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Sample records for chemicals extended follow

  1. The enzymatic and chemical reduction of extended biliverdins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, R B; Bari, S; Tomaro, M L; Frydman, B

    1990-08-31

    The substrate specificity of rat liver biliverdin reductase was probed using helical and extended biliverdins. The former were the ZZZ-all-syn biliverdins IX alpha and IX gamma, and the latter were the 5Z-syn, 10Z-syn, 15Z-anti; 5Z-anti, 10E-anti, 15E-anti biliverdins. It was found that the reduction rates of the biliverdins increased with the progressive stretching of their conformations. The most extended biliverdin was reduced at a higher rate than biliverdin IX alpha. The chemical reduction rates to bilirubins followed a similar pattern. Nucleophilic addition of 2-mercaptoethanol to the C10 methine was also favored in the extended biliverdins. PMID:2393401

  2. Recontamination following dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination is beneficial in reducing radiation fields before inspection, maintenance, or repair work has to be performed on reactor systems. If the fields remain low at subsequent shutdowns, further benefit is attributable to the decontamination. Conversely, if fields rapidly become as high as before the decontamination, no residual benefit derives. In the case where the field rapidly becomes higher than before the decontamination, a detriment from the decontamination is experienced at subsequent shutdowns. In this paper the recontamination data following six separate dilute chemical decontaminations are reported for surveillance periods of up to two years. Surfaces operating at low temperature hardly recontaminated at all over the two-year period; surfaces exposed to high temperatures recontaminated to about 95% of their predecontamination level over a two-year period. A rapid recontamination rate for about three months following the decontamination was followed by recontamination at a rate which is significantly below the published rates for most BWRs in the USA, and for these two plants in particular. In all six cases studied, residual benefit from the decontamination was experienced at subsequent shutdowns. (author)

  3. An extended car-following model at signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2014-08-01

    To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.

  4. EXTENDING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson Kwauk

    2005-01-01

    The obvious current reversion to micro-scale investigations in basic chemical engineering, combined with the need, of a quite different nature, in the rapid growth of high added-value and small-lot functional materials, have been pointing to an area not yet sufficiently covered by the unit operations, transport phenomena and chemical reaction engineering. Although it is difficult to define accurately this area, a cursory scan of the activities already in progress has revealed a few common attributes: multi-phased (structured), multi-scaled, multi-disciplined, nonlinear, needs for resolution to reductionism-solvable subsystems, and pervasive in the process industry. From these activities, the present paper drafts a tentative scheme for studying the related problems: first to dissect a problem into various scales - spatial, temporal or otherwise as best suits the case in hand- in order to identify pertinent parameters which are then organized into model formulations. Together with inter-scale model formulations, a zoom-in/zoom-out process is carried out between the scales, by trial-and-error and through reasoning, to arrive at a global formulation of a quantitative solution, in order to derive, eventually, the general from the particular.

  5. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  6. Nanosensors-Cellphone Integration for Extended Chemical Sensing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    This poster is to present the development of a cellphone sensor network for extended chemical sensing. The nanosensors using carbon nanotubes and other nanostructures are used with low power and high sensitivity for chemical detection. The sensing module has been miniaturized to a small size that can plug in or clip on to a smartphone. The chemical information detected by the nanosensors are acquired by a smartphone and transmitted via cellphone 3g or WiFi network to an internet server. The whole integrated sensing system from sensor to cellphone to a cloud will provide an extended chemical sensing network that can cover nation wide and even cover global wide for early warning of a hazardous event.

  7. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Korenić

    Full Text Available Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD, OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m, visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m negativation. In case no Δψ(m negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  8. Study on New Approaches for extended chemical management and REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    existing chemical regulations in view of protecting vulnerable populations from “excessive total risk” and to explore the possibilities for improvement. Firstly, the completeness of the REACH exposure scenario was reviewed with the finding that the current scenario does not take into account territorial...... without controlling the quality of recycled materials, increased recycling of resources in a circular economy might increase undesirable recycling of micro-pollutants. Finally, a systemic approach based on sustainable resource flows was proposed for extended chemical management and the role of REACH in a...

  9. Assessment of the extended Koopmans' theorem for the chemical reactivity: Accurate computations of chemical potentials, chemical hardnesses, and electrophilicity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Dilan; Bozkaya, Uğur

    2016-01-30

    The extended Koopmans' theorem (EKT) provides a straightforward way to compute ionization potentials and electron affinities from any level of theory. Although it is widely applied to ionization potentials, the EKT approach has not been applied to evaluation of the chemical reactivity. We present the first benchmarking study to investigate the performance of the EKT methods for predictions of chemical potentials (μ) (hence electronegativities), chemical hardnesses (η), and electrophilicity indices (ω). We assess the performance of the EKT approaches for post-Hartree-Fock methods, such as Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled-electron pair theory, and their orbital-optimized counterparts for the evaluation of the chemical reactivity. Especially, results of the orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory method (with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set) for predictions of the chemical reactivity are very promising; the corresponding mean absolute errors are 0.16, 0.28, and 0.09 eV for μ, η, and ω, respectively. PMID:26458329

  10. Extended heart failure clinic follow-up in low-risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Videbaek, Lars; Tuxen, Chr; Keller, Niels; Handberg, Jens; Sejr Knudsen, Anne; Espersen, Geert Tschentscher; Markenvard, John; Egstrup, Kenneth; Ulriksen, Hans; Hildebrandt, Per R.; Korup, Eva; Broberg, Helle; Nielsen, Vivi Lindeborg; Pedersen, Mette Storgaard; Pedersen, Henriette P.; Dam, Anette; Christensen, Tove; Thude, Lilli; Gohr, Thomas; Madsen, Bodil S.; Nielsen, Hanne-Lis; Rosenberg, Jens; Egstrup, Michael; Jensen, Anna-Marie; Hemmingshøj, Jeanett; Bartholdy, Hanne; Groth, Susanne; Leth, Gitte; Jensen, Marianne; Sejrsen, Holger; Skaarstad, Ellen; Larsen, Ingelise; Jensen, Jannie; Borrild, Anne-Mette; Mogelhoj, Birthe; Claussen, Jimi; Jacobsen, Vibeke; Kaiser-Nielsen, Peter; Woelders, Lone; Viem, Nina; Oechsler, Louise; Knoefler, Inge-Lise; Karlsson, Kristina; Egeberg, Helle; Pedersen, Mette R.; Milton, Janne; Anker, Charlotte; Thomassen, Camilla; Koertz, Karin; Petersen, Jane; Hebsgaard, Else; Beksbo, Marianne; Frederiksen, Lene; Skoffer, Hanne; Jespersen, Camilla; Lynggaard, Jette; Brun, Karen-Birgit; Vigstrup, Lone; Kjaer-Andersen, Mogens; Godfredsen, Lone; Fauerskov, Inge; Bidstrup, Pia; Hald-Steffensen, Flemming; Zeuthen, Lise; Petersen, Elin; Gohr, Tove; Munch, Inger; Spencer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundOutpatient follow-up in specialized heart failure clinics (HFCs) is recommended by current guidelines and implemented in most European countries, but the optimal duration of HFC programmes has not been established. Nor is it known whether all or only high-risk patients, e.g. identified by...... NT-proBNP, might benefit from an extended HFC follow-up.Methods and resultsIn a multi-centre setting, we randomly assigned 921 clinically stable systolic heart failure (HF) outpatients on optimal medical therapy to undergo either an extended follow-up in the HFC (n = 461) or referral back to their......-term follow-up in a specialized HFC in a publicly funded universal access healthcare system. Heart failure patients on optimal medical therapy with mild or moderate symptoms are safely managed by their personal GP.Trial Registration: www.Centerwatch.com: 173491 (NorthStar)....

  11. Extended follow-up of neurological, cognitive, behavioral and academic outcomes after severe abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Katia; Toure, Hanna; Brugel, Dominique; Meyer, Philippe; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Studies about long-term outcome following abusive head trauma (AHT) are scarce. The aims of this study were to report long-term neurological, cognitive, behavioral and academic outcomes, ongoing treatments and/or rehabilitation, several years after AHT diagnosis, and factors associated with outcome. In this retrospective study, all patients admitted to a single rehabilitation unit following AHT between 1996 and 2005, with subsequent follow-up exceeding 3 years, were included. Medical files were reviewed and a medical interview was performed with parents on the phone when possible. The primary outcome measure was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Forty-seven children (out of 66) met the inclusion criteria (mean age at injury 5.7 months; SD=3.2). After a median length of follow-up of 8 years (range 3.7-12), only seven children (15%) had "good outcome" (normal life - GOS I) and 19 children (40%) presented with severe neurological impairment (GOS III and IV). Children sustained epilepsy (38%), motor deficits (45%), visual deficit (45%), sleep disorders (17%), language abnormalities (49%), attention deficits (79%) and behavioral disorders (53%). Most children (83%) had ongoing rehabilitation. Only 30% followed a normal curriculum, whereas 30% required special education services. Children with better overall outcome (GOS I and II) had significantly higher educated mothers than those with worse outcomes (GOS III and IV): graduation from high school 59% and 21% respectively (p=0.006). This study highlights the high rate of severe sequelae and health care needs several years post-AHT, and emphasizes the need for extended follow-up of medical, cognitive and academic outcomes. PMID:26299396

