WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemistry archaeology mechanisms

  1. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  2. Biocorrosion of Archaeological Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, William L.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the physical manifestation and chemical mechanisms andprocesses of biologically-induced corrosion of archaeological glass. Archaeological glasssamples from Greece and Cyprus suspected to have undergone biocorrosion wereanalyzed to characterize the composition and surface topography and to determine thedifference in the chemistry and microstructure between the glass surface and the bulk.Microscopic and analytical techniques employed include digital microscopy, polari...

  3. Archaeological Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1983-01-01

    Research projects and methodology in archeochemistry are discussed. Topics include radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, amino acid dating, obsidian hydration dating, bone studies, metals/metallurgy, pottery, stone/glass, and future directions. Includes reports on funding, insights into nuclear waste/environmental problems provided by…

  4. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  5. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  6. Buried iron archaeological artefacts: Corrosion mechanisms related to the presence of Cl-containing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterioration after excavation of archaeological iron artefacts buried in soil is often associated with the presence of Cl-containing phases in corrosion products, leading to serious problems for conservation of metallic objects of cultural heritage. Thus, in order to better understand the corrosion process related to the presence of chlorine, some high-resolution techniques of materials characterisation are implemented. Particularly this paper shows the great utility of the combination of micro-X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The analyses are realised on the cross sections of iron corroded objects excavated on archaeological sites dated from the 12th to the 16th century AD. In addition to the common oxyhydroxide containing chloride, akaganeite (β-FeOOH) often mentioned in the literature, a ferrous hydroxychloride β-Fe2(OH)3Cl was also found in the corrosion layers. In order to explain the corrosion system formed during burial, a corrosion mechanism including the presence of chlorine, is proposed

  7. Fast Chemistry Mechanisms for Climate Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Connell, P. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Chuang, C. C.; Prather, M. J.; Lamarque, J.; Hess, P.; Vitt, F.

    2008-12-01

    When atmospheric chemistry is included in long climate and Earth system simulations, the completeness of the chemical mechanism must be balanced with the computational cost, and the scientific interests of the atmospheric chemist must be tempered by the chemical needs of other components of the climate model (e.g, greenhouse gas concentrations for radiative heating, and deposition rates for biosphere interactions). We have implemented two chemical mechanisms for use in long climate simulations. One uses 28 species to calculate ozone, OH, methane, N2O, and sulfate throughout troposphere and stratosphere. The other uses just 15 species to calculate ozone, OH, and sulfate, with the OH providing the means to back-out the lifetime of methane and other species of interest. We have compared the sensitivity of both mechanisms to emission perturbations against the response of a state-of-the-art full chemistry mechanism that uses 90 species. Both fast mechanisms compare well. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  9. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  10. Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological ceramics contain infinity of data about social and cultural indigenous site Caninhas/SP. The ceramics present a gradient of color (ochre to dark gray), when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples. It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction (XRD) and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases (ochre region) and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases (dark gray region). The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics, when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics, reaching approximately 203 HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. (author)

  11. Extending Saiph to simulate fluid mechanics and chemistry problems

    OpenAIRE

    Macià Sorrosal, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Saiph is a domain specific language for solving partial differential equations in high performance computing systems, developed at the Barcelona Computing Center. The aim of this project is to extend this language to support fluid mechanics and chemistry problems.

  12. The chemistry induced by mechanical load

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Results in the field of mechanochemistry are summarized. For example under mechanical load often a solvolysis is observed instead of a simple homolytic bond rupture. Also a mechanically induced redox reaction was reported experimentally and could be modelled theoretically. With CPMD simulations it is possible to understand multi-step mechanisms in full detail.

  13. Quantum mechanics a comprehensive text for chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Kishor

    2010-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. The text includes the inadequacy of classical mechanics and covers basic and fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics including concepts of transitional, vibration rotation and electronic energies, introduction to concepts of angular momenta, approximatemethods and their application concepts related to electron spin, symmetery concepts and quantum mechanics and ultimately the book features the theories of chemical bonding and use of softwares in quantum mechanics. the text of the book is presented in a lucid manner with ample examples and illustrations wherever

  14. Ethics in Archaeological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jennbert, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The ethical dimensions of Swedish archaeology will be discussed from several angles – those of the archaeology of the past, critical archaeology, contemplative archaeology, and antiquarian archaeology. These themes overlap in the various fields of archaeology. In my opinion ethical perspectives on archaeological practice are vital for the survival and legitimacy of archaeology. Thus, archaeologists should to an even greater extent relate “their” archaeology to the world at large. The types of...

  15. Mechanic-chemistry of tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current work results on tungsten carbide nanocrystalline structure generation study under high-energy deformation and W-C with Ni mechanical alloying are presented. Mechanical alloying of W and C was worked out in planetary ball mill with water cooling in argon environment. X-ray diffraction examination of these samples were carried out in diffractometer DRON-3.0 with application of CoKα- and CuKα- radiations. With help of X-ray phase analysis in the examined time range of mechanical activation (1-10 min) of powder mixtures with content (W-C)-70 mass. % Ni the WC phase does not found. The observed broadening of W reflexes on diffract-grams in the course of activation time is explaining by reagents' grain size decrease, micro-tensions accumulation under deformations, concentration heterogeneousness generation

  16. Long term alteration of glass/iron systems in anoxic conditions: contribution of archaeological analogues to the study of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of glass alteration mechanisms arouses a great interest over the last decades, particularly in the nuclear field, since vitrification is used to stabilize high-level radioactive wastes in many countries. In the French concept, these nuclear glasses would be stored in geological repositories. This multi-barrier system (glass matrix, stainless steel container, low carbon steel over-container, geological barrier) must ensure the durable confinement of radionuclides. But laboratory experiments do not permit to predict directly the behaviour of these materials over typically a million-year timescale and the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data to long time periods remains problematic. Part of the validation of the predictive models relies on natural and archaeological analogues. Here, the analogues considered are vitreous slags produced as wastes by a blast furnace working during the 16. century in the iron making site of Glinet (Normandy, France). The choice of these specific artefacts is due to the presence of particular interface between corrosion products and glass matrix inside the blocks. Thus, they can help us to understand the influence of iron corrosion products from the steel containers on the glass alteration mechanisms and kinetics. A first part of this work concerns the characterization of the archaeological artefacts especially the interfacial area between glass and corrosion products inside cracks using micro and nano-beam techniques ( Raman spectroscopy, FEG-SEM, TEM, STXM...). This study has enabled to suggest an alteration process with different geochemical steps that leads to alteration profile observed. One of these steps is the precipitation of an iron silicate phase. In a second time, leaching experiments were set up on a synthetic glass of similar composition than the archaeological one to understand the first stages of alteration with and without iron. Two phenomena can be observed: silicon sorption and precipitation of iron

  17. Examining the life history of an individual from Solcor 3, San Pedro de Atacama: Combining bioarchaeology and archaeological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed life history information using multiple lines of evidence including the identification of geographic origins, health, and body use indicators, can be used to elucidate the complex process of acculturation in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile during the Middle Horizon. This paper presents the results of bioarchaeological and archaeological chemical analyses of the skeletal remains of an adult male (tomb 50, catalog number 1948) from the cemetery of Solcor 3 (ca. AD 500-900). Strontium isotope ratios in human tooth enamel reveal information about where a person lived during their childhood, when enamel was being formed. Individual 1948 showed strontium isotope ratios decidedly outside the range of the local San Pedro de Atacama strontium isotope signature. Given these data implying that individual 1948 was originally from elsewhere, an examination of his health status, social role, and mortuary context provides insight into the treatment of foreigners in San Pedro de Atacama. Our data support the argument that individual 1948's foreign birth did not hinder his later assimilation into Atacameno society. He was buried in a local cemetery with a typical mortuary assemblage for a male of this time and no strong evidence of possible foreign origin. Skeletal indicators of diet and activity patterns do not distinguish individual 1948 from the local population, suggesting that his lifestyle was similar to that of other Atacamenos. Therefore, our analyses suggest that individual 1948's acculturation into Atacameno society during his adult life was nearly complete and he retained little to no indication of his probable foreign birth

  18. New Interference Mechanism Controls Ultracold Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Brian K.; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    A newly discovered interference mechanism has been shown to control the outcome of ultracold chemical reactions. The mechanism originates from the unique properties associated with ultracold collisions, namely: (1) isotropic (s-wave) scattering and (2) an effective quantization of the scattering phase shift (which originates from the bound state structure of the molecule). These two properties can lead to maximum constructive or destructive interference between two interfering reaction pathways (such as exchange and non-exchange in systems with two or more identical nuclei). If the molecular system exhibits a conical intersection, then the associated geometric phase is shown to act as a ``quantum switch'' which can turn the reactivity on or off. Reaction rate coefficients for the O + OH --> H + O2 and H + H2, reactions are presented which explicitly demonstrate the effect. Experimentalists might exploit this new mechanism to control ultracold reactions by the application of external electric or magnetic fields or by the selection of a particular nuclear spin state. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program (Grant No. 20140309ER) at LANL (B.K.) and by NSF Grant PHY-1505557 (N.B.) and ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 (N.B.).

  19. A Simple Mnemonic for Tautomerization Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Chad E.

    2010-01-01

    The familiar word OREO (as in the cookie) is presented as a simple mnemonic for remembering the basic steps of the classical tautomerization mechanisms in organic chemistry. For acid-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton on, resonance, proton off. For base-catalyzed tautomerizations, OREO stands for proton off, resonance, proton on.…

  20. Concepts and methods in modern theoretical chemistry statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and Methods in Modern Theoretical Chemistry: Statistical Mechanics, the second book in a two-volume set, focuses on the dynamics of systems and phenomena. A new addition to the series Atoms, Molecules, and Clusters, this book offers chapters written by experts in their fields. It enables readers to learn how concepts from ab initio quantum chemistry and density functional theory (DFT) can be used to describe, understand, and predict chemical dynamics. This book covers a wide range of subjects, including discussions on the following topics: Time-dependent DFT Quantum fluid dynamics (QF

  1. Ferrous archaeological analogues for the understanding of the multi-secular corrosion mechanisms in an anoxic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the long term corrosion mechanisms of iron in an anoxic environment is essential in the field of the radioactive waste storage. In France, it is planned to store high level nuclear wastes in a multi-barrier system containing a glassy matrix surrounded by a stainless steel container, embedded in a low-carbon steel over-container. This system would be placed in a deep geological repository, which would impose anoxic conditions. As it must be efficient for a period of several thousands of years, one should understand the alteration mechanisms that are expected to occur in such a long time. To this purpose, a specific approach is developed on ferrous archaeological analogues with thick corrosion layer formed in natural conditions. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms have been assessed by examining nails aged of 400 years coming from the archaeological site of Glinet, selected as a reference site. The first point was a fine characterisation of the entire corrosion system metal / corrosion products / medium, through the use of coupled multi-scale analytical tools. The first results showed that the samples were corroded in an anoxic calco-carbonated environment. Moreover, the coupling of X-ray micro-diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy and dispersive energy spectroscopy has enabled to identify three corrosion systems composed of iron carbonates, siderite and chukanovite, and magnetite. Depending on the phase's layout in the system, the electronic resistance of the corrosion layers has been established, from resistive to conductive. In a second stage, re-corroding experiments in laboratory were performed. Firstly, the electrochemical behaviour of the corrosion system has shown that water reduction at the metallic interface is negligible. Furthermore, reaction tracing with copper and deuterium has allowed identifying the electron consumptions sites mainly localised on the external part, and the precipitation sites on the internal part of the corrosion

  2. Epoxide Chemistry: Guided Inquiry Experiment Emphasizing Structure Determination and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurty, H. G.; Jain, Niveta; Samby, Kiran

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents an operationally simple three-step synthesis of an a-hydroxy acid based on epoxide chemistry. The focus of the experiment is on the preparation of the chalcone epoxide and its reaction with hot alcoholic alkali. The experiment leads to an unpredicted reaction product. Its structure is established as 2-benzyl-2-phenylglycollic acid by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. The hydroxyacid is a good example to bring home an important NMR principle: the nonequivalence of hydrogens adjacent to a stereogenic center. The formation of the alpha-hydroxy acid is a mechanistic puzzle. A stepwise mechanism can be developed applying lecture-based organic chemistry concepts. On the other hand, acid-catalyzed (H2SO4, BF3) reaction of the chalcone epoxide gives benzoylphenylacetaldehyde. The exercise can be used as a multistep organic chemistry experiment. It also gives students a research-type experience.

  3. Long term corrosion of iron in concrete and in atmospheric conditions: a contribution of archaeological analogues to mechanism comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The prediction of iron (or low alloy steel) corrosion on very long term period is necessary in two different purposes: (i) the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage and (ii) the French storage and repository concept for the radioactive wastes. In order to determine the evolution of corrosion processes for very long period, mechanistic models have been developed. In these models that are based on a phenomenological approach to evaluate the average corrosion rates, two different environments are considered: concrete (steel reinforcements) and atmospheric. The study of archaeological analogues is a very pertinent tool for the validation of these models. First, physico-chemical analysis on old corrosion layers lead to a precise localisation and identification of the phases present in the corrosion system. Moreover, experimental reinduced corrosions of ancient samples under controlled parameters (temperature, relative humidity) bring new insight on the mechanisms involved. In particular, one crucial question related to the wet-dry cycle is the localisation of oxygen reduction sites in the rust layer. For this purpose, specific experiments have been set up to re-corrode the ancient samples in marked medium (using 18O2). Samples were exposed to cycling between high and low relative humidity, produced by saline saturated solutions. Then cross-sections of samples obtained were investigated by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) 18O(p,α)15N on the Pierre Sue Laboratory nuclear microprobe. In this presentation the 18O distribution profiles are discussed and interpreted in order to bring new insight on corrosion mechanisms. A comparative interpretation is made for each medium (concrete and atmosphere)

  4. Manipulating Mechanics and Chemistry in Precision Optics Finishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p-v), with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 um x 350 um areas) to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms) levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD) for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical, Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheoogical finishing (MRF) can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive) to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  5. Manipulating mechanics and chemistry in precision optics finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p–v, with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 μm×350 μm areas to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical. Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheological finishing (MRF can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  6. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  7. Investigation of mechanisms of dechlorination of archaeological ferrous objects corroded in marine environment. Case of processing in aerated and deaerated alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a bibliographic study on the present knowledge on dechlorination mechanisms within corrosion layers of archaeological objects of submarine origin, this research thesis presents an analytical methodology which comprises characterization experimental techniques (from optical microscopy to Raman spectroscopy) and in situ investigation of the evolution of the corrosion layer during a processing under synchrotron radiation. The obtained results are then presented and discussed: morphological, elemental and structural characteristics. The author also compares the corrosion system between an object recently taken out of water and an object which has been air dried. He also comments and discusses the in situ observation by X ray diffraction under micro-beam of the evolution of the corrosion system during the processing. The ex situ characterization of corrosion systems after the rinsing and drying steps (after processing) is reported. Results are discussed in terms of thermodynamics. A kinetic approach is proposed

  8. Organic Chemistry Students' Ideas about Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: The Role of Charges and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) used by practicing organic chemists. Faculty have identified an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles as one conceptual prerequisite to mastery of the EPF, but little is known about organic chemistry students' knowledge of nucleophiles…

  9. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sarwar; Godowitch, J.; B. H. Henderson; K. Fahey; Pouliot, G.; W. T. Hutzell; Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; W. S. Goliff; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide...

  10. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; J. Godowitch; B. H. Henderson; K. Fahey; Pouliot, G.; W. T. Hutzell; Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyace...

  11. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwar, G.; J. Godowitch; Henderson, B.; K. Fahey; Pouliot, G.; W. T. Hutzell; Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, pe...

  12. Mechanical work makes important contributions to surface chemistry at steps

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, M. F.; Curtin, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of mechanical strain on the binding energy of adsorbates to late transition metals is believed to be entirely controlled by electronic factors, with tensile stress inducing stronger binding. Here we show, via computation, that mechanical strain of late transition metals can modify binding at stepped surfaces opposite to well-established trends on flat surfaces. The mechanism driving the trend is mechanical, arising from the relaxation of stored mechanical energy. The mechanical ene...

  13. Tephra, tephrochronology and archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Thastrup, Mads

    2013-01-01

    instantaneous from a geological, archaeological, and evolutionary perspective. Often these volcanic products can be identified by various chemical and non-chemical means and if the eruption date is known, the occurrence of tephra from a given eruption in stratigraphic sequences provides a powerful means of...... to make a case for better linking tephra research to archaeology, all from a primarily Scandinavian perspective. We argue that the identification of tephra in archaeological sediments should, in due time, become as routine as other types of geo-archaeological analyses, especially given that tephra...

  14. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF3 and dissolved UF4, and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC2. Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U4+/U3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  15. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Marine archaeology is otherwise known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology. These terms include all aspects of marine archaeology in which water plays a dominant role. It deals with the study of past seafaring from material remains...

  16. The archaeology of artefacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neustupný, Evžen

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 169-174. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Human World * (cultural) inheritance * degrees of complexity * archaeological institutes Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  18. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  19. OK computer? Digital community archaeologies in practice (Internet Archaeology 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Griffiths

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this section of Internet Archaeology came out of a Theoretical Archaeology Group session at Manchester University in 2014. The session was motivated to explore issues associated with 'digital public archaeology' (DPA. The articles presented here deal with a number of themes which arise when doing digital public archaeology.

  20. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF4--H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF2--ThF4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF4 for Te

  1. New approaches to chemical reaction mechanisms by means of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since active species generated during radiolysis can be used as oxidative or reductive regents of various organic and inorganic compounds, radiation chemistry has been applied to wide range of research fields. We have studied charge-delocalization process in molecular systems, properties of intermediates in the excited states, mechanism of light emitting device, photo-catalyst for degradation of toxic compounds and so on by means of radiation chemistry. In the present paper, we summarize our recent research results. (author)

  2. Archaeology and Photography: A Pragmatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    This chapter is an exploration of meta-archaeology. We consider some of the premises, dispositions, infrastructures of archaeological practices, where the archaeological is no longer a substantive, but adjectival, an aspect of things and doings, where archaeology is part of the trans...

  3. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  4. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Backman, R.; Lauren, T.; Uusikartano, T.; Malm, H.; Stenstroem, P.; Vesterkvist, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). During 1996 the work has focused on identifying bed agglomeration mechanisms and analysing bed agglomerates in both full scale and lab scale FB reactors, as well as comparing how well the compression strength based sintering test can predict bed agglomeration in an FB furnace. (orig.)

  5. Plant surface reactions: an ozone defence mechanism impacting atmospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations are considered a toxic threat to plants, responsible for global crop losses with associated economic costs of several billion dollars per year. Plant injuries have been linked to the uptake of ozone through stomatal pores and oxidative damage of the internal leaf tissue. But a striking question remains: how much ozone effectively enters the plant through open stomata and how much is lost by chemical reactions at the plant surface? In this laboratory study we could show that semi-volatile organic compounds exuded by the glandular trichomes of different Nicotiana tabacum varieties are an efficient ozone sink at the plant surface. In our experiments, different diterpenoid compounds were responsible for a strongly variety dependent ozone uptake of plants under dark conditions, when stomatal pores are almost closed. Surface reactions of ozone were accompanied by prompt release of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, which could be linked to the corresponding precursor compounds: ozonolysis of cis-abienol (C20H34O – a diterpenoid with two exocyclic double bonds – caused emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO and methyl vinyl ketone (C4H6O. The ring-structured cembratrien-diols (C20H34O2 with three endocyclic double bonds need at least two ozonolysis steps to form volatile carbonyls such as 4-oxopentanal (C5H8O2, which we could observe in the gas phase, too. Fluid dynamic calculations were used to model ozone distribution in the diffusion limited leaf boundary layer under daylight conditions. In the case of an ozone-reactive leaf surface, ozone gradients in the vicinity of stomatal pores are changed in such a way, that ozone flux through the open stomata is strongly reduced. Our results show that unsaturated semi-volatile compounds at the plant surface should be considered as a source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, impacting gas phase chemistry, as well as efficient ozone sink improving the ozone

  6. Comprehensive mechanisms for combustion chemistry: Experiment, modeling, and sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, F.L.; Yetter, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work are conducted in large diameter flow reactors, at pressures from one to twenty atmospheres, temperatures from 550 K to 1200 K, and with observed reaction times from 10{sup {minus}2} to 5 seconds. Gas sampling of stable reactant, intermediate, and product species concentrations provides not only substantial definition of the phenomenology of reaction mechanisms, but a significantly constrained set of kinetic information with negligible diffusive coupling. Analytical techniques used for detecting hydrocarbons and carbon oxides include gas chromatography (GC), and gas infrared (NDIR) and FTIR methods are utilized for continuous on-line sample detection of light absorption measurements of OH have also been performed in an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR), and a variable pressure flow (VPFR) reactor is presently being instrumented to perform optical measurements of radicals and highly reactive molecular intermediates. The numerical aspects of the work utilize zero and one-dimensional pre-mixed, detailed kinetic studies, including path, elemental gradient sensitivity, and feature sensitivity analyses. The program emphasizes the use of hierarchical mechanistic construction to understand and develop detailed kinetic mechanisms. Numerical studies are utilized for guiding experimental parameter selections, for interpreting observations, for extending the predictive range of mechanism constructs, and to study the effects of diffusive transport coupling on reaction behavior in flames. Modeling using well defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H{sub 2}/oxidant systems.

  7. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most recurring questions in archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. Not all the materials can be dated so far, but the presence of the natural radiation environment has been of great help in finding mechanisms on which many dating techniques are based. The continuous irradiation from the naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays causes the filling of electronic trapping levels in non-metallic materials. This kind of materials can, in principles, be dated through the analysis of these filled electronic traps, provided that the manufacturing of the object to be dated coincides with the starting time of filling traps. This condition is satisfied in the case of Thermoluminescence (TL) Dating, that can in principle be applied to all materials whose manufacturing requires a high temperature heating, typically all kinds of clays, but also bricks, burnt flints, porcelains, cooked hearths, bronze clay-cores. The main fields of application of TL Dating are then architectural history, through the analysis of bricks, and Dating in Archaeology which is the subject of this work. A number of examples will be reported to put in evidence usefulness and limits of TL Dating in Archaeology. The statistical precision that can be achieved is limited by the number of different measurements and treatments that are necessary. In some cases the incompleteness of information, typically in relation to environmental radiation and water content in the burial site, can seriously limit TL Dating precision. The sources of errors that affect TL Dating and the meaningful contribution to the archaeological research coming from TL Dating, when correctly and extensively applied, will be discussed relatively to some archaeological excavations and to a few important bronze statues, that have been dated through the analysis of their clay-cores. (author)

  8. Mineralogy and chemistry of archaeological ceramic fragments from archaeological Dark Earth site in Colombian Amazon Mineralogia e química de fragmentos cerâmicos arqueológicos em sítio com Terra Preta da Amazônia Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Gaspar Morcote Rios; Mônia Maria Carvalho da Silva; Glayce Jholy da Silva; Uliana Molano-Valdes

    2011-01-01

    Several Archaeological Dark Earth (ADE) sites have been already found in the Colombian Amazon forest showing high content of archaeological ceramic fragments similarly to those in the Brazilian Amazon represented by Quebrada Tacana site. Their fragments are yellow to grey colour, display a burned clayey matrix which involves fragments of cariapé and coal and ash particles, besides grains of quartz and micas. The clay matrix is made of metakaolinite, quartz, and some mica flakes, chlorite and ...

  9. Volcanology and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings study fossil volcanism and archaeology relationships in several countries ( North Yemen, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Martinique ). Age estimation of several eruptions is given and economic consequences of volcanic risk is evaluated

  10. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  11. "Mathematics and Archaeology" rediscovered

    OpenAIRE

    Greenacre, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The book "Mathematics and Archaeology", consisting of 25 chapters by a range of international scholars in archaeology, will be published by Chapman & Hall in 2014. The present document, written as an invited Epilogue to the book, recounts the rediscovery of the book 275 years later by an archaeolinguist. The remnants of the book have been found in the Universitat Pompeu Fabra?s dilapidated library, which fell into disuse after books were abandoned in favour of electronic publishing. The archa...

  12. The Super-Fast Chemistry Mechanism for IPCC AR5 Simulations with CCSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Prather, M. J.; Lamarque, J.; Hess, P. G.; Connell, P. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Vitt, F. M.

    2009-12-01

    When atmospheric chemistry is included in long climate and Earth system simulations, the completeness of the chemical mechanism must be balanced with the computational cost, and the scientific interests of the atmospheric chemist must be tempered by the chemical needs of other components of the climate model (e.g, greenhouse gas concentrations for radiative heating, and deposition rates for biosphere interactions). We have implemented a super-fast chemical mechanism for use in IPCC AR5 simulations with the CCSM climate model. The mechanism uses just 17 species to calculate ozone, OH, and sulfate, with the OH providing the means to back-out the lifetime of methane and other species of interest. The recent addition of isoprene offers significant improvements to the sensitivity of the super-fast mechanism to emission perturbations when compared to our state-of-the-art full chemistry mechanism that uses 90 species. An analysis of the impact of different tropopause definitions will also be presented.

  13. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na3CrF6 and Na5Cr3F14, were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li2BeF4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe2+ and Cr3+ and the determination of the U3+/U4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF4--NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF4--NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  14. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Review Homework Exercise: Deriving Potential Mechanisms for Glucose Ring Opening in Mutarotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Margaret; Holman, R. W.; Slade, Tyler; Clark, Shelley L. D.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    A unique homework assignment has been designed as a review exercise to be implemented near the end of the one-year undergraduate organic chemistry sequence. Within the framework of the exercise, students derive potential mechanisms for glucose ring opening in the aqueous mutarotation process. In this endeavor, 21 general review principles are…

  15. Resource Letter TTSM-1: Teaching thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in introductory physics, chemistry, and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Meltzer, David E.; Sawtelle, Vashti

    2014-01-01

    This Resource Letter draws on discipline-based education research from physics, chemistry, and biology to collect literature on the teaching of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the three disciplines. While the overlap among the disciplinary literatures is limited at present, we hope this Resource Letter will spark more interdisciplinary interaction.

  16. Development of a chlorine chemistry module for the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L. K.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T.; Gao, R.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-10-01

    The chlorine atom (Cl·) has a high potential to perturb atmospheric photochemistry by oxidizing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but the exact role it plays in the polluted troposphere remains unclear. The Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) is a near-explicit mechanism that has been widely applied in the atmospheric chemistry research. While it addresses comprehensively the chemistry initiated by the OH, O3 and NO3 radicals, its representation of the Cl· chemistry is incomplete as it only considers the reactions for alkanes. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive Cl· chemistry module that can be directly incorporated within the MCM framework. A suite of 205 chemical reactions describes the Cl·-initiated degradation of alkenes, aromatics, alkynes, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and some organic acids and nitrates, along with the inorganic chemistry involving Cl· and its precursors. To demonstrate the potential influence of the new chemistry module, it was incorporated into a MCM box model to evaluate the impacts of nitryl chloride (ClNO2), a product of nocturnal halogen activation by nitrogen oxides (NOX), on the following day's atmospheric photochemistry. With constraints of recent observations collected at a coastal site in Hong Kong, southern China, the modeling analyses suggest that the Cl· produced from ClNO2 photolysis may substantially enhance the atmospheric oxidative capacity, VOC oxidation and O3 formation, particularly in the early morning period. The results demonstrate the critical need for photochemical models to include more detailed chlorine chemistry in order to better understand the atmospheric photochemistry in polluted environments subject to intense emissions of NOX, VOCs and chlorine-containing constituents.

  17. Art, auto-mechanics, and supramolecular chemistry. A merging of hobbies and career

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary While the strict definition of supramolecular chemistry is “chemistry beyond the molecule”, meaning having a focus on non-covalent interactions, the field is primarily associated with the creation of synthetic receptors and self-assembly. For synthetic ease, the receptors and assemblies routinely possess a high degree of symmetry, which lends them an aspect of aesthetic beauty. Pictures of electron orbitals similarly can be seen as akin to works of art. This similarity was an early draw for me to the fields of supramolecular chemistry and molecular orbital theory, because I grew up in a household filled with art. In addition to art, my childhood was filled with repairing and constructing mechanical entities, such as internal combustion motors, where many components work together to achieve a function. Analogously, the field of supramolecular chemistry creates systems of high complexity that achieve functions or perform tasks. Therefore, in retrospect a career in supramolecular chemistry appears to be simply an extension of childhood hobbies involving art and auto-mechanics. PMID:26977197

  18. Contribution of archaeological analogs to the estimation of average corrosion rates and long term corrosion mechanisms of low carbon steel in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the French nuclear waste storage, a multi-barriers disposal is envisaged. Wastes could be put in metallic overpacks disposed in a clay soil. As these overpacks could be made of low carbon steel, it is important to understand the corrosion behaviour of this material in soil during period of several centuries. Indeed, it is necessary to consolidate the empirical data by a phenomenological approach. This includes laboratory experiments and modelling of the phenomenon which have to be validated and completed by the study of archaeological artefacts. This was the aim of this PhD-work. To this purpose, an analytical protocol has been elaborated: about forty archaeological artefacts coming from five dated sites (2. to 16. centuries) have been studied on cross section in order to observe on the same sample all the constituents of the system: metallic substrate/corrosion products/environment. The corrosion products are divided into two zones: the Dense Product Layer (DPL) in contact with the metal, and the Transformed Medium (TM) which are the corrosion products formed around soil minerals (quartz grains). The metallic substrate has been studied by the classical methods of materials science (optical and scanning electron microscope, energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies). It has been verified that despite their heterogeneity of structure and composition, they are all hypo-eutectoids steels that can contain phosphorous until 0.5 wt%. The corrosion products have been analysed by local structural analytical methods as micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation (μXRD) and Raman micro-spectroscopy. These two complementary techniques and also the elemental composition analysis conducted to the characterisation of the corrosion forms. On the majority of the samples coming from four sites, the DPL are constituted by goethite including marbles of magnetite/maghemite. On the artefacts from the fifth site, a particular corrosion form has been identified

  19. Photographs and Archaeological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Guha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores some of the ways in which photographs and their archives establish archaeological knowledge. It draws upon histories of photography and archaeology within South Asia to create focus upon archaeology’s evidentiary regimes. The aims are to: a demonstrate the importance of engaging with photographs and their archives as objects for reckoning archaeology’s evidentiary terrains, b draw attention to multiple social biographies a photograph or photographic archive acquires, c highlight the visual as a force of archaeology’s historiography, and d impress upon the necessity of attending to historiographical issues. The aims allow us in seeing some of the ways in which field sciences create their evidentiary frames, and have a special resonance within the context of South Asian archaeology where professional and amateur archaeologists continue to promote the belief that archaeological facts exist out there, and that archaeological research produces better and more robust sources for the past than scholarship based on texts. Visual histories also highlight the mutation of the so-called ‘colonialist’ historiography within the post-colonial histories of archaeology’s developments, and encourage us to go beyond the hackneyed formulations of colonial legacies and the hagiographic literature of individual practitioners.

