without any quantitative scientific contents. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper-mathematics [1-4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli's mathematics[3-5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6-8]. In the present discussion, we have briefly reviewed the conceptual foundations of Hadronic Chemistry that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.

  7. Oxygen-Induced Restructuring of Rutile TiO(2)(110): Formation Mechanism, Atomic Models, and Influence on Surface Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min; Hebenstreit, Wilhelm; Diebold, Ulrike; Henderson, Michael A.; Jennison, Dwight R.

    1999-07-07

    The rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) (1x1) surface is considered the prototypical ''well-defined'' system in the surface science of metal oxides. Its popularity results partly from two experimental advantages: bulk-reduced single crystals do not exhibit charging, and stoichiometric surfaces--as judged by electron spectroscopes--can be prepared reproducibly by sputtering and annealing in oxygen. We present results that show that this commonly-applied preparation procedure may result in a surface structure that is by far more complex than generally anticipated. Flat, (1x1) terminated surfaces are obtained by sputtering and annealing in ultrahigh vacuum. When re-annealed in oxygen at moderate temperatures (470 K to 660 K), irregular networks of partially-connected, pseudohexagonal rosettes (6.5 x 6 {angstrom} wide), one-unit cell wide strands, and small ({approximately} tens of {angstrom}) (1x1) islands appear. This new surface phase is formed through reaction of oxygen gas with interstitial Ti from the reduced bulk. Because it consists of an incomplete, kinetically-limited (1x1) layer, this phenomenon has been termed restructuring. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study that systematically explores this restructuring process. The influence of several parameters (annealing time, temperature, pressure, sample history, gas) on the surface morphology is investigated using STM. The surface coverage of the added phase as well as the kinetics of the restructuring process are quantified by LEIS and SSIMS measurements in combination with annealing in {sup 18}O-enriched gas. Atomic models of the essential structural elements are presented and are shown to be stable with first-principles density functional calculations. The effect of oxygen-induced restructuring on surface chemistry and its importance for TiO{sub 2} and other bulk-reduced oxide materials is briefly discussed.

  8. A Short History of the Bulletin of the History of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As my tenure as Editor of the Bulletin ofthe History of Archaeology (BHA draws to a close (31 December 2002,I think it useful to the readership that I provide a very brief history of the BRA covering its inception, early years, and my aspirations for its future. The BHA was just a passing idea in my mind in 1990 when I organized an Advanced Seminar held at the School of American Search (SAR in Santa Fe,New Mexico (14-18 July 1990, concerning the then current state of writing the history of archaeology for the Society for American Archaeology's Committee on theHistory.of Archaeology. To a great degree the SAR advanced seminar grew out of a seminal gathering (Visitor Scholar's Conference that Andrew Christenson had put together in 1987 at Southern Ilinois University at Carbondaie,Dlinois - a gathering of those working in the history of archaeology.

  9. “Bolshie Klyuchishi” (Ulyanovsk Oblast as a New Archaeological Complex: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobeva Elena E.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce for discussion materials of archaeological studies conducted by the team of the Volga Archaeological Expedition of the Mari State University in Ulyanovsk Oblast of the Russian Federation in 2010. Two of the studied archaeological sites seem to be most interesting: they are situated near Bolshie Klyuchishi village (Ulyanovsk District, Ulyanovsk Oblast. Archaeological materials collected during the excavations of these settlements have a very broad time span, which allows suggesting that Bolshie Klyuchishi is a multilayered archaeological complex. Both settlements yielded the Srubnaya culture handmade ceramics of 16th – 13th centuries BC. Moreover, Bolshie Klyuchishi-7 contained items of iron and slag, and Bolshie Klyuchishi-8 yielded sherds of 13th – 14th centuries wheel- made Bulgarian ceramics.

  10. Assess as You Go: The Effect of Continuous Assessment on Student Learning during a Short Course in Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Sven

    2008-01-01

    A continuous classroom assessment technique, "Five-minute" essays, was applied during a short course called "Scientific Methods in Archaeology--Applications and Problems", given at the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden. There was a strong positive and statistically…

  11. 75 FR 8740 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meets the definition of... California; and Wilton Rancheria, California. Officials of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and...

  12. 78 FR 27996 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, MA, in consultation with the... these cultural items should submit a written request to the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology....

  13. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  14. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  15. Evaluation of 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene degradation in the detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, MCMv3.1, using environmental chamber data

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, A.; Dommen, J.; Gaeggeler, K.; Duplissy, J.; A. S. H. Prevot; Kleffmann, J.; Elshorbany, Y.; Wisthaler, A; Baltensperger, U.

    2008-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of 1,3,5-trimethyl- benzene (TMB) as implemented in the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM) was evaluated using data from the environmental chamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The results show that the MCM provides a consistent description of the photo-oxidation of TMB/NOx mixtures for a range of conditions. In all cases the agreement between the measurement and the simulation decreases with decreasing VOC-NOx...

  16. Mapping the Structure of the Archaeological Web Open Data Open Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the context of our archaeological blogging? When we blog, are we merely shouting into the void? Do archaeological bloggers link only to one another, and do we shout only to each other (which, it must be admitted, is what our journals and conferences do, too, albeit at a slower pace? Assume a person knows nothing about archaeology: would that person find your blog? Your project website? Your department's website? Does academic blogging matter? One way to answer these questions is through a mapping of the archaeological web. When a layperson finds a site, she might signal its perceived value through linking, retweeting, commenting (once upon a time, on the blog post itself; now more likely via a tweet, and writing her own blog posts about it. Therefore, various network metrics of this map of the archaeological web can be taken as a kind of proxy for evaluating the likely impact of our blogging. Given that these blogs are all publicly available (if one knows or can find the address, blogging is a kind of public archaeology. Not necessarily an archaeology done for the public, but rather an archaeology done in view of the public (cf Richardson and Almansa-Sánchez 2015 on the variety within public archaeology. It would be interesting to know if this kind of public archaeology has an impact at all. These signals and linkages in the general noise of the Internet are the subject of this article. In order for us as archaeologists to generate the strongest possible signals on the web, we need to understand the structures that have emerged within the web to best facilitate dissemination. This can help us increase our signals' visibility, even though all roads eventually lead to Wikipedia.

  17. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  18. GIS-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities’ impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  20. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.