  12. Extended phase homogeneity and electrical properties of barium calcium titanate prepared by the wet chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca-substituted BaTiO3 with extended homogeneity range upto ∼50 mol% CaTiO3 have been prepared by three different chemical routes namely carbonate-oxalate (COBCT), gel-carbonate (GCBCT), and gel-to-crystallite conversion (GHBCT) followed by heat treatment above 1150 deg. C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data show continuous decrease in the tetragonal unit cell parameters as well as c0/a0 ratio with CaTiO3 content, which are in accordance with the substitution of smaller sized Ca2+ ions at the barium sites. The microstructure as well as the dielectric properties are greatly influenced by the cationic ratio, α=(Ba+Ca)/Ti. The grain size decreases with CaTiO3 content for the stoichiometric samples (α=1), whereas ultrafine microstructure is observed in the case of off-stoichiometric samples (α>1) for the whole compositional range of CaTiO3 concentrations. Sharper εr-T characteristics at lower calcium content and broader εr-T with decreased εmax, in the higher calcium range are observed in the case of α=1. Whereas nanometer grained ceramics exhibiting diffuse εr-T characteristics are obtained in the case of α>1. The positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) is realized for barium calcium titanate ceramics having 0.3 at.% Sb as the donor dopant for higher CaTiO3 (typically 30 mol%) containing samples (α=1), indicating that Ca2+ ions do not behave as acceptors if they were to substitute at the Ti4+ sites. Whereas the off-stoichiometric (α>1) ceramics retained high resistivity, indicative of the Ti-site occupancy for Ca2+ in fine grain ceramics

  13. Protocol optimization for long-term liquid storage of goat semen in a chemically defined extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B-T; Han, D; Xu, C-L; Luo, M-J; Chang, Z-L; Tan, J-H

    2009-12-01

    A specific problem in the preservation of goat semen has been the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on the viability of spermatozoa in extenders containing egg yolk or milk. The use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages in liquid storage of buck semen. Our previous study showed that the self-made mZAP extender performed better than commercial extenders, and maintained a sperm motility of 34% for 9 days and a fertilizing potential for successful pregnancies for 7 days. The aim of this study was to extend the viability and fertilizing potential of liquid-stored goat spermatozoa by optimizing procedures for semen processing and storage in the mZAP extender. Semen samples collected from five goat bucks of the Lubei White and Boer breeds were diluted with the extender, cooled and stored at 5 degrees C. Stored semen was evaluated for sperm viability parameters, every 48 h of storage. Data from three ejaculates of different bucks were analysed for each treatment. The percentage data were arcsine-transformed before being analysed with anova and Duncan's multiple comparison test. While cooling at the rate of 0.1-0.25 degrees C/min did not affect sperm viability parameters, doing so at the rate of 0.6 degrees C/min from 30 to 15 degrees C reduced goat sperm motility and membrane integrity. Sperm motility and membrane integrity were significantly higher in semen coated with the extender containing 20% egg yolk than in non-coated semen. Sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosomal intactness were significantly higher when coated semen was 21-fold diluted than when it was 11- or 51-fold diluted and when extender was renewed at 48-h intervals than when it was not renewed during storage. When goat semen coated with the egg yolk-containing extender was 21-fold diluted, cooled at the rate of 0.07-0.25 degrees C/min, stored at 5 degrees C and the extender renewed every 48 h, a sperm motility of 48% was maintained for 13 days, and an in vitro

  14. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  15. Extended Functional Groups (EFG: An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Salmina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a classification system termed “extended functional groups” (EFG, which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool (http://ochem.eu/alerts of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models.

  16. The effect of milking reinitiation following extended nonmilking periods on lactation in primiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Swanson, K M; Henderson, H V; Erdman, R A; Stelwagen, K

    2015-11-01

    In dairy cows, extended periods of nonmilking results in reduced milk secretion, modifications in milk composition, and eventually involution of the mammary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended nonmilking periods on the recovery of milk yield and composition, and levels of prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I in pasture-fed cows after resuming milking. Pasture-fed, primiparous, nonpregnant, Friesian dairy cows at mid lactation (mean ± standard deviation, 97 ± 2d in milk, 14.0 ± 2.5 L/d) were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). The cows were subjected to nonmilking periods of 7, 14, or 28d. Twice-daily milking was resumed for 7d following the nonmilking periods. Milk yield recoveries at the end of the 7-d remilking period were 91, 51, and 29% for the 7, 14, and 28-d nonmilked groups, respectively. The somatic cell count declined to less than 400,000 cells/mL by d 3 and 6 of remilking for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, respectively, but remained greater than 800,000 cells/mL in the 28-d-nonmilked group through the 7-d remilking period. By d 7 of remilking, the somatic cell count for the 7-d-nonmilked group was not different from pretrial values. Upon remilking, the milk fat content returned to pretrial values for the 7- and 14-d-nonmilked groups, although it remained lower than pretrial for the 28-d-nonmilked group. All 3 nonmilked groups had a higher milk protein content following 7d of remilking, compared with pretrial values. The lactose content returned to pretrial values for the 7-d-nonmilked group but remained lower for the 14- and 28-d-nonmilked groups. Circulating prolactin concentrations increased once remilking was resumed, compared with the pretrial and nonmilking periods. Prolactin concentrations did not majorly differ between the groups, with the levels upon 7d of remilking remaining higher than the pretrial concentrations and the nonmilked periods. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor

  17. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  18. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Naiping

    2016-01-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and HII regions. Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to HII regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of HII regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  19. EPA Follow-Up Briefing to Chemical Substitutions Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    slide presentation to National Academy of Science (NAS) chemical substitutions committee on ToxCast in vitro assay data as "new data stream" to be used to evaluate chemical substitutions or “new chemical” design, with Focus on high-throughput in vitro assays

  20. Extending the Row of Lanthanide Tetrafluorides: A Combined Matrix-Isolation and Quantum-Chemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Fang, Zongtang; Lee, Zachary; Dixon, David; Riedel, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    Only the neutral tetrafluorides of Ce, Pr, and Tb as well as the [LnF7 ](3-) anions of Dy and Nd, with the metal in the +IV oxidation state, have been previously reported. We report our attempts to extend the row of neutral lanthanide tetrafluorides through the reaction of laser-ablated metal atoms with fluorine and their stabilization and characterization by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy. In addition to the above three tetrafluorides, we found two new tetrafluorides, (3) NdF4 and (7) DyF4 , both of which are in the +IV oxidation state, which extends this lanthanide oxidation state to two new metals. Our experimental results are supported by quantum-chemical calculations and the role of the lanthanide oxidation state is discussed for both the LnF4 and [LnF4 ](-) species. Most of the LnF4 species are predicted to be in the +IV oxidation state and all of the [LnF4 ](-) anions are predicted to be in the +III oxidation state. The LnF4 species are predicted to be strong oxidizing agents and the LnF3 species are predicted to be moderate to strong Lewis acids. PMID:26786900

  1. Evolution of microbiological and chemical parameters during red wine making with extended post-fermentation maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Romano, Raffaele; Sannino, Ciro; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of red wine subjected to post-fermentation maceration that was extended to 90 days. For this purpose, the 'Aglianico di Taurasi' grape was used as a case study. The total yeast concentration increased until day 40 of maceration and decreased thereafter, whereas the concentration of lactic acid bacteria slightly increased. Dekkera/Brettanomyces spp. and acetic acid bacteria were not detected. The yeast community was composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia guilliermondii, Aureobasidium pullulans and Debaryomyces carsonii. Nine S. cerevisiae strains were detected at high levels at different times of maceration. The results of all the conventional chemical analyses of the wines were in agreement with the regulations of commercial production and, interestingly, the changes in terms of concentration demonstrated the presence of yeast and LAB populations that were not only alive but also in a metabolically active state until day 90 of maceration. The alcohol and glycerol contents slightly increased until day 90. The concentrations of malic acid decreased, whereas those of lactic acid slightly increased throughout the maceration process. Furthermore, different durations of maceration resulted in significant differences in the total polyphenol content, which was higher at 40-50 days. The main phenolic compounds were benzoic and cinnamic acids and catechins. Interestingly, the highest ratio between (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin was found on day 40. In addition, the highest antioxidant activity was observed between days 40 and 50. The concentration of volatile organic compounds, which were mainly represented by alcohols, increased until the end of the maceration process. Sensory analysis revealed that samples that were subjected to maceration for a long

  2. Chemical Effects following Thermal Neutron Capture in Potassium Chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical effects accompanying radiative thermal neutron capture in potassium chromate have been extensively studied in the past few years. The presence of radioactive chromic ions formed upon dissolving neutron irradiated potassium chromate and the reactions from heating the material above 150°C have been explained by reactions involving the presence of CrO4+ ions in the crystal lattice. A new analytical method, based on the slow rate of exchange between chromo and chromic ions, has been used to show that more than 90% of the reduced chromium ions are present in the +2 valence state. The results obtained, using the new analytical method, indicate that the processes taking place during dissolution are hydration processes while the reduction of chromium fragments takes place in the crystal. Isothermal and isochronical annealing experiments carried out on crystals irradiated at room temperature show that three annealing reactions occur between 60° and 275°C. The influence of quenching and foreign ions on the three annealing reactions has been studied. Investigations made in parallel with chemical changes of Cr51 recoil species and electronic changes in irradiated potassium chromate during post-irradiation treatment have been carried out measuring the thermoluminescence spectrum, the electrical conductivity and the chemical distribution of Cr51 fragments. The results show that the chemical annealing reactions are associated with electronic changes indicating a close relation between chemical annealing and the disappearance of charge carriers. (author)

  3. Extended Malaria Parasite Clearance Time in African Children Following Artemisinincombination Therapy Enhances Transmission to Anopheles Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Beshir Khalid B; Sawa Patrick; Drakeley Chris J; Baidjoe Amrish Y; Mweresa Collins K; Yussuf Rahma U; Omar Sabah A; Hermsen Cornelus C; Shekalaghe Seif A; Schallig Henk DFH; Sauerwein Robert W; Sutherland Colin J; Hallett Rachel L; Bousema Teun

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin resistance was recently shown to have spread or emerged on the Thailand/Myanmar border. Evidence is accumulating that the parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is increasing in settings in Asia and Africa. It is currently unknown if an extended parasite clearance time after ACTs has consequences for the individual patient or confers a higher malaria transmission potential. 298 children in Mbita, Western Kenya, with uncomplicated falciparum malar...