  20. Archaeology of Spiritualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Doyle White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Academic anthologies devoted to the archaeology of religion, ritual, and the sacred are nothing new. Since the 1991 publication of Sacred and Profane, we have seen such volumes as Archaeology and World Religion (2001, The Archaeology of Ritual (2007, and Cult in Context (2007 shine light on the various ways in which archaeologists can interpret the cosmological world views and ritual praxes of past societies. Archaeology of Spiritualities represents the latest foray into this fascinating topic, edited by three scholars with differing expertise; Rountree is a social anthropologist at New Zealand’s Massey University, while Christine Morris is a classical archaeologist at Ireland’s Trinity College, Dublin, and Alan A.D. Pearfield is a Minoan archaeologist at University College Dublin (UCD. Published in Springer’s “One World Archaeology” series, the book has its origins in a session of the Sixth World Archaeological Congress (WAC, held at UCD in 2008, which was organised by the trio alongside the University of Tanna’s Tõnno Junuks.

  1. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy to Analyze Archaeological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    A course linking chemistry and archaeology was designed to introduce scientific principles and applications to students with little or no science background. The course could provide students an opportunity to explore the role of the sciences in archaeology and to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produce them.

  2. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  3. Archaeological analogues and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One solution retained for the management of high-level and long living radioactive wastes is the disposal in deep underground. Among the studies carried out by the Andra for the evaluation this solution, one concerns the research on metals corrosion for the development of reliable containers. Laboratory corrosion tests are in progress and are compared to the corrosion state of archaeological metal specimens of several hundred years old. Gallic or Mesopotamian remnants are some of these archaeological analogues which are analyzed using the most advanced techniques of materials science. (J.S.)

  4. Archaeological analogs and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  5. Bread in archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Delwen

    2005-01-01

    This introductory article gives a history of the research on archaeological bread from the nineteenth century until recently. The different aspects that are relevant to adequate analyses and the correct interpretation of bread remains are discussed with a particular stress on future prospectives.

  6. Islamic Archaeology in Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Three years of archaeological research at Al Zubarah on the northwest coast of the Qatar peninsula has produced detailed information on social, cultural, and economic structures of a major trading town of the Gulf in the 18th and 19th centuries CE. Detailed investigations, undertaken in partnersh...

  7. Galactic Archaeology: Current Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the science goals and achievements of ongoing spectroscopic surveys of individual stars in the nearby Universe. I include a brief discussion of the development of the field of Galactic Archaeology - using the fossil record in old stars nearby to infer how our Galaxy evolved and place the Milky Way in cosmological context.

  8. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  9. Additive archaeology: an alternative framework for recontextualising archaeological entities

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Paul

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing poses a number of challenges to conventional understandings of materiality, including the so-called archaeological record. In particular, concepts such as real, virtual, and authentic are becoming increasingly unstable, as archaeological artefacts and assemblages can be digitalised, reiterated, extended and distributed through time and space as 3D printable entities. This paper argues that additive manufacturing represents a ‘grand disciplinary challenge’ to archaeologi...

  10. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  11. Drones in Archaeology

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil

    2014-09-01

    In late 2013, a joint archaeological and computer vision project was initiated to digitally capture the archaeological remains in the al-Ula valley, Saudi Arabia. The goal of our team of archeologists and computer scientists is to integrate 3D scanning technologies to produce 3D reconstructions of archaeological sites. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) serve as the vehicle which makes this scanning possible. UAVs allow the acquisition of 3D data as easily from the air as from the ground. This project focuses on the recent excavations carried out in ancient Dedan by King Saud University and the country\\'s conservation of the Lihyanite "lion tombs" carved into the ancient city\\'s cliff faces. Over the next several years this site will be used as a test bed to validate the potential of this emerging technology for rapid cultural heritage documentation. We additionally scanned several areas in Mada\\'in Saleh, an ancient Nabatean city filled with monumental carved sandstone tomb facades, rivaled only by the capital of the Nabatean empire: Petra.

  12. Future archaeologies : method and story.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This will be an account of an ongoing experiment called 'future archaeology'. Despite it’s name it's not strictly an archaeological experiment, since I’m not an archaeologist. Nor is it strictly scientific, since I’m not a natural scientist. However, it is an empirical experiment: it draws on evidence, it draws on artefacts, it has a method, and is theoretically grounded in critical social sciences, science studies, anthropology, and archaeological theory.

  13. Archaeological parks: what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette M. McManus

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Most in-situ conservation and presentation of archaeological sites focuses more on the monuments and other artefacts themselves than on them and the landscapes of which they are a part. The concept of an archaeological park can overcome this limitation. In this personal view of what constitutes an archaeological park, the intellectual roots and contemporary meaning of this relatively new concept are explored.

  14. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 predictions generally agree better with the observed data than the CB05TU predictions. RACM2 enhances ozone for all ambient levels leading to higher bias at low (70 ppbv concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. While RACM2 enhances ozone and secondary aerosols by relatively large margins, control strategies developed for ozone or fine particles using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  15. A comparison of atmospheric composition using the Carbon Bond and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the recently developed Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (version 2, RACM2 into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system for comparison with the existing 2005 Carbon Bond mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean hydroxyl radical concentrations by 46% and nitric acid by 26%. However, it reduces hydrogen peroxide by 2%, peroxyacetic acid by 94%, methyl hydrogen peroxide by 19%, peroxyacetyl nitrate by 40%, and organic nitrate by 41%. RACM2 enhances ozone compared to CB05TU at all ambient levels. Although it exhibited greater overestimates at lower observed concentrations, it displayed an improved performance at higher observed concentrations. The RACM2 ozone predictions are also supported by increased ozone production efficiency that agrees better with observations. Compared to CB05TU, RACM2 enhances the domain-wide monthly mean sulfate by 10%, nitrate by 6%, ammonium by 10%, anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols by 42%, biogenic secondary organic aerosols by 5%, and in-cloud secondary organic aerosols by 7%. Increased inorganic and organic aerosols with RACM2 agree better with observed data. Any air pollution control strategies developed using the two mechanisms do not differ appreciably.

  16. Diverse applications of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry began as early radiotherapists needed a reliable and appropriate dosimeter. The iron sulphate dosimeter, using ferrous iron in sulphuric acid and oxidation by irradiation, was a nasty brew of chemicals but it was sensitive, reliable and conveniently had the same density as human tissue. Water irradiation chemistry studies were driven by the need to understand the fundamental processes in radiotherapy; to control the corrosion problems in the cooling/ heat exchange systems of nuclear reactors and to find stable solvents and reagents for use in spent fuel element processing. The electrical and mechanical stability of materials in high radiation fields stimulated the attention of radiation chemists to the study of defects in solids. The coupled use of radiation and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) enabled the identity of defect structures to be probed. This research led to the development of the sensitive Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, TLD's and a technique for dating of archaeological pottery artefacts. Radiation chemistry in the area of medicine is very active with fundamental studies of the mechanism of DNA strand breakage and the development of radiation sensitisers and protectors for therapeutic purposes. The major area of polymer radiation chemistry is one which Australia commands great international respect

  17. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. PMID:27474191

  18. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Marine archaeology is also known as maritime, underwater and nautical archaeology. Each terminology has specific meaning and purpose in which water plays a dominant role. In India it is known as marine archaeology. In maritime or underwater...

  19. Effect of Surface Chemistry on the Mechanisms and Governing Laws of Friction and Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling; Sorkin, Viacheslav; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that interface chemistry, that is, the formation and breaking of chemical bonds across contacting interfaces, is closely related to the wear and friction behavior at the nanoscale. In reality, the dangling bond density (DBD) at contacting surfaces can vary greatly. Currently, it remains unclear how friction and wear mechanisms depend on DBDs and whether the Archard's law for wear and Amonton's law for friction are still applicable for contacting surfaces with different DBDs. In this work, we address these issues by studying the wear and friction behavior between two sliding diamond-like carbon surfaces by controlling DBDs via hydrogenation using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the chemical bond breaking and remaking across the contacting interface play the key role in determining the friction and wear behavior. During the sliding, a higher DBD leads to more chemical bond formations across the interface, causing stronger wear via either atom or cluster detachments. With the same DBD, a mechanism transition from an atom-by-atom to cluster detachments is observed by increasing the normal load. Remarkably, a fully saturated surface can exhibit a wearless friction. We further show that after necessary modifications, the Archard's law for wear and the Amonton's law for friction may be applicable at the nanoscale. The present work reveals insights into the effect of interface chemistry on the friction and wear, and it provides guidelines for effective antiwear design. PMID:27004415

  20. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Magi; Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Vaes, Jan [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ein-Eli, Yair, E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-04-01

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH{sub 3}(CH){sub 4}CO{sub 2}]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  1. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer. PMID:27183258

  2. Potassium sorbate as an inhibitor in copper chemical mechanical planarization slurry. Part I. Elucidating slurry chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integration of an advanced inhibitor, potassium sorbate (K[CH3(CH)4CO2]), in a copper CMP slurry based on hydrogen peroxide and glycine is reported. The first part of the study discusses the slurry chemistry by qualitatively describing the processes involved and proposes a mechanism for a hydrogen peroxide-glycine based slurry having sorbate anion as an inhibitor. For this purpose, the specific role of each chemical constituent in the slurry was elucidated at a fundamental level by electrochemical studies, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, all linked to the CMP performance on blanket wafers. Once the polishing mechanism was resolved the influence of the inhibitor was evaluated by CMP processing of patterned wafers.

  3. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  4. THE EFFECT OF CHEMISTRY AND NETWORK STRUCTURE ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DIEPOXIDE PRECURSORS AND POLY(HYDROXYETHERS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bump, Maggie Bobbitt

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses the interrelationships between chemistry and network structure in epoxy networks as well as how mechanical properties of the resulting networks are affected by these relationships. The effects of chemistry and network structure on interphase morphology and performance in vinyl ester/carbon fiber composites have also been investigated on both a macro and nanoscale. Thermosets were prepared with blends of bisphenol-A and novel phosphine oxide based die...

  5. Role of GB chemistry of silicon nitride based ceramics with respect to the mechanical properties - experimental and theoretical approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šajgalík, P.; Hnatko, M.; Gall, M.; Dusza, J.; Tatarko, P.; Chlup, Zdeněk

    Toledo: ECERS, 2015. ISBN 978-84-606-9257-7. [ECERS 14 - International Conference of the European Ceramic Society /14./. 21.06.2015-25.06.2015, Toledo] Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : silicon nitride * mechanical properties * GB chemistry Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. An Exercise in Theoretical Archaeology: Do Archaeological Cultures Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological culture still persists as a basic analytical and interpretative concept in Serbian archaeology despite criticism. This paper presents a formal view of archaeological cultures and explores the epistemological implications of this formalization. Formal analysis of archaeological culture is achieved through logical and quantitative explication of the traditional definition of archaeological cultures. The main result of the formal analysis is that there are real patterns of formal variability of material culture that may or may not correspond to traditional archaeological cultures. These patterns are real only in the analytical sense – they are real for given input data and scale of analysis. Unlike the traditional approach where this patterns are equated with archaeological cultures which are furthered interpreted in essentialist terms or as quasi- organic entities such as ethnic groups, it is claimed here that discovered patterns are only the starting point – the empirical situation that needs to be accounted for in anthropological an historical terms. This paper shows how patterns that are traditionally identified as archaeological cultures can arise as a consequence of an entire range of processes – different social and historical realities. The main conclusion is that the traditional concept of archaeological culture is not useful neither as analytical or interpretative tools for two reasons: 1 traditional cultures are subjectively defined entities with no theoretical justification for the criteria used in their definition and 2 the empirical pattern cannot be an explanation in itself because it is the thing that needs to be explained. Cultural evolutionary (transmission theory is proposed as a general framework for defining and interpreting patterns of formal variability of material culture in time and space.

  7. Transient degassing events at the lava lake of Erebus volcano, Antarctica: Chemistry and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehnuka Ilanko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the chemical signature of degassing at Erebus lava lake associated with intermittent explosions and the return to passive conditions. Explosions caused by bubble bursts were frequent during the 2013 field season, providing the first opportunity to observe such activity since 2005–06. Several of the explosions were captured by multiple instruments including an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Explosive bubble bursts and other transient degassing events are associated with gas compositions that are distinct from the usual range of passive degassing compositions. We set out to compare the chemical signature of explosive degassing during the 2005–06 and 2013 episodes, and to characterise the chemistry of gases emitted during the period of lake refilling after explosions. We found little change in the explosive gas chemistry between 2005–06 and 2013, suggesting reactivation of a common mechanism of gas segregation. Bubbles can be distinguished by their size and composition, the ranges of which are likely modified during ascent by gas–melt interaction and adiabatic expansion. The proportions of water, SO2, and HCl in the emitted gas plume increase during the refill of the lake after explosions, as the lake is recharged by a combination of magma that has already partially degassed, and that vesiculates rapidly in response to the drop in magmastatic pressure at the lake.

  8. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  9. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  10. Indian Archaeology and Postmodernism: Fashion or Necessity?

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins by considering the origins and trajectory of growth of Indian Archaeology, from an Antiquarian stage, through to its present state, which may best be described, positioned between cultural historical, Positivist and Post-positivist approaches. The school of archaeological thought informed by Positivist Philosophy has been called variously as the New Archaeology, Hypothetico-Deductive Archaeology, and more lately as Processual Archaeology (Paddayya, 1990). The school of India...

  11. Indigenous archaeology as complement to, not separate from, scientific archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Watkins

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Defining Indigenous Archaeology is as difficult as defining “Indigenous”. In some areas the term “Indigenous” is applied to people who existed in an area prior to colonization (“Geography”; in other areas it is applied to people who are to those people whose ancestors created the culture being (“Descendancy”; in others it is applied to the community of people who live in the area where the archaeology is being conducted (“Proximity”. This paper recognizes that Archaeology, however defined, has characteristics that add to the scientific study of the human past; that Indigenous Archaeology is not meant to supplant scientific archaeology but to add to archaeology’s powers. In this paper I will provide an overview of Indigenous Archaeology, examine some of the in trying to discuss its many facets as a single disciplinary approach to the of the past, and then close with an examination of the in the generalized approach to the study of the past by partnering with communities and organizations.

  12. Investigating Differences in Isoprene Oxidation Chemistry Between Gas-Phase Mechanisms Using a Constrained Chemical Box Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, M. R.; Wolfe, G. M.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Hanisco, T. F.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Veres, P. R.; Min, K. E.; Holloway, J. S.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Brown, S. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Hatch, C. D.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Thornton, J. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, X.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; St Clair, J.; Crounse, J.; Teng, A.

    2015-12-01

    Oxidation of isoprene by OH can significantly influence concentrations of important atmospheric pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols, but the chemistry that describes the relationships between these species is complex and not fully understood. Debate on the topic has led to differences in the isoprene oxidation schemes of several gas-phase chemical mechanisms currently applied in air chemistry models. We use the University of Washington Chemical Model (UWCMv3) to evaluate these mechanisms with respect to isoprene chemistry based on observations from the SENEX and SEAC4RS aircraft campaigns. The campaigns provide constraints on compounds measured over the Southeast United States, where isoprene concentrations are high and other conditions (e.g., NOx levels) vary widely. The payloads for both missions include observations of a wide range of isoprene oxidation products, which can provide insight into specific oxidation pathways. Analysis will focus on the characterization and comparison of isoprene oxidation chemistry for established gas-phase mechanisms that are prevalent in atmospheric modeling today, including the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05 and CB6r2) and the Master Chemical Mechanism (versions 3.2 and 3.3).

  13. Ferrous archaeological analogues for the understanding of the multi-secular corrosion mechanisms in an anoxic environment; Les analogues archeologiques ferreux pour la comprehension des mecanismes de corrosion multiseculaire en milieu anoxique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Djahromi, M.

    2009-12-15

    Understanding the long term corrosion mechanisms of iron in an anoxic environment is essential in the field of the radioactive waste storage. In France, it is planned to store high level nuclear wastes in a multi-barrier system containing a glassy matrix surrounded by a stainless steel container, embedded in a low-carbon steel over-container. This system would be placed in a deep geological repository, which would impose anoxic conditions. As it must be efficient for a period of several thousands of years, one should understand the alteration mechanisms that are expected to occur in such a long time. To this purpose, a specific approach is developed on ferrous archaeological analogues with thick corrosion layer formed in natural conditions. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms have been assessed by examining nails aged of 400 years coming from the archaeological site of Glinet, selected as a reference site. The first point was a fine characterisation of the entire corrosion system metal / corrosion products / medium, through the use of coupled multi-scale analytical tools. The first results showed that the samples were corroded in an anoxic calco-carbonated environment. Moreover, the coupling of X-ray micro-diffraction, Raman microspectroscopy and dispersive energy spectroscopy has enabled to identify three corrosion systems composed of iron carbonates, siderite and chukanovite, and magnetite. Depending on the phase's layout in the system, the electronic resistance of the corrosion layers has been established, from resistive to conductive. In a second stage, re-corroding experiments in laboratory were performed. Firstly, the electrochemical behaviour of the corrosion system has shown that water reduction at the metallic interface is negligible. Furthermore, reaction tracing with copper and deuterium has allowed identifying the electron consumptions sites mainly localised on the external part, and the precipitation sites on the internal part of the corrosion

  14. The Archaeology of Egyptian Monasticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Louise

    The study of Egyptian monasticism has traditionally relied heavily on the rich corpus of textual sources, while the archaeological remains have been secondary to our understanding of monastic life. This imbalance has resulted in a situation where questions pertinent to the physical remains of...... monasteries ha ve largely remained unanswered. Based on first - hand archaeological material from the White Monastery federation and comparative material obtained through archaeological reports, the thesis addresses Egypt ian Monasticism in the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Islamic period, by...... examining three main themes through seven chapters. These themes are: 1. the relationship between the archaeological and textual sources pertinent to the White Monastery; 2. the diachronic development of the White Monastery and the process es that caused its abandonment; 3. the economy of the White...

  15. Archaeology and global information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hodder

    1999-01-01

    In this paper I wish to reinforce the view that there is a potential in the use of the Internet by archaeology for an important change in the organisation and institutionalisation of archaeological knowledge. As many have argued, this change involves a shift from hierarchy to networks and flows. But there are dangers that the Internet will simply translate old forms of elite knowledge into new forms, increasingly excluding the un-networked. Care needs to be taken to provide different mod...

  16. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 5 papers are interesting for the INIS database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  17. Mass spectrometry. Environment, biology, oenology, medicine, geology, chemistry, archaeology, mechanisms; Spectrometrie de masse. Environnement, biologie, oenologie, medecine, geologie, chimie, archeologie, mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers (communications and posters) presented at the 16. French days of mass spectrometry, held September 6-9, 1999 in Nancy, France. 7 papers are interesting for the ETDE database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  18. Mechanisms before Reactions: A Mechanistic Approach to the Organic Chemistry Curriculum Based on Patterns of Electron Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alison B.; Ogilvie, William W.

    2015-01-01

    A significant redesign of the introductory organic chemistry curriculum at the authors' institution is described. There are two aspects that differ greatly from a typical functional group approach. First, organic reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism are taught before students have learned a single reaction. The conservation of…

  19. Effects of Slurry Chemistry on the Rate of Agglomeration of Alumina Nanoparticles for Chemical Mechanical Planarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Neil Anjan

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is a polishing process used during the manufacture of microelectronic integrated circuits. During fabrication of multilevel circuitry, excess deposited material must be removed and the wafer surface globally planarized for proper function of devices. This is especially necessary with copper interconnects, thus, copper CMP was the focus of this study. CMP requires the use of a slurry containing nanometer-sized abrasive particles along with a variety of chemical additives. The particles and chemicals act synergistically to mechanically and chemically remove material and provide a near globally planar surface. For optimal CMP performance, the effective abrasive particle size must be controlled. If particles aggregate, CMP performance may diminish and possibly even cause defective devices. The chemistry of the slurry (pH, ions present, etc) can not only affect the mean aggregate size of the abrasive particles, but also growth of aggregate over time. This research investigated the aggregation behavior of suspensions of 150 nm alumina particles in 1mM KNO3 with various additives (glycine, H2O2, benzotriazole, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) used in CMP of copper through effective particle (agglomerate) size versus time and zeta potential measurements. Aggregate size rate data were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of aggregation, as well its effect on the structure of the resultant aggregate. The effects of temperature of the slurry were also explored. Finally, particle size distribution data collected at various stages of aggregation were incorporated into the Luo and Dornfeld model of CMP to investigate the dynamic nature of the CMP process.

  20. Galactic Archaeology and Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Macfarlane, B A; Flynn, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Chemical tagging of stellar debris from disrupted open clusters and associations underpins the science cases for next-generation multi-object spectroscopic surveys. As part of the Galactic Archaeology project TraCD (Tracking Cluster Debris), a preliminary attempt at reconstructing the birth clouds of now phase-mixed thin disk debris is undertaken using a parametric minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Empirically-motivated chemical abundance pattern uncertainties (for a 10-dimensional chemistry-space) are applied to NBODY6-realised stellar associations dissolved into a background sea of field stars, all evolving in a Milky Way potential. We demonstrate that significant population reconstruction degeneracies appear when the abundance uncertainties approach 0.1 dex and the parameterised MST approach is employed; more sophisticated methodologies will be required to ameliorate these degeneracies.

  1. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450oC, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  2. Use of thiol-ene click chemistry to modify mechanical and thermal properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Alex C; Heberlig, Graham W; Nomura, Christopher T

    2016-02-01

    In order to diversify the number of applications for poly[(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoates] (PHAs), methods must be developed to alter their physical properties so they are not limited to aliphatic polyesters. Recently we developed Escherichia coli LSBJ as a living biocatalyst with the ability to control the repeating unit composition of PHA polymers, including the ability to incorporate unsaturated repeating units into the PHA polymer at specific ratios. The incorporation of repeating units with terminal alkenes in the side chain of the polymer allowed for the production of random PHA copolymers with defined repeating unit ratios that can be chemically modified for the purpose of tailoring the physical properties of these materials beyond what are available in current PHAs. In this study, unsaturated PHA copolymers were chemically modified via thiol-ene click chemistry to contain an assortment of new functional groups, and the mechanical and thermal properties of these materials were measured. Results showed that cross-linking the copolymer resulted in a unique combination of improved strength and pliability and that the addition of polar functional groups increased the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and hydrophilic profile of the materials. This work demonstrates that unsaturated PHAs can be chemically modified to extend their physical properties to distinguish them from currently available PHA polymers. PMID:26616449

  3. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  4. Methodology of Parameterization of Molecular Mechanics Force Field From Quantum Chemistry Calculations using Genetic Algorithm: A case study of methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ying; Chan, Maria K Y; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Rouxb, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, force field determines the capability of an individual model in capturing physical and chemistry properties. The method for generating proper parameters of the force field form is the key component for computational research in chemistry, biochemistry, and condensed-phase physics. Our study showed that the feasibility to predict experimental condensed phase properties (i.e., density and heat of vaporization) of methanol through problem specific force field from only quantum chemistry information. To acquire the satisfying parameter sets of the force field, the genetic algorithm (GA) is the main optimization method. For electrostatic potential energy, we optimized both the electrostatic parameters of methanol using the GA method, which leads to low deviations of between the quantum mechanics (QM) calculations and the GA optimized parameters. We optimized the van der Waals (vdW) parameters both using GA and guided GA methods by calibrating interaction energy of various met...

  5. Mineralogy and chemistry of archaeological ceramic fragments from archaeological Dark Earth site in Colombian Amazon Mineralogia e química de fragmentos cerâmicos arqueológicos em sítio com Terra Preta da Amazônia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Archaeological Dark Earth (ADE sites have been already found in the Colombian Amazon forest showing high content of archaeological ceramic fragments similarly to those in the Brazilian Amazon represented by Quebrada Tacana site. Their fragments are yellow to grey colour, display a burned clayey matrix which involves fragments of cariapé and coal and ash particles, besides grains of quartz and micas. The clay matrix is made of metakaolinite, quartz, and some mica flakes, chlorite and sepiolite. Cariapé and cauixi spicules are constituted of cristobalite, which is also the main mineral component of the coal and ashes. Although not detected by X-ray diffraction, the phosphate minerals should be present, since the contents of phosphor reach up to 2.90 Wt.% P2O5. Possibly it occurs as aluminium-phosphate, since Ca contents fall below 0.1 Wt.%. These mineralogical and chemical characteristics allow to correlate these ceramic fragments with those found in the ADE in Brazil and reinforce phosphor as an important chemical component, which indicates human activity by the daily use of pottery all over the Amazon region.Vários sítios arqueológicos de Terra Preta Arqueológica (TPA encontrados na floresta Amazônica Colombiana também contêm alto conteúdo de fragmentos cerâmicos semelhantes aqueles da Amazônia Brasileira, como mostra o sítio Quebrada Tacana. Seus fragmentos cerâmicos são amarelo a cinza, exibem matriz argilosa calcinada envolvendo fragmentos de cariapé, carvão e partículas de cinza, grãos de quartzo e micas. A matriz é composta de metacaulinita a material amorfo, quartzo, folhas de micas, clorita e sepiolita. Cariapé e cauixi são constituídos de cristobalita, da mesma forma o carvão e as cinzas. Embora não detectados pela difração de raios x, os fosfatos devem estar presentes, pois foram detectados teores de P2O5 de até 2,90 %, possivelmente como fosfatos de alumínio, já que o conteúdo de Ca está abaixo 0

  6. Extracting physical chemistry from mechanics: a new approach to investigate DNA interactions with drugs and proteins in single molecule experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, M S

    2015-01-01

    In this review we focus on the idea of establishing connections between the mechanical properties of DNAligand complexes and the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions. This type of connection is interesting because it opens the possibility of performing a robust characterization of such interactions by using only one experimental technique: single molecule stretching. Furthermore, it also opens new possibilities in comparing results obtained by very different approaches, in special when comparing single molecule techniques to ensemble-averaging techniques. We start the manuscript reviewing important concepts of the DNA mechanics, from the basic mechanical properties to the Worm-Like Chain model. Next we review the basic concepts of the physical chemistry of DNA-ligand interactions, revisiting the most important models used to analyze the binding data and discussing their binding isotherms. Then, we discuss the basic features of the single molecule techniques most used to stretch the DNA-ligand complex...

  7. On the use of SPM to probe the interplay between polymer surface chemistry and polymer surface mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogly, Maurice; Noel, Olivier; Awada, Houssein; Castelein, Gilles

    2007-03-01

    Adhesive properties of a polymer surface results from the complex contribution of surface chemistry and activation of sliding and dissipating mechanisms within the polymer surface layer. The purpose of this study is to dissociate the different contributions (chemical and mechanical) included in an AFM force-distance curve in order to establish relationships between the surface viscoelastic properties of the polymer, the surface chemistry of functionalized polymer surfaces and the adhesive forces, as determined by C-AFM experiments. Indeed we are interested in the measurements of local attractive or adhesive forces in AFM contact mode, of controlled chemical and mechanical model substrates. In order to investigate the interplay between mechanical or viscoelastic mechanisms and surface chemistry during the tip - polymer contact, we achieved force measurements on model PDMS polymer networks, whose surfaces are chemically controlled with the same functional groups as before (silicon substrates). On the basis of AFM nano-indentation experiments, surface Young moduli have been determined. The results show that the viscoelastic contribution is dominating in the adhesion force measurement. We propose an original model, which express the local adhesion force to the energy dissipated within the contact and the surface properties of the material (thermodynamic work of adhesion). Moreover we show that the dissipation function is related to Mc, the mass between crosslinks of the network.