  4. Heightened drug-seeking motivation following extended daily access to self-administered cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Posthumus, Eric J.; Waldroup, Stephanie A.; Ettenberg, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Rats allowed extended daily access (6hrs) to cocaine, consume high doses of the drug and escalate their cocaine intake over days, resembling the pattern of cocaine use seen in human addicts. The current study was designed to test whether such animals would also demonstrate the heightened motivation to seek cocaine seen in human addicts. Rats were trained to lever-press for i.v. cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) over a 5-day period of 1h sessions. Subjects were then assigned to either a brief-access ...

  5. Extending the puzzle of the universe Follow ATLAS physicist Caterina Doglioni

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Follow Italian @ATLASexperiment physicist Caterina Doglioni from Lund University, Sweden, as she shares her thoughts about the new physics frontiers opening up when the LHC begins collisions at the higher energy of #13TeV. Each week a new video will be uploaded to https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... allowing you to follow physicists from @ATLASexperiment @ALICEexperiment @CMSexperiment or @LHCbExperiment as the search the new frontiers in physics. Read more about these new frontiers in physics: http://cern.ch/go/x8VH

  6. A molecular line study towards massive extended green object clumps in the southern sky: chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2015-08-01

    We present a molecular line study towards 31 extended green object (EGO) clumps in the southern sky using data from MALT90 (Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz). According to previous multiwavelength observations, we divide our sample into two groups: massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions. The most detected lines are N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), HCO+ (J = 1 - 0), HNC (J = 1 - 0), HCN (J = 1 - 0), HC3N (J = 10 - 9), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and SiO (J = 2 - 1), indicating that most EGOs are indeed associated with dense clumps and recent outflow activities. The velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0), H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0), C2H (N = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9) lines are comparable to each other in MYSOs. However, in H II regions the velocity widths of the N2H+ (J = 1 - 0) and C2H (N = 1 - 0) lines tend to be narrower than those of H13CO+ (J = 1 - 0) and HC3N (J = 10 - 9). Our results seem to support that N2H+ and C2H emissions mainly come from the gas inside quiescent clumps. In addition, we also find that the [N2H+]/[H13CO+] and [C2H]/[H13CO+] relative abundance ratios decrease from MYSOs to H II regions. These results suggest depletion of N2H+ and C2H in the late stages of massive-star formation, probably caused by the formation of H II regions inside. N2H+ and C2H might be used as chemical clocks for massive-star formation by comparing with other molecules such as H13CO+ and HC3N.

  7. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  8. Papillary tumor of the pineal region with extended clinical and radiologic follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Shakir, Hakeem J.; Jingxin Qiu; Dheerendra Prasad; Mechtler, Laszlo L.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neoplasm with only anecdotal data to guide the treatment. Results of treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have been reported to have varying degrees of success. Here we report a patient with a PTPR, who underwent subtotal resection, gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery, and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. Case Description: During 9 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the patient has had...

  9. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation.

  10. Mortality in an extended follow-up of British coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCalman, L.; Miller, B.G. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was established in the 1950s, to evaluate effects of coal mining exposures on the health and mortality of British coal workers. Surveys of working miners were carried out at 5-yearly intervals, initially in 24 collieries but later concentrating on 10, collecting detailed work histories and health information for each recruit. Here we report on cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 British collieries, followed up for periods up to 47 years, yielding over 516,000 life-years of follow-up. External analyses compared cause-specific death rates in the cohort to those of the population of the regions in which the collieries were situated, using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs). The causes investigated included lung cancer, stomach cancer, non-malignant respiratory disorders and cardiovascular disorders. SMRs showed evidence of an initial healthy worker effect diminishing over time. Several causes, including non-malignant respiratory disease and lung cancer, showed a significant deficit of mortality at the start of the study period with an excess in the latter part of the follow-up period. In these results, effects of working conditions are likely to be confounded with smoking habits. Overall, we believe our results may be generalised to the British coal industry since nationalisation. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers: extended follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, L; Mikoczy, Z; Hagmar, L; Edling, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers. An increased incidence of cancer of the stomach, the kidney and the nervous system in this cohort was previously reported. This new analysis reports on 9 more years of follow up. METHODS: The study is an analysis of a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least for 1 year during the years 1965-86. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standa...

  12. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prolo, D.J.; Pedrotti, P.W.; Burres, K.P.; Oklund, S.

    1982-08-01

    Sterilization of allogeneic bone increases the availability of this tissue for supplanting skeletal defects and effecting fusions. The optimal sterilant destroys micro-organisms, preserves the physical and chemical integrity of bone and possibly even reduces immunogenicity. Cortical bone of skull heals slowly and is variably resorbed. Of 36 dogs, spontaneous regeneration in 72 paired 20 mm defects was constant but always incomplete, and restored only about one third of the cross-sectional area of the defect at six months. The repair in defects replaced with canine allogeneic bony disc, sterilized with ethylene oxide (n . 9), gamma irradiation (n . 7), or methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid (n . 7) and then lyophilizedd, was compared with repair in defects filled with aseptically procured lyophilized only (n . 23) discs from the same donor. Criteria for evaluation of implants at six months included volume of defect filled, radiodensity, extent of fusion around circumference, revascularization, and remodeling. Bony discs sterilized with methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid remodeled at a superior rate (p less than 0.01). Radiation sterilization resulted in diminished density and inferentially reduced protection of the brain (p less than 0.025). Ethylene oxide, lyophilized implants, and implants lyophilized only produced comparable repair. Whereas an acceptable cranioplasty was achieved in 86% of methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid, lyophilize implants, all other alloimplants served an osteoconductive function with a successful repair occurring in 56% to 58%.

  13. Superior osteogenesis in transplanted allogeneic canine skull following chemical sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterilization of allogeneic bone increases the availability of this tissue for supplanting skeletal defects and effecting fusions. The optimal sterilant destroys micro-organisms, preserves the physical and chemical integrity of bone and possibly even reduces immunogenicity. Cortical bone of skull heals slowly and is variably resorbed. Of 36 dogs, spontaneous regeneration in 72 paired 20 mm defects was constant but always incomplete, and restored only about one third of the cross-sectional area of the defect at six months. The repair in defects replaced with canine allogeneic bony disc, sterilized with ethylene oxide (n . 9), gamma irradiation (n . 7), or methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid (n . 7) and then lyophilizedd, was compared with repair in defects filled with aseptically procured lyophilized only (n . 23) discs from the same donor. Criteria for evaluation of implants at six months included volume of defect filled, radiodensity, extent of fusion around circumference, revascularization, and remodeling. Bony discs sterilized with methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid remodeled at a superior rate (p less than 0.01). Radiation sterilization resulted in diminished density and inferentially reduced protection of the brain (p less than 0.025). Ethylene oxide, lyophilized implants, and implants lyophilized only produced comparable repair. Whereas an acceptable cranioplasty was achieved in 86% of methanol/chloroform/iodoacetic acid, lyophilize implants, all other alloimplants served an osteoconductive function with a successful repair occurring in 56% to 58%

  14. Stuck in the moment: Cognitive inflexibility in preschoolers following an extended time period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyStevenDick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschoolers display surprising inflexibility in problem solving, but seem to approach new challenges with a fresh slate. We provide evidence that while the former is true the latter is not. Here, we examined whether brief exposure to stimuli can influence children’s problem solving following several weeks after first exposure to the stimuli. We administered a common executive function task, the Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires children to sort picture cards by one dimension (e.g., color and then switch to sort the same cards by a conflicting dimension (e.g., shape. After a week or after a month delay, we administered the second rule again. We found that 70% of preschoolers continued to sort by the initial sorting rule, even after a month delay, and even though they are explicitly told what to do. We discuss implications for theories of executive function development, and for classroom learning.

  15. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  16. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again. PMID:21088873

  17. Nucleus-independent chemical shift criterion for aromaticity in Π-extended tetraoxa[8]circulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Minaev, Boris F.; Pittelkow, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    Recently synthesized p-extended symmetrical tetraoxa[8]circulenes that exhibit electroluminescent properties were calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) approach to electron density distribution analysis. Nucleus...

  18. Exact Solution to the Extended Zwanzig Model for Quasi-Sigmoidal Chemically Induced Denaturation Profiles: Specific Heat and Configurational Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Pineda, G. E.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Temperature and chemically induced denaturation comprise two of the most characteristic mechanisms to achieve the passage from the native state N to any of the unstructured states Dj in the denatured ensemble in proteins and peptides. In this work we present a full analytical solution for the configurational partition function qs of a homopolymer chain poly-X in the extended Zwanzig model (EZM) for a quasisigmoidal denaturation profile. This solution is built up from an EZM exact solution in...