  8. On the use of SPM to probe the interplay between polymer surface chemistry and polymer surface mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesive properties of a polymer surface results from the complex contribution of surface chemistry and activation of sliding and dissipating mechanisms within the polymer surface layer. The purpose of this study is to dissociate the different contributions (chemical and mechanical) included in an AFM force-distance curve in order to establish relationships between the surface viscoelastic properties of the polymer, the surface chemistry of functionalized polymer surfaces and the adhesive forces, as determined by C-AFM experiments. Indeed we are interested in the measurements of local attractive or adhesive forces in AFM contact mode, of controlled chemical and mechanical model substrates. In order to investigate the interplay between mechanical or viscoelastic mechanisms and surface chemistry during the tip - polymer contact, we achieved force measurements on model PDMS polymer networks, whose surfaces are chemically controlled with the same functional groups as before (silicon substrates). On the basis of AFM nano-indentation experiments, surface Young moduli have been determined. The results show that the viscoelastic contribution is dominating in the adhesion force measurement. We propose an original model, which express the local adhesion force to the energy dissipated within the contact and the surface properties of the material (thermodynamic work of adhesion). Moreover we show that the dissipation function is related to Mc, the mass between crosslinks of the network

  9. Archaeology on Screen: Representing Archaeology on Film in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bandović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading the popular culture may contribute to the reflexive view on a discipline such as archaeology. Film, as a part of popular culture, frequently unveils the hidden messages, which may be an echo of a discipline or its distorted image in the mirror. Film and archaeology share not only the common origins in the modernity, but also the imaginary spaces where the past and the present meet and intertwine. The subjects treated in films, the contexts in which archaeology appears, speak of the place the discipline holds in the society, reminding us at the same time of all the elements encompassed by the archaeological discourse. On the other hand, if we compare the portraits of the imaginary archaeologists (such as Professor Mihajlo Pavlović, Vera Zarić, with the witnesses of archaeology in Serbia over the 20th century (Nikola Vulić, Dragoslav Srejović, Milutin Garašanin, we shall approach the meeting point between academic and general public, science and the audience, theory and practice. Extraordinary individuals, unemployed dreamers living at the borders of the worlds, charming connoisseurs of the underworlds – these are but some of the qualities ascribed to the discipline by the films. However, these stereotypes do not generate out of the void, they are the consequence of the self-representation. This mystification of the discipline leads us back to the debate on the responsibility and ethics of the social scientists inside the society they live in. Of course, the suggested reading is one of the many possibilities, one of the archaeological interpretations.

  10. Archaeological Excursion into Proximal Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia-Herzegovina by the end of the 19th century, presided by Benjamin Kallay, the Empire’s Minister of Finance and governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, strived to gain wider international justification for its years’ long project of “civilizing” Bosnia and Herzegovina, or particular “historizing” of this proximal colony. In the summer of 1894 the Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina organized the Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists in the Landesmuseum in Sarajevo. The aim of the Congress was to inform archaeologists and anthropologists about the results of archaeological investigations in the country, and to seek their advice in directing further work. The wider ideological, political, as well as theoretical context of this congress, however, was much more complex and layered, with the aim to present the constructed image of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country of tamed and civilized European Orient of rich past and luxurious folklore. The participants of the Congress discussed the archaeological and anthropological data presented to them by the hosts, including the specially organized excavations at Butmir and Glasinac. It is interesting to analyze, from the point of view of the history of archaeological ideas, the endeavours of the participants to adapt the archaeological finds before them to the wishes of the hosts, and, on the other hand, to their favoured archaeological paradigms dominant at the time.

  11. Introduction: Critical Blogging in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Morgan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Internet Archaeology collects the leading voices of blogging in archaeology to provide a critical examination of informal, online self-publication. This collection of articles is one result of over a decade of digital communication; the confluence of a conversation that grew from a few lonely voices to a tumultuous cacophony. Even so, blogging has had very little scrutiny in wider archaeological publication (but see Caraher 2008; Kansa and Deblauwe 2011. The first movement toward this volume was the Blogging Archaeology session at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings, accompanied by a "Blog Carnival," a groundbreaking effort to foment reflexive discussion prior to the conference. Several participants of this original session and blog carnival have contributed to this volume; these articles are intermingled with perspectives from contributors who have started blogging in the intervening time, and with peer review comments from archaeologists who have blogged for a long time, and from those who do not blog at all.

  12. Plasma Discharges in Gas Bubbles in Liquid Water: Breakdown Mechanisms and Resultant Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah M. N.

    is created either through flowing gas around the high voltage electrode in the discharge tube or self-generated by the plasma as in the steam discharge. This second method allows for large scale processing of contaminated water and for bulk chemical and optical analysis. Breakdown mechanisms of attached and unattached gas bubbles in liquid water were investigated using the first device. The breakdown scaling relation between breakdown voltage, pressure and dimensions of the discharge was studied. A Paschen-like voltage dependence for air bubbles in liquid water was discovered. The results of high-speed photography suggest the physical charging of the bubble due to a high voltage pulse; this charging can be significant enough to produce rapid kinetic motion of the bubble about the electrode region as the applied electric field changes over a voltage pulse. Physical deformation of the bubble is observed. This charging can also prevent breakdown from occurring, necessitating higher applied voltages to overcome the phenomenon. This dissertation also examines the resulting chemistry from plasma interacting with the bubble-liquid system. Through the use of optical emission spectroscopy, plasma parameters such as electron density, gas temperature, and molecular species production and intensity are found to have a time-dependence over the ac voltage cycle. This dependence is also source gas type dependent. These dependencies afford effective control over plasma-driven decomposition. The effect of plasma-produced radicals on various wastewater simulants is studied. Various organic dyes, halogenated compounds, and algae water are decomposed and assessed. Toxicology studies with melanoma cells exposed to plasma-treated dye solutions are completed, demonstrating the non-cytotoxic quality of the decomposition process. Thirdly, this dissertation examines the steam plasma system, developed through this research to circumvent the acidification associated with gas-feed discharges

  13. Digital fruition of archaeological finds. The experience at the Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents a series of investigations undertaken thanks to the collaboration between the Department of Architecture and Territorial Planning of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna , aimed at finding a procedure for the 3d digital survey and exploration of archaeological finds. In particular, this paper shows how users can benefit from the use of digital technologies for the fruition of historical-artistic heritage. As a matter of fact, digital communication tools stimulate multisensory perception mechanisms and therefore allow to actively involve users in the exploration of contents presented through collections. Immersive visualizations, augmented reality and both tactile and visual exploration of findings can ease the establishment of a more immediate and direct communication channel with users that generally communicate and access information using digital technologies and mediums.

  14. Review: Role of Chemistry, Mechanics, and Transport on Well Integrity in CO2 Storage Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Carey, William J.; Dzombak, David; Huerta, Nicolas J.; Li, Li; Richard, Tom; Um, Wooyong; Walsh, Stuart D.; ZHANG, LIWEI

    2016-01-11

    Among the various risks associated with CO2 storage in deep geologic formations, wells are important potential pathways for fluid leaks and groundwater contamination. Injection of CO2 will perturb the storage reservoir and any wells that penetrate the CO2 or pressure footprints are potential pathways for leakage of CO2 and/or reservoir brine. Well leakage is of particular concern for regions with a long history of oil and gas exploration because they are top candidates for geologic CO2 storage sites. This review explores in detail the ability of wells to retain their integrity against leakage with careful examination of the coupled physical and chemical processes involved. Understanding time-dependent leakage is complicated by the changes in fluid flow, solute transport, chemical reactions, and mechanical stresses over decade or longer time frames for site operations and monitoring. Almost all studies of the potential for well leakage have been laboratory based, as there are limited data on field-scale leakage. When leakage occurs by diffusion only, laboratory experiments show that while CO2 and CO2-saturated brine react with cement and casing, the rate of degradation is transport-limited and alteration of cement and casing properties is low. When a leakage path is already present due to cement shrinkage or fracturing, gaps along interfaces (e.g. casing/cement or cement/rock), or casing failures, chemical and mechanical alteration have the potential to decrease or increase leakage risks. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that mineral precipitation or closure of strain-induced fractures can seal a leak pathway over time or conversely open pathways depending on flow-rate, chemistry, and the stress state. Experiments with steel/cement and cement/rock interfaces have indicated that protective mechanisms such as metal passivation, chemical alteration, mechanical deformation, and pore clogging can also help mitigate leakage. The specific rate

  15. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  16. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  17. Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority......Report on the archaeological fieldwork at Al Zubarah and environs for the Qatar Museums Authority...

  18. Art and Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Philippe Walter’s teaching, which he delivered as holder of the Liliane Bettencourt Annual Chair of Technological Innovation, was completed with two lectures on “practical work” to deal with a real case. The conditions and challenges of interdisciplinary research combining analytical chemistry, art history and archaeology were thus discussed in relation to specific works. The Holy Family, Constantin Abraham (1785-1855) by Raphaël (aka), Sanzio Raffaello (1483-1520), hard porcelain, Sèvres, C...

  19. Introducing the Centre for Applied Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Perring

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Archaeology (CAA) is a new research centre within the Institute of Archaeology, established in 2006 to develop the work of the Institute’s Field Archaeology Unit, Archaeology South-East (ASE), through the creation of a productive research environment and the building of links with academic staff members of the Institute. In this article the Director of CAA defines “applied archaeology” and describes the aims and work of the Centre.

  20. Art, auto-mechanics, and supramolecular chemistry. A merging of hobbies and career

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Anslyn

    2016-01-01

    While the strict definition of supramolecular chemistry is “chemistry beyond the molecule”, meaning having a focus on non-covalent interactions, the field is primarily associated with the creation of synthetic receptors and self-assembly. For synthetic ease, the receptors and assemblies routinely possess a high degree of symmetry, which lends them an aspect of aesthetic beauty. Pictures of electron orbitals similarly can be seen as akin to works of art. This similarity was an early draw for m...

  1. Use of radiography in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Radiography is a versatile technique with many applications to archaeological and art historical artefacts. It can be used to assess the condition of objects before conservation treatment, to gain insight into materials used and methods of construction and to reveal the secrets of the embalmers art, hidden within mummified remains. X-ray radiography is an invaluable investigative technique that is non-destructive, quick and cost effective. The study described below covers the investigations of the archaeological artefacts in order to determine their corrosion conditions and production histories which are important for restoration, conservation, replica, dating and inventory works

  2. Archaeology and global information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hodder

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to reinforce the view that there is a potential in the use of the Internet by archaeology for an important change in the organisation and institutionalisation of archaeological knowledge. As many have argued, this change involves a shift from hierarchy to networks and flows. But there are dangers that the Internet will simply translate old forms of elite knowledge into new forms, increasingly excluding the un-networked. Care needs to be taken to provide different modes of access for different groups and to find ways round the exclusive tendencies associated with the dispersal of any new technology.

  3. Prehistoric archaeology in Central Europe: beyond diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosna, D.; Kolář, Jan; Květina, Petr; Trampota, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 123-130. ISSN 0323-1119. [ Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : archaeological theory * artefact * communication * environment * history of archaeology * reflexivity Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  5. The Times of Archaeology and Archaeologies of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gardner

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of archaeology as a discipline is explicitly structured by time, and ‘timetravel’ is a common feature of popular discourses about the study of the past. Yet archaeology is also the discipline which, amongst its other theoretical shortcomings, has singularly failed to develop any theory of time. Chronology is ever-present as a measuring tool, but only in rare cases has there been any consideration of this as but one, culturally-specific kind of temporality among many others experienced by people in their daily lives. In this paper, I will discuss various perspectives on archaeological times, including more sophisticated approaches developed since the later 1980s, and argue for an abandoning of the dualism between ‘measured’ and ‘experienced’ times which has emerged in some of these more critical attempts to grapple with the issue. Time is fundamental to archaeology, but not just because we ‘use’ dates. Rather, archaeologists should be able to contribute to wider discussions of time from their understandings of the materialized temporalities of past human agents, and to develop perspectives on the importance of these to the very nature of human social agency as a form of engagement with the world.

  6. The Novel ''Controlled Intermediate Nuclear Fusion'' and its Possible Industrial Realization as Predicted by Hadronic Mechanics and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we propose, apparently for the first time, a new type of controlled nuclear fusion called "intermediate" because occurring at energies intermediate between those of the ''cold'' and ''hot'' fusions, and propose a specific industrial realization. For this purpose: 1) We show that known limitations of quantum mechanics, quantum chemistry and special relativity cause excessive departures from the conditions occurring for all controlled fusions; 2) We outline the covering hadronic mechanics, hadronic chemistry and isorelativity specifically conceived, constructed and verified during the past two decades for new cleans energies and fuels; 3) We identify seven physical laws predicted by the latter disciplines that have to be verified by all controlled nuclear fusions to occur; 4) We review the industrial research conducted to date in the selection of the most promising engineering realization as well as optimization of said seven laws; and 5) We propose with construction details a specific {\\it hadron...

  7. Maritime archaeological studies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    India with more than 7000 km long coastline and about 5000 years old maritime history is dotted with several ancient ports. Marine archaeological research during last two and half decades has revealed a number of sites along the Indian coast, which...

  8. Archaeological dating using physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the science-based techniques that have been used to establish archaeological chronologies from the million-year range down to the historical period. In addition to the discussion of nuclear, atomic and chemical methods indication is given of the way in which the Earth's magnetic field and perturbations of the Earth's orbital motions are useful in this. (author)

  9. Franklin Fenenga and California Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, William J

    1999-01-01

    Franklin Fenenga died suddenly on April 7, 1994, of pneumonia. Shortly before, ha had learned that he had inoperable lung cancer and only a relatively short time to live. His death ended a long and noteworthy career of research into California's archaeological past.

  10. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  11. The Archaeology of Old Nuulliit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mikkel

    ¬aeo-Eskimo culture groups in Alaska. Knuth never published his findings in detail, which be¬came a mystery in Arctic archaeology circles. New investigations by the author of the material shows that the site was settled repeatedly by the first immigrants between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and in addition that a total of...

  12. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  13. A manufactured past: virtual reality in archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Goodrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and visualisation technologies developed over the past thirty years have been readily accessible to the archaeological community since the mid 1990s. Despite the high profile of virtual archaeology (Reilly 1991 both within the media and professional archaeology it has not been taken on board as a generally useful and standard technique by archaeologists. In this article we wish to discuss the technical and other issues which have resulted in a reluctance to adopt virtual archaeology and, more importantly, discuss ways forward that can enable us routinely to benefit from this technology in the diversity of archaeological practice.

  14. Physics and archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Aitken, M J

    1995-01-01

    After a general survey of the way in which physics,and indeed chemistry, has opened new vistas archeology these lectures will focus on age determination.Here physics has played a crucial role in providing a timescale prior to recorded history , the latter beginnig about 5000 years ago with the First Dynasty of Egypt and the earliest pyramid. The physics-based timescale was initially provided by radiocarbon dating and this showed the early phases of Neolithic civilisation, e.g.,the earliest Jericho, to have been substiantially more ancient than had been conjectured. Further back in time than the 50000-year limit of that technique other radioisotope methods have been used, as well as electron spin resonance and luminescence; these have been espacially important in dating early human development, notably in throwing light on the relationship of anatomically-modern humans of the Neanderthals. In particular luminescence dating (both thermoluminescence and optically-stimulated luminescence) will be discussed, not o...

  15. Plasma Discharges in Gas Bubbles in Liquid Water: Breakdown Mechanisms and Resultant Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah M. N.

    is created either through flowing gas around the high voltage electrode in the discharge tube or self-generated by the plasma as in the steam discharge. This second method allows for large scale processing of contaminated water and for bulk chemical and optical analysis. Breakdown mechanisms of attached and unattached gas bubbles in liquid water were investigated using the first device. The breakdown scaling relation between breakdown voltage, pressure and dimensions of the discharge was studied. A Paschen-like voltage dependence for air bubbles in liquid water was discovered. The results of high-speed photography suggest the physical charging of the bubble due to a high voltage pulse; this charging can be significant enough to produce rapid kinetic motion of the bubble about the electrode region as the applied electric field changes over a voltage pulse. Physical deformation of the bubble is observed. This charging can also prevent breakdown from occurring, necessitating higher applied voltages to overcome the phenomenon. This dissertation also examines the resulting chemistry from plasma interacting with the bubble-liquid system. Through the use of optical emission spectroscopy, plasma parameters such as electron density, gas temperature, and molecular species production and intensity are found to have a time-dependence over the ac voltage cycle. This dependence is also source gas type dependent. These dependencies afford effective control over plasma-driven decomposition. The effect of plasma-produced radicals on various wastewater simulants is studied. Various organic dyes, halogenated compounds, and algae water are decomposed and assessed. Toxicology studies with melanoma cells exposed to plasma-treated dye solutions are completed, demonstrating the non-cytotoxic quality of the decomposition process. Thirdly, this dissertation examines the steam plasma system, developed through this research to circumvent the acidification associated with gas-feed discharges

  16. Different approaches of teaching in chemistry. Membrane targeting mechanism of human sphingosine kinase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Hye

    Part 1. Biochemistry research involves elucidating the mechanism of membrane targeting of human sphingosine kinase 1 (hSK1). Sphingosine kinase (SK) is an enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). hSK1 can be activated by its agonists resulting in rapid and transient increased production of S-1-P, resulting in enhancement of apoptosis. Upon activation by PMA, SK translocates to the plasma membrane. In vitro measurement demonstrated hSK1 selectively bound phosphatidylserine over anionic lipids and showed strong preference for the plasma membrane-mimetics. Mutational analysis of conserved Thr54 and Asn89 on putative membrane-binding surface from the model structure showed both in vivo and in vitro that these two residues are important for the membrane selectivity of hSK1. Part 2. Chemical education research focuses on three different ways of scientific learning and teaching. First, inquiry teaching that involves a writing method called the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) is analyzed using grounded theory. This is done in a general education course for pre-service teachers. As a result, (1) students experience understanding of concept through mastery of their own methods and experience different aspects of inquiry processes; (2) SWH method allows instructors to detect misconceptions generated by students' incorrect, but logical interpretations of their data, and helps instructors to make changes to guide students; (3) as students experience meta-cognition, students gain understanding of concepts by relating mathematical progression to different parts of the experiments and also by applying what they learn into other situations. Second, statistical analysis on the long term effects of a combined math/chemistry program is analyzed through multiple linear regression and discriminant function analysis. The results demonstrate the program was beneficial to the underrepresented students when the college success was measured

  17. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  18. High-energy chemistry of formamide: A unified mechanism of nucleobase formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Nesvorný, D.; Šponer, Jiří; Kubelík, Petr; Michalčíková, Regina; Shestivska, Violetta; Šponer, Judit E.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 3 (2015), s. 657-662. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : origin of life * asteroid impact * biomolecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  19. Archaeological Atlas of Bohemia. Explaining archaeological remains in the landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langová, Michaela; Kuna, Martin

    Glasgow: University of Glasgow, 2015 - (Campbell, L.). s. 377 ISBN N. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /21./. 02.09.2015-05.09.2015, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV003 Keywords : Archaeological Atlas of Bohemia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://eaaglasgow2015.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/EAA-Glasgow-Abstract-Book.pdf

  20. Computerized Archaeology – 3D Tools for Investigating Archaeological Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerized revolution poses challenges and creates new opportunities in archaeological research. The Computerized Archaeology Laboratory at the Hebrew University integrates techniques and ideas from computer science (e.g., computer graphics, machine learning) in the archaeological research methodologies. We operate optical scanners which provide the three dimensional (3D) digital models that are then analyzed with the computer programs developed in our laboratory. These programs address research issues and needs which could not be addressed without the availability of digital 3D models. Beyond ‘capturing’ and visualizing data, I will focus on the process of analysis and provide novel ways of interpretation. For example, recently we developed new ways for determining the degree of similarity between flakes from various Middle Paleolithic lithic assemblages in the Southern Levant. Preliminary results are promising since the methodology applied distinguished between assemblages not using the traditional techno-typological criteria. This may provide a novel method for clustering and separation of prehistoric assemblages, new means to check the validity of the traditional classification. (author)

  1. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline inclusions contained in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters, the irradiation source being the natural radiation environment. Because of this, various ceramic materials (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, bronze clay-cores) have been dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that enlighten the advantages and limits of this method in the field of archaeological dating, compared to TL dating of buildings. The assessment of the chronology of Valdivia culture (Ecuador), based on a three-year project of TL dating, is presented and discussed. The overall uncertainty at around 4-5% can be considered the best limit presently available. The uncertainty distribution found among 700 archaeological TL datings and for about 500 building TL datings is also presented. (author)

  2. Archaeology and the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the application of Semantic Web technologies to the discipline of Archaeology. Part One (Chapters 1-3) offers a discussion of historical developments in this field. It begins with a general comparison of the supposed benefits of semantic technologies and notes that they partially align with the needs of archaeologists. This is followed by a literature review which identifies two different perspectives on the Semantic Web: Mixed-Source Knowledge Representation (MSKR), whic...

  3. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  4. New insights into the fouling mechanism of dissolved organic matter applying nanofiltration membranes with a variety of surface chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Wyns, Kenny; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Meynen, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling by DOM remains a major and poorly understood issue. To acquire a better insight we studied the fouling of the DOM fractions humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs), with and without Ca(2+), on native and grafted ceramic NF membranes. Grafting with two methods and three different grafting groups allowed to create a range of membranes with a variety of surface chemistries, and a wide range of surface polarity, much broader than ever used in previous studies. A typical polymer (polyamide) NF membrane was included for comparison. All obtained results reveal that membrane fouling is not determined by membrane hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity as a general and sole criterion, but rather on the whole of the surface chemistry determining the amount and strength of the possible foulant-membrane interactions. As a consequence the effect of inorganic ions on the fouling is also dependent on the surface chemistry. Important new insight in the DOM fouling mechanism was acquired, shedding new light on the state-of-the-art knowledge. PMID:26905798

  5. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  6. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  7. Chemistry and Mechanism of Alizarin Red S and Methylene Blue Biosorption onto Olive Stone: Equilibrium and Kinetic

    OpenAIRE

    Albadarin, Ahmad B.; Mangwandi, Chirangano

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption process of anionic dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) and cationic dye methylene blue (MB) as a function of solution pH, initial concentration and contact time onto olive stone (OS) biomass has been investigated. The main objectives of the current study are to: (i) study the chemistry and the mechanism of ARS and MB biosorption onto olive stone and the type of OS–ARS, MB interactions occurring, (ii) study the biosorption equilibrium and kinetic experimental data required for the design ...

  8. Tourism and Archaeology: Back to Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PĂTRAŞCU; Florin FODOREAN; Ioan FODOREAN

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological tourism is an alternative form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote the passion for history and the preservation of historical sites. Unfortunately, today, in Romania, there is not a real connection between archaeology and tourism and there are only few sites exploited for tourism. The interests between archaeology and tourism due to the preservation and the capitalization of the historical remains, generates, in fact a sustainable form of tourism. From this point of view...

  9. Investigation of causes of differences in student performance on the topics of stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms in an undergraduate organic chemistry course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Irina

    Students have a great deal of difficulty in understanding the concepts of chemistry, including organic chemistry. which results in high failure and repeat rates. The purpose of this study was to determine possible reasons for student failure in an undergraduate organic chemistry course. In particular, the study dealt with student difficulties in two concepts of undergraduate organic chemistry--stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms. Such possible reasons for student failure. as lack of logical or spatial abilities, lack of knowledge of general chemistry, lack of studying efforts and misconceptions, were under investigation. The study involved a combination of both a quantitative approach--statistical analysis of student performance, and a qualitative approach--analysis of student think-aloud interviews. A group of students at the Catholic University of America (22 students), Prince George's Community College (23 students) and Montgomery Community College (13 students) enrolled in an undergraduate organic chemistry course were participants in the study. Catholic University and community college students were treated as two separate groups. At the beginning of the study, student logical and spatial abilities, and knowledge of general chemistry were ascertained. After each of the stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms concepts were taught, students were given two separate achievement tests on these concepts. Statistical correlation between independent variables (logical and spatial abilities, knowledge of general chemistry, and studying efforts) and dependent variables (achievement in stereochemistry and reaction mechanisms) was investigated using regression analysis. A group of students was interviewed to ascertain their knowledge of the organic chemistry concepts, ways of reasoning and misconceptions. The results of the study showed that knowledge of general chemistry is the most important variable in both Catholic University and community college student

  10. Intransigent archaeology. An interview with Evžen Neustupný on his life in archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuna, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-28. ISSN 1380-2038 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological paradigm * processual archaeology * history of archaeology * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Microstructural, compositional and mechanical properties of the archaeological indigenous ceramics of Caninhas, Sao Paulo,Brazil; Analise microestrutural, composicional e propriedades mecanicas das ceramicas indigenas do sitio arqueologico Caninhas, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P., E-mail: japaum@alunos.eel.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J.L. [Faculdades Integradas Teresa D' Avila (FATEA), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Rede Salesianas. Dept. de Desenho Industrial; Bornal, W.G.; Queiroz, C.M. [Fundacao Cultural de Jacarehy, Jacarei, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Arqueologia do Vale do Paraiba

    2009-07-01

    Archaeological ceramics contain infinity of data about social and cultural indigenous site Caninhas/SP. The ceramics present a gradient of color (ochre to dark gray), when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variability caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous peoples. It was analyzed the composition phases by X-rays diffraction (XRD) and mapping by EDS, identifying the illite, quartz and lutecite phases (ochre region) and illite, quartz, hydrated alumina and lutecite phases (dark gray region). The results of EDS confirmed the stages identified by X-rays diffraction and suggesting the presence of roots and scrap of ceramics sintered in the composition of indigenous ceramics, when compared by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Vickers hardness identified as fragile and heterogeneous are archaeological ceramics, reaching approximately 203 HV in the grains of silica and 16 HV in the ceramic matrix. (author)

  12. The Blue Bottle Reaction as a General Chemistry Experiment on Reaction Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerer, Steven C.; Cook, A. Gilbert

    1999-11-01

    A kinetics/reaction mechanism experiment using the classic blue bottle reaction is described. Using the scientific method (observe, question, hypothesize, experiment, repeat) students propose and test possible reaction mechanisms for the methylene blue-catalyzed oxidation of dextrose with its dramatic color change. Students are led to discover the three-step mechanism through a series of questions. An advanced version for honors lab courses is also suggested.

  13. Two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate: a quantum chemistry re-examination of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films arising from electrolyte decomposition on low-voltage lithium ion battery anode surfaces are critical for battery operations. We review the recent theoretical literature on electrolyte decomposition and emphasize the modeling work on two-electron reduction of ethylene carbonate (EC, a key battery organic solvent). One of the two-electron pathways, which releases CO gas, is re-examined using simple quantum chemistry calculations. Excess electrons are shown to preferentially attack EC in the order (broken EC^-) > (intact EC^-) > EC. This confirms the viability of two electron processes and emphasizes that they need to be considered when interpreting SEI experiments. An estimate of the crossover between one- and two-electron regimes under a homogeneous reaction zone approximation is proposed.

  14. Investigation of silicate surface chemistry and reaction mechanisms associated with mass transport in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and rate of transport of radionuclides through geologic media can be strongly influenced by the extent of sorption on aquifer surfaces. Over time intervals relevant to such transport processes, rock and mineral surfaces cannot be considered as inert, unreactive substrates but rather as groundwater/solidphase interfaces which are commonly in a state of natural or artificially induced disequilibrium. The goal of the present research is to define experimentally the type of water/rock interactions that will influence surface chemistry and hence sorption characteristics and capacities of natural aquifers. As wide a range of silicate minerals as possible was selected for study to represent rock-forming minerals in basalt, tuff, and granite. The minerals include K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, olivine, hornblende, biotite, and volcanic glass

  15. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  16. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  17. Snapshots of lignin oxidation and depolymerization in archaeological wood: an EGA-MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Diego; Łucejko, Jeannette Jacqueline; Ribechini, Erika; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2015-10-01

    Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) was used for the first time to study archaeological wood, in order to investigate its chemical degradation. The archaeological wood was from an oak pile from a stilt house found in the Neolithic 'La Marmotta' village (Lake Bracciano, Rome, Italy). The sampling was performed from the external to the internal part of the pile, following the annual growth rings in groups of five. In addition, sound oak wood and isolated wood components (holocellulose and cellulose) were also analyzed, and the results were used to highlight differences because of degradation. Our study demonstrated that EGA-MS provides information on the thermo-chemistry of archaeological wood along with in-depth compositional data thanks to the use of MS. Our investigations not only highlighted wood degradation in terms of differences between carbohydrates and lignin content, but also showed that lignin oxidation and depolymerization took place in the archaeological wood. Mass spectral data revealed differences among the archaeological samples from the internal to the external part of the pile. An increase in the formation of wood pyrolysis products bearing a carbonyl group at the benzylic position and a decrease in the amount of lignin dimers were observed. These were related to oxidation and depolymerization reactions, respectively. PMID:26456777

  18. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts. 3. Degradation Mechanisms of Chloronitromethane, Bromonitromethane and Dichloronitromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts formed through ozonation and chlorine/ chloramine disinfection processes in drinking waters that contain dissolved organic matter and bromide ions. These species occur at low concentration, but have been determined to have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and therefore may represent a human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the chemistry involved in the mineralization of HNMs to non-hazardous inorganic products through the application of advanced oxidation and reduction processes. We have combined measured absolute reaction rate constants for the reactions of chloronitromethane, bromonitromethane and dichloronitromethane with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron with a kinetic computer model in an attempt to elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. The results are compared to measurements of stable products resulting from steady-state 60Co y-irradiations of the same compounds. The model predicted the decomposition of the parent compounds and ingrowth of chloride and bromide ions with excellent accuracy, but the prediction of the total nitrate ion concentration was slightly in error, reflecting the complexity of nitrogen oxide species reactions in irradiated solution.

  19. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts. 3. Degradation Mechanisms of Chloronitromethane, Bromonitromethane and Dichloronitromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; William J. Cooper; S. Kirkham Cole; Robert V. Fox; Piero R. Gardinali

    2010-01-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts formed through ozonation and chlorine/ chloramine disinfection processes in drinking waters that contain dissolved organic matter and bromide ions. These species occur at low concentration, but have been determined to have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity and therefore may represent a human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the chemistry involved in the mineralization of HNMs to non-hazardous inorganic products through the application of advanced oxidation and reduction processes. We have combined measured absolute reaction rate constants for the reactions of chloronitromethane, bromonitromethane and dichloronitromethane with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron with a kinetic computer model in an attempt to elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. The results are compared to measurements of stable products resulting from steady-state 60Co y-irradiations of the same compounds. The model predicted the decomposition of the parent compounds and ingrowth of chloride and bromide ions with excellent accuracy, but the prediction of the total nitrate ion concentration was slightly in error, reflecting the complexity of nitrogen oxide species reactions in irradiated solution.

  20. The harmful chemistry behind krokodil (desomorphine) synthesis and mechanisms of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Emanuele Amorim; Grund, Jean-Paul Cornelis; Afonso, Carlos Manuel; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2015-04-01

    "Krokodil" is the street name for the homemade injectable mixture that has been used as a cheap substitute for heroin. Its use begun in Russia and Ukraine and nowadays is being spread over several other countries. Desomorphine is the semi-synthetic opioid claimed to be the main component of krokodil and considered to be responsible for its psychoactive characteristics. The starting materials for desomorphine synthesis are codeine tablets, alkali solutions, organic solvent, acidified water, iodine and red phosphorus, all of which are easily available in retail outlets, such as supermarkets, drugstores, etc. The resulting product is a light brown liquid that is called krokodil. People who inject krokodil present a great variety of serious signs and symptoms, including thrombophlebitis, ulcerations, gangrene, and necrosis, quickly evolving to limb amputation and death. These effects are thought to result from the toxic components produced as byproducts during the homemade drug synthesis. In this work, we reviewed several aspects of krokodil use, including its epidemiology, pharmacology and the chemical properties of the main active ingredient (desomorphine). To enhance our understanding of the clinical and toxic effects and to support the implementation of harm reduction measures, we also describe the "bathtub chemistry" of krokodil and the content of the final solution. PMID:25710781

  1. Chemistry and anticarcinogenic mechanisms of glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-04-01

    Inhibition of cancer can occur via apoptosis, a genetically directed process of cell self-destruction that involves numerous biomarkers and signaling pathways. Glycoalkaloids are nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites found in numerous Solanaceous plants including eggplants, potatoes, and tomatoes. Exposure of cancer cells to glycoalkaloids produced by eggplants (α-solamargine and α-solasonine), potatoes (α-chaconine and α-solanine), and tomatoes (α-tomatine) or their hydrolysis products (mono-, di-, and trisaccharide derivatives and the aglycones solasodine, solanidine, and tomatidine) inhibits the growth of the cells in culture (in vitro) as well as tumor growth in vivo. This overview comprehensively surveys and consolidates worldwide efforts to define the following aspects of these natural compounds: (a) their prevalence in the three foods; (b) their chemistry and structure-activity relationships; (c) the reported factors (biomarkers, signaling pathways) associated with apoptosis of bone, breast, cervical, colon, gastric, glioblastoma, leukemia, liver, lung, lymphoma, melanoma, pancreas, prostate, and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro and the in vivo inhibition of tumor formation and growth in fish and mice and in human skin cancers; and (d) future research needs. The described results may make it possible to better relate the structures of the active compounds to their health-promoting function, individually, in combination, and in food, and allow the consumer to select glycoalkaloid-containing food with the optimal content of nontoxic beneficial compounds. The described findings are expected to be a valuable record and resource for further investigation of the health benefits of food-related natural compounds. PMID:25821990

  2. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta) from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Lima da Costa; Dirse Clara Kern; Alice Helena Eleotério Pinto; Jorge Raimundo da Trindade Souza

    2004-01-01

    This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE) in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP). They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. T...

  3. ADAPTATION OF N-HEPTANE AUTOIGNITION TABULATION FOR COMPLEX CHEMISTRY MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of auto-ignition tabulation for effective use of complex chemical mechanisms will be presented in this paper. Taking cool flame ignition phenomenon into account could improve numerical simulations of combustion in compression ignition engines. Current approaches of successful simulation of this phenomenon are based on the extraction of ignition delay times, heat releases and also reaction rates from tabulated data dependant on four parameters: temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and exhaust gasses mass fraction. The methods described here were used to create lookup tables including cool flame using a comprehensive chemical mechanism without including reaction rates data (as used by other authors. The method proved to be stable for creating tables and these results will be shown, as well as initial implementation results using the tables in computational fluid dynamics software.

  4. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-04-10

    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  5. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  6. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-07-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  7. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  8. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  9. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-01-01

    Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum ...

  10. The e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology. Archiving and publication of archaeological data

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the archiving and publication of archaeological research data has led to the establishment of the e-Depot for Dutch Archaeology (EDNA) accommodated at DANS. EDNA is a collaboration between DANS and the Cultural Heritage Agency (RCE). DANS is an institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). The slogan "Digital archaeology requires a digital memory" was used in 2007 to bring care for dig...

  11. Uptake of Reactive Black 5 by pumice and walnut activated carbon: Chemistry and adsorption mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Heibati, B.; Rodriguez-Couto, S.; Amrane, A; M. Rafatullah; Hawari, A.; Al-Ghouti, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of using pumice and walnut wood activated carbon as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The Langmuir isotherm fit to the data specified the presence of two different natures of adsorption sites with different binding energies on the AC-W surface. Kinetic modelling showed that the adsorption behaviour and mechanism of RB5 for both adsorbents is believed to happen via surface adsorption followed by di...

  12. Development and application of a chemistry mechanism for mesoscale simulations of the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, E.; Hendricks, J.; Petry, H. [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Geophysics and Meteorology

    1997-12-31

    A new chemical mechanism is applied for mesoscale simulations of the impact of aircraft exhausts on the atmospheric composition. The temporal and spatial variation of the tropopause height is associated with a change of the trace gas composition in these heights. Box and three dimensional mesoscale model studies show that the conversion of aircraft exhausts depends strongly on the cruise heights as well as on the location of release in relation to the tropopause. The impact of aircraft emissions on ozone is strongly dependent on the individual meteorological situation. A rising of the tropopause height within a few days results in a strong increase of ozone caused by aircraft emissions. (author) 12 refs.

  13. Advancing Theory? Landscape Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on how Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been applied in Landscape Archaeology from the late 1980s to the present. GIS, a tool for organising and analysing spatial information, has exploded in popularity, but we still lack a systematic overview of how it has contributed to archaeological theory, specifically Landscape Archaeology. This paper will examine whether and how GIS has advanced archaeological theory through a historical review of its application in archaeology.

  14. Effect of direct quenching on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the lean-chemistry HSLA-100 steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Direct-quenched and tempered (DQT) steels gives better mechanical properties. → Fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates enhance matrix strengthening and tempering resistance. → Boron promotes hardenability, but low temperature Charpy impact toughness gets affected. → Mechanical properties equivalent to HSLA-100 steel is achieved by directly quenched leaner chemistry alloys. - Abstract: The influence of direct quenching on structure-property behavior of lean chemistry HSLA-100 steels was studied. Two laboratory heats, one containing Cu and Nb (C:0.052, Mn:0.99, Cu:1.08, Nb:0.043, Cr:0.57, Ni:1.76, Mo:0.55 pct) and the other containing Cu, Nb and B (C:0.04, Mn:1.02, Cu:1.06, Nb:0.036, Cr:0.87, Ni:1.32, Mo:0.41, B:0.002 percent) were hot-rolled into 25 and 12.5 mm thick plates by varying finish-rolling temperatures. The plates were heat-treated by conventional reheat quenching and tempering (RQT), as well as by direct quenching and tempering (DQT) techniques. In general, direct-quench and tempered plates of Nb-Cu heat exhibited good strength (yield strength ∼ 900 MPa) and low-temperature impact toughness (average: 74 J at -85 deg. C); the Charpy V-notch impact energies were marginally lower than conventional HSLA-100 steel. In Nb-Cu-B heat, impact toughness at low-temperature was inferior owing to boron segregation at grain boundaries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning auger microprobe (SAM) analysis confirmed existence of borocarbides at grain boundaries in this steel. In general, for both the steels, the mechanical properties of the direct-quench and tempered plates were found to be superior to reheat quench and tempered plates. A detailed transmission electron microscopy study revealed presence of fine Cu and Nb (C, N) precipitates in these steels. It was also observed that smaller martensite inter-lath spacing, finer grains and precipitates in direct-quench and tempered plates compared to the reheat quench and tempered plates

  15. Ultrasonic and mechanical behavior of green and partially sintered alumina: Effects of slurry consolidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, C.H.; Garcia, V.J.; Smith, R.M. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Roberts, R.A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Green and partially sintered compacts of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder were made by filtration of aqueous suspensions under three conditions: (i) electrostatic stabilization without any organic additive, (ii) strong flocculation near the isoelectric point without any organic additive, and (iii) weak flocculation by the use of maltodextrin or oxalic acid additives. The authors evaluated relationships between the macroscopic and interparticle mechanical behavior of these compacts using model correlations with measurements of diametral compression, ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation. Although type iii green specimens were less dense than type i, type iii exhibited significant increases in velocity, macroscopic Young`s modulus, interparticle-contact stiffness, and diametral compressive strength, suggesting that the mechanism of stiffening/strengthening entailed interparticle bridging of maltodextrin or oxalic acid. These properties were significantly reduced upon heating type iii specimens to 500 C, suggesting that pyrolysis of surface-adsorbed maltodextrin and oxalic acid may have reduced the interparticle stiffness and strength. In contrast, negligible changes in these properties occurred upon heating type i specimens to the same temperature. Despite small increases in packing density, significant decreases in attenuation and significant increases in velocity, interparticle-contact stiffness, and Young`s modulus occurred upon heating all specimens to {ge}700 C, suggesting the formation of interparticle necks by solid-state sintering.

  16. Alkali-activated fly ash. Relationship between mechanical strength gains and initial ash chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated fly ash is the primary component of a new generation of high-strength, durable binders with excellent mechanical properties and durability (on occasion bettering traditional Portland cement performance. Moreover, development of these cements may contribute to mitigating CO2 emissions, since the base material is an industrial by-product. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the composition of the initial materials (SiO2/Al2O3 and Na2O/Al2O3 ratios on the mechanical properties, nature and composition of the reaction products. The results obtained indicate that there is no linear relationship between these ratios and mechanical strength, but rather a series of optimal values above and below which strength declines. In the specific case of the ratios studied in the present paper, these values were: SiO2/Al2O3= 4.0 and Na2O/Al2O3= 1.0 (molar ratios.Las cenizas volantes activadas alcalinamente constituyen la base de una nueva generación de cementos con muy interesantes propiedades mecánicas, adherentes y durables (a veces incluso mejores que las de los cementos Portland tradicionales. Adicionalmente el desarrollo de estos cementos podría contribuir a mitigar las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, ya que el material base de los mismos puede estar formado por subproductos industriales. En la presente investigación se realizó un estudio para determinar la influencia de la composición de los materiales iniciales (ratios SiO2/Al2O3 y Na2O/Al2O3 en las propiedades mecánicas y en la naturaleza y composición de los productos de reacción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que no existe una relación lineal de dichas ratios con las resistencias mecánicas, sino que existen unos valores óptimos, por encima y debajo de los cuales las resistencias mecánicas disminuyen. En el caso concreto de las ratios estudiadas en el presente trabajo estos valores serian: SiO2/Al2O3= 4,0 y Na2O/Al2O3= 1,0 (relaciones molares

  17. Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shizgal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...

  18. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    . It is hoped that this book will be an invaluable guide for students; teachers and scholars of Archaeology, History and allied disciplines besides general public. The book is well illustrated and comprehensively presented to be of use to everybody interested...

  19. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science. PMID:25870041

  20. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  1. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Martínez, David; Villoch Vázquez, Victoria; Criado Boado, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practica...

  2. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Kenneth A.; Angel Janevski; Julia Stoyanovich

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005). The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology comm...

  3. Archaeologically Sustainable Development in an Urban Context

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, John C

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological deposits pose a financial risk for developers resulting from the planning constraints that are imposed by the premise that a public interest exists in those deposits and in the consequent impact that any development might have upon them. In England and Wales, those planning constraints arise from the principles now established by the National Planning Policy Framework. Here archaeological deposits are identified as being among the heritage assets that go to make up the heritage...

  4. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Bill Sillar; Lisa Daniel; Charlotte Frearson

    2013-01-01

    Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian'(2013) league table for studying archaeology. Ranked 2nd in 'The Times'(2013) ‘Good University Guide’. 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011. Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future....

  5. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Garrard; Norah Moloney; Dietrich Stout; Ignacio de la Torre

    2005-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963) was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978) for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989) inspired many of...

  6. The study of archaeology in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    The University of Malta has made a late entry in the field of archaeology. The first graduate courses started only in 1987. One recalls with satisfaction, however, that Professor Temi Zammit, the distinguished Maltese archaeologist, was Rector of the Royal University of Malta between 1920 and 1926, and that for a short period, in the years 1938-1939, John Ward Perkins, then at the beginning of his brilliant and influential career, was appointed Professor of Archaeology...

  7. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  8. Editorial - portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

    OpenAIRE

    Suzie Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the ar...

  9. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kharakwal, J. S.; Gurjar, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of bra...

  10. Free Radical Chemistry of Disinfection Byproducts 2: Rate Constants and Degradation Mechanism of Trichloronitromethane (Chloropicrin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute rate constants for the free-radical-induced degradation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM, chloropicrin) were determined using electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy. Rate constants for hydroxyl radical, OH, and hydrated electron, eaq-, reactions were (4.97 ± 0.28) x 107 M-1 s-1 and (2.13 ± 0.03) x 1010 M-1 s-1, respectively. It appears that the OH adds to the nitro-group, while the eaq- reacts via dissociative electron attachment to give two carbon centered radicals. The mechanisms of these free radical reactions with TCNM were investigated, using 60Co gamma irradiation at various absorbed doses, measuring the disappearance of TCNM and the appearance of the product nitrate and chloride ions. The rate constants and mechanistic data were combined in a kinetic computer model that was used to describe the major free radical pathways for the destruction of TCNM in solution. These data are applicable to other advanced oxidation/reduction processes

  11. Mechanisms for Midlatitude Ozone Loss: Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Lowermost Stratosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica B.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Allen, Norton T.; Stimpfle, Richard M.; Anderson, James G.

    2001-01-01

    The question of midlatitude ozone erosion by chlorine free radical catalysis is examined. We present and analyze simultaneous, high-resolution observations of ClO, H2O, tropopause height, particle reactive surface area, and ice saturation occurrence frequency obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The objective is to test the hypothesis that the existence of cirrus clouds or cold aerosols in the first few kilometers above the tropopause at midlatitudes is responsible for increasing the ratio of chlorine free radicals to total inorganic chlorine, thus amplifying the rate of catalytic ozone destruction. The observations reveal a sharp decrease in ice saturation frequency at the tropopause, a marked degree of undersaturation just above the tropopause, a corresponding sharp gradient in the product of cold aerosol reactive surface area and reaction probability, gamma-S(sub a), and, finally, the consistent absence of enhanced concentrations of ClO immediately above the tropopause. These results suggest that midlatitude ozone loss is not controlled in situ by the mechanism of cirrus cloud and/or cold aerosol enhancement of chlorine radicals in the vicinity of the tropopause.

  12. A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M P

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of our ancestor's diets is becoming increasingly important in evolutionary medicine, as researchers have argued that we have evolved to specific type of 'Palaeolithic' diet, and many modern nutritional disorders relate to the mismatch between the diet to which we have evolved, and the relatively newer agricultural-based 'Neolithic' diets. However, what is the archaeological evidence for pre-agricultural diets and how have they changed over the four million years of hominid evolution? This paper briefly introduces the three lines of evidence we have for Palaeolithic and Neolithic diets; morphological changes, archaeological material evidence, and direct measurement of diet from bone chemistry. The morphological changes, increasing gracilization of the mandible and increasing brain size have been interpreted (based on analogies with living primates) as the move from plants to higher-quality, more digestible, animal meat, although this is debated. The archaeological evidence is especially weak, as many organic materials, especially plants, do not survive well, and are therefore invisible in the archaeological record. Artefacts, such as stone tools which are likely to be used for hunting and animal bones with evidence of human processing and butchering do indicate that hunting did occur at many times in the past, but it is impossible to judge the frequency. Direct evidence from bone chemistry, such as the measurement of the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, do provide direct evidence of past diet, and limited studies on five Neanderthals from three sites, as well as a number of modern Palaeolithic and Mesolithic humans indicates the importance of animal protein in diets. There is a significant change in the archaeological record associated with the introduction of agriculture worldwide, and an associated general decline in health in some areas. However, there is an rapid increase in population associated with domestication of plants, so although in some

  13. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  14. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  15. Near-explicit Gas-phase Chemistry Coupled with Extensive Aqueous Mechanism: Looking at Ethanol (E85) Exhaust in a Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2011-12-01

    We combine a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism with an extensive aqueous mechanism in a chemical solver to examine the effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline on the fate of pollutants in the presence of a fog. We use the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, Leeds University) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism, CAPRAM 3.0, with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate complex chemistry. The MCM has over 13, 500 organic reactions and 4,600 species, while CAPRAM treats aqueous chemistry among 390 species and 829 reactions (including 51 gas-to-aqueous phase reactions). We validate a simplified version of the model against results from a comprehensive intercomparison by Barth et al (2003). In previous work on ethanol (E85), we analyzed the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry and its impact on urban air pollution considering only gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the air pollution findings, we verified that using the MCM with SMVGEAR is practical in a 3-D model. Here, we extend our study to include aqueous chemistry in the presence of a fog. We investigate the impact aqueous reactions have on unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde mixing ratios in the atmosphere in particular because acetaldehyde is an ozone precursor and carcinogen, and aqueous oxidation has potential to speed the conversion of unburned ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde also forms acetic acid in aqueous solution. Acetic acid vapor is an eye, nose, and lung irritant, so both species contribute negatively to human health. We look at the impact of fog liquid water content and temperature on the degradation of emitted aromatic and other species as well, from both gasoline and E85.

  16. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the offline-coupled WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  17. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah K. Campbell; Butler, Virginia L.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As maj...

  18. Making space for an archaeology of place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wheatley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rather than attempt to write a balanced or complete overview of the application of GIS to archaeology (which would inevitably end up being didactic and uncritical this article sets out to present a discursive and contentious position with the deliberate aim of stimulating further debate about the future role of GIS within our discipline. To this end, existing applications of GIS to archaeology are reviewed, concentrating on two areas of application, predictive modelling and visibility analyses, and on their wider disciplinary context. It is argued that GIS cannot be simplistically held to have been a 'good thing' or a 'bad thing' for archaeology, but rather that these different application areas may be analysed separately and found to have quite different qualities. Although they are in no sense alternatives to one another, the areas of predictive modelling and visibility analysis can be seen to represent quite different agendas for the development of an archaeology of space and/or place. The development of correlative predictive models is considered first, both from the perspective of explanation and of cultural resource management. The arguments against predictive modelling as a means of explanation are rehearsed and it is found to be over-generalising, deterministic and de-humanised. As a consequence, it is argued that predictive modelling is now essentially detached from contemporary theoretical archaeological concerns. Moreover, it is argued to be an area with significant unresolved methodological problems and, far more seriously, that it presents very real dangers for the future representativity of archaeological records. Second, the development of GIS-based visibility analysis is reviewed. This is also found to be methodologically problematic and incomplete. However, it is argued that visibility studies — in direct contrast to predictive modelling — have remained firmly situated within contemporary theoretical debates, notably about

  19. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  20. Dynamics and mechanisms of catalytic processes and hot chemistry. Final report, March 1, 1972-October 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General areas of research addressed are recoil chemistry of halogens, tritium, and sulfur, radiotracer methods for studies of chemical dynamics, thermal and photochemistry of sulfur dioxide, and photochemistry and photoassistance in catalytic systems

  1. Some observations on contemporary teaching of archaeology in universities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gojda, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2012), s. 9-16. ISSN 0081-3834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : archaeology * university studies * teaching strategy * interpretive openness * archaeological sources Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. Liquid scintillators for radiocarbon dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple scintillator counter with one photomultiplier and no cooling is used for determining the absolute age of archaeological specimens by means of radiocarbon. Background is reduced by using a steel- and lead-laminated shield and amplitude pulse-height selection, and by making the detector from selected 'clean' materials. Ethyl benzene is synthesized from the carbon contained in the archaeological specimen. From 18 to 72 ml of liquid scintillator was used in the measurements, corresponding to the introduction of 3 - 12 g of carbon from the specimen. With 40 ml of scintillator the background-count speed and the contemporaneous carbon speed (without background) were respectively 23.5 and 37 counts/min and with 70 ml, 28 and 57 counts/ min. The statistical error of 48-h measurements of specimens 5500 yr old is respectively 65 and 35 yr with 40 and 70 ml of the scintillator. Archaeological specimens from various regions of the Soviet Union were measured. (author)

  3. EIS Field Investigation in an Archaeological Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2000-01-01

    Nydam Mose is an area rich in archaeological artefacts from the Iron Age. Excavations have been conducted in this area since 1859. Environmental changes and probably disturbances caused by excavating the area are now expected to have lead to an accelerated rate of deterioration of both wood and...... environmental changes and changes in corrosion rate. The aim of this investigation is to determine which parameters and which techniques that are necessary and applicable in order to characterise the corrosivity of an archaeological site in view of in situ preservation of archaeological artefacts. There are...... large differences between the state of preservation of an artefact found in one specific area to another illustrating the diversity of the environment and the effect of the different history of the artefacts. This combined with general difficulties related to monitoring in soil makes it an ambitious...

  4. Sites, sacredness, and stories: Interactions of archaeology and contemporary Paganism

    OpenAIRE

    Wallis, R. J.; Blain, J.

    2003-01-01

    Folklore has, until very recently, been at the fringes of archaeological research. Post-processual archaeology has promoted plurality in interpretation, however, and archaeology more widely is required to make itself relevant to contemporary society; so, contemporary folkloric practices vis-à-vis archaeological remains are once again receiving attention. In this paper we examine contemporary Pagan understandings of and engagements with ‘sacred sites’ in England. Specifically, we explore how P...

  5. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  6. Zinc and Brass in Archaeological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Kharakwal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brass has a much longer history than zinc. There has been a bit of confusion about the early beginning of zinc as several claims are made out side of India. Both literary as well as archaeological records reveal that production of pure zinc had begun in the second half of the first millennium BC, though production on commercial scale begun in the early Medieval times. This paper attempts to examine the archaeological record and literary evidence to understand the actual beginning of brass and zinc in India.

  7. #Archaeology and #SocialMedia at#ACRNCASPAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    CASPAR, the Centre for Audio-Visual Study and Practicein Archaeology and the Archaeology and Communication Research Network held a workshop at UCL’s Institute for Archaeology. The workshop was hashtagged on Twitter as #ACRNCASPAR and it’s been blogged by Daniel Pett. This is a Storified collection of tweets by @jessogden

  8. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  9. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  10. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  11. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  12. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR PROMOTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF PARMA (ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Dall’Asta; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; R. Roncella

    2016-01-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve ...

  13. Objects or Narratives. Archaeological Exhibitions in Serbia: Foundations of Museum Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Cvjetićanin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although every local museum or parts of national museums keep archaeological finds, museums in general play a very limited role on the archaeological scene, often being passive and marginalized. Well-grounded investigation into the archaeological objects kept in museum collections and, above all, the public domain of museums, the nature of collections and exhibitions, both permanent and occasional, have not been adequately recognized, discussed or considered. In spite of the fact that museum exhibitions legitimize the dominant social and political norms of the present, museums remain marginalized, separated from the currents of various pertinent disciplines, and not prepared for the necessary changes. Archaeological theory, shaping the archaeological practice of museums as well, is not understood as its constituent part, and the interpretive context in which exhibitions are created, contents and nature of interpretation are not considered. The analysis of the exhibitions of the National Museum in Belgrade, being the paradigm of museum archaeology in Serbia up to the middle of the 20th century, has shown that the culture-historical approach, the idea of continuity and dynamic artistic presentations of alienated past have marked this public presence of museums. The Museum has developed from the storage space and knowledge presentation, over exhibition space to an ideal museum, dominated by estheticized expositions, establishing various official representations of the past. The changes in the theory of museology, somewhat coinciding with the changes in archaeological theory, have posed a new challenge to museum archaeology, that may be defined in short as the need for the new interpretation of the past.

  14. Archaeological Tourism Opportunity Spectrum: Experience Based Management and Design as Applied to Archaeological Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzola, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological sites need a new management and development framework to address the pressures resulting from an increasing interest in archaeological tourism. This new framework needs to address both the imminent threat that increased tourism brings (overuse, crowding and additional wear) to the site as well as the widening range of experiences that tourists expect. Over the last decades, management frameworks have been developed in many fields of tourism to address similar issues. The most w...

  15. Corrosion inhibitor testing in archaeological conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal objects from archaeological contexts often suffer serious damage by corrosion. Various methods for inhibiting corrosion have been developed, but their effects need to be evaluated. Here new research is described on how treatments to inhibit the corrosion of copper and copper-alloy artefacts may be tested.

  16. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian'(2013 league table for studying archaeology. Ranked 2nd in 'The Times'(2013 ‘Good University Guide’. 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011. Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  17. The fifth issue of Archaeology International

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, David R.

    2001-01-01

    With the appearance of this issue, Archaeology International (AI) reaches its fifth birthday. Since it was launched, as a successor to the former Bulletin and Annual Reports of the Institute, my aim each year has been to feature short articles on current research by Institute staff and research students, and to supplement them with summary information about other research-related matters.

  18. Palaeolithic research at the Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Garrard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation in 1937, the Institute of Archaeology has been an important centre of research on Pleistocene environments and Palaeolithic archaeology. Frederick Zeuner (loA: 1937-1963 was greatly respected for his teaching and research on the subject, including his 1945 publication The Pleistocene period and John Waechter (loA: 1954-1978 for his Palaeolithic excavations at Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar and Swanscombe in the Thames Valley. Mark Newcomer (loA: 1973-1989 inspired many of the students with his experimental research on prehistoric bone and flint technology and for his innovative work on the microwear analysis of flint tools. In 1982, Mark Roberts began his excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Boxgrove in Sussex and more recently Matthew Pope has been involved in an extensive survey of the Middle Pleistocene raised beaches along the south Sussex coast. Simon Parfitt has been undertaking groundbreaking research into the Lower Palaeolithic of East Anglia. Andrew Garrard and Norah Moloney joined the staff of the Institute of Archaeology in 1990 and 1994 respectively, and Dietrich Stout and Ignacio de la Torre in 2005. Each are involved in research relating to human developments through the Pleistocene and this is outlined in the four sections that follow. Several other staff also undertake research in related fields, including Ole Gron, Simon Hills on, Richard Macphail, Marcello Mannino, Tim Schadla-Hall, James Steele and Ken Thomas. The work of several of these has featured in recent issues of Archaeology International.

  19. Studying at the UCL Institute of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranked 1st in 'The Guardian' (2013 league table for studying archaeology Ranked 2nd in 'The Times' (2013 ‘Good University Guide’ 100% of Institute undergraduate finalists expressed satisfaction with our teaching and support in the UK National Student Surveys 2010 and 2011 Students at the UCL Institute of Archaeology discover the rich diversity of the human past, exploring societies from two million years ago to the present day, and asking questions of relevance to our shared global future. To address these questions students integrate the humanities and the sciences; using a wide range of approaches to collect, evaluate and interpret relevant evidence. At UCL and during survey and excavation projects students make life-long friends while developing teamwork, management and leadership skills. Studying archaeology demands energy and enthusiasm, it challenges expectations while developing the problem-solving and transferable skills which all employers are looking for. Graduates from the Institute go on to make wide-ranging contributions to society, including business, academia and archaeology.

  20. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  1. Archaeometric studies on the Hatahara archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of the past and the understanding of historical and cultural aspects of societies that developed at archaeological sites have been enabled by archaeometric studies undertaken on ceramics located at these areas. This study aims to be a contribution to the elucidation of these aspects with the application of three physical methods of analysis: neutron activation analysis (NAA), thermoluminescence dating (TL) an electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to ceramic fragments from the Hatahara archaeological site, located at central Amazon. The elemental concentrations obtained by NAA for 120 ceramic fragments were interpreted by means of cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results showed the existence of five distinct ceramic groups. This information, supported by archaeological interpretation, confirm the existence of four distinct occupation Phases at Hatahara site. In order to establish a chronology for the occupations, the ages of three ceramic fragments were determined by TL. The dating of two fragments did not confirm the archaeological interpretation about their occupation Phases. However, the dating of the third fragment allowed the confirmation that it belongs to the Manacapuru Phase. The determination of the burning temperatures of four ceramic fragments was performed by EPR. It was observed that although the analyzed ceramic samples belong to three distinct groups, there was no significant variation on their burning temperatures. (author)

  2. Archaeology for the Science Teacher: Interdisciplinary Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslinger, C. Michael; Thiel, Daniel P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an example of how archaeologists might conduct a hypothetical research program to illustrate how specific types of data are generated and then used to interpret prehistoric culture systems. A brief review of the historical development of American archaeology is also provided. (JN)

  3. Corrosion inhibitor testing in archaeological conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Faltermeier

    1997-01-01

    Metal objects from archaeological contexts often suffer serious damage by corrosion. Various methods for inhibiting corrosion have been developed, but their effects need to be evaluated. Here new research is described on how treatments to inhibit the corrosion of copper and copper-alloy artefacts may be tested.

  4. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  5. Research of archaeological and historical textiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena; Bravermanová, M.