  19. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  20. Analytical studies on an extended car following model for mixed traffic flow with slow and fast vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Xu, Xun; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Xu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The car-following model is extended to take into account the characteristics of mixed traffic flow containing fast and slow vehicles. We conduct the linear stability analysis to the extended model with finding that the traffic flow can be stabilized with the increase of the percentage of the slow vehicle. It also can be concluded that the stabilization of the traffic flow closely depends on not only the average value of two maximum velocities characterizing two vehicle types, but also the standard deviation of the maximum velocities among all vehicles, when the percentage of the slow vehicles is the same as that of the fast ones. With increase of the average maximum velocity, the traffic flow becomes more and more unstable, while the increase of the standard deviation takes negative effect in stabilizing the traffic system. The direct numerical results are in good agreement with those of theoretical analysis. Moreover, the relation between the flux and the traffic density is investigated to simulate the effects of the percentage of slow vehicles on traffic flux in the whole density regions.

  1. [In vitro generation of mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae following exposure to fluorquinolones. Relationship with the presence of extended spectrum betalactamases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, O; Rodríguez, J C; Cremades, R; Ruiz, M; Royo, G

    2008-09-01

    In order to provide data that may help to explain the relationship between production of extended spectrum betalactamases and fluorquinolone resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, we have developed an in vitro model of exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of various fluorquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) in two strains, one of which is a producer of extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL). Our data show that mutants with reduced fluorquinolone susceptibility appear in both cases, but that they appear earlier in ESBL-producing strains (13.3 days versus 14.4 days), especially following exposure to ciprofloxacin (12.5 days versus 14.9 days for levofloxacin and 14.2 days for moxifloxacin). Therefore, our data help explain the greater fluorquinolone resistance in ESBL-producing strains and confirm the need to administer the correct doses of fluoroquinolones, especially in the case of ciprofloxacin, in order to prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. This is particularly important if the strain is an ESBL-producer. PMID:18792819

  2. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: surgical, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes upon extended follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ilter; Ozveri, Hakan; Akin, Yigit; Ipekci, Tumay; Alican, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the long-term surgical, functional, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed recorded data on patients who underwent HoLEP between June 2002 and February 2005. Ninety-six patients were enrolled. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were recorded. On follow-up, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSSs), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, QoL scores, peak uroflowmetric data (Qmax values), and post-voiding residual urine volumes (PVR volumes), were recorded. Complications were scored using the Clavien system. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean follow-up time was 41.8±34.6 months and the mean patient age 73.2±8.7 years. The mean prostate volume was 74.6±34.3mL. Significant improvements in Qmax values, QoL, and IPSSs and decreases in PSA levels and PVR volumes were noted during follow-up (all p values=0.001). The most common complication was a requirement for re-catheterisation because of urinary retention. Two patients had concomitant bladder tumours that did not invade the muscles. Eight patients (8.3%) required re-operations; three had residual adenoma, three urethral strictures, and two residual prostate tissue in the bladder. Stress incontinence occurred in one patient (1%). All complications were of Clavien Grade 3a. We noted no Clavien 3b, 4, or 5 complications during follow-up. Conclusions: HoLEP improved IPSSs, Qmax values, PVR volumes, and QoL and was associated with a low complication rate, during extended follow-up. Thus, HoLEP can be a viable option to transurethral resection of the prostate.

  3. QUANTUM CHEMICAL MODELING OF SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AND ELECTRON TRANSFER IN EXTENDED SYSTEMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záliš, Stanislav; Kvapilová, Hana; Kratochvílová, Irena; Šebera, Jakub; Vlček Jr., Antonín; Winter, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1 (2011), P1299. ISSN 1708-5284 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702; GA MŠk LD11086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantum chemical modeling * electron transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Chemical and Physical Approaches to Extend the Replicative and Differentiation Potential of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Seong; Ok, Jeong Soo; Song, SeonBeom

    2016-06-01

    Cell therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are increasing in regenerative medicine, with applications to a growing number of aging-associated dysfunctions and degenerations. For successful therapies, a certain mass of cells is needed, requiring extensive ex vivo expansion of the cells. However, the proliferation of both MSCs and EPCs is limited as a result of telomere shortening-induced senescence. As cells approach senescence, their proliferation slows down and differentiation potential decreases. Therefore, ways to delay senescence and extend the replicative lifespan these cells are needed. Certain proteins and pathways play key roles in determining the replicative lifespan by regulating ROS generation, damage accumulation, or telomere shortening. And, their agonists and gene activators exert positive effects on lifespan. In many of the treatments, importantly, the lifespan is extended with the retention of differentiation potential. Furthermore, certain culture conditions, including the use of specific atmospheric conditions and culture substrates, exert positive effects on not only the proliferation rate, but also the extent of proliferation and differentiation potential as well as lineage determination. These strategies and known underlying mechanisms are introduced in this review, with an evaluation of their pros and cons in order to facilitate safe and effective MSC expansion ex vivo. PMID:27085715

  5. Low rate of lymphedema after extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by pelvic irradiation of node-positive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of lower limb lymphedema after pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy to the pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer. Twenty-six patients underwent combined treatment for high-risk node-positive prostate cancer at Skåne University Hospital between April 2008 and March 2011. The treatment consisted of extended pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by androgen deprivation therapy and radiotherapy. The pelvic lymphnodes, prostate and seminal vesicles were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to an absorbed dose of 50 Gy followed by a brachytherapy (BT) boost of 2x10 Gy to the prostate only. Twenty-two patients accepted an invitation to a clinical examination with focus on lower limb swelling. The median time between the end of radiotherapy and examination was 2.2 years (range 1.2–4.1). Six patients (27%) experienced grade 1 lymphedema and two patients (9%) grade 2 while none had grade 3 or 4 according to the CTC Common Toxicity Criteria scale 4.0. Three patients required treatment with compression stockings. Brachytherapy and pelvic EBRT have a low incidence of lymphedema (at median 2.2 y after treatment) in patients with high-risk node-positive prostate cancer that have undergone pelvic lymph node dissection

  6. Long-term effects of intermittent IL-2 in HIV infection: extended follow-up of the INSIGHT STALWART Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Markowitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Study of Aldesleukin with and without Antiretroviral Therapy (STALWART was designed to evaluate whether intermittent IL-2 alone or with peri-cycle ART increased CD4+ cell counts (and so delayed initiation of ART in HIV infected individuals having ≥ 300 CD4+ cells/mm(3 compared to untreated controls. When the results of two large clinical trials, ESPRIT and SILCAAT, showed no clinical benefit from IL-2 therapy, IL-2 administration was halted in STALWART. Because IL-2 recipients in STALWART experienced a greater number of opportunistic disease (OD or death and adverse events (AEs, participants were asked to consent to an extended follow-up phase in order to assess persistence of IL-2 effects. METHODOLOGY: Participants in this study were followed for clinical events and AEs every 4 months for 24 months. Unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to summarize death, death or first OD event, and first grade 3 or 4 AE. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 267 persons were enrolled in STALWART (176 randomized to the IL-2 arms and 91 to the no therapy arm; 142 individuals in the IL-2 group and 80 controls agreed to enter the extended follow-up study. Initiation of continuous ART was delayed in the IL-2 groups, but once started, resulted in similar CD4+ cell and viral load responses compared to controls. The hazard ratios (95% CI for IL-2 versus control during the extension phase for death or OD, grade 3 or 4 AE, and grade 4 AE were 1.45 (0.38, 5.45, 0.43 (0.24, 1.63 and 0.20 (0.04, 1.03, respectively. The hazard ratios for the AE outcomes were significantly lower during the extension than during the main study. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events associated with IL-2 cycling did not persist upon discontinuation of IL-2. The use of IL-2 did not impact the subsequent response to initiation of cART.

  7. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H2 on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C2H2 on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems

  8. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf, E-mail: tonner@chemie.uni-marburg.de [Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H{sub 2} on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  9. Improving intermolecular interactions in DFTB3 using extended polarization from chemical-potential equalization

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Anders S; Cui, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods traditionally expand the electron density in a minimal, valence-only electron basis set. The minimal-basis approximation causes molecular polarization to be underestimated, and hence intermolecular interaction energies are also underestimated, especially for intermolecular interactions involving charged species. In this work, the third-order self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding method (DFTB3) is augmented with an auxiliary response density using the chemical-potential equalization (CPE) method and an empirical dispersion correction (D3). The parameters in the CPE and D3 models are fitted to high-level CCSD(T) reference interaction energies for a broad range of chemical species, as well as dipole moments calculated at the DFT level; the impact of including polarizabilities of molecules in the parameterization is also considered. Parameters for the elements H, C, N, O and S are presented. The RMSD interaction energy is improved from 6.07 kcal/mol to 1...

  10. Improving intermolecular interactions in DFTB3 using extended polarization from chemical-potential equalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anders S., E-mail: andersx@chem.wisc.edu, E-mail: cui@chem.wisc.edu; Cui, Qiang, E-mail: andersx@chem.wisc.edu, E-mail: cui@chem.wisc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Elstner, Marcus [Theoretische Chemische Biologie, Universität Karlsruhe, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-08-28

    Semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods traditionally expand the electron density in a minimal, valence-only electron basis set. The minimal-basis approximation causes molecular polarization to be underestimated, and hence intermolecular interaction energies are also underestimated, especially for intermolecular interactions involving charged species. In this work, the third-order self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding method (DFTB3) is augmented with an auxiliary response density using the chemical-potential equalization (CPE) method and an empirical dispersion correction (D3). The parameters in the CPE and D3 models are fitted to high-level CCSD(T) reference interaction energies for a broad range of chemical species, as well as dipole moments calculated at the DFT level; the impact of including polarizabilities of molecules in the parameterization is also considered. Parameters for the elements H, C, N, O, and S are presented. The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) interaction energy is improved from 6.07 kcal/mol to 1.49 kcal/mol for interactions with one charged species, whereas the RMSD is improved from 5.60 kcal/mol to 1.73 for a set of 9 salt bridges, compared to uncorrected DFTB3. For large water clusters and complexes that are dominated by dispersion interactions, the already satisfactory performance of the DFTB3-D3 model is retained; polarizabilities of neutral molecules are also notably improved. Overall, the CPE extension of DFTB3-D3 provides a more balanced description of different types of non-covalent interactions than Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap type of semi-empirical methods (e.g., PM6-D3H4) and PBE-D3 with modest basis sets.