    Liberec: Technical University of Liberec, 2013. s. 22. ISBN 978-80-7372-989-9. [Textile Science /8./. 23.09.2013-25.09.2013, Liberec] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological textiles * historical textiles * textile technology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Editorial: Portable antiquities: archaeology, collecting, metal detecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzie Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal detecting and archaeology do not always coexist peacefully. Indeed, even in the current climate of participation and inclusion within public and community archaeologies, there are still issues of trust to address, relating to both metal-detector users and archaeologists. While in the UK there have been disagreements between archaeologists and metal-detector users over the years, there have also been some significant steps made in encouraging metal-detector users to cooperate with the archaeological sector. Perhaps the most successful and best known of these is the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS, active across England and Wales. Add to this mix those that provide the commercial demand for metal-detected finds, the dealers and private collectors, and a clash of interests and motivations seems inevitable. Most would hope that relationships, positive in many cases but also problematic, will improve, both in the interests of enhancing the recording of non-stratified finds, and of promoting a publicly accessible and inclusive archaeology. However, is this an inevitable progression, or ultimately unachievable?

  7. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. Archaeological and Geological dating by means of thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis an specific method for dating local archaeological and geological samples based on the phenomenon of thermoluminescence (TL) using the fine grain and quartz inclusion techniques is developed. Taking into account that this work is interesting for professionals working in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Archaeology, Anthropology and related sciences, some basic concepts are described to have a better comprehension. Chapter 1 describes the concept of radioactivity, remarking the importance of the different decay types as well as the main radioactive series and the energy liberated in the process. The causes of radioactive desequilibrium are also considered in the case for radon. Another important aspect taken into account in this chapter is the radioisotope production and its relationship with the neutron activation analysis used for the determination of the Uranium and Thorium concentrations in the samples. The TL phenomenon is described in Chapter 2, emphasizing the importance of the process of thermally stimulated luminescence best known as TL and its application for dating minerals of different origin. Chapter 3 shows some important antecedents remarking some aspects of the techniques commonly used for dating purposes. Chapter 4 shows the different methods used for the sample preparation. The techniques used for the 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th determination as well as for the cosmic radiation measurement using locally made TLD are also described. The methods used for the determination of the paleodosis as a function of the TL intensity of each sample are described: special emphasis is taken on the moisture effects as well as in the error limits in the age estimation. Results and conclusions of this study are presented in Chapter 5. These results gave an age of 980 ± 90 years for the Edzna ceramic and 1520 ± 90 years for the Calixtlahuaca ceramics. The age of the Teotihuacan ceramics was not estimated due to the lack of a stable region of the traps

  9. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J F; Hawkes, K; Lupo, K D; Blurton Jones, N G

    2002-12-01

    Archaeological data are frequently cited in support of the idea that big game hunting drove the evolution of early Homo, mainly through its role in offspring provisioning. This argument has been disputed on two grounds: (1) ethnographic observations on modern foragers show that although hunting may contribute a large fraction of the overall diet, it is an unreliable day-to-day food source, pursued more for status than subsistence; (2) archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene, coincident with the emergence of Homo can be read to reflect low-yield scavenging, not hunting. Our review of the archaeology yields results consistent with these critiques: (1) early humans acquired large-bodied ungulates primarily by aggressive scavenging, not hunting; (2) meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases, as the hunting hypothesis requires; (3) carcasses were taken at highly variable rates and in varying degrees of completeness, making meat from big game an even less reliable food source than it is among modern foragers. Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays. Even if meat were acquired more reliably than the archaeology indicates, its consumption cannot account for the significant changes in life history now seen to distinguish early humans from ancestral australopiths. The coincidence between the earliest dates for Homo ergaster and an increase in the archaeological visibility of meat eating that many find so provocative instead reflects: (1) changes in the structure of the environment that concentrated scavenging opportunities in space, making evidence of their pursuit more obvious to archaeologists; (2) H. ergaster's larger body size (itself a consequence of other factors), which improved its ability at interference competition. PMID:12473486

  10. High-energy chemistry of formamide: spectroscopy of LIGB plasma and a unified mechanism of nuvleic base formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Šponer, Judit E.; Šponer, Jiří

    Bologna : University of Bologna, 2014. s. 279-279. [Bologna2014. International Conference on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy /23./. 02.09.2014-06.09.2014, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : spectroscopy * high-energy simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  12. Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Archaeology, by Stephen Williams. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Trigger

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available For many years Stephen Williams has taught a course at Harvard University dealing with those aspects of Americanist archaeology that the finds to be based on fantasy rather than on carefully recovered archaeological evidence. He has now published a book based on this course, which provides a history of this archaeology. Much of the strength of this book is derived from Williams' recognition that fantastic archaeology has been an integral part of American archaeology from its earliest days, that the border between the fantastic and the scientific is problematical, and that weird ideas often fill real social needs.

  13. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  15. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  16. Archaeological analogous and industrials for deep storage: study of the archaeological metallic piece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present research is to obtain information about archaeological analogous of iron and steel, useful for the model of deep geological repository (AGP). The analogous examined have remained buried between 1400 and 2400 years, in very assorted geochemical environments. The extraction of the archaeological pieces has been accomplished according to normalised protocols, trying to carry to the laboratory so the piece as its burial environment, avoiding all possible pollution. Trying to the archaeological analogous could provide valuable information to the AGP model, the study has been directed to related the physical-chemical characteristics of the terrain respect to the deterioration of the archaeological metallic piece. The geology of the surrounding terrain to the archaeological deposit, the geomorphological study of the terrain and data from the analysis of ground: pH, wetness, porosity, organic matter contents, bacteria presence, sulphates, carbonates, chlorides, etc., have allowed to explain the physical-chemical phenomena suffered by the archaeological iron and steel pieces. Also, an exhaustive study of the archaeological piece has been accomplished, concerning the microstructure of the corrosion layer and of the not deteriorated metallic rest. Obtained information concerns different items, such as corrosion velocity and formations of oxide layers, diffusion of chemical elements from the corrosion layer to the metal and viceversa, and structural changes in oxide layers and in the metallic remains by structural ageing. Obtained data have allowed to develop a mathematical model for calculation of corrosion velocity in buried iron and steels, based on physical-chemical variables of grounds, chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment given to the metal during its manufacture. (Author)

  17. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  18. Development of Teaching/Learning Aid in Teaching Chemistry to Promote Environmental Comprehension and Professional Competence of Car Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Priede, Daina

    2013-01-01

    ANNOTATION In the doctoral thesis “Development of Teaching/Learning Aid in Teaching Chemistry to Promote Environmental Comprehension and Professional Competence of Car Mechanics” the didactical approach has been created for studies in professional secondary schools in order to raise environmental comprehension and professional competence. To clarify pupils and students’ comprehension of chemical environmental processes, tests and inquiry forms were used. The gained results were incorporate...

  19. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3CHF2 (R-152a): mechanism of the CH3CF2O2+HO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk;

    2004-01-01

    FTIR smog chamber techniques have been used to investigate the mechanism of the reaction of CH3CF2O2 with HO2 radicals in 100-700 Torr of synthetic air at 296 K. The reaction gives CH3CF2OOH and COF2 in molar yields of 0.53 +/- 0.05 and 0.47 +/- 0.05, respectively. Results are discussed with...... respect to the atmospheric chemistry of peroxy radicals and the environmental impact of R-152a. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys at the archaeological site of Priolo (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, G.; Malfitana, D.; Cacciaguerra, G.; Lanteri, R.; Fragalà, G.

    2012-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Three contexts are under exploration: Aguglia d'Agosta, an early roman funerary monument; Ponte Diddino, a middle-late roman villa; Tavoliere-Maccaudo, a roman and byzantine settlement. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman-byzantine landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. This researches conducted to solve specific archaeological problems which are part of a wider debate regarding the phenomena connected to the role of settlements, use of lands, etc. to establish new parameters for the development of ancient sicilian landscapes.

  2. A Faceted Query Engine Applied to Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Ross

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the Faceted Query Engine, a system developed at Columbia University under the aegis of the inter-disciplinary project Computational Tools for Modeling, Visualizing and Analyzing Historic and Archaeological Sites. Our system is based on novel Database Systems research that has been published in Computer Science venues (Ross and Janevski, 2004 and Ross et al., 2005. The goal of this article is to introduce our system to the target user audience - the archaeology community. We demonstrate the use of the Faceted Query Engine on a previously unpublished dataset: the Thulamela (South Africa collection. This dataset is comprised of iron-age finds from the Thulamela site at the Kruger National Park. Our project is the first to systematically compile and classify this dataset. We also use a larger dataset, a collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts from the Memphis site (Giddy,1999, to demonstrate some of the features of our system.

  3. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  4. WATER AND ARCHAEOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICHOLAS KATHIJOTES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is undoubtedly the most precious resource of the planet and the accessibility to water resources marked the history of mankind since the dawn of times. Water has been indeed very central to archaeology and anthropology, that studied the ways in which water was provisioned, tanked, distributed, worshipped, exploited for agricultural irrigation or to power machines like water-mills, used for leisure, hygiene and healing, or abused to confer power on particular groups ,and how it played a central role in political and economic strategies. More than any other factor, waterways marked cultural and economic developments in history. This paper outlines examples of water resources management throughout the ages, in Cyprus and the Hellenic Civilization on different aspects of the use and management of water, investigates technical issues and gives suggestions, thus promoting a new approach to archaeological heritage and sustainable tourism.

  5. Application of synchrotron radiation in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports current status of archaeological application of synchrotron radiation (SR). The advantages of SR in archaeological research and various application possibilities of X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of objects and materials of cultural heritage value are demonstrated through a number of case studies from literatures. They include XPD characterizations of Egyptian cosmetic powder, Attic Black Gloss, and pigments in Gothic altarpieces, provenance analysis of Old-Kutani china wares by high energy XRF, and XAFS analyses to reveal to origin of red color in Satsuma copper-ruby glass and role of iron in Maya blue. (author)

  6. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment

  7. Andean Archaeological History and the Popular Press

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Browman

    1995-01-01

    The only available published reports on many archaeological sites in theAndes often are found solely in the popular press, in the daily or weekly papers of the local region where the sites occur, or in the science and culture sections of the larger dailies in departmental or national capitals. Dog-eared, faded xeroxes are passed from one generation of students to the next. Each serious scholar has a few dozen of these ...

  8. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  9. TOF neutron diffraction study of archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The time-of flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer ROTAX [1] at ISIS has been used for identification and quantitative phase analysis of archaeological pottery. Neutron diffraction yields mineral phase fractions which, in parallel with information obtained from other archaeometric examination techniques, can provide a fingerprint that can be used to identify provenance and reconstruct methods of manufacturing of an archaeological ceramic product. Phase fractions obtained from a 13th century Rhenish stoneware jar compare well with those obtained from a powder sample prepared from the same fragment. This indicates that reliable results can be obtained by illuminating a large piece or even an intact ceramic object making TOF neutron diffraction a truly non-destructive examination technique. In comparison to X-ray diffraction, information from the bulk sample rather than from surface regions is obtained. ROTAX allows for a simple experimental set-up, free of sample movements. Programmes of archaeological study on ROTAX involve Russian samples (Upper-Volga culture, 5000-2000 BC), Greek pottery, (Agora/Athens, 500-300 BC), and medieval German earthenware and stoneware ceramics (Siegburg waster heap, 13-15th century). (author)

  10. Basic Issues in Harappan Archaeology: Some Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Shinde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the Harappan Civilization in the early twentieth century was considered to be the most significant archaeological discovery in the Indian Subcontinent as it pushed the beginning of settled life by 2000 years. Contemporary to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations it was unique in its town planning. Spread over major parts of the western and north-western subcontinent, its influence is seen to the Tajikistan border in the north and the Gulf region in the west with over two thousand sites found till date. The past eight decades of research have brought to light many important details of the culture including the cultural process involving its origin, maturity and decline but certain aspects such as the terminology, climatic influence, regional variations, script etc are still very flimsy. To gain more information the focus of research will have to shift from Mega Site Archaeology to Small Site Archaeology with large multidisciplinary research projects to acquire a more holistic picture of the Harappan culture.

  11. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  12. From Web to Grid, a new perspective for archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Pelfer, Pier Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that in Archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualisation. In the last years the amount of information coming from remote sensing. from precise and fast acquisition of 3-D artefacts images by scanners laser, from GPS precise reference of geographical points and from other human and natural sciences are increasing at a large extent the amount of data that it need to be stored and made available for analysis. Moreover the use of Virtual Archaeology as a new approach to the narration and visualisation in Archaeology, is expanding rapidly, not only in the museum and archaeology professions, but also in the broadcast media, tourism and heritage industries. From another side recent natural and social disasters (wars) created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively any information about ancient civilisations. It is urgent a longterm project for saving archaeological...

  13. When Archaeology Begins: The Cultural and Political Context of Chinese Archaeological Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 19th century, the construction of world history has been dominated by Western Europe. In Jack Goody’s recent work, The Theft of History (2007, he demonstrates that the interpretation of the past is conceptualized and presented according to what happened in Europe, and more often in Western Europe. Chinese archaeology, under the control of Western imperialism in the early 20th century, believed that it had to destroy Confucianism and come up with a new philosophy. However, with the arrival of many different kinds of western ideas, such as evolution and diffusion, Chinese archaeology was reformulated many times. Such issues have been discussed in several publications (Chen 1997; Liu and Chen 1999; Falkenhausen 1993. In this paper, we reexamine some of the key concepts of Chinese archaeological thought.

  14. Prospective of the application of ultrasounds in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a prospective analysis of non destructive testing (NDT) based on ultrasounds in the field of archaeology applications. Classical applications of ultrasounds techniques are reviewed, including ocean exploration to detect wrecks, imaging of archaeological sites, and cleaning archaeological objects. The potential of prospective applications is discussed from the perspective of signal processing, with emphasis on the area of linear time variant models. Thus, the use of ultrasound NDT is proposed for new ceramic cataloguing and restoration methods.

  15. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  16. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  17. Marine archaeological explorations on the southwestern coast of Saurashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    of the legendary city of Dvaraka in Arabian Sea, Journal of Marine Archaeology 1: 59-98 Rao, S.R., S. Tnpati and A.S. Gaur 1992. A Preliminary Exploration of Prabhasa-Somnath, Journal of Marine Archaeology 3: 13-16 Sampura, K.F. 1968. The Structural Temples... Coast, Bulletin of the Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology 26: 43-50 Thakkar, N. 1966 Sudamapun Porbandar. Rajkot Vora, M. Porbandar: A History of Porbandar City. Porbandar: Laya Sanskritika Samstha JOURNAL OF INDIAN OCEAN ARCHAEOLOGY NO 3...

  18. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  19. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  20. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice... of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions... patrimony. Officials of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

  1. 77 FR 59660 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... Stanford University Archaeology Center. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  2. Surface chemistry and interfacial charge-transfer mechanisms in photoinduced oxygen exchange at O2-TiO2 interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Juan Felipe; Peral, José; Salvador, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Experimental results obtained over the last three decades on photoinduced oxygen isotopic exchange (POIE) of TiO₂ oxygen atoms with those of adsorbed water molecules and gaseous O₂ are analyzed in the light of recent information from the literature on the interaction of water and O₂ species with the TiO₂ surface (obtained by application of surface spectroscopy techniques in combination with high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy). The analysis emphasizes the singular role that bridging oxygen ions and bridging oxygen vacancies play in TiO₂ surface chemistry and interfacial electron transfer at the gas phase-TiO₂ interface in the absence and presence of water. The observed competition between POIE and the photo-oxidation (PO) of organic compounds is analyzed in terms of the recently developed direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model for heterogeneous photocatalysis (D. Monllor-Satoca et al., Catal. Today, 2007, 129, 247, and references therein). PMID:21442702

  3. Geometric documentation of underwater archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Diamanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry has often been the most preferable method for the geometric documentation of monuments, especially in cases of highly complex objects, of high accuracy and quality requirements and, of course, budget, time or accessibility limitations. Such limitations, requirements and complexities are undoubtedly features of the highly challenging task of surveying an underwater archaeological site. This paper is focused on the case of a Hellenistic shipwreck found in Greece at the Southern Euboean gulf, 40-47 meters below the sea surface. Underwater photogrammetry was chosen as the ideal solution for the detailed and accurate mapping of a shipwreck located in an environment with limited accessibility. There are time limitations when diving at these depths so it is essential that the data collection time is kept as short as possible. This makes custom surveying techniques rather impossible to apply. However, with the growing use of consumer cameras and photogrammetric software, this application is becoming easier, thus benefiting a wide variety of underwater sites. Utilizing cameras for underwater photogrammetry though, poses some crucial modeling problems, due to the refraction effect and further additional parameters which have to be co-estimated [1]. The applied method involved an underwater calibration of the camera as well as conventional field survey measurements in order to establish a reference frame. The application of a three-dimensional trilateration using common tape measures was chosen for this reason. Among the software that was used for surveying and photogrammetry processing, were Site Recorder SE, Eos Systems Photomodeler, ZI’s SSK and Rhinoceros. The underwater archaeological research at the Southern Euboean gulf is a continuing project carried out by the Hellenic Institute for Marine Archaeology (H.I.M.A. in collaboration with the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, under the direction of the archaeologist G

  4. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Picton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available University College London houses one of the world’s most important collections of ancient Egyptian material, the majority excavated by Flinders Petrie, his students and his successors in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is a museum of archaeology that helps to explain the development of a discipline that was in its infancy when Petrie worked in Egypt over a century ago. It is a teaching collection, its densely packed cases entrancing, and sometimes intimidating, visitors who rave about its old-fashioned feel, but it is anything but frozen in time.

  5. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants

  6. New Zealand radiocarbon database for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first radiocarbon determinations from New Zealand archaeological sites were obtained about 50 years ago. Since that time, many hundreds of samples have been dated, and for the archaeologist interested in synthesising these various data into coherent regional and national chronologies, the problem of compiling results is a difficult one to overcome. Adequately assessing important radiocarbon-related variables such as the material dated, the context of the sample, the age, standard error, correction factors and a host of other variables, depends upon time consuming effort to compile and decipher past sample record forms at IGNS and Waikato Laboratories. (author)

  7. Enhancing rescue-archaeology using geomorphological approaches: Archaeological sites in Paredes (Asturias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; González-Álvarez, I.; Requejo-Pagés, O.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.

    2011-09-01

    Palaeolithic remnants, a Necropolis (Roman villa), and another minor archaeological site were discovered in Paredes (Spain). These sites were the focus of multidisciplinary research during the construction of a large shopping centre in Asturias (NW Spain). The aims of this study are (1) to contribute to archaeological prospection in the sites and (2) to develop evolutionary models of the sites based on geomorphological inferences. Detailed archaeological prospection (103 trenches), geomorphologic mapping, stratigraphic studies (36 logs) and ground penetration radar (GPR) surveys on five profiles indicate that the location of the settlement source of the Necropolis is outside the construction perimeter, farther to the southeast. The Pre-Holocene evolution of the fluvial landscape is marked by the development of two terraces (T1 and T2) that host the Early Palaeolithic remains in the area (ca 128-71 ka). The Holocene evolution of the landscape was marked by the emplacement of the Nora River flood plain, covered by alluvial fans after ca. 9 ka BP (cal BC 8252-7787). Subsequently, Neolithic pebble pits dated ca. 5.3 ka BP (cal BC 4261-3963 and 4372-4051) were constructed on T2, at the area reoccupied as a Necropolis during the Late Roman period, 1590 ± 45 years BP (cal AD 382-576). Coeval human activity during the Late Roman period at 1670 ± 60 years BP (cal AD 320-430) is also recorded by channel infill sediments in a minor site at the margin of an alluvial fan located to the southeast. This work shows that a rescue-archaeological study can be significantly enhanced by the implementation of multidisciplinary scientific studies, in which the holistic view of geomorphologic settings provide key insights into the geometry and evolution of archaeological sites.

  8. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  9. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  10. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  11. Different use of magnetometric methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : Centre of archaeological sciences, 2012 - (Braekmans, D.; Honings, J.; Degryse, P.). s. 438 ISBN 978-94-6165-043-6. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. 28.05.2012-01.06.2012, Leuven] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : geophysical survey * archaeological prospection * magnetometric method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  13. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  14. Deviations in the Accumulated Dose For Archaeological Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Santana, J. C. C.; Calarge, F.

    The archaeological dating by thermoluminescence (TL) method is obtained through the determination of the accumulative dose and the annual. In this work, an evaluation of two factors which can cause deviations in the accumulative dose in archaeological dating of sediments by TL method was carried out.

  15. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  16. The Archaeologist Undeceived: Selecting Quality Archaeological Information from the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of unreliable information and actual misinformation available via the Internet makes its use problematic for academic purposes, particularly for data-intensive disciplines such as archaeology. Whilst there are many sources for reviews of websites, few apply the type of criteria most appropriate to archaeology. Information and library professionals have developed sets of criteria that can be adapted for the evaluation of archaeological websites. An evaluative tool for archaeological websites, using al-ready-available criteria, was developed and tested on twenty archaeological web sites. It proved capable of allowing its user to make clear distinctions between sites on the basis of quality. Further refining of the evaluative tool is possible on the basis of testing by both archaeologists and information professionals.

  17. Connection of Geodesy and Archaeology in Modern Geovisualisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Poslončec-Petrić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One type of thematic maps is also the map of archeological sites. In order to obtain high-quality cartographic presentation on thematic maps of archaeological sites, a cartographer must know the basic terms and classification of archaeology. The paper presents a few existing archaeological maps (static and interactive and there is also the interactive map of archaeological sites on the island Pag presented. The map has been made within the frame of the diploma thesis by a student Martina Triplat, and the data presented are the result of research made at the archaeological sites of the island Pag and of the geodetic works made at the excavation sites in Uvala Vlaška, the locality Blato and at the economic objects in the vicinity of the locality Blato.

  18. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz;

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by...... which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  19. Review of Ramsey Abbey - An Archaeological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gaffney

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The CD is designed to be read using most standard web browsers and is compatible with both Windows and Mac operating systems. Occasionally in order to view a diagram you are transported into Adobe Acrobat, a copy of which is on the CD. The CD is the culmination of a community based project based on the medieval abbey at Ramsey in Cambridgeshire, England. According to the sleeve of the CD the project was paid for by a Royal Society and British Association Millennium Award, which was funded by the Millennium Commission to 'encourage people's understanding of science, engineering and technology in the community'. The science in question largely involves the small-scale, perhaps even surgical, use of resistance, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR. The project, however, had a more interesting agenda, one that involves the testing of an archaeological problem. In short, the Archaeological Field Unit (AFU of Cambridgeshire County Council found that there were competing hypotheses concerning the location of the former church on the now-ruined abbey site. The CD pieces together the evidence for the church, collected with the help of the children at the school that now occupies the site. The CD can be seen as part of the remit to reach the wider community that also involved open days, seminars and a web site.

  20. Nuclear analytical techniques in archaeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Archaeological Investigations organized by the IAEA. A particularly successful combination of analytical expertise and a field of common interest in the Latin American region was created through this Project. The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the CRP was held in June 1997 at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, where the participants were introduced to the concept of the project and the preliminary work plans were outlined. Emphasis was given to a close collaboration between analytical scientists and archaeologists - from the definition of the problem, selection of sampling sites and samples to interpretation of analytical results using multifunctional statistical analysis. Also highlighted was the validation of analytical techniques using several certified reference materials. In April 1999 a second RCM was held in Cuzco, Peru, to present and discuss preliminary results of the individual projects and to refine the methods used. The final RCM, which was held in Santiago, Chile, from 6-10 November 2000, revealed extensive information obtained by the participating research groups during the CRP, which is described in detail in the report. As the research objectives of each group were very particular, i.e. related to each country's specific situation, the range of results is exceptionally broad. The results demonstrated the great potential of the combination of nuclear analysis and archaeological research

  1. Radiology in archaeological studies of incas mummies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the imaging findings in three 500-year-old Inca mummies and how modern radiology can be used in other sciences such as archaeology. Material and Method: Three naturally mummified children were studied using conventional radiography, dental radiography, CT and puncture biopsies. Working sessions were limited to 20 minutes to prevent thawing of the corpses and radiological techniques were adjusted to their particular anatomic position. Results: CT images showed shrinkaged internal organs due to dehydration. The fatty tissue of the bodies was visibly white because of the transformation of it into adipocere, favoring white matter/gray matter differentiation at the central nervous system. The lungs were expanded in the three corpses and right lung and maxillary sinus pathologies were determined in the older girl. Chronological ages of the three children at the time of their deaths were established. DNA studies determined no family links among them. The spleen was not seen in any case. Conclusions: Modern radiology is an excellent tool in archaeological research. Nutritional state, ages and pathologies of the three mummies were evaluated. (author)

  2. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km3) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  3. The Application of SCC-DV-Xα Computational Method of Quantum Chemistry in Cement Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been explored why quantum chemistry is applied to the research field of cement chemistry. The fundamental theory of SCC-DV-Xα computational method of quantum chemistry is synopsized. The results obtained by computational quantum chemistry method in recent years of valence-bond structures and hydration activity of some cement clinker minerals, mechanical strength and stabilization of some hydrates are summarized and evaluated. Finally the prospects of the future application of quantum chemistry to cement chemistry are depicted.

  4. Politics and the World Archaeological Congress [-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao, Nandini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The recognition in the West that every discipline is influenced by its socio-political context led to the demand for reflexive archaeology and to the formation in 1986, by the 'politically aware', of the World Archaeological Congress (WAC. WAC explicitly recognises the socio-political context of archaeological practice, and archaelogy's political, social and academic responsibilities. The Congress, which meets every four years, met in India in December 1994. Indian archaeologists have largely denied the influence of socio-political contexts on academics. But this has not prevented some from (misusing archaeological evidence to further political ends with catastrophic results. No discussion on the issue was permitted at the Congress so that eight years after it was formed. the WAC compromised and suppressed free debate on a vital matter. This essay outlines the genesis of WAC and the reasons why it was formed, before analysing the Indian context of the third meeting of the Congress. It also examines the response of Indian archaeologists at WAC to the protest against such political abuse of archaeology and calls for a reflection on whether WAC has achieved its objective of becoming a relevant world organisation.

    El reconocimiento en Occidente de que cada disciplina está influida por su contexto socio-político llevó a la reivindicación de una arqueología reflexiva y a la formación en 1986, por los arqueólogos ”políticamente conscientes”, del Congreso Arqueológico Mundial (WAC. El WAC reconoce explícitamente el contexto sociopolítico de la práctica arqueológica y las responsabilidades políticas, sociales y académicas de la arqueología. El Congreso, que se celebra cada cuatro años, tuvo lugar en India en diciembre de 1994. Los arqueólogos indios han negado durante mucho tiempo la influencia de los contextos socio-políticos sobre los investigadores. Pero ello no ha impedido que algunos de ellos hayan utilizado de

  5. Social Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Robert, Didier

    2012-01-01

    International audience This article is both an essay to propose social chemistry as a new scientific discipline, and a preface of the book Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World. Environmental chemistry is a fast emerging discipline aiming at the understanding the fate of pollutants in ecosystems and at designing novel processes that are safe for ecosystems. Past pollution should be cleaned, future pollution should be predicted and avoided (Lichtfouse et al., 2005a). Such advices ...

  6. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Truhlar, Donald G.; McKoy, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  7. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  8. New aspects of exoemission of electrons and ions in the surface study in chemistry, physics and mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomena have been considered of low temperature emission (exoemission of electrons, negative and positive ions) occurring at relaxation of excited states arising during physico-chemical processes on solid surfaces, at radiation and mechanical actions. The obtained results are discussed with account taken of modern ideas about the phenomena that accompany the formation and relaxation of excited states: electron-stimulated desorption, radiation-induced electrostatic instability, mechanical destruction, chemisorption etc. The chemical and physical aspects of electron and ion exoemission are presented

  9. Resin Systems and Chemistry-Degradation Mechanisms and Durability in Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    In choosing a polymer-matrix composite material for a particular application, a number of factors need to be weighed. Among these are mechanical requirements, fabrication method (e.g. press-molding, resin infusion, filament winding, tape layup), and use conditions. Primary among the environmental exposures encountered in aerospace structures are moisture and elevated temperatures, but certain applications may require resistance to other fluids and solvents, alkaline agents, thermal cycling, radiation, or rapid, localized heating (for example, lightning strike). In this chapter, the main classes of polymer resin systems found in aerospace composites will be discussed. Within each class, their responses to environmental factors and the associated degradation mechanisms will be reviewed.

  10. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  11. The Scandinavian Connection: The Roots of Darwinian Archaeology in 19th-Century Scandinavian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Riede

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Evolution’ is without doubt one of archaeology’s favourite, most used and perhaps most overused words. However, ‘evolution’ comes in many guises and it is only really in the last ten years that an explicitly Darwinian approach to the archaeological record has begun to emerge. Today, the number of papers using Darwinian Theory grows almost exponentially, reflecting perhaps the current popularity of applying Darwinian Theory to human behaviour, including culture, in more general terms (Aunger 2000; Barrett et al. 2002; Laland andamp; Brown 2002; Mesoudi et al. 2004; Ziman 2000. The field has developed its own technical jargon (Hart andamp; Terrell 2002 and enjoys increasing public funding. Here is not the place to list, let alone discuss the entire corpus of works (but see http://cladistics.coas.missouri.edu/pubs.html and http://www.ceacb.ucl.ac.uk/resources. Instead this brief papers attempts to address some historical aspects of Darwinian thinking in archaeology. Although there is considerable diversity within this Darwinian or Evolutionary Archaeology (EA, this paper will focus primarily on its two most vocal American proponents: Michael J. O’Brien and Richard Lee Lyman. In a long series of publications they have not only put forward a “radically empiricist” (Shennan 2002a: 255, yet eminently workable Darwinian approach to artefact analysis, but they have also traced the intellectual ancestry of EA back to a number of key figures in early 20th century Americanist archaeology (Lyman et al. 1997b; Lyman andamp; O’Brien 1997, 1999, 2000a, 2001, 2003, 2004; Lyman et al. 1997a, 1997b; Lyman et al. 1998; O’Brien et al. 2005. Despite the impressive amount of scholarship that has gone into these works and the exemplary publication strategy, which has been instrumental in promoting this particular approach, their version of the history of archaeology can be criticised as the writing of “partial histories” (Murray 2002a: 234. As

  12. The ceramic artifacts in archaeological black earth (terra preta from Lower Amazon Region, Brazil: chemistry and geochemical evolution Artefatos cerâmicos em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta na região do baixo Amazonas, Brasil: composição química e evolução geoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Lima da Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out a chemical investigation of archaeological ceramic artifacts found in archaeological sites with Black Earth (ABE in the Lower Amazon Region at Cachoeira-Porteira, State of Pará, Brazil. The ceramic artifacts, mostly of daily use, belong to Konduri culture (from 900 to 400 years BP. They are constituted of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O and P2O5; SiO2 and Al2O3 together add up to 80 % and indicate influence of acid rocks, transformed into clay minerals basically kaolinite. The relative high contents of P2O5 (2.37 % in average come out as (Al,Fe-phosphate, an uncommon fact in primitive red ceramics, but found in some roman and egyptian archaeological sites. The contents of the trace elements are similar or below the Earth's crust average. This chemical composition (except P2O5 detaches saprolite material derived acid igneous rocks or sedimentary ones as the main raw material of the ceramics. The contents of K, Na and Ca represent the feldspars and rock fragments possibly introduced into saprolitic groundmass, indicated by mineralogical studies. The presence of cauixi and cariapé as well as quartz sand was confirmed by optical microscope, SEM analyses and by the high silica contents of ceramic fragments. Phosphorus was possibly incorporated into groundmass during cooking of foods, and ABE soil profile formation developed on yellow Latosols. The raw materials and its tempers (cauixi, or cariapé, feldspar, crushed rocks, old ceramic artifacts and quartz fragments are found close to the sites and therefore and certainly came from them.Neste trabalho realizou-se a caracterização química de fragmentos de artefatos cerâmicos encontrados em sítios arqueológicos com terra preta no Baixo Amazonas (Cachoeira-Porteira, Pará, Brasil, representativos da cultura Konduri (de 900 a 400 anos AP. Esses fragmentos são constituídos de SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O e P2O5, sendo que SiO2 e Al2O3, juntos, perfazem mais de 80 % em peso. Os teores

  13. Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Heard, Dwayne E; Hood, Christina; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Lee, James; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Whalley, Lisa K

    2016-07-18

    Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health in Europe. Understanding the key processes driving air quality across the relevant spatial scales, especially during pollution exceedances and episodes, is essential to provide effective predictions for both policymakers and the public. It is particularly important for policy regulators to understand the drivers of local air quality that can be regulated by national policies versus the contribution from regional pollution transported from mainland Europe or elsewhere. One of the main objectives of the Coupled Urban and Regional processes: Effects on AIR quality (CUREAIR) project is to determine local and regional contributions to ozone events. A detailed zero-dimensional (0-D) box model run with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) is used as the benchmark model against which the less explicit chemistry mechanisms of the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and the Common Representative Intermediates (CRIv2-R5) schemes are evaluated. GRS and CRI are used by the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) and the regional chemistry transport model EMEP4UK, respectively. The MCM model uses a near-explicit chemical scheme for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is constrained to observations of VOCs, NOx, CO, HONO (nitrous acid), photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters measured during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. The sensitivity of the less explicit chemistry schemes to different model inputs has been investigated: Constraining GRS to the total VOC observed during ClearfLo as opposed to VOC derived from ADMS-Urban dispersion calculations, including emissions and background concentrations, led to a significant increase (674% during winter) in modelled ozone. The inclusion of HONO chemistry in this mechanism, particularly during wintertime when other radical sources are limited, led to substantial increases in the ozone levels predicted

  14. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  15. Contribution of archaeological analogs to the estimation of average corrosion rates and long term corrosion mechanisms of low carbon steel in soil; Apport des analogues archeologiques a l'estimation des vitesses moyennes et a l'etude des mecanismes de corrosion a tres long terme des aciers non allies dans les sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, D

    2003-11-15

    In the context of the French nuclear waste storage, a multi-barriers disposal is envisaged. Wastes could be put in metallic overpacks disposed in a clay soil. As these overpacks could be made of low carbon steel, it is important to understand the corrosion behaviour of this material in soil during period of several centuries. Indeed, it is necessary to consolidate the empirical data by a phenomenological approach. This includes laboratory experiments and modelling of the phenomenon which have to be validated and completed by the study of archaeological artefacts. This was the aim of this PhD-work. To this purpose, an analytical protocol has been elaborated: about forty archaeological artefacts coming from five dated sites (2. to 16. centuries) have been studied on cross section in order to observe on the same sample all the constituents of the system: metallic substrate/corrosion products/environment. The corrosion products are divided into two zones: the Dense Product Layer (DPL) in contact with the metal, and the Transformed Medium (TM) which are the corrosion products formed around soil minerals (quartz grains). The metallic substrate has been studied by the classical methods of materials science (optical and scanning electron microscope, energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopies). It has been verified that despite their heterogeneity of structure and composition, they are all hypo-eutectoids steels that can contain phosphorous until 0.5 wt%. The corrosion products have been analysed by local structural analytical methods as micro-diffraction under synchrotron radiation ({mu}XRD) and Raman micro-spectroscopy. These two complementary techniques and also the elemental composition analysis conducted to the characterisation of the corrosion forms. On the majority of the samples coming from four sites, the DPL are constituted by goethite including marbles of magnetite/maghemite. On the artefacts from the fifth site, a particular corrosion form has been

  16. Good chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The subject matter in chemistry courses reflects almost nothing of the issues that chemists are interested in. It is important to formulate a set of topics - and a Medical College Admissions Test reflecting them - that would leave chemistry departments no choice but to change their teaching.

  17. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  18. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  19. Massive Open Online Archaeology, Massive Open Online Opportunity: Toward a Worldwide Community of Archaeological Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel, Jeffrey Paul

    2014-01-01

    While the World Wide Web has provided the public at large with heretofore-unimagined access to information, the egalitarian – and frequently anonymous – nature of online content creation has also provided an unprecedented opportunity for the spread of misinformation and misinterpretation alike. Archaeology is no exception to the double-edged sword that is the 21st century web, as the opening of museum collections, the ability to conduct armchair “surveys” via tools like Google Earth, unfetter...

  20. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  1. Archaeological site significance : the connection between archaeology and oral history in Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Billengren, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Oral history is an important component of Palauan heritage and living culture. Interaction of oral history and archaeology is regarded as a policy when conducting research in Palau, both within the Bureau of Arts and Culture, responsible for protection and preservation of cultural remains in Palau, and among researchers not representing BAC. Legally, a material remain is proven significance if it is connected with intangible resources, such as "lyrics, folklore and traditions associated with ...

  2. Geochemical alterations and chronology in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies about hydrogen and fluorine incorporation in various materials used by the prehistoric man, bring to archaeological stratigraphies important information about chronology. Ion beams methods of analysis (such as AGLAE for the Louvre museum), provide depth resolution together with high detection sensitivity. They allow to pursue researches most often without sampling the artefacts. Some resonance nuclear reactions, such as produced by nitrogen 15 nucleus and protons, allow for measuring the concentration profile of fluorine and hydrogen present in the outer micrometer of the surface. Examples of the obsidian hydration and the fluorine penetration in flint or paleontological remains, show the interest of these methods to complement traditional methods of absolute dating. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs

  3. Studies of technology in prehistoric archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitezović Selena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology studies have always been the most important focus of archaeology, as a science which analyzes human past through the study of material culture. To say that something is technological in archaeology, means to put the concept of technology in the centre of theoretical studies, and to study not only the form of the object, but also the entire sequence of technological factors, from raw material choice, mode of use, up to the reasons for abandonment. The concept of technology in anthropology and archaeology is based on the original meaning of the word τεχνη in ancient Greek, meaning the skill, i. e., to study how something is being done. Such a concept of technology as a skill or mode of doing something was for the first time outlined by the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss, whose starting point was that every technological statement was at the same time social or cultural statement and that technological choices have social foundations. Pierre Lemonnier further developed the anthropology of technology, focusing on the question of technological choices, as well as numerous other anthropologists. In archaeology, the most important contribution to the study of technology was the work of André Leroi-Gourhan, who created the concept of chaîne opératoire, as an analytical tool for studying the mode of creating, using and discarding an artefact, starting with raw material acquisition, mode of manufacture, final form, use (including caching, breaking and repairing up to the final discarding. It is not only about reconstructing the algorithmic sequence of operations in creating one object, but it is a complex analysis of operational chain within one society which includes the analysis of technological choices. The analyses of technologies today include a variety of different approaches, most of them with emphasis on the cultural and social aspects of technology. The analysis of bone industry in the Early and Middle Neolithic in central

  4. Online Resistance to Precarious Archaeological Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hardy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The international cultural heritage economy has long been underpinned by a reserve army of unemployed/underemployed labour. The entry-level workforce is being further undermined and unpaid/underpaid labour is additionally being consolidated through the crisis and austerity measures. Independently and under different pressures, archaeologists across Europe have begun to use blogging, micro-blogging and other social media in concerted national efforts to document, analyse and resist exploitative and exclusive employment practices. This article focuses on the development of movements against unpaid labour (free archaeology in the UK, against unpaid and underpaid internship (volontariato and stage in Italy, and for employment (istihdam in Turkey. Using insights gained through observing and participating in these movements, and through running a research blog on precarious labour in the cultural heritage industry, this article examines the benefits and limits of blogging/micro-blogging as a tool for debate within the profession, communication with the public, and activism.

  5. Public Engagement at Archaeology South-East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Orange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Business skills are a recognised skill shortage within the archaeological profession (Aitchison and Edwards, 2008: 106. Conversely, many small and medium-sized enterprises could benefit from the specialist knowledge that recently graduated PhD students could bring to their business. Recognising this, UCL Advances (the centre for entrepreneurship and business at UCL manages a Knowledge Exchange Associate (KEA scheme whereby exiting PhD students are hosted by businesses. Each KEA acts as a conduit for the transfer of knowledge from UCL to industry, with projects tailored to meet the needs of each business. In return KEA’s are provided with challenging and creative project management experience and formal business training (UCL Advances, 2013.

  6. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  7. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  8. Influence of nanometer scale film structure of ZDDP tribofilm on Its mechanical properties: A computational chemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the influence of a nanometer scale film structure of a tribofilm generated from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive on its mechanical properties using a combined molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) method. The frictional behavior of an interface between a native iron oxide layer on steel surface and zinc metaphosphate - regarded as a model material of ZDDP tribofilm - was firstly studied using the MD method. The results showed that the iron atoms in the oxide layer diffused into the phosphate layer during the friction process. The zinc atoms in the phosphate layer also diffused into the oxide layer. Significant interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms was observed with increasing simulation time. Thus, metallic phosphate with a gradient composition of iron and zinc atoms was formed on the phosphate/oxide interface. We then constructed an axisymmetric nanoindentation simulation model from the MD-derived structures at a certain simulation time and carried out a FE calculation. As a result, we found that the rubbed ZDDP tribofilm, including the phosphate with the gradient composition of metallic atoms, showed larger contact stiffness and hardness. The combined MD/FE simulation indicates that the tribofilm becomes stiffer and harder due to the interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms on the tribofilm/oxide interface. We have found that the gradient composition formation in ZDDP tribofilm during friction process influences on its mechanical properties.

  9. Influence of nanometer scale film structure of ZDDP tribofilm on Its mechanical properties: A computational chemistry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Tasuku; Kuriaki, Takanori; Morita, Yusuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Suzuki, Ai [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Koyama, Michihisa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takaba, Hiromitsu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Del Carpio, Carlos A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kubo, Momoji [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-701 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Minfray, Clotilde; Martin, Jean-Michel [Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamical Systems, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, avenue Guy de Collongue 69134, ECULLY Cedex (France); Miyamoto, Akira, E-mail: miyamoto@aki.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-1302 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    We investigated the influence of a nanometer scale film structure of a tribofilm generated from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive on its mechanical properties using a combined molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) method. The frictional behavior of an interface between a native iron oxide layer on steel surface and zinc metaphosphate - regarded as a model material of ZDDP tribofilm - was firstly studied using the MD method. The results showed that the iron atoms in the oxide layer diffused into the phosphate layer during the friction process. The zinc atoms in the phosphate layer also diffused into the oxide layer. Significant interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms was observed with increasing simulation time. Thus, metallic phosphate with a gradient composition of iron and zinc atoms was formed on the phosphate/oxide interface. We then constructed an axisymmetric nanoindentation simulation model from the MD-derived structures at a certain simulation time and carried out a FE calculation. As a result, we found that the rubbed ZDDP tribofilm, including the phosphate with the gradient composition of metallic atoms, showed larger contact stiffness and hardness. The combined MD/FE simulation indicates that the tribofilm becomes stiffer and harder due to the interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms on the tribofilm/oxide interface. We have found that the gradient composition formation in ZDDP tribofilm during friction process influences on its mechanical properties.

  10. Influence of nanometer scale film structure of ZDDP tribofilm on Its mechanical properties: A computational chemistry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Tasuku; Kuriaki, Takanori; Morita, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ai; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Kubo, Momoji; Minfray, Clotilde; Martin, Jean-Michel; Miyamoto, Akira

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the influence of a nanometer scale film structure of a tribofilm generated from zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive on its mechanical properties using a combined molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element (FE) method. The frictional behavior of an interface between a native iron oxide layer on steel surface and zinc metaphosphate - regarded as a model material of ZDDP tribofilm - was firstly studied using the MD method. The results showed that the iron atoms in the oxide layer diffused into the phosphate layer during the friction process. The zinc atoms in the phosphate layer also diffused into the oxide layer. Significant interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms was observed with increasing simulation time. Thus, metallic phosphate with a gradient composition of iron and zinc atoms was formed on the phosphate/oxide interface. We then constructed an axisymmetric nanoindentation simulation model from the MD-derived structures at a certain simulation time and carried out a FE calculation. As a result, we found that the rubbed ZDDP tribofilm, including the phosphate with the gradient composition of metallic atoms, showed larger contact stiffness and hardness. The combined MD/FE simulation indicates that the tribofilm becomes stiffer and harder due to the interdiffusion of iron and zinc atoms on the tribofilm/oxide interface. We have found that the gradient composition formation in ZDDP tribofilm during friction process influences on its mechanical properties.

  11. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Esclapés; Daniel Tejerina; Joaquín Bolufer; Marco Aurelio Esquembre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located...

  12. PRINCELY HALYCH: INTRIGUING PROSPECTS FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Koval

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to statistical data, permanent and local archaeological researches have covered only about ten per cent of the territory of Princely Halych, which opens up endless possibilities for research at the site of the ancient city. The chapter highlights the importance of the scientific and popular works by Antin Petrushevych, Lev Lavretskyi and Izydor Sharanevych, who in 1882 initiated the archaeological research on the mighty Principality of Halych (Galicia and its capital, and the excavation of the first Christian church in Halych – the Church of the Holy Saviour mentioned in the Kyivan Chronicle. The little-known works of these scientists, which were published in Lviv newspapers in the 1880s, clearly show that Lavretskyi and Sharanevych’s findings received international acclaim and were a significant factor in rousing national consciousness and stimulating social activity of the Galician Ukrainians. It is difficult to explain the lack of interest in carrying out excavations outside the perimeter of the foundations of the Church, which could have enhanced the social, historical, topographical analysis of the monument and its surroundings. A particular fact that proves the importance of such research is the discovery of pendant seals, which modern sphragistics attributes to Prince Volodymyrko Volodarevych (1141-1153.  This conclusion is in good agreement with the Kyivan Chronicle and the findings of the archaeologists who excavated the Church of the Holy Saviour. All these facts provide grounds for the hypothesis concerning the location of the State Chancellery and the mysterious Palace of the 12th century Lords of Galicia.

  13. Special report: a century of chemistry. History of sciences: Max Planck and the birth of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1892 Lord Kelvin said 'that the fundamental concepts of physics had been established'. However, quantum mechanics in 1900, and relativity in 1905 were going to profoundly upset this science. Jean-Claude Boudenot allows us to relive the essential discoveries, which have given rise to the majority of the technologies of the 20. century through the life of Max Planck (1858-1947). The first scientific hit of M.Planck was to solve the problem of the black body at the turn of last century, he postulated that the exchange of energy between radiation and the walls of the cavity had the form of a flow of very small and indivisible quantities of energy called energy quantum. This discovery allowed him to receive the Nobel prize of physics in 1918

  14. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-01-01

    The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romantic...

  15. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  16. Trace Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    , in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and

  17. Introductory quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on quantum chemistry is primarily intended for university students at the senior undergraduate level. It serves as an aid to the basic understanding of the important concepts of quantum mechanics introduced in the field of chemistry. Various chapters of the book are devoted to the following : (i) Waves and quanta, (ii) Operator concept in quantum chemistry, (iii) Wave mechanics of some simple systems, (iv) Perturbation theory, (v) Many-electron atoms and angular momenta (vi) Molecular orbital theory and its application to the electronic structure of diatomic molecules, (vii) Chemical bonding in polyatomic molecules and (viii) Chemical applications of Hellmann-Feynman theorem. At the end of each chapter, a set of problems is given and the answers to these problems are given at the end of the book. (A.K.)

  18. Electrolytic deposition of titania films as interference coatings on biomedical implants: Microstructure, chemistry and nano-mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 films with uniform thickness were electrolytically deposited on AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V substrates for potential use as color coded biocompatible coatings on biomedical implants. Deposition occurred via a peroxoprecursor method from solutions containing TiCl4 and H2O2. By optimizing electrolyte formulation and deposition parameters, thin stoichiometric titania films with almost uniform thickness-dependent interference colors, similar as known from the color anodization processes of Ti-alloys, were obtained. Crack-free films were found up to 140 nm on AISI 316L and up to 190 nm on Ti6Al4V substrates. After thermal annealing at 450 oC of as-deposited amorphous peroxotitanium hydrate films, Raman and transmission electron microscopy showed highly stoichiometric, nanocrystalline anatase films. Chemical depth profiling was performed by glow-discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES), showing clearly a densification and loss of water during annealing. On AISI 316L, GD-OES revealed stoichiometric TiO2 films containing a small Fe (3-4 at.%) and Cr (1 at.%) contamination due to thermal diffusion from the substrate. On Ti6Al4V, the comparison between electrolytic TiO2 films and color-anodization in different sulfuric and phosphoric acid containing electrolytes showed significant higher purity of electrolytic films, absent of V, Al, S, P contaminations as they were found in anodic oxides (4-6 at.% Al, 1-2 at.% V), especially V and S being problematic in biomedical applications. Annealing greatly increased the mechanical properties of the green films. A nano-hardness of 5.5-6.6 GPa, elastic modules close to substrate modules, excellent adhesion and very ductile behavior were found from nanoindentation and scratch tests. Based on thickness uniformity, high purity and good mechanical properties, electrolytic TiO2 films are not only attractive as biocompatible colored coatings on non-anodizable biomedical alloys such as AISI 316L and CoCrMo, but also for

  19. Electrolytic deposition of titania films as interference coatings on biomedical implants: Microstructure, chemistry and nano-mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, P. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)]. E-mail: philippe.kern@empa.ch; Schwaller, P. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Michler, J. [EMPA, Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2006-01-03

    TiO{sub 2} films with uniform thickness were electrolytically deposited on AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti6Al4V substrates for potential use as color coded biocompatible coatings on biomedical implants. Deposition occurred via a peroxoprecursor method from solutions containing TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. By optimizing electrolyte formulation and deposition parameters, thin stoichiometric titania films with almost uniform thickness-dependent interference colors, similar as known from the color anodization processes of Ti-alloys, were obtained. Crack-free films were found up to 140 nm on AISI 316L and up to 190 nm on Ti6Al4V substrates. After thermal annealing at 450 {sup o}C of as-deposited amorphous peroxotitanium hydrate films, Raman and transmission electron microscopy showed highly stoichiometric, nanocrystalline anatase films. Chemical depth profiling was performed by glow-discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES), showing clearly a densification and loss of water during annealing. On AISI 316L, GD-OES revealed stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} films containing a small Fe (3-4 at.%) and Cr (1 at.%) contamination due to thermal diffusion from the substrate. On Ti6Al4V, the comparison between electrolytic TiO{sub 2} films and color-anodization in different sulfuric and phosphoric acid containing electrolytes showed significant higher purity of electrolytic films, absent of V, Al, S, P contaminations as they were found in anodic oxides (4-6 at.% Al, 1-2 at.% V), especially V and S being problematic in biomedical applications. Annealing greatly increased the mechanical properties of the green films. A nano-hardness of 5.5-6.6 GPa, elastic modules close to substrate modules, excellent adhesion and very ductile behavior were found from nanoindentation and scratch tests. Based on thickness uniformity, high purity and good mechanical properties, electrolytic TiO{sub 2} films are not only attractive as biocompatible colored coatings on non-anodizable biomedical

  20. The active Nea Anchialos Fault System (Central Greece: comparison of geological, morphotectonic, archaeological and seismological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Caputo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nea Anchialos Fault System has been studied integrating geological, morphological, structural, archaeological and seismic data. This fault system forms the northern boundary of the Almyros Basin which is one of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonic basins of Thessaly. Specific structural and geomorphological mapping were carried out and fault-slip data analysis allowed the Late Quaternary palaeo-stress field to be estimated. The resulting N-S trending purely extensional regime is consistent with the direction of the T-axes computed from the focal mechanisms of the summer 1980, Volos seismic sequence and the April 30, 1985 Almyros earthquake. A minor set of structural data indicates a WNW-ESE extension which has been interpreted as due to a local and second order stress field occurring during the N-S regional extension. Furthermore, new archaeological data, discovered by the author, have improved morphology and tectonics of the area also allowing a tentative estimate of the historic (III-IV century AD. to Present fault slip rate. Several topographic profiles across the major E- W topographic escarpment as well as along the streams, have emphasised scarps and knick-points, further supporting the occurrence of very recent morphogenic activity. In the last section, the structural, morphological and archaeological data are compared with the already existing seismological data and their integrated analysis indicates that the Nea Anchialos Fault System has been active since Lower(?-Middle Pleistocene.

  1. Study of archaeological analogs for the validation of nuclear glass long-term behavior models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractured archaeological glass blocks collected from a shipwreck discovered in the Mediterranean Sea near Embiez Island (Var) were investigated because of their morphological analogy with vitrified nuclear waste and of a known and stable environment. These glasses are fractured due to a fast cooling after they were melted (like nuclear glass) and have been altered for 1800 years in seawater. This work results in the development and the validation of a geochemical model able to simulate the alteration of a fractured archaeological glass block over 1800 years. The kinetics associated with the different mechanisms (interdiffusion and dissolution) and the thermodynamic parameters of the model were determined by leaching experiments. The model implemented in HYTEC software was used to simulate crack alteration over 1800 years. The consistency between simulated alteration thicknesses and measured data on glass blocks validate the capacity of the model to predict long-term alteration. This model is able to account for the results from the characterization of crack network and its state of alteration. The cracks in the border zone are the most altered due to a fast renewal of the leaching solution, whereas internal cracks are thin because of complex interactions between glass alteration and transport of elements in solution (influence of initial crack aperture and of the crack sealing). The lowest alteration thicknesses, as well as their variability, can be explained. The analog behavior of archaeological and nuclear glasses from leaching experiments makes possible the transposition of the model to nuclear glass in geological repository. (author)

  2. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes

  3. Dynamics and mechanisms of hot chemistry stimulated by recoil methods. Progress report, March 1, 1976--February 28, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from the nuclear recoil chemical activation of cyclobutane-t reported earlier in this laboratory have indicated that vibration to translation energy transfer is the most important collisional process for all but the most efficient energy transfer agents. Classical and semi-classical dynamical collisional models suggest that the most effective energy transfer interactions are delocalized in nature involving at least one half of the excited cyclobutane molecule. The formalism used to explore the energy transfer process also provides data which in conjunction with energy shadowing analysis is used to interpret the energetics and mechanism of the primary hot tritium reaction with cyclobutane. The hot atom reaction between nuclear recoil produced chlorine atoms and hydrogen is characterized. The steady-state non-Boltzmann theory formalism is applied to the H2 and D2 reaction mixtures to further explore the high energy inverse isotope effect first reported in this laboratory. A detailed study of reactions of recoil chlorine with the scavenger ethylene used in the hydrogen studies is also reported

  4. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  5. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  6. Position fixing and surveying techniques for marine archaeological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    This technical report comprises of two major aspects: (1) Surface positioning and (2) Sub-surface Positioning, which are followed for obtaining geographical positions while carrying out marine archaeological studies. Also, it analyses various survey...

  7. Application of acoustic, magnetic and electromagnetic systems in marine archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.

    The importance of integrated geoscientific studies is reiterated for underwater archaeological exploration. Geophysical systems applied for the detection of artefacts, ancient places and underwater sites/objects are explained and detailed...

  8. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of archaeological ceramics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has become a widely used technique in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. Early applications, primarily developmental in nature, have been replaced by studies that attempt to place the derived analytical data in a larger archaeological and behavioural context. If archaeology is to increasingly exploit the great potential of INAA to address a broad range of social and cultural issues involving ceramics, greater attention must be paid to the various sources of variation that contribute to the chemical composition of pottery. In addition, as all research takes place within a social context, efforts must be made to increase the communication between archaeologists and other scientists, as this will contribute to the fulfilment of the archaeological research objectives. (author)

  10. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape...

  11. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  12. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  13. Dynamics and mechanisms of hot chemistry stimulated by recoil methods. Progress report, March 1, 1978--February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear recoil chemical activation process in cyclobutane-t and subsequent inter- and intra-molecular energy transfer in recoil tritium and recoil chlorine hot reaction systems are analyzed. A stepladder model for intermolecular energy transfer from cyclobutane-t on collision shows average quanta of energy transferred range from 0.5 to 10 kcal/collision in He, N2, CO2 and cyclobutane bath gases. The recoil energy spectrum of hot chlorine atoms generated via the 37Cl(n,γ)38Cl reaction is also reported. The average recoil energy is found to be 294 eV and the maximum is 528 eV. Average reaction energy is calculated to be relatively independent of composition over the range from 0 to 99% moderation with noble gases in well scavenged systems of moderate reactivity. Geometrical isomerization accompanying the gas phase chlorine atom replacement reaction in 2,3 dichlorohexafluoro-2-butene as a function of moderation has been further investigated. A thermal or near thermal reaction path having a trans/cis product ratio of 1.3 and a high energy process which preferentially forms trans product from both cis and trans reactant are found. Dynamical features associated with the observed high energy inverse isotope effect in the reaction of chlorine atoms with H2 and D2 have been investigated through a non-Boltzmann rate constant analysis. The origin of this kinetic isotope effect is attributed to the secondary reactive process of collisional dissociation of translationally, vibrationally, and rotationally excited hydrogen chloride product molecules. Investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of photochemical reactions between sulfur dioxide and aliphatic hydrocarbons has been initiated

  14. Incorporating a Product Archaeology Paradigm across the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Russo, Deborah; Cormier, Phillip; Lewis, Kemper; Devendorf, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the teaching of design theory in an engineering curriculum has been relegated to a senior capstone design experience. Presently, however, engineering design concepts and courses can be found through the entirety of most engineering programs. Educators have recognized that engineering design provides a foundational platform that can…

  15. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  16. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  17. A Review of 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Dupeyron

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 'The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology' is intended to be a showcase of the discipline’s recent developments and provide a comprehensive - but non-exhaustive - overview of early 21st century work in the region. It is probably one of the most ambitious such projects since the sixteen volume series 'Handbook of Middle American Indians' published in the 1960s. It is primarily intended for professionals and students of Mesoamerican archaeology.

  18. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  19. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo; Juan Antonio Vasquez Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospe...

  20. Notes on river archaeology in Mikulčice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláček, Lumír

    Brno: The Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, 2014 - (Poláček, L.), s. 11-25. (Spisy archeologického ústavu AV ČR Brno. 51). ISBN 978-80-86023-60-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/2258 Keywords : River archaeology * filled-up river distributaries * Early Middle Ages * Mikulčice Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Archaeological maps: methods and techniques for territorial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Leonor; Branco, Gertrudes

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological maps are, by definition, a tool for the management of the cultural heritage, planning and urban development, and are drawn up on the basis of existing studies and recent fieldwork, covering all the latest data. In Portugal, the idea of creating a national archaeological map was developed, for the first time, in the 1970s. However, several attempts to organize such amount of information have been offset by two major problems: the difficulty of mapping such a large area, and the ...

  2. Asphalt in carbon-14-dated archaeological samples from Terqa, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are reported of an organic geochemical study to verify contamination in 14C dated archaeological samples, which could account for much older apparent ages than expected. The data indicate that ancient asphalt must be the source of contamination, showing that caution should be exercised, in interpreting 14C dates of archaeological samples from areas containing asphalt or other fossil fuel deposits. (U.K.)

  3. UAV Systems for Photogrammetric Data Acquisition of Archaeological Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Brutto, M.; Borruso, A.; D'Argenio, A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of UAV systems for surveying archaeological sites is becoming progressively more common due to the considerable potential in terms of rapidity of survey, costs and accuracy. The paper presents the first results of the photogrammetric survey of the archaeological site of Himera in Sicily (Italy) using by UAV systems. A complete documentation of the site through the production of a DSM and an ortho image were carried out. The research further evaluated two different image processing wor...