  11. Improving intermolecular interactions in DFTB3 using extended polarization from chemical-potential equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods traditionally expand the electron density in a minimal, valence-only electron basis set. The minimal-basis approximation causes molecular polarization to be underestimated, and hence intermolecular interaction energies are also underestimated, especially for intermolecular interactions involving charged species. In this work, the third-order self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding method (DFTB3) is augmented with an auxiliary response density using the chemical-potential equalization (CPE) method and an empirical dispersion correction (D3). The parameters in the CPE and D3 models are fitted to high-level CCSD(T) reference interaction energies for a broad range of chemical species, as well as dipole moments calculated at the DFT level; the impact of including polarizabilities of molecules in the parameterization is also considered. Parameters for the elements H, C, N, O, and S are presented. The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) interaction energy is improved from 6.07 kcal/mol to 1.49 kcal/mol for interactions with one charged species, whereas the RMSD is improved from 5.60 kcal/mol to 1.73 for a set of 9 salt bridges, compared to uncorrected DFTB3. For large water clusters and complexes that are dominated by dispersion interactions, the already satisfactory performance of the DFTB3-D3 model is retained; polarizabilities of neutral molecules are also notably improved. Overall, the CPE extension of DFTB3-D3 provides a more balanced description of different types of non-covalent interactions than Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap type of semi-empirical methods (e.g., PM6-D3H4) and PBE-D3 with modest basis sets

  12. Physical and chemical events that follow the passage of a charged particle in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological effects of radiation are the result of a complicated sequence of events that begins with initial physical interactions that are complete by approx. 10-15 s, followed by chemical interactions that begin at approx. 10-11 s and are complete by approx. 10-6 s, and followed by later biochemical and biological events, some of which may not occur for years. A central problem in radiation physics and radiation chemistry is to understand the details of the physical and chemical events that occur during that first microsecond following the passage of a charged particle. Significant progress has been made recently at linking early physical events with later chemical events. We have developed a Monte Carlo computer code to calculate the position and identity of each physical event that a charged particle (electron, proton, alpha) and all of its secondaries undergoes in traversing liquid water. The code then calculates the position and identity of each reactive chemical species (ion or radical) that is produced from these physical events and is present at 10-11 s, and then follows each reactant through the diffusion and chemical reaction stage of track development. This work will be discussed and examples of ''pictures'' of charged-particle tracks at various times will be shown. 11 refs., 9 figs

  13. Extended rigidity percolation and chemical thresholds in Ge Te Pb glasses as revealed by MDSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheerudeen Saheb, P.; Sharmila, B. H.; Asokan, S.; Appaji Gowda, K.

    2004-03-01

    Thermal analysis of Ge 20Te 80- xPb x (2≤ x≤8) glasses has been undertaken using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The compositional dependence of thermal parameters is investigated. The crystallization temperatures ( Tc) estimated from the total heat flow show detectable changes at compositions x=4, 6.5 and 7.5. Further, the heat capacity change at the glass transition temperature, measured from the reversible heat flow curve (Δ CpR), is found to exhibit a maximum and an inflexion at compositions x=4 and 6.5 and minimum at x=7.5, respectively. Also, the relaxation enthalpy, estimated from the area under the non-reversing heat flow curve (Δ HNR), exhibits similar features at the said compositions. From the observed MDSC results, it has been proposed that the compositions x=4 and x=6.5 denote to the onset and completion of rigidity percolation and x=7.5 corresponds to the chemical threshold of the system.

  14. Abundance analysis of an extended sample of open clusters: A search for chemical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L.

    We have initiated a program to explore the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in the Galactic disk using the open clusters as ideal probes. We have analyzed high-dispersion echelle spectra (R ≥ 55,000) of red giant members for eleven open clusters to derive abundances for many elements. The membership to the cluster has been confirmed through their radial velocities and proper motions. The spread in temperatures and gravities being very small among the red giants, nearly the same stellar lines were employed thereby reducing the random errors. The errors of average abundance for the cluster were generally in 0.02 to 0.07 dex range. Our present sample covers galactocentric distances of 8.3 to 11.3 kpc and an age range of 0.2 to 4.3 Gyrs. Our earlier analysis of four open clusters (Reddy A.B.S. et al., 2012, MNRAS, 419,1350) indicate that abundances relative to Fe for elements from Na to Eu are equal within measurement uncertainties to published abundances for thin disk giants in the field. This supports the view that field stars come from disrupted open clusters. In the enlarged sample of eleven open clusters we find cluster to cluster abundance variations for some s- and r- process elements, with certain elements such as Zr and Ba showing large variation. These differences mark the signatures that these clusters had formed under different environmental conditions (Type II SN, Type Ia SN, AGB stars or a mixture of any of these) unique to the time and site of formation. These eleven clusters support the widely held impression that there is an abundance gradient such that the metallicity [Fe/H] at the solar galactocentric distance decreases outwards at about -0.1 dex per kpc.

  15. A reassessment of the risk of multiple sclerosis developing in patients with optic neuritis after extended follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D A; Compston, D A; Batchelor, J R; McDonald, W I

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and one of 146 patients presenting with isolated idiopathic optic neuritis, previously reviewed in 1978, were reassessed clinically, and retyped for HLA antigens and Factor B alleles, after a mean follow-up of 11.6 years. Fifty eight patients (57%) had developed multiple sclerosis at the time of reassessment in the present study, of whom 51 (88%) had clinically definite disease. This compared with 40% of the original group, in 1978, of whom 62% then had clinically definite multiple sclerosis. When the life-table method of analysis was used, the probability of developing multiple sclerosis was 75%, 15 years after the initial episode of optic neuritis. The frequencies of HLA-DR2 and the recently defined D-region antigen, DQw1, were significantly increased in patients with isolated optic neuritis and those who subsequently developed multiple sclerosis compared with normal controls, but neither allele appears to influence progression from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis. Patients with optic neuritis who were HLA-DR3 positive had an increased risk for the development of multiple sclerosis (RR = 2.8) and this risk was further enhanced when DR3 occurred in combination with DR2 (RR = 6.7). The overall increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis for patients with this combination was 26 times that for the normal population. When the patients' original tissue-typing was considered BT 101 no longer influenced conversion of optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis. This may partly be explained by improved methods of tissue-typing, since not all BT 101 patients were subsequently found to be positive for HLA-DR2 or HLA-DQw1 and vice versa and by extended follow-up as multiple sclerosis conversion in HLA-DR2 negative individuals increased with time. All 101 patients were typed for Factor B alleles. No significant differences in frequencies were found between individuals with isolated optic neuritis or those who progressed to multiple sclerosis compared with the

  16. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  17. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Deborah W., E-mail: knappd@purdue.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Purdue University Center for Cancer Research and Purdue Oncological Sciences Center, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cooper, Bruce R. [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Nita W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Lawrence T. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Murphy, Angus S. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P < 0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. - Highlights: • Lawn chemicals were commonly

  18. A persuasive intervention: improving the compliance of extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis following cancer resections in a tertiary colorectal and hepatobiliary unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Yao Pey; Karangizi, Alvin; Banerjea, Ayan

    2014-01-01

    Extended venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of VTE in patients following cancer resections.[1] However, ensuring patients are discharged with the prescription remains a challenge, with junior doctors frequently rotating throughout different specialties. We conducted an audit to assess the compliance rate in the colorectal and hepatobiliary (HPB) unit at the Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham. Extended VTE prophylaxis was considered compliant to t...

  19. Nitrogen oxide formation from chemically-bound nitrogen during the combustion of fossil fuels. [Extended Zeldovich reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1976-06-01

    One of the many problems associated with the firing of fossil fuels is the impact on the ambient levels of nitrogen oxides. Since the use of coals, oils and coal-derived fuels is expected to triple by 1985, it is urgent that the formation of nitrogen oxides from molecular nitrogen and organo-nitrogen species be fully characterized so that emission abatement strategies can be formulated. The thermal fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and the free radical reactions of nitrogenous species are the sources of NO/sub x/. The fixation reactions can be described by the extended Zeldovich mechanism, and techniques such as staged combustion and flue gas recirculation have been employed to reduce combustion temperatures and, hence, thermally formed NO. These techniques have had little effect, however, on the conversion of chemically-bound nitrogen to NO/sub x/. The fate of chemically-bound nitrogen depends upon such factors as the nitrogen content of the fuel and the equivalence ratio and upon the physical processes governing combustion. Research is proposed to establish the kinetic processes involved in the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO and N/sub 2/ in environments characteristic of fossil fuel combustion and to identify those conditions which favor the reduction of NO to N/sub 2/.