  4. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  5. Nuclear analytical technique for the study of ancient pottery from a Ghanaian archaeological site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was utilized to determine the elemental concentrations of the archaeological pottery samples from Jenini slave camp in the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana, employing the 30kW tank-in-pool Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). Jenini was a slave camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The samples were obtained during the excavations of the tombs of the slaves who died at the camp. The accuracy of the INAA method was evaluated using IAEA Soil-7 reference material. The precision was calculated as relative standard deviation and was found to be within ±10%. Thirty-two (32) ceramic fragment samples from the archaeological site were analyzed to determine the concentration of 20 elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm,Th, U, and V. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analyses, were performed on the data set in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. The results of the cluster and factor analyses indicate a considerable overlap in the chemistry of the pottery shards from the three sampling points (i.e. Trench 1, Trench 2 and Pit 1) indicating that the pot shards were made from a single type of clay or clays of similar geochemical signatures. (au)

  6. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  7. A green chemistry lab course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional course content of chemistry classes must change to achieve better awareness of the important issues of sustainability in chemistry within the next generation of professional chemists. To provide the necessary material for the organic chemistry teaching lab course, which is part of almost all study programs in chemistry, material was developed and collected (http://www.oc-praktikum.de/en) that allows students and teachers to assess reactions beyond the experimental set up, reaction mechanism and chemical yield. Additional parameters like atom economy of chemical transformations, energy efficiency, and questions of waste, renewable feed stocks, toxicity and ecotoxicity, as well as the safety measures for the chemicals used are discussed. (author)

  8. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  9. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  10. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  11. ArchaeoGRID, the Archaeology on the e-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelfer, G.; Cechini, R.; Pelfer, P. G.; Politi, A.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that in archaeology large use is done of digital technologies and computer applications for data acquisition, storage, analysis and visualization. The approach of modern archaeology to the study of the evolution of ancient human societies is based on the acquisition and analysis of many types of data. The amount of information coming from the archaeology and the other connected sciences and human ties that need to be stored and made available for analysis are increasing at a very large extent. Such data must, however, be analyzed if they are to become valuable information and knowledge. The data analysis use advanced methods developed in mathematics, informatics, physics, geology, biology, ecology, anthropology and in other natural and human sciences. The inevitable result of this is an exponential increase of the amount and complexity of information that must be acquired, transferred, stored, processed and analyzed. From another, side natural disasters, wars and terrorism created enormous damages to the archaeological heritage and in many case destroyed definitively all information about ancient civilizations. It is urgent a long term project for acquiring, storing and preserving at least the archaeological information. The paper presents the EGEE- II ArchaeoGRID project that, using GRID technologies developed at CERN and in other laboratories, is developing a grid able to fit the very challenging requests of contemporary archaeology. (Author)

  12. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology; Metodos analiticos modernos aplicados al arte y la arqueologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C., E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  13. Martian Chlorine Chemistry: A Study of Perchlorate on the Martian Surface, Evidence of an Ongoing Formation Mechanism and Implications of a Complex Chlorine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Brandi L.

    2015-10-01

    The research presented herein addresses the detection of perchlorate on Mars, evidence of perchlorate in Mars meteorite EETA 79001, determination of the perchlorate parent salts at the Phoenix landing site, and the ongoing formation of perchlorate from chloride minerals as well as from other oxychlorine species. The detection of perchlorate in three samples by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Laboratory and the implication of these results are discussed. The further detection of perchlorate in Mars meteorite EETA 79001 by ion chromatography and the determination of the parent salts of the perchlorate detected at the Phoenix landing site by electrochemical analyses and ion chromatography are detailed and the implications of the identity of the parent salts are discussed. The possible formation pathways for martian perchlorate are then explored and a possible mechanism for ongoing perchlorate formation on the martian surface is detailed. Perchlorate is shown to be formed upon exposure of chloride minerals, as well as of chlorite and chlorate salts, to current Mars relevant conditions including temperature, pressure, ultraviolet radiation and atmospheric composition. The implications of this ongoing perchlorate formation for the survival and detection of organics, the oxidizing nature of the soil, formation of liquid brines and recurring slope lineae are discussed. Further preliminary experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of perchlorate formation on the survival and degradation of organic compounds.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3O2: a theoretical study on mechanisms and pathways of the CF3O2 + IO reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Tang, Yizhen; Wang, Rongshun

    2013-04-28

    The mechanisms and reaction pathways for the CF3O2 + IO reaction have been investigated by quantum chemistry methods. It has been found that the title reaction takes place on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PES). On the singlet PES, the most important products include CF3OOOI, CF3OOIO, CF3OIO2, and CF2O + FIO2, while other products such as CF2O + FOIO, CF2O + FOOI, CF3OOI + O((3)P), CF3OI + O2 ((1)Δ and (3)Σ), and CF3O + OIO are negligible due to high barriers or unstable formations. On the triplet PES, CF3O + OIO is the dominant product with a lower barrier. As for FIO2 and it isomers, the most stable one is FIO2. TDDFT (Time Dependent Density Functional Theory) calculation indicates that CF3OOOI, CF3OOIO and CF3OIO2 undergo photolysis easily under sunlight. Moreover, a minor contribution relative to hydrogen is found in the CX3O2 + IO (X = H and F) reactions. PMID:23493819

  15. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  16. Metallographic approach to the investigation of metallic archaeological objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinasco, Maria Rosa; Ienco, Maria Giuseppina; Piccardo, Paolo; Pellati, Gabriella; Stagno, Enrica

    2007-07-01

    Metallic objects are considered among the most significant findings in Cultural Heritage and represent the 'culture of Materials' and the habits of an historical period and of a population. They also preserve traces of time: from the transformation of the ores in metal (by smelting) to the degradation from metal to oxidised compounds (by corrosion processes). Metallography, historically devoted to connect the microstructural features to production processes and to chemical-physical-mechanical properties is a powerful and relatively easy approach to characterise metallic findings. All analytical tools and methods in the hands of a metallographer are improved through experience and practice and provide a large number of information (elemental composition, primary and secondary microstructures, surface treatments, corrosion rate, original ores traces) by the preparation of a fairly small microdestructive sample. A wise and careful use of the metallography allows the balance "object sacrifice/knowledge improvement" to lean on the right side contributing to the hard work of rebuilding humankind history. Beside a description of a research protocol some practical examples concerning archaeological findings are presented in this paper. PMID:17867539

  17. Constraining the primordial initial mass function with stellar archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Hartwig, Tilman; Klessen, Ralf S; Glover, Simon C O

    2014-01-01

    We present a new near-field cosmological probe of the initial mass function (IMF) of the first stars. Specifically, we constrain the lower-mass limit of the Population III (Pop III) IMF with the total number of stars in large, unbiased surveys of the Milky Way bulge and halo. We model the early star formation history in a Milky-Way like halo with a semi-analytic approach, based on Monte-Carlo sampling of dark matter merger trees, combined with a treatment of the most important feedback mechanisms, such as stellar radiation and metal enrichment. Assuming a logarithmically flat Pop III IMF and varying its low mass limit, we derive the number of expected survivors of these first stars, using them to estimate the probability to detect any such Pop III fossil in stellar archaeological surveys. Our model parameters are calibrated with existing empirical constraints, such as the optical depth to Thomson scattering. Following our analysis, the most promising region to find possible Pop III survivors is the stellar ha...

  18. Evaluation of 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene degradation in the detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, MCMv3.1, using environmental chamber data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Metzger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The degradation mechanism of 1,3,5-trimethyl- benzene (TMB as implemented in the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.1 (MCM was evaluated using data from the environmental chamber at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The results show that the MCM provides a consistent description of the photo-oxidation of TMB/NOx mixtures for a range of conditions. In all cases the agreement between the measurement and the simulation decreases with decreasing VOC-NOx ratio and in addition with increasing precursor concentration. A significant underestimation of the decay rate of TMB and thus underestimation of reactivity in the system, consistent with results from previous appraisals of the MCM, was observed.

    Much higher nitrous acid (HONO concentrations compared to simulations and expected from chamber characterization experiments were measured during these smog chamber experiments. A light induced NO2 to HONO conversion at the chamber walls is suggested to occur. This photo-enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion with subsequent HONO photolysis enhances the reactivity of the system. After the implementation of this reaction in the model it describes the decay of TMB properly. Nevertheless, the model still over-predicts ozone at a later stage of the experiment. This can be attributed to a too slow removal of NO2. It is also shown that this photo-enhanced HONO formation is not restricted to TMB photo-oxidation but also occurs in other chemical systems (e.g. α-pinene. However, the influence of HONO as a source of OH radicals is less important in these more reactive systems and therefore the importance of the HONO chemistry is less obvious.

  19. Examining the impacts of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline photochemical production of smog in a fog using near-explicit gas- and aqueous-chemistry mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the air quality impacts of using a high-blend ethanol fuel (E85) instead of gasoline in vehicles in an urban setting when a morning fog is present under summer and winter conditions. The model couples the near-explicit gas-phase Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v. 3.1) with the extensive aqueous-phase Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism (CAPRAM 3.0i) in SMVGEAR II, a fast and accurate ordinary differential equation solver. Summer and winter scenarios are investigated during a two day period in the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) with all gasoline vehicles replaced by flex-fuel vehicles running on E85 in 2020. We find that E85 slightly increases ozone compared with gasoline in the presence or absence of a fog under summer conditions but increases ozone significantly relative to gasoline during winter conditions, although winter ozone is always lower than summer ozone. A new finding here is that a fog during summer may increase ozone after the fog disappears, due to chemistry alone. Temperatures were high enough in the summer to increase peroxy radical (RO2) production with the morning fog, which led to the higher ozone after fog dissipation. A fog on a winter day decreases ozone after the fog. Within a fog, ozone is always lower than if no fog occurs. The sensitivity of the results to fog parameters like droplet size, liquid water content, fog duration and photolysis are investigated and discussed. The results support previous work suggesting that E85 and gasoline both enhance pollution with E85 enhancing pollution significantly more at low temperatures. Thus, neither E85 nor gasoline is a ‘clean-burning’ fuel. (letter)

  20. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  1. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  2. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  3. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  4. The Institute of Archaeology Conference Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth D Whitehouse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most creative innovations of Stephen Shennan’s directorship is the annual Institute of Archaeology Conference Competition. This scheme is now in its seventh year (with the result of the eighth competition just announced and it seems a good time to document and celebrate its success. The competition takes place in the spring of each year, with the winning conference being held in the following academic year. In the present format, applicants are asked to outline and justify the conference topic, list the proposed speakers and present a rough budget, with an indication of where the rest of the funds will be obtained if the conference costs are likely to exceed the £2000 of the award. There is no restriction as to the subject of the conference or its scale, though it is stipulated that the award must make a significant difference to the viability of the conference and that the conference fee for Institute attendees should be minimal, with a maximum of £10 for students.

  5. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  6. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  7. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with ∼0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial α-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes

  8. EDXRS Compositional Classification of Archaeological Pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work carried out within this project was focused on the implementation of reliable EDXRF analytical procedures allowing the quantitative analysis and compositional classification of archaeological pottery, followed by its application to different cases of study. The development in CEADEN of a very compact polarized secondary target excitation set-up allowed maximizing x-ray production and detection. The use of proper materials for shielding served to eliminate the spectral interferences arising due to the excitation of construction materials. Together with this improvement in x-ray production, the installation of a digital signal processor (DSP) based spectrometer allowed to improve the instrumental sensitivity by a factor of 10, thus achieving better counting statistics, a significant reduction in measuring time and lowering the uncertainty of the determination. During the last years of the project, the work was aimed into the analysis of both Cuban pre-Columbian pottery and colonial exponents, in an effort to reveal compositional groups and the criteria for their differentiation. In addition a compositional analysis of Taino pottery from the Eastern region of Cuba was carried out. (author)

  9. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  10. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  11. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  12. Digital Media, Power and (InEquality in Archaeology and Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Perry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decades of Internet study have arguably done little to shed light on the nature and implications of web-based communications in archaeology. Since the late 1990s, the online world has been lauded by archaeologists for its capacities to engender dialogue, participation, intellectual change and even democratic revolution. Yet the dangers associated with its use have barely been probed. Threats to privacy, equality, access, security of data, and personal safety and well-being are seemingly characteristic of all communication technologies. However, the naive zeal with which many archaeological and heritage organisations are employing online platforms for dissemination, profile-building, 'impact' and public accountability is fraught with risk and deserving of interrogation. This article explores the effects of digital culture on the professional identities and careers of archaeologists, heritage specialists and museum workers. Through a multi-disciplinary survey of over 400 individuals, nearly one-third of whom self-identified as archaeological or related heritage practitioners (working both inside and outside of the academic sector, we consider the various ways in which online technologies are used to express, promote, facilitate, strengthen and undermine both professionals themselves and professional practices in archaeology. Situating ourselves in the intersectional and feminist literature, we argue that web-based harassment and lack of adequate e-safety mechanisms are rife in the discipline, putting it in jeopardy of fuelling structural inequalities. Our findings suggest that close to one-third of practitioners report victimisation via online communication; the majority know their abusers offline; and, although the prevalence of such abuse is roughly equal among men and women, its nature is split along gender lines. Of especial concern, most practitioners choose to ignore their abuse, a decision that may be motivated by the non-existent or victim

  13. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    2006-01-01

    Lowe's new edition assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry. It can serve as a primary text in quantum chemistry courses, and enables students and researchers to comprehend the current literature. This third edition has been thoroughly updated and includes numerous new exercises to facilitate self-study and solutions to selected exercises.* Assumes little initial mathematical or physical sophistication, developing insights and abilities in the context of actual problems* Provides thorough treatment

  14. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  15. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the mycotoxin research group are discussed. This includes the isolation and structure determination of mycotoxins, plant products, the biosyntheris of mycotoxins, the synthesis and characteristics of steroids, the synthesis and mechanistic aspects of heterocyclic chemistry and the functionality of steroids over long distances. Nmr spectra and mass spectroscopy are some of the techniques used

  16. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  17. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  18. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A. [Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC) - Université Paris 7. Paris (France); Carloganu, C.; Niess, V. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire (LPC) - Université Blaise Pascal. Clermont - Ferrand (France); Gibert, D. [Géosciences Rennes - Université de Rennes 1. Rennes (France); Marteau, J. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (IPNL) - Université de Lyon (UCBL). Lyon (France)

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  19. The development of a GIS for New Deal Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Means

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I have recently launched an effort to create a GIS of all New Deal-funded archaeological investigations conducted in the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression (Means 2011. This effort was inspired by the persistent notion that New Deal archaeology was largely limited to the southeastern United States, where the generally warmer climate was seen as conducive to the lengthy field seasons that ensured continuous work for the unemployed (Lyon 1996. The large mound sites that dotted the southeastern USA also ensured that there would be sufficient work for the large relief crews seen as ideal from the perspective of federal officials. While it may prove true that the majority of New Deal archaeology was conducted in the southeast, it is also demonstrably true that the various ‘Alphabet Soup’ work relief programs – notably the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC and the Works Progress Administration/Work Projects Administration (WPA – supported archaeological investigations throughout the USA. In my preliminary efforts to create a GIS for New Deal archaeology, I have determined that at least 75 percent of the 48 states that comprised the USA during the Great Depression had some form of federally funded work relief survey or excavation.

  20. Archaeological Investigations at the Upper Chapel, Norfolk Street, Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Baker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheffield, in the north of England, grew rapidly in the 19th century and gained an international reputation for its cutlery, tableware, and steel products. The material legacy of this age of industrialisation is extensive, and archaeological work in the modern city over the last 20 years has, for the most part, focused on the above and below ground industrial archaeology relating to metals trades' production sites spanning the 19th and 20th centuries. This article describes recent archaeological work around the Upper Chapel, a Unitarian Meeting House in the city centre where archaeological work recovered a possible buried medieval soil deposit, which contained an assemblage of medieval pottery dating from the 12th to 15th centuries. The presence of waster sherds and fragments of kiln furniture within this assemblage suggests that pottery production may have taken place on or near the site, making this the first putative evidence for pottery production in medieval Sheffield. The archaeological investigations also recovered four human burials from the 18th- to 19th-century burial ground associated with the Upper Chapel. The Upper Chapel burial ground differs from other recently excavated cemeteries in Sheffield as it potentially contained graves of high-status individuals, with at least a proportion of the skeletons and coffins well-preserved owing to waterlogged ground conditions. Detailed studies of the human remains, coffins, and incorporated material, including brass shroud pins are also discussed.

  1. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  2. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  3. Hyperspectral MIVIS data to investigate the Lilybaeum (Marsala) Archaeological Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Bajocco, S.

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 years air photograph and remote sensing, both from airplane and satellite, allowed to gain, from the analysis of the superficial land unit characteristics, useful information for the location of buried archaeological structures. For this kind of investigation, hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data revealed to be very useful, for example, since 1994, for the purpose CNR-LARA research project, many archaeological studies have been supported by MIVIS data on several italian archaeological sites: Selinunte, Arpi (Foggia), Villa Adriana (Tivoli) and Marsala. Marsala town, the ancient Lilybaeum, lies on the western coastline of Sicily, at about 30 km south of Trapani. Founded by the Phoenicians, it intensely lived during the Punic, Roman, Arab and Norman periods, whose dominations left many important remains. This archaeological area was investigated by means of several techniques, such as excavations, topographic studies based on airborne campaigns, etc. On this site the main archaeological information were provided by the analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral bands and by Thermal Capacity image.

  4. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations

  5. Archaeological research in the Eurasian steppes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parzinger, Hermann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the activities of the 'Eurasien-Abteilung' of the German Archaeological Institute in different countries of former USSR. Many of these projects have just begun; consequently the paper does not discuss the results of these investigations, but details their scientific purposes. The investigations cover an area which extends from the Black Sea to northeastern China. The principal objects of these investigations include: the transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Pontic area north of the Black Sea and the Greek colonization of that area; the activities of the Scythians and the Sassanians in Transcaucasia, urbanism and metallurgy in the Bronze Age of Central Asia; and, finally, cultural developments from the Early Bronze Age to the periods of the Scythians and the Huns period in southern Siberia.

    Este artículo presenta las actividades de la 'Eurasien-Abteilung', del Instituto Arqueológico Alemán, en los distintos países de la ex-URSS. Como muchos de estos proyectos han empezado hace poco tiempo, no pretendemos adelantar resultados, sino planteamientos científicos. El área que abarcan se extiende desde el Mar Negro hasta el Noreste de China. Sus principales temas de investigación son: el cambio del Bronce Final a la primera Edad del Hierro en el norte del Mar Negro, la colonización griega en esta zona, las actividades de los Escitas y de los Sasánidas en Transcaucasia, el urbanismo y la metalurgia de la Edad del Bronce en Asia Central y, finalmente, el desarrollo cultural desde el Bronce Antiguo hasta la época de los Escitas y Hunos en el sur de Siberia.

  6. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history. PMID:26879234

  7. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  8. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  9. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  10. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Stanford University Archaeology... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Stanford University...

  11. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  12. The GALAH Survey and Galactic Archaeology in the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    The field of Galactic Archaeology aims to understand the origins and evolution of the stellar populations in the Milky Way, as a way to understand galaxy formation and evolution in general. The GALAH (Galactic Archaeology with HERMES) Survey is an ambitious Australian-led project to explore the Galactic history of star formation, chemical evolution, minor mergers and stellar migration. GALAH is using the HERMES spectrograph, a novel, highly multiplexed, four-channel high-resolution optical spectrograph, to collect high-quality R ~ 28,000 spectra for one million stars in the Milky Way. From these data we will determine stellar parameters, radial velocities and abundances for up to 29 elements per star, and carry out a thorough chemical tagging study of the nearby Galaxy. There are clear complementarities between GALAH and other ongoing and planned Galactic Archaeology surveys, and also with ancillary stellar data collected by of major cosmological surveys. Combined, these data sets will provide a revolutionary...

  13. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  14. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  15. D Surveying and Modeling of Archaeological Sites - Some Critical Issues -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Remondino, F.; Visintini, D.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the reported project is to test and evaluate 3D surveying and modelling methods to document the remaining ancient byzantine city walls of the archaeological site of Aquileia in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. The objectives are threefold: (1) to use 3D data to create maps, façades and sections that provide information useful for archaeological purposes such as the investigation of architectural construction techniques or construction phases, (2) to evaluate and compare photogrammetric and laser scanner data in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the two 3D surveying techniques for archaeological applications and needs and (3) to draw broader conclusions about the applicability of photogrammetry and laser scanning for documenting and analysing ancient walls within a particular set of environmental circumstances. The paper presents the employed 3D surveying techniques, the obtained 3D results and 2D products and some critical comments.

  16. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  17. Augmented Reality System for the musealization of archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Esclapés

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are presenting a multi-marker and semi-immersive system for augmented reality to visualize and interact with archaeological sites, specifically those located in inaccessible or complex environments, such as caves or underwater locations. The use of this system in museum exhibitions helps visitors to come closer to archaeological heritage. As an example for the implementation of this system, an archaeological site has been used. It is the “Cova del Barranc del Migdia”, located in the “Sierra del Montgó”, Xàbia (Spain. The product obtained has been exhibited in various museums nationwide.

  18. Images of Miloje M. Vasić in Serbian Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Palavestra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Miloje M. Vasić, "the first academically educated archaeologist in Serbia", has a strange destiny in the Serbian archaeology. On the one hand, he has been elevated to the post of the "founding father" of the discipline, with almost semidivine status and iconic importance, while on the other hand, his works have been largely unread and neglected. This paradoxical split is the consequence of the fact that Vasić has been postulated as the universal benchmark of the archaeological practice in Serbia, regardless of his interpretation of the past on the grounds of the archaeological record – the essence of archaeology. Strangely, the life and work of Vasić have not been the subject of much writing, apart from several obituaries, two short appropriate texts (Srejović, Cermanović, and rare articles in catalogues and collections dedicated to the research of Vinča (Garašanin, Srejović, Tasić, Nikolić and Vuković. The critical analysis of his whole interpretive constellation, with "The Ionian colony Vinča" being its brightest star, was limited before the World War II to the rare attempts to rectify the chronology and identify the Neolithic of the Danube valley (Fewkes, Grbić, Holste. After the war, by the middle of the 20th century, the interpretation of Vasić has been put to severe criticism of his students (Garašanin, Milojčić, Benac, which led to the significant paradigm shift, the recognition of the importance of the Balkan Neolithic, and the establishment of the culture-historical approach in the Serbian archaeology. However, from this moment on, the reception of Vasić in the Serbian archaeology has taken a strange route: Vasić as a person gains in importance, but his works are neglected, though referred to, but almost in a cultic fashion, without reading or interpreting them. Rare is a paper on the Neolithic of the Central Balkans that does not call upon the name of Vasić and his four- volume "Vinča", in which Neolithic is not

  19. Comet Halley and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How complex is the chemistry of the interstellar medium? How far does it evolve and how has it interacted with the chemistry of the solar system? Are the galactic chemical processes destroyed, preserved, or even enhanced in comets? Are biogenic molecules formed in space and have the formation mechanisms interacted in any way with prebiotic organic chemical processes on the early earth? Radio molecular studies of comets are important for probing deep into the coma and nuclear region and thus may help answer these questions. Comets are believed to be pristine samples of the debris left from the formation of the solar system and may have been the carrier between interstellar and terrestrial prebiotic chemistries. Recent observations of Comet Halley and subsequent comets have given the author an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between interstellar molecular chemistry and cometary chemistry

  20. Horse kicks, flying bombs and potsherds: statistical theory contributes to archaeological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Orton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the application of statistics in archaeology, it is essential to choose an appropriate statistical model for the specific archaeological problem being addressed. This article discusses the application of statistical models to large-scale archaeological field survey and describes the development of software (sherdnav designed to guide fieldwalkers to where they should look next, once they have surveyed all the primary spots in a block, and its application to the Noviodunum Archaeological Project (NAP.

  1. The ARROWS project: adapting and developing robotics technologies for underwater archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Allotta,Benedetto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Ridolfi, Alessandro; Colombo, Carlo; Bellavia, Fabio; Fanfani, Marco; Pazzaglia, Fabio; Salvetti, Ovidio; Moroni, Davide; Pascali, Maria Antonietta; Reggiannini, Marco; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Salumae, Taavi; Frost, Gordon; Tsiogkas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    ARchaeological RObot systems for the World's Seas (ARROWS) EU Project proposes to adapt and develop low-cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Technologies to significantly reduce the cost of archaeological operations, covering the full extent of archaeological campaign. ARROWS methodology is to identify the archaeologists requirements in all phases of the campaign and to propose related technological solutions. Starting from the necessities identified by archaeological project partners in ...

  2. Paper, Video, Internet: New Technologies for Research and Teaching in Archaeology: The Sphakia Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Lucia; Price, Simon

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Archaeology has always been a multimedia discipline in terms of teaching and publication. From the earliest days of archaeology as an academic subject, archaeologists have used museum collections, slides, and actual site visits as well as 'chalk and talk' for teaching. Archaeological publications are almost always illustrated. The Sphakia Survey is an interdisciplinary archaeological project whose main objective is to reconstruct the sequence of human activity in a remote and rug...

  3. "Atypical" use of combinations of geophysical methods for archaeological heritage preservation in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2015 (2015), s. 472-476. ISSN 0066-5924. [International Conference on Archaeological Prospection /11./. Warszawa, 15.09.2015-19.09.2015] Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) R300021421 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological prospection * archaeological heritage preservation * medieval siege camp * archaeology of castle park and gardens * flood plain area Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included

  5. MUSEUMS: A STRATEGY TO PRESERVE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN CAMPECHE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ordaz Tamayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mexico’s long history and rich cultural diversity translates into an equally rich offer of national patrimony. That offer, both national and international in scope, adopts diverse formats, such as and/ or archaeological parks. Several Maya archaeological sites in the state of have been exposed without previous planning for their conservation, management, and further research. This leads to and, consequently, their devaluation as a priceless patrimonial heritage. This study explores the prospect and of a community and museum-based strategy as a key to integrate the value of said sites as educational, cultural, economic, and tourist assets and contributing factors to the region’s sustainable

  6. Megaliths, myths and men an introduction to astro-archaeology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter Lancaster

    2000-01-01

    As commonly used, the term ""megaliths"" refers to huge, free-standing, neolithic stones whose origin and meaning have long been debated by archaeologists and students of prehistory. Perhaps the most famous neolithic site is Stonehenge, the great circle of giant stones on Salisbury Plain in England. Twentieth-century studies of Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments have given rise to the science of astra-archaeology, i.e, the study of early astronomical knowledge through the interpretation of ancient monuments and other archaeological data.The present volume, by a noted British astronomer

  7. Alterations in archaeological bones thermally treated: structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological bones found close to Mexico city (Tlatelcomila) have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Small Angle X-ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. These techniques, which are not conventionally used in archaeological research, provided useful information. The boiled bones were clearly distinguished from grilled bones. The degree of deterioration of the bone structure was quantified through parameters such as gyration radius or fractal dimension. The morphology followed the structural modifications and changes resulting from thermic exposure. (Author) 23 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Authenticity test in ceramics and archaeological figures by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present exists quite a lot of false archaeological pieces which provokes doubts about the legitimacy of the pieces. In this work it is presented the Authenticity test by Thermoluminescence realized at the urn of the goddess 13 serpent of the zapotec culture of Oaxaca which is exposed in Mexico City. The original piece contains crystalline structures which present hardly the thermoluminescence phenomena by the presence of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K getting with this the form and intensity of the natural thermoluminescence curve of an archaeological piece which shows a Tl peak and allows to know so if it was made recently or not. (Author)

  9. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  10. The status of activation analysis in archaeology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the initial applications for activation analysis occurred in the fields of archaeology, geochemistry and cosmochemistry. In addition to the desire to investigate noteworthy problems of interest to these disciplines, the reasons for employing activation analysis were based on the advantages of sample preparation, sensitivity, multi-element capability, and non-destructiveness. Nearly fifty years later and despite the development of several new analytical methods, many of these same advantages continue to attract interest in activation analysis from these same disciplines. Past, present and future role of activation analysis with regard to research questions in archaeology, geochemistry, and cosmochemistry are overviewed. (author)

  11. Analysis of archaeological artefacts. PIXE, XRF or ICP-MS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis of ancient artefacts is of considerable benefit to the field of Archaeology and of general interest to earth scientists. Several techniques are currently available for this purpose. Capabilities of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) were evaluated to establish which of these instrumental methods was best suited especially for routine on-line usage. The elements of interest discussed in this paper are useful in archaeological provenance studies. (author)

  12. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechak, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Hlozek, M. [Institute of Archaeology and Museology, Masaryk University, Arna Novaka 1, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilek, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: musilek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, T. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2007-10-15

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  13. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc

  14. Organometallic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkin, James K.; M.L.H. Green; Dr. M. L. H. Green

    1982-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic chemistry is a rapidly expanding field, which has an important relationship to industrial problems of petrochemical catalysis. This thesis describes studies of fundamental organometallic reaction processes, such as C-H and C-C bond formation and cleavage, and investigations of the structure and bonding of organometallic compounds. A number of techniques were used to pursue these studies, including synthesis, X-ray crystallography, and semi-em...

  15. Disk Chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    The chemical species in protoplanetary disks react with each other. The chemical species control part of the thermal balance in those disks. How the chemistry proceeds in the varied conditions encountered in disks relies on detailed microscopic understanding of the reactions through experiments or theoretical studies. This chapter strives to summarize and explain in simple terms the different types of chemical reactions that can lead to complex species. The first part of the chapter deals wit...