  20. K-targeted metabolomic analysis extends chemical subtraction to DESIGNER extracts: selective depletion of extracts of hops (Humulus lupulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F; Friesen, J Brent; Nikolić, Dejan; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G; van Breemen, Richard; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-12-26

    This study introduces a flexible and compound targeted approach to Deplete and Enrich Select Ingredients to Generate Normalized Extract Resources, generating DESIGNER extracts, by means of chemical subtraction or augmentation of metabolites. Targeting metabolites based on their liquid-liquid partition coefficients (K values), K targeting uses countercurrent separation methodology to remove single or multiple compounds from a chemically complex mixture, according to the following equation: DESIGNER extract = total extract ± target compound(s). Expanding the scope of the recently reported depletion of extracts by immunoaffinity or solid phase liquid chromatography, the present approach allows a more flexible, single- or multi-targeted removal of constituents from complex extracts such as botanicals. Chemical subtraction enables both chemical and biological characterization, including detection of synergism/antagonism by both the subtracted targets and the remaining metabolite mixture, as well as definition of the residual complexity of all fractions. The feasibility of the DESIGNER concept is shown by K-targeted subtraction of four bioactive prenylated phenols, isoxanthohumol (1), 8-prenylnaringenin (2), 6-prenylnaringenin (3), and xanthohumol (4), from a standardized hops (Humulus lupulus L.) extract using specific solvent systems. Conversely, adding K-targeted isolates allows enrichment of the original extract and hence provides an augmented DESIGNER material. Multiple countercurrent separation steps were used to purify each of the four compounds, and four DESIGNER extracts with varying depletions were prepared. The DESIGNER approach innovates the characterization of chemically complex extracts through integration of enabling technologies such as countercurrent separation, K-by-bioactivity, the residual complexity concepts, as well as quantitative analysis by (1)H NMR, LC-MS, and HiFSA-based NMR fingerprinting. PMID:25437744

  1. Mutual Use of Trail-Following Chemical Cues by a Termite Host and Its Inquiline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cristaldo, Paulo Fellipe; DeSouza, O.; Krasulová, Jana; Jirošová, Anna; Kutalová, Kateřina; Lima, E. R.; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), e85315/1-e85315/9. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : inquilinism * trail-following behaviour * termite association * Termitidae * chemical ecology Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0085315

  2. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Background Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. Methods The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. Results The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22–3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23–1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22–1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03–2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21–1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38–3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35–1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. Conclusions The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate

  3. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir

    Full Text Available Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence intervals (CI non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30 as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06, breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80, prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77, kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05, lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97, non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15 and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94. Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal

  4. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary. PMID:26679163

  5. Effects of extended growth periods on subcellular distribution, chemical forms, and the translocation of cadmium in Impatiens walleriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Cai, Ming-Cyuan

    2016-01-01

    Impatiens walleriana plants accumulate sufficiently high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) for this species to be considered a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. Rooted cuttings were grown hydroponically for 25 and 50 days in solutions spiked with various Cd concentrations. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in different organs were analyzed, and its upward translocation was also assessed. The plants accumulated large amounts of Cd; the Cd concentration in the roots and shoots reached 120-1900 and 60-1600 mg/kg, respectively. Regardless of the growth period, the Cd accumulated in the roots was primarily compartmentalized in the soluble fraction or ethanol and deionized water extractable chemical forms with high migration abilities. Translocation to the shoots was followed by an association of Cd mainly in the cell wall or with pectate and protein. The roots' Cd showed a high migration capacity for predicting the shoots' Cd concentrations. Different exposure periods significantly affected the subcellular distribution of Cd in the stems, and thus the upward translocation. PMID:26247535

  6. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p 0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25050864

  7. A Distributed Model Predictive Control Framework for Road-Following Formation Control of Car-like Vehicles (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xiangjun; Altché, Florent; De La Fortelle, Arnaud; Moutarde, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel framework for the formation control of multiple autonomous ground vehicles in an on-road environment. Unique challenges of this problem lie in 1) the design of collision avoidance strategies with obstacles and with other vehicles in a highly structured environment, 2) dynamic reconfiguration of the formation to handle different task specifications. In this paper, we design a local MPC-based tracking controller for each individual vehicle to follow a reference trajec...

  8. Mortality over an extended follow-up period in coal workers exposed to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L.; Hutchison, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coalworkers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios, comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the pits were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease, and specifically chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis, showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. 60 refs.

  9. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Michael; Sikirica, Vanja; Hervas, Amaia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Harpin, Valerie; Robertson, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Guanfacine extended release (GXR) and atomoxetine (ATX) are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which ATX was included as a reference arm, and in the open-label phase of a randomized-withdrawal study (RWS). Participants were 6–17 years old with ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scores ≥32 and Clinical Global Impressions – Severity scores ≥4. RCT participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day), ATX (10–100 mg/day), or placebo for 10–13 weeks. RWS participants received dose-optimized GXR (1–7 mg/day) for 13 weeks. Participants’ last stimulant medication prior to enrolment, and reasons for stopping this medication, were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH); due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most frequent reasons for stopping MPH were lack of effectiveness or side effects. Placebo-adjusted ADHD-RS-IV changes from baseline were significant in participants receiving GXR (prior MPH, −9.8, P0.05, ES 0.15) participants. More participants met responder criteria with GXR versus placebo, regardless of prior treatment. GXR response was unaffected by prior stimulant treatment; ATX produced improvement only in stimulant-naïve participants relative to placebo. These findings may be relevant to clinical decision-making regarding sequencing of ADHD treatments. PMID:27226715

  10. Guanfacine extended release for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: efficacy following prior methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Michael; Sikirica, Vanja; Hervas, Amaia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Harpin, Valerie; Robertson, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Guanfacine extended release (GXR) and atomoxetine (ATX) are nonstimulant treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As nonstimulant treatments are often used after stimulants in ADHD, GXR was assessed relative to prior stimulant treatment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which ATX was included as a reference arm, and in the open-label phase of a randomized-withdrawal study (RWS). Participants were 6-17 years old with ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scores ≥32 and Clinical Global Impressions - Severity scores ≥4. RCT participants received dose-optimized GXR (1-7 mg/day), ATX (10-100 mg/day), or placebo for 10-13 weeks. RWS participants received dose-optimized GXR (1-7 mg/day) for 13 weeks. Participants' last stimulant medication prior to enrolment, and reasons for stopping this medication, were collected at baseline. Change from baseline ADHD-RS-IV score and the proportion of responders were assessed by prior stimulant exposure. Of 163 RCT and 296 RWS participants who had previously received stimulant treatment, 142 and 224, respectively, had received methylphenidate (MPH); due to the low number of participants and the heterogeneity of non-MPH treatments, we only report data for prior MPH treatment. The most frequent reasons for stopping MPH were lack of effectiveness or side effects. Placebo-adjusted ADHD-RS-IV changes from baseline were significant in participants receiving GXR (prior MPH, -9.8, P0.05, ES 0.15) participants. More participants met responder criteria with GXR versus placebo, regardless of prior treatment. GXR response was unaffected by prior stimulant treatment; ATX produced improvement only in stimulant-naïve participants relative to placebo. These findings may be relevant to clinical decision-making regarding sequencing of ADHD treatments. PMID:27226715

  11. Rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand (cod) using microwave digestion followed by titrimetery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important parameter in water-pollution control analysis. It is closely related to the organic contamination level of wastewater. The open-reflux Cr-COD titration method has long been the International standard method for COD determination /sup(1)/ however, it still requires a long time (2h) for the digestion step to be completed in this procedure. The objective of this research was to investigate the availability of a rapid procedure to determine the COD in wastewater by digesting samples in a microwave system followed by ferrous ammonium sulphate titration. The results obtained using this microwave aided digestion system were also compared with those obtained by conventional open reflux method. (author)

  12. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Fish Assemblages Following an Artificially Extended Floodplain Inundation Event, Northern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Wilson, G. Glenn

    2010-04-01

    Water extraction from dryland rivers is often associated with declines in the health of river and floodplain ecosystems due to reduced flooding frequency and extent of floodplain inundation. Following moderate flooding in early 2008 in the Narran River, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, 10,423 ML of water was purchased from agricultural water users and delivered to the river to prolong inundation of its terminal lake system to improve the recruitment success of colonial waterbirds that had started breeding in response to the initial flooding. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in river and floodplain habitats over eight months following flooding to assess the possible ecological benefits of flood extension. Although the abundances of most fish species were greater in river channel habitats, the fish assemblage used floodplain habitats when inundated. Young-of-the-year (4-12 months age) golden perch ( Macquaria ambigua) and bony bream ( Nematalosa erebi) were consistently sampled in floodplain sites when inundated, suggesting that the floodplain provides rearing habitat for these species. Significant differences in the abundances of fish populations between reaches upstream and downstream of a weir in the main river channel indicates that the effectiveness of the environmental water release was limited by restricted connectivity within the broader catchment. Although the seasonal timing of flood extension may have coincided with sub-optimal primary production, the use of the environmental water purchase is likely to have promoted recruitment of fish populations by providing greater access to floodplain nursery habitats, thereby improving the ability to persist during years of little or no flow.

  13. Properties of a Chemically Enriched Lya Absorption System at z=0.167 and Implications for the Total Baryons in Extended Gaseous Envelopes Around Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Prochaska, Jason X.; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances, ionization state, and origin of a partial Lyman limit system (N(HI) ~ 10^{16} cm^{-2}) at low redshift (z=0.167 towards PKS0405-1219). We also present the first estimate of the total baryons in extended gaseous envelopes around galaxies based on a simple photoionization model for the Lya absorbers. We find that extended gaseous envelopes can explain between 5--20% of the total baryons predicted by the big bang nucleosynthesis model.

  14. Imaging and serum biomarkers reflecting the functional efficacy of extended erythropoietin treatment in rats following infantile traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shenandoah; Winer, Jesse L; Berkner, Justin; Chan, Lindsay A S; Denson, Jesse L; Maxwell, Jessie R; Yang, Yirong; Sillerud, Laurel O; Tasker, Robert C; Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Jantzie, Lauren L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity for otherwise healthy full-term infants around the world. Currently, the primary treatment for infant TBI is supportive, as no targeted therapies exist to actively promote recovery. The developing infant brain, in particular, has a unique response to injury and the potential for repair, both of which vary with maturation. Targeted interventions and objective measures of therapeutic efficacy are needed in this special population. The authors hypothesized that MRI and serum biomarkers can be used to quantify outcomes following infantile TBI in a preclinical rat model and that the potential efficacy of the neuro-reparative agent erythropoietin (EPO) in promoting recovery can be tested using these biomarkers as surrogates for functional outcomes. METHODS With institutional approval, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) was delivered to postnatal Day (P)12 rats of both sexes (76 rats). On postinjury Day (PID)1, the 49 CCI rats designated for chronic studies were randomized to EPO (3000 U/kg/dose, CCI-EPO, 24 rats) or vehicle (CCI-veh, 25 rats) administered intraperitoneally on PID1-4, 6, and 8. Acute injury (PID3) was evaluated with an immunoassay of injured cortex and serum, and chronic injury (PID13-28) was evaluated with digitized gait analyses, MRI, and serum immunoassay. The CCI-veh and CCI-EPO rats were compared with shams (49 rats) primarily using 2-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc correction. RESULTS Following CCI, there was 4.8% mortality and 55% of injured rats exhibited convulsions. Of the injured rats designated for chronic analyses, 8.1% developed leptomeningeal cyst-like lesions verified with MRI and were excluded from further study. On PID3, Western blot showed that EPO receptor expression was increased in the injured cortex (p = 0.008). These Western blots also showed elevated ipsilateral cortex calpain degradation products for αII-spectrin (αII-SDPs; p < 0

  15. Quantifying Uncertainty in Daily Temporal Variations of Atmospheric NH3 Emissions Following Application of Chemical Fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Improving modeling predictions of atmospheric particulate matter and deposition of reactive nitrogen requires representative emission inventories of precursor species, such as ammonia (NH3). Anthropogenic NH3 is primarily emitted to the atmosphere from agricultural sources (80-90%) with dominant contributions (56%) from chemical fertilizer usage (CFU) in regions like Midwest USA. Local crop management practices vary spatially and temporally, which influence regional air quality. To model the impact of CFU, NH3 emission inputs to chemical transport models are obtained from the National Emission Inventory (NEI). NH3 emissions from CFU are typically estimated by combining annual fertilizer sales data with emission factors. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model is used to disaggregate annual emissions to hourly scale using temporal factors. These factors are estimated by apportioning emissions within each crop season in proportion to the nitrogen applied and time-averaged to the hourly scale. Such approach does not reflect influence of CFU for different crops and local weather and soil conditions. This study provides an alternate approach for estimating temporal factors for NH3 emissions. The DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to estimate daily variations in NH3 emissions from CFU at 14 Central Illinois locations for 2002-2011. Weather, crop and soil data were provided as inputs. A method was developed to estimate site level CFU by combining planting and harvesting dates, nitrogen management and fertilizer sales data. DNDC results indicated that annual NH3 emissions were within ±15% of SMOKE estimates. Daily modeled emissions across 10 years followed similar distributions but varied in magnitudes within ±20%. Individual emission peaks on days after CFU were 2.5-8 times greater as compared to existing estimates from SMOKE. By identifying the episodic nature of NH3 emissions from CFU, this study is expected to provide improvements

  16. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  17. K-Targeted Metabolomic Analysis Extends Chemical Subtraction to DESIGNER Extracts: Selective Depletion of Extracts of Hops (Humulus lupulus)⊥

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Alvarenga, René F.; Friesen, J. Brent; Nikolić, Dejan; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; van Breemen, Richard; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a flexible and compound targeted approach to Deplete and Enrich Select Ingredients to Generate Normalized Extract Resources, generating DESIGNER extracts, by means of chemical subtraction or augmentation of metabolites. Targeting metabolites based on their liquid–liquid partition coefficients (K values), K targeting uses countercurrent separation methodology to remove single or multiple compounds from a chemically complex mixture, according to the following equation: DES...

  18. A chemical sensor and biosensor based totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight: Step 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    The result of a literature search to consider what technologies should be represented in a totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight is presented. It is the result of the first summer in a three year JOVE project. The next step will be to build a test platform at the Authors' school, St. John Fisher College. This will involve undergraduates in NASA related research. The test flow injection analysis system will be used to test the detection limit of sensors and the performance of sensors in groups. Sensor companies and research groups will be encouraged to produce sensors which are not currently available and are needed for this project.

  19. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard 90Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life 90Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without an increase

  20. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  1. A citation-based assessment of the performance of U.S. boiling water reactors following extended power up-rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Brenden J.

    Nuclear power plants produce 20 percent of the electricity generated in the U.S. Nuclear generated electricity is increasingly valuable to a utility because it can be produced at a low marginal cost and it does not release any carbon dioxide. It can also be a hedge against uncertain fossil fuel prices. The construction of new nuclear power plants in the U.S. is cautiously moving forward, restrained by high capital costs. Since 1998, nuclear utilities have been increasing the power output of their reactors by implementing extended power up-rates. Power increases of up to 20 percent are allowed under this process. The equivalent of nine large power plants has been added via extended power up-rates. These up-rates require the replacement of large capital equipment and are often performed in concert with other plant life extension activities such as license renewals. This dissertation examines the effect of these extended power up-rates on the safety performance of U.S. boiling water reactors. Licensing event reports are submitted by the utilities to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the federal nuclear regulator, for a wide range of abnormal events. Two methods are used to examine the effect of extended power up-rates on the frequency of abnormal events at the reactors. The Crow/AMSAA model, a univariate technique is used to determine if the implementation of an extended power up-rate affects the rate of abnormal events. The method has a long history in the aerospace industry and in the military. At a 95-percent confidence level, the rate of events requiring the submission of a licensing event report decreases following the implementation of an extended power up-rate. It is hypothesized that the improvement in performance is tied to the equipment replacement and refurbishment that is performed as part of the up-rate process. The reactor performance is also analyzed using the proportional hazards model. This technique allows for the estimation of the effects of

  2. Erectile dysfunction in 1050 men following extended (18 cores) vs saturation (28 cores) vs saturation plus MRI-targeted prostate biopsy (32 cores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, P; Pennisi, M

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) following transperineal prostate biopsy (TPB) was prospectively evaluated. From January 2011 to January 2014, 1050 patients were submitted to TPB: 18 core (extended TPB) in 610 cases, 28 core (saturation TPB) in 360 cases and 32 core (saturation plus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) targeted TPB) in 210 cases. The indications for biopsy were increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or PSA>10 ng ml(-1). All patients were prospectively evaluated with the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) at time zero and at 1, 3 and 6 months from TPB. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 385/1050 (36.6%) patients; 560 men (350 vs 110 vs 100) having benign histology and normal sexual activity also completed the study. Overall, IEEF-5 score at time zero and at 1, 3 and 6 months did not significantly worsen (P>0.05); in detail, at 1 month from biopsy 15 extended TPB (4.2%) vs 7 saturation TPB (6.4%) vs 7 saturation plus MRI targeted TPB (7%) men referred mild ED that disappeared after 3 months. Irrespective of method (18 vs 28 vs 32 core) TPB did not significantly worsen erectile function at 3-6 months from the procedure. PMID:26289906

  3. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  4. Observations of ionospheric disturbances following a 5-kt chemical explosion. I - Persistent oscillation in the lower thermosphere after shock passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Abram R.; Carlos, Robert C.; Blanc, Elizabeth

    1988-10-01

    A 6-min-period oscillation persisting for an hour has been observed in the ionospheric E region following a 5-kt chemical explosion on the ground 250 km south of the measurement site. The oscillations' phase velocity in the upper atmosphere is 0.15 km/s at an azimuth 60 W.

  5. Chemical and Photometric Evolution of Extended Ultraviolet Disks: Optical Spectroscopy of M83 (NGC5236) and NGC4625

    CERN Document Server

    De Paz, A G; Boissier, S; Thilker, D; Bianchi, L; Contreras, C S; Barlow, T A; Conrow, T; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Martin, D C; Morrissey, P; Neff, S G; Rich, R M; Schiminovich, D; Seibert, M; Small, T; Donas, J; Heckman, T M; Lee, Y W; Milliard, B; Szalay, A S; Wyder, T K; Yi, S

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from the analysis of optical spectra of 31 Halpha-selected regions in the extended UV (XUV) disks of M83 (NGC5236) and NGC4625 recently discovered by GALEX. The spectra were obtained using IMACS at Las Campanas Observatory 6.5m Magellan I telescope and COSMIC at the Palomar 200-inch telescope, respectively for M83 and NGC4625. The line ratios measured indicate nebular oxygen abundances (derived from the R23 parameter) of the order of Zsun/5-Zsun/10. For most emission-line regions analyzed the line fluxes and ratios measured are best reproduced by models of photoionization by single stars with masses in the range 20-40 Msun and oxygen abundances comparable to those derived from the R23 parameter. We find indications for a relatively high N/O abundance ratio in the XUV disk of M83. Although the metallicities derived imply that these are not the first stars formed in the XUV disks, such a level of enrichment could be reached in young spiral disks only 1 Gyr after these first stars would ha...

  6. A periodic Energy Decomposition Analysis (pEDA) method for the Investigation of Chemical Bonding in Extended Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Raupach, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the binding energy between two fragments (e.g. the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic and dispersion interaction, Pauli repulsion and orbital relaxation energies. The pEDA presented here for an AO-based implementation can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight th...