  16. Interstellar chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Klemperer, William

    2006-01-01

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species o...

  17. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  18. Analysis of archaeological precious stones from Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž. [Facully of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršsek, M. [Slovenian Museum of Natural History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kržic, A. [Higher Vocational Centre, Sezana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Precious stones have been attractive pieces of jewelry since ancient times. However, due to the limited sources of origin, the quality of applied items mainly depended on long-range commercial relations, but also on fashion. In Antiquity and Late Antiquity, stones much used and sought for were emeralds and garnets. In Slovenia, emeralds are typically related to the early Roman period and are incorporated in the finds of gold jewelry from the graves. Emerald is generally beryl colored by admixture of chromium, though green colors can also be due to admixtures of iron or vanadium. Garnets were increasingly used by various nations of the People Migration period, and mounted in gilded silver or gold objects by 'cloisonne' or 'en cabochon' techniques. In Slovenia, numerous jewelry items containing garnets were found in the graves and in post-Roman fortified settlements. Geologically, according to the admixtures of metal ions, the garnets are divided into several species, while the most common among archaeological finds are almandines and pyropes and their intermediate types. It is also common to divide garnets into five groups, the first two originating from India, the third from Ceylon and the fifth from Czech Republic. The measurements involved presumed emeralds from Roman jewelry finds in Slovenia and comparative samples of beryl from Siberia and Habachtal in Austria. The analysis determined the coloring ions and showed relations between particular stones. For garnets, ten samples from brooches, earrings and rings were selected for the analysis on the basis of previous micro Raman examination. The analysis was performed by a combined PIXE-PIGE technique using proton beam in air. The light elements of Na, Mg, AI were determined according to the emitted gamma rays, while X-rays were used for the elements heavier than silicon. Two X-ray spectra were measured in each measuring point, soft and hard X-ray; the latter was obtained using an

  19. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  20. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  1. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  2. Morphology of the cementite in archaeological steels that have suffered fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a metallographic study of archaeological artefacts of steel, had been found in different archaeological sites, which characteristic microstructures reveal that have been affected by levels of fire. Study was performed using FEG (Field Emission Gun). In the laboratory, they are reproduced structures of steels archaeological. (Author)

  3. Can You Dig It? An Archaeology Unit Can Make Scientific Research Inviting and Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Since archaeology is a branch of science that interests so many kids, Alice Robinson based a 10-week lesson for her sixth grade class on the subject. First, she prominently displayed archaeology books in the library, including Ancient Times by Guy Austrian and Archaeology for Kids by Richard Panchyk. After explaining the definition of archaeology…

  4. 75 FR 28648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... remains was made by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology professional staff in...

  5. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven...

  6. The sixth Nordic conference on the application of scientific methods in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sixth Nordic Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods in Archaeology with 73 participants was convened in Esbjerg (Denmark), 19-23 September 1993. Isotope dating of archaeological, paleoecological and geochronological objects, neutron activation and XRF analytical methods, magnetometry, thermoluminescence etc. have been discussed. The program included excursions to archaeological sites and a poster session with 12 posters. (EG)

  7. Pioneers, publishers and the dissemination of archaeological knowledge: A study of publishing in British archaeology 1816-1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the nineteenth century was a formative period in the development of archaeology as a discipline and archaeological publishing played a key role in this. Libraries were an essential marker of social and intellectual status and there now exists a considerable body of scholarship on the most impressive publications of the day and on the factors influencing their presentation; for example, in relation to the publication of Mediterranean classical antiquities. The crucial role which publishers played in the selection and dissemination of scholarship has been addressed in recent studies of the history of the book, and there is a growing literature on the role of publishers in the dissemination of scientific knowledge, but there has to date been very limited evaluation of the role of publishers in the selection and dissemination of archaeological knowledge in Britain in this period. This study will investigate the extent to which the publication and dissemination of archaeological knowledge, and hence the discipline itself, was shaped by the intellectual and/or commercial concerns of publishers, with a view to providing a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which knowledge was filtered and the impact that this had. Key trends in archaeological publishing in the period 1816-51 will be identified, based on the London Catalogue of Books, and will show how and why this kind of study should be seen as an essential component of any research which considers the history of the discipline. Selected case studies will show the immense, and previously unacknowledged, importance of decisions made during the publication process on the development of archaeology in Britain, and directions for further study will be identified.

  8. Formation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears: Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Mechanics Study of the Electrophilic Addition of o-Benzyne to Fullerenes, Graphene, and Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in chemical functionalization of fullerene molecules. In some cases, the predominant reaction products are different from those obtained (using the same reactants) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One such example is the cycloaddition of o-benzyne to C60. It is well established that benzyne adds across one of the rings in naphthalene, anthracene and other PAHs forming the [2+4] cycloaddition product (benzobicyclo[2.2.2.]-octatriene with naphthalene and triptycene with anthracene). However, Hoke et al demonstrated that the only reaction path for o-benzyne with C60 leads to the [2+2] cycloaddition product in which benzyne adds across one of the interpentagonal bonds (forming a cyclobutene ring in the process). Either reaction product results in a loss of aromaticity and distortion of the PAH or fullerene substrate, and in a loss of strain in the benzyne. It is not clear, however, why different products are preferred in these cases. In the current paper, we consider the stability of benzyne-nanotube adducts and the ability of Brenner's potential energy model to describe the structure and stability of these adducts. The Brenner potential has been widely used for describing diamondoid and graphitic carbon. Recently it has also been used for molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations of fullerenes and nanotubes. However, it has not been tested for the case of functionalized fullerenes (especially with highly strained geometries). We use the Brenner potential for our companion nanogear simulations and believe that it should be calibrated to insure that those simulations are physically reasonable. In the present work, Density Functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the preferred geometric structures and energetics for this calibration. The DFT method is a kind of ab initio quantum chemistry method for determining the electronic structure of molecules. For a given basis set

  9. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  10. Modeling group size and scalar stress by logistic regression from an archaeological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Alberti

    Full Text Available Johnson's scalar stress theory, describing the mechanics of (and the remedies to the increase in in-group conflictuality that parallels the increase in groups' size, provides scholars with a useful theoretical framework for the understanding of different aspects of the material culture of past communities (i.e., social organization, communal food consumption, ceramic style, architecture and settlement layout. Due to its relevance in archaeology and anthropology, the article aims at proposing a predictive model of critical level of scalar stress on the basis of community size. Drawing upon Johnson's theory and on Dunbar's findings on the cognitive constrains to human group size, a model is built by means of Logistic Regression on the basis of the data on colony fissioning among the Hutterites of North America. On the grounds of the theoretical framework sketched in the first part of the article, the absence or presence of colony fissioning is considered expression of not critical vs. critical level of scalar stress for the sake of the model building. The model, which is also tested against a sample of archaeological and ethnographic cases: a confirms the existence of a significant relationship between critical scalar stress and group size, setting the issue on firmer statistical grounds; b allows calculating the intercept and slope of the logistic regression model, which can be used in any time to estimate the probability that a community experienced a critical level of scalar stress; c allows locating a critical scalar stress threshold at community size 127 (95% CI: 122-132, while the maximum probability of critical scale stress is predicted at size 158 (95% CI: 147-170. The model ultimately provides grounds to assess, for the sake of any further archaeological/anthropological interpretation, the probability that a group reached a hot spot of size development critical for its internal cohesion.

  11. Data from Archaeology for the People? Greek Archaeology and its Public: An Analysis of the Socio-Political and Economic Role of Archaeology in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Sakellariadi

    2015-01-01

    The interview transcripts and survey data in this dataset originate from an investigation of the role of archaeology in local communities in Greece today. The communities of Krenides (Kavala), Dispilio (Kastoria) and Delphi (Phokida) were used as case studies. Members of these communities, local archaeologists and archaeologists of the central services of the Ministry of Culture were interviewed while the local populations were surveyed using structured questionnaires. The data is stored in t...

  12. The tandetron: applications to earth sciences and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TANDETRON is a mass spectrometer coupled with a tandem accelerator. Its main advantage is being able to measure the radioactivity of C14 in samples thousand times smaller than those allowed in classical β-counting methods. Some applications to paleoclimatology and archaeology are described. (A.C.)

  13. Moessbauer, XRD, NAA and XRF study of archaeological slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960, remains of four furnaces from Early Medieval Age were excavated in Nitra. Because a lot of glass-like findings were found on this site the function of furnaces was considered as being used for production of glass even though no analytical tests were performed. These dig-outs were divided into two groups: The first group contains dark glass-like archaeological fragments which were interpreted as a waste (slag) of a glass production. The second group consists of archaeological artefacts which were thought to be a slag from iron production. The main aim of this work is to investigate these two types of archaeological artefacts. Employing standard transmission geometry Moessbauer effect experiments, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. In addition, some of the archaeological artefacts that are presumably coming from glass production show traces of metallic iron. On the other hand, slag from iron production exhibit minute contribution of iron oxides in several instances. Additional information about the composition of slag is obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. (authors)

  14. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  15. Marine Archaeological Explorations at Kulasekharapattinarn and Manapad Region, Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh;; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.

    found at most of the port and anchoring sites all along the coastal areas. During a maritime archaeological exploration along the coast of Kulasekharpattanam and Manapad (Tamil Nadu), a large number of stone anchors with an upper circular hole were noted...

  16. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  17. Different use of magnetometric field methods in Czech archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : KU Leuven, 2014 - (Scott, R.; Braekmans, D.; Carremans, M.; Degryse, P.), s. 302-305 ISBN 978-94-6165-120-4. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. Leuven (BE), 28.05.2012-01.06.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : magnetometry * non-destructive archaeology * geophysical survey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Archaeological analogs and corrosion; Analogues archeologiques et corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, D

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the high level and long life radioactive wastes disposal deep underground, the ANDRA built a research program on the material corrosion. In particular they aim to design containers for a very long time storage. Laboratory experiments are in progress and can be completed by the analysis of metallic archaeological objects and their corrosion after hundred years. (A.L.B.)

  19. Neolithic pottery and the biomolecular archaeology of lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present archaeological and biochemical approaches to organic food residues, the lipids that are well preserved in ceramic matrices on prehistoric vessels. The ‘archaeo- logical biomarker revolution’ concept is discussed in relation to pottery use, animal exploitation and the evolution of dietary practices in prehistory. 

  20. Neolithic pottery and the biomolecular archaeology of lipids:

    OpenAIRE

    Mihael Budja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present archaeological and biochemical approaches to organic food residues, the lipids that are well preserved in ceramic matrices on prehistoric vessels. The ‘archaeo- logical biomarker revolution’ concept is discussed in relation to pottery use, animal exploitation and the evolution of dietary practices in prehistory. 

  1. Saxon Obsequies: the Early Medieval Archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.

  2. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  3. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  4. NAA-applications in cosmology, archaeology and palaeontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the TRIGA reactor at the Atominstitute in Vienna as an irradiation facility in neutron activation analysis has a remarkable history. Present research work includes the recent determination of the precise half-life of 182Hf and the participation in an archaeological long-term research program (SCIEM2000). (author)

  5. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  6. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  7. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  8. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  9. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  10. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for...

  11. Finding Folk Religion: An Archaeology of ‘Strange’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hukantaival

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is not only about describing things; we also seek to understand what we find. Sometimes a find can seem puzzling, unexpected in the context in question. It is argued here that evidence of non-Christian elements of religiosity in a historical context can constitute such surprising finds. These finds become less confusing in the light of other sources, such as folklore accounts and historical records. Still, archaeology can offer something not accessible to other disciplines. This paper discusses the phenomenon of folk religion, and the ways that we can take to find the meanings behind the material remains of practices, which may perhaps seem odd to us. A multidisciplinary approach is favoured, and the contribution of archaeology is crucial in gaining information about past practices. The paper also offers a short survey of some archaeological approaches to questions of folk religion. Another issue addressed is why we might be surprised to find evidence of ‘strange’ practices in historical contexts. It is suggested here that historical constructs about the ‘civilising’ effects of Christianity, Reformation, and Enlightenment, respectively, have affected the way that religiosity has been seen in the context of historical Europe.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Data on the Use of the Internet for Archaeological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna-Jane Richardson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available These survey results are from an online survey of 577 UK-based archaeological volunteers, professional archaeologists and archaeological organisations. These data cover a variety of topics related to how and why people access the Internet for information about archaeology, including demographic information, activity relating to accessing information on archaeological topics, archaeological sharing and networking and the use of mobile phone apps and QR codes for public engagement. There is wide scope for further qualitative and quantitative analysis of these data.

  13. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  14. Hypercarbon chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text points out the emerging significance of higher-valent carbon compounds. It describes the compounds of carbon with coordination numbers greater than four and explores the delocalized bonds of π aromatic molecules as a basis for rational description of orbitals; localized multicentered orbitals; the interactions of metallic ions with other atoms and molecules; the skeletal electron counts as a guide for synthesis; and the isolobal concept. Illustrated are the ways in which these subjects bring together structure and reactivity in the great diversity of novel carbon chemistry and its relationship to that of boron, lithium, hydrogen, the metals, and others

  15. Archaeological and Geological dating by means of thermoluminescence; Fechamiento geologico y arqueologico por termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, P.R

    1999-07-01

    In this thesis an specific method for dating local archaeological and geological samples based on the phenomenon of thermoluminescence (TL) using the fine grain and quartz inclusion techniques is developed. Taking into account that this work is interesting for professionals working in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Archaeology, Anthropology and related sciences, some basic concepts are described to have a better comprehension. Chapter 1 describes the concept of radioactivity, remarking the importance of the different decay types as well as the main radioactive series and the energy liberated in the process. The causes of radioactive desequilibrium are also considered in the case for radon. Another important aspect taken into account in this chapter is the radioisotope production and its relationship with the neutron activation analysis used for the determination of the Uranium and Thorium concentrations in the samples. The TL phenomenon is described in Chapter 2, emphasizing the importance of the process of thermally stimulated luminescence best known as TL and its application for dating minerals of different origin. Chapter 3 shows some important antecedents remarking some aspects of the techniques commonly used for dating purposes. Chapter 4 shows the different methods used for the sample preparation. The techniques used for the {sup 40} K, {sup 238} U and {sup 232} Th determination as well as for the cosmic radiation measurement using locally made TLD are also described. The methods used for the determination of the paleodosis as a function of the TL intensity of each sample are described: special emphasis is taken on the moisture effects as well as in the error limits in the age estimation. Results and conclusions of this study are presented in Chapter 5. These results gave an age of 980 {+-} 90 years for the Edzna ceramic and 1520 {+-} 90 years for the Calixtlahuaca ceramics. The age of the Teotihuacan ceramics was not estimated due to the lack of a stable

  16. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  17. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  18. Domain-Specific Formal Ontology of Archaeology and Its Application in Knowledge Acquisition and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-XiaZhang; Cun-GenCao; FangGu; Jin-XinSi

    2004-01-01

    Inherent heterogeneity and distribution of knowledge strongly prevent knowledge from sharing and reusing among different agents and software entities, and a formal ontology has been viewed as a promising means to tackle this problem. In this paper, a domain-specific formal ontology of archaeology is presented. The ontology mainly consists of three parts: archaeological categories, their relationships and axioms. The ontology not only captures the semantics of archaeological knowledge, but also provides archaeology with an explicit and formal specification of a shared conceptualization, thus making archaeological knowledge shareable and reusable across humans and machines in a structured fashion. Further, we propose a method to verify ontology correctness based on the individuals of categories. As applications of the ontology, we have developed an ontology-driven approach to knowledge acquisition from archaeological text and a question answering system for archaeological knowledge.

  19. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Thornton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration.

  20. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  1. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  2. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  3. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  4. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  5. Integrating Computational Chemistry into a Course in Classical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Sheridan R.; Hartzell, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Computational chemistry is commonly addressed in the quantum mechanics course of undergraduate physical chemistry curricula. Since quantum mechanics traditionally follows the thermodynamics course, there is a lack of curricula relating computational chemistry to thermodynamics. A method integrating molecular modeling software into a semester long…

  6. Stellar Archaeology: New Science with Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The early chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Universe is vital to our understanding of a host of astrophysical phenomena. Since the most metal-poor Galactic stars are relics from the high-redshift Universe, they probe the chemical and dynamical conditions as the Milky Way began to form, the origin and evolution of the elements, and the physics of nucleosynthesis. They also provide constraints on the nature of the first stars, their associated supernovae and initial mass function, and early star and galaxy formation. I will present exemplary metal-poor stars with which these different topics can be addressed. Those are the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy ([Fe/H] thorium, which can be used to radioactively date the stars to be 13 Gyr old. I will then transition to recent discoveries of metal-poor ([Fe/H] -3.0) stars in the least luminous dwarf satellites orbiting the Milky Way. Their stellar chemical signatures support the concept that small systems, analogous to the surviving dwarf galaxies, were the building blocks of the Milky Way's low-metallicity halo. This opens a new window for studying galaxy formation through stellar chemistry.

  7. New trends and developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It uses radiation as the initiator of chemical reactions. Practical applications of radiation chemistry today extend to many fields, including health care, food and agriculture, manufacturing, industrial pollution abatement, biotechnology and telecommunications. The important advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used to produce, and study, almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reactions, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. The techniques are applicable to gaseous, liquid, solid, and heterogeneous systems. By combining different techniques of radiation chemistry with analytical chemistry, the reaction mechanism and kinetics of chemical reactions are studied. In November 1988 in Bologna, Italy, the IAEA convened an advisory group meeting to assess new trends and developments in radiation chemistry. The present publication includes most of the contributions presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  9. Automatic archaeological feature extraction from satellite VHR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological applications need a methodological approach on a variable scale able to satisfy the intra-site (excavation) and the inter-site (survey, environmental research). The increased availability of high resolution and micro-scale data has substantially favoured archaeological applications and the consequent use of GIS platforms for reconstruction of archaeological landscapes based on remotely sensed data. Feature extraction of multispectral remotely sensing image is an important task before any further processing. High resolution remote sensing data, especially panchromatic, is an important input for the analysis of various types of image characteristics; it plays an important role in the visual systems for recognition and interpretation of given data. The methods proposed rely on an object-oriented approach based on a theory for the analysis of spatial structures called mathematical morphology. The term "morphology" stems from the fact that it aims at analysing object shapes and forms. It is mathematical in the sense that the analysis is based on the set theory, integral geometry, and lattice algebra. Mathematical morphology has proven to be a powerful image analysis technique; two-dimensional grey tone images are seen as three-dimensional sets by associating each image pixel with an elevation proportional to its intensity level. An object of known shape and size, called the structuring element, is then used to investigate the morphology of the input set. This is achieved by positioning the origin of the structuring element to every possible position of the space and testing, for each position, whether the structuring element either is included or has a nonempty intersection with the studied set. The shape and size of the structuring element must be selected according to the morphology of the searched image structures. Other two feature extraction techniques were used, eCognition and ENVI module SW, in order to compare the results. These techniques were

  10. Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology, edited by Paul G. Bahn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology is another in a series of volumes devoted to the history of archaeology that have appeared in recent time. Paul Bahn, the editor of the volume, has broken down his coverage of the history of worldwide archaeology into the following arrangement 'The Archaeology of Archaeology", "Old Worlds and New, 1500-1760", "Antiquarians and Explorers, 1760-1820", "Science and Romanticism, 1820-1860", "The Search for Human Origins, 1860-1920", "Archaeology Comes of Age, 1920-1960", "New Techniques and Competing Philosophies, 1960-1990",and "Current Controversies and Future Trends". Bahn's volume explores many of the major developments in archaeological practice from both in the classical world and was as from the practice of archaeology in the Americas. The volume even gives the reader a glimpse into the origins and growth of archaeology in New Zealand. Of particular interest is coverage of the history of early archaeological efforts having to do with early studies of human origins.

  11. Down to the trenches: the Integrated Information System of Archaeological Sources of Prague - an adjustment to the AMCR for urban archaeology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháčová, Ivana; Podliska, J.; Hasil, Jan

    Praha: Institute of Archaeology of the CAS, 2015 - (Kuna, M.), s. 99-113 ISBN 978-80-87365-88-5 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF13P01OVV014 Keywords : information system * archaeology * Prague * heritage Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  13. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  14. Public perception of chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Stražar, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with the perception of chemistry among the public, which reflects the stereotypes that people have about chemistry. It presents the existing classification of stereotypes about chemistry and their upgrade. An analysis of movies that reflect the existing perception of chemistry in the public is written. Literature on selected aspects of the application of chemistry in movies is collected and analyzed. A qualification of perception of chemistry in the movies is presented based ...

  15. Developing technologies for the management of the Archaeological Heritage: towards a model of Evaluation of the Archaeological Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreiro Martínez, David

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to establish criteria and procedures of archaeological practice to solve the problems and demands posed by the Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Our Research Unit is developing the CLAAR Programme, to define criteria and conventions for Landscape Archaeology and Archaeological Heritage. The main aim of this programme is to contribute to the development of systems and methodologies to manage and evaluate the Archaeological Heritage. In a practical sense, it tries to compose a Handbook of Practice to apply to research and commercial projects. As an example, this paper deals with the Evaluation of Archaeological Impact, proposing a methodological scheme to be applied to this new practice, which is an important part of the Evaluation of Environmental Impact.

    Este texto plantea la necesidad de establecer procedimientos y convenciones de práctica arqueológica para resolver los problemas y demandas en la gestión actual del Patrimonio Arqueológico. En concreto se presenta el programa CAPA (criterios y convenciones en Arqueología del Paisaje y Patrimonio Arqueológico en vía de realización por nuestro Grupo de Investigación. El objetivo de este programa es contribuir al desarrollo de sistemas y metodologías de gestión y evaluación del Patrimonio Arqueológico y llegar a componer un Manual de Usos Internos que nuestro grupo aplicaría en los diferentes proyectos de investigación y de asistencia técnica. Como ejemplo de estos desarrollos, se considera la Evaluación de Impacto Arqueológico y se propone un esquema metodológico para la realización de este nuevo tipo de práctica arqueológica, que forma parte importante de la Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental.

  16. Soldiering Archaeology: Pitt Rivers and ‘Militarism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper initially explores the impact of the military on the development of British archaeology generally. It then focuses on the career of General Pitt Rivers, whose army background – especially his work in ordnance and when serving as legal prosecutor – fundamentally informed his archaeology, providing the basis for his concept of 'proof' and the adjudication of evidence. Pitt Rivers was an active member of, and contributed to, the collections of the ‘lost’ museum of the Royal United Services Institute. His particular interest was in the study of 'Primitive Warfare', and he demonstrated its evolution through his ‘typological’ collections of weapons. Finally, given the breadth of military experience and the diverse participation of its members within the discipline, critique is made of Wheeler’s singular formulation of an ‘army-influenced archaeology’.

  17. Terahertz and Cultural Heritage Science: Examination of Art and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage scientists need methodologies to examine Art and Archaeology in order to understand artistic materials and techniques and devise better conservation procedures. This review discusses the most successful and promising applications of Terahertz (THz technology in Cultural Heritage Science. THz is used in homeland security and for plenty of other industrial sectors and it presents a number of valuable features specifically for the investigation of Art and Archaeology: No radiation risk, low power, non-contact and reflection mode. Recent technical advancements are also making its application fast, mobile and relatively affordable creating a potential for its diffused implementation in museums. While THz is most promising for the investigation of multilayered art, such as paintings, it has been tested on a very large range of artifacts, from manuscripts to mummies and lacquered historical furniture.

  18. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, J

    2016-05-01

    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time. PMID:27166454

  19. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  20. Steps Towards Operationalising an Evolutionary Archaeological Definition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology is presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalised, at least...... culture and that it improves upon traditional, typologically defined techno-complexes. In conclusion, the benefits and limits of such an evolutionary and quantitative definition of culture are discussed....... within this approach. It has already been argued that in order to study material culture evolution in a manner similar to how palaeontologists study biological change over time, we need explicitly constructed archaeological taxonomic units . In palaeontology, the definition of such taxonomic units ? most...

  1. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in archaeology interpretation beyond elemental abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to the study of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of the source or sources used to produce pottery. Groups of relatively homogeneous elemental abundances are shown to be statically distinct from one another often leading to the assesment of what was locally produced and what was imported to a site. These assesment, however are among the most preliminary interpretations. Archaeology is concerned with the reasons for artificial distributions and how and why the distribution varied through time 3 reasons that include the social and political basis of ancient economics and how these responded to other factors, such as ideology. These objectives are addressed through the increasing refinement of compositional groups leading toward greater specificity of attribution. In so doing the role of analytical precision among other considerations groves in importance. This paper illustration some of these considerations with examples from the U.S. southwest, the Maya region of southern mexico, and lower central America

  2. Thermoluminescent dating using zircon grains from archaeological ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new thermoluminescence dating technique is described which uses zircon grains separated from ceramics. Because the zircons are orders of magnitude more radioactive than typical ceramics or soil, no burial information is needed. Nearly all of the natural dose is from internal alpha particles so effects of ground water and supralinearity are negligible. In a test programme on potsherds of known age, ages for individual homogeneous (unzoned) grains were within 20% of the archaeologic ages; the mean ages of 2 to 5 grains from a potsherd lay within 7% of the archaeologic age on average. The main limitations are that zoned zircon grains must be avoided (which makes the procedure somewhat laborious) and a sample at least 1 g in size is required. (author)

  3. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  4. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  5. A Note Concerning the Archaeology of Annadel State Park

    OpenAIRE

    Parkman, Edward Breck

    1983-01-01

    The recent DPR investigations have been directed toward a better understanding of the Annadel prehistoric archaeological record. One goal of this work has been to delineate the boundaries of the park's primary obsidian source (i.e., the "Annadel" source). Special attention has also been given to x-ray fluorescence spectrography and obsidian hydration studies. These studies have helped to better illustrate the chemical variability of the local obsidian, and to better define the local chronolog...

  6. In Praise of Vagueness: Uncertainty, ambiguity and archaeological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2016-01-01

    This article stipulates that vagueness is a socially important yet academically largely overlooked aspect of human interaction with the world. Vagueness and vague experiences can structure material categorisations of the world; it can contribute to the shaping of social relations and nurture the....... Finally, it is argued that the idealisation of certitude in archaeological analysis needs to be complemented by an interpretative framework making it possible to recognise vagueness as a social phenomenon....

  7. Obstacles to Career Progression in Archaeology: Precarious Labour and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Andrew Hardy

    2014-01-01

    As Sue Hamilton brought out, a combination of personal and structural forces harm workers and areas of work. Those forces multiply inequity by channelling already disadvantaged workers into disadvantageous areas of work. For example, under a historic ‘domestic’ division of labour in archaeology, women have disproportionately performed invisible ‘dishwashing’ duties, which have not only been immediately financially under-rewarding and relatively insecure, but which have also undermined career ...

  8. The development of Spanish archaeology in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Navarrete, María Isabel

    1997-01-01

    The long history of state unity and archaeology’s strong dependence on the state explain how archaeological practice became institutionalized in Spain. The intellectual currents that marked Spanish archaeology’s development – antiquarianism, Enlightenment interest in human antiquity, the definition of national identity – are analogous to those in other European countries: foreign models always were influential. Largely due to traditional, institutionalized links to German and French archaeolo...

  9. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige. PMID:23669575

  10. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    OpenAIRE

    North, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials su...

  11. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Reverse engineering and the archaeology of the modern world

    OpenAIRE

    Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the practical and conceptual connections between the archaeology of post-industrial societies and the process of reverse engineering. It explores common themes such as industrial decline, the loss of technical expertise, and the growing problem of obsolescence both in technological infrastructure and in the management of digital data. To illuminate the connections between the two fields it considers several examples. These include the implicit applications of r...

  13. Archaeology and masculinity in Late Bronze Age Knossos

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, Ben

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the applicability of the concept of masculinity as a descriptive or analytical category in archaeological analyses. Central to this project is the recognition that the concept of gender employed by the majority of archaeologists has limited practical application. Such a concept of gender relies upon a radical separation between sex and gender, where gender is understood to be the cultural elaboration of a natural body. Following recent feminist theorising on th...

  14. The Sen-nedjem Project: Archaeology, Virtual Reality and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, M.

    1999-01-01

    Virtual reality, interactive computer generated sites and scenarios, theoretically creates great opportunities for archaeology, history, and education. Immersive computer driven environments impart information regarding space and human experience that would not be possible using traditional means of representation. Places and structures too remote, dangerous or deteriorated to visit can be experienced, and virtual models can provide the context in which to understand other complex issues surr...

  15. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Terras, Melissa M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D ...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-01-01

    Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists...

  17. Non-destructive analysis of archaeological bronzes by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies a method for overcoming the difficulty of corroded surfaces by means of nondestructive nuclear methods in the determination of the composition of archaeological bronzes. It consists of the combination of PIXE or XRF information with Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT) data. A wide range applicability of this combined method is established by comparison with profiles of concentrations along the bronzes' patina obtained by SEM-EDAX. (orig.)

  18. Computer vision, archaeological classification and China's terracotta warriors

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, A.; Li, X; Martinón-Torres, M.; Green, S; Rehren, T.; Xia, Y.(Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, People's Republic of China); Zhao, K.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, S.; Cao, W.

    2014-01-01

    Structure-from-motion and multiview-stereo together offer a computer vision technique for reconstructing detailed 3D models from overlapping images of anything from large landscapes to microscopic features. Because such models can be generated from ordinary photographs taken with standard cameras in ordinary lighting conditions, these techniques are revolutionising digital recording and analysis in archaeology and related subjects such as palaeontology, museum studies and art history. However...

  19. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency factor of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars.

  20. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency facotr of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars. (author)