  7. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  8. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter B. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults soil common to the USA Appalachian Plateau region. Three poultry litter components (broiler cake, total cleanout, and bedding material from a broiler house were evaluated and compared to a soil control. Chemical amendments lime (CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4, aluminum sulfate (AlSO4, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 were added to the poultry litter components to determine their impact on C and N mineralization. Litter component additions increased soil C mineralization in the order of broiler cake > total cleanout > bedding > soil control. Although a greater concentration of organic C was observed in the bedding, broiler cake mineralized the most C, which can be attributed to differences in the C : N ratio between treatments. Chemical amendment in addition to the manured soil also impacted C mineralization, with AlSO4 generally decreasing mineralization. Nitrogen mineralization was also significantly affected by poultry litter component applications. Broiler cake addition increased N availability followed by total cleanout compared to soil control, while the bedding resulted in net N immobilization. Chemical amendments impacted N mineralization primarily in the broiler cake amended soil where all chemical amendments decreased mineralization compared to the no chemical amendment treatment. This short-term study (35-day incubation indicates that N availability to crops may be different depending on the poultry litter component used for fertilization and chemical amendment use which could

  9. Influence of Chemical Kinetics on Postcolumn Reaction in a Capillary Taylor Reactor with Catechol Analytes and Photoluminescence Following Electron Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Moon Chul; Weber, Stephen G.

    2005-01-01

    Postcolumn derivatization reactions can enhance detector sensitivity and selectivity, but their successful combination with capillary liquid chromatography has been limited because of the small peak volumes in capillary chromatography. A capillary Taylor reactor (CTR), developed in our laboratory, provides simple and effective mixing and reaction in a 25-μm-radius postcolumn capillary. Homogenization of reactant streams occurs by radial diffusion, and a chemical reaction follows. Three charac...

  10. Chemical and microstructural transformations in lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes following pulsed laser exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes are exposed to pulsed laser radiation. • Raman spectroscopy is performed on regions approaching the incisions and cuts. • Chemical and microstructural changes in the active electrode layers are limited to the visible HAZ. • Some oxidation and degradation of the olive LiFePO4 cathode active material takes place in the HAZ. • The anode polycrystalline graphite structure becomes less ordered (higher D/G ratio) in the HAZ. - Abstract: Multi-layer lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery electrodes are exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser radiation of wavelength 1064 nm. Test parameters are chosen to achieve characteristic interaction types ranging from partial incision of the active coating layers only to complete penetration of the electrodes with high visual cut quality. Raman spectroscopy is performed on unexposed regions and at points approaching each incision, highlighting changes in chemical composition and microstructure in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Thermogravimetric analysis is performed on the unexposed electrode active materials to distinguish the development of compositional changes under conditions of slow heating below the melting and sublimation temperatures. A brief theoretical description of the physical phenomena taking place during laser exposure is provided in terms of direct ablation during each laser pulse and vaporization or thermal degradation due to conductive heat transfer on a much longer time-scale, with characteristics of the HAZ reported in terms of these changes. For all laser exposures carried out in the study, chemical and microstructural changes are limited to the visible HAZ. Some degree of oxidation and LFP olivine phase degradation is observed in the cathode, while the polycrystalline graphite structure becomes less ordered in the anode. Where complete penetration is achieved, melting of the cathode active layer and combustion of the anode active layer take place near

  11. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  12. Gas Metallicities in the Extended Disks of NGC 1512 and NGC 3621. Chemical Signatures of Metal Mixing or Enriched Gas Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Ryan-Weber, Emma

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We have obtained spectra of 135 HII regions located in the inner and extended disks of the spiral galaxies NGC 1512 and NGC 3621, spanning the range of galactocentric distances 0.2-2 x R25 (from 2-3 kpc to 18-25 kpc). We find that the excitation properties of nebulae in the outer (R>R25) disks are similar to those of the inner disks, but on average younger HII regions tend to be selected in the bright inner disks. Reddening by dust is not negligible in the outer disks, and subject to significant large-scale spatial variations. For both galaxies the radial abundance gradient flattens to a constant value outside of the isophotal radius. The outer disk O/H abundance ratio is highly homogeneous, with a scatter of only ~0.06 dex. Based on the excitation and chemical (N/O ratio) analysis we find no compelling evidence for variations in the upper initial mass function of the ionizing clusters of extended disks. The O/H abundance in the outer disks of the target galaxies corresponds to 35% of the solar val...

  13. Following Ostwald ripening in nanoalloys by high-resolution imaging with single-atom chemical sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown that substantial compositional changes can occur during the coarsening of bimetallic nanoparticles (CoPt, AuPd). To explain this phenomenon that could dramatically impacts all the technologically relevant properties of nanoalloys, we have exploited the sensitivity of the latest generation of electron microscope to prove that during the beam-induced coarsening of CoPt nanoparticles, the dynamic of atom exchanges between the particles is different for Co and Pt. By distinguishing the chemical nature of individual atoms of Co and Pt, while they are diffusing on a carbon film, we have clearly shown that Co atoms have a higher mobility than Pt atoms because of their higher evaporation rate from the particles. These atomic-scale observations bring the experimental evidence on the origin of the compositional changes in nanoalloys induced by Ostwald ripening mechanisms.

  14. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O2. Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  15. Altered ganglioside biosynthesis in mouse cell cultures following transformation with chemical carcinogens and x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemically and x-ray-transformed subclones of BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo cells were found to have reduced amounts of the mono- and disialogangliosides galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M1/) and N-acetylneuraminylgalactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub D1a/), and increased amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (G/sub M2/). The activity of the enzyme UDP-Gal:G/sub M2/ galactosyltransferase was reduced to between 2.7 and 14.3 percent of normal in the transformed clones. Other ganglioside glycosyltransferase activities were unaffected. This enzymatic change was consistent with the observed alteration in ganglioside pattern in the transformed cells. The residual galactosyltransferase activity in the transformed cells was kinetically similar to the normal enzyme, suggesting that transformation alters ganglioside biosynthesis by blocking enzyme synthesis at the translational or transcriptional levels

  16. Following Ostwald ripening in nanoalloys by high-resolution imaging with single-atom chemical sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloyeau, D.; Nelayah, J.; Wang, G.; Ricolleau, C. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Paris Diderot/CNRS, UMR 7162, Batiment Condorcet, 4 rue Elsa Morante, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Oikawa, T. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Paris Diderot/CNRS, UMR 7162, Batiment Condorcet, 4 rue Elsa Morante, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); JEOL Ltd, 1-2 Musashino 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan)

    2012-09-17

    Several studies have shown that substantial compositional changes can occur during the coarsening of bimetallic nanoparticles (CoPt, AuPd). To explain this phenomenon that could dramatically impacts all the technologically relevant properties of nanoalloys, we have exploited the sensitivity of the latest generation of electron microscope to prove that during the beam-induced coarsening of CoPt nanoparticles, the dynamic of atom exchanges between the particles is different for Co and Pt. By distinguishing the chemical nature of individual atoms of Co and Pt, while they are diffusing on a carbon film, we have clearly shown that Co atoms have a higher mobility than Pt atoms because of their higher evaporation rate from the particles. These atomic-scale observations bring the experimental evidence on the origin of the compositional changes in nanoalloys induced by Ostwald ripening mechanisms.

  17. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Luning; Sulkes, Mark, E-mail: cm06acf@tulane.edu [Chemistry Department, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O{sub 2}. Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  18. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either Cy A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy

  19. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, J.L. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA); Reitz, B.A.; Beiber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-12-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either Cy A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy.

  20. Survival of primates following orthotopic cardiac transplantation treated with total lymphoid irradiation and chemical immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, J.L.; Reitz, B.A.; Bieber, C.P.; Aziz, S.; Oyer, P.E.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Stinson, E.B.; Shumway, N.E.

    1981-12-01

    Fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used for attempts at induction of a donor-specific tolerant-like state in allograft recipients and for immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporin A (Cy A) has been shown to suppress rejection of organ grafts in many species including man. The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of TLI in combination with either CY A or rabbit anticynomolgus thymocyte globulin (ATG) and azathioprine. Thirty-one orthotopic cardiac allografts were performed using surface cooling and total circulatory arrest in outbred cynomolgus monkeys. TLI was administered preoperatively in fractions of 100 rad until a total of 600 or 1800 rad was achieved. Cy A was administered 17 mg/kg/day. All treatment groups demonstrated extended survival. Myocardial biopsies as early as 4 weeks were consistent with mild rejection in all treatment groups. No significant synergistic effect upon survival could be demonstrated utilizing TLI plus Cy A when compared with using Cy A alone. TLI (1800 rad) plus ATG and azathioprine was associated with a high incidence of early death attributable to leukopenia and infection. Cy A alone or in combination with TLI was associated with the development of lymphoid malignancy.

  1. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt (Sorensen), B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  2. Filamentary structure in chemical tracer distributions near the subtropical jet following a wave breaking event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of observations and analyses of trace gas cross-sections in the extratropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. The spatially highly-resolved (≈0.5 km vertically and 12.5 km horizontally cross-sections of ozone (O3, nitric acid (HNO3, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, retrieved from the measurements of the CRISTA-NF infrared limb sounder flown on the Russian M55-Geophysica, revealed intricate layer structures in the region of the subtropical tropopause break. The chemical structure in this region shows an intertwined stratosphere and troposphere. The observed filaments in all discussed trace gases are of a spatial scale of less than 0.8 km vertically and about 200 km horizontally across the jet-stream. Backward trajectory calculations confirm that the observed filaments are the result of a breaking Rossby wave in the preceding days. An analysis of the trace gas relationships between PAN and O3 identifies four distinct groups of air mass: polluted subtropical tropospheric air, clean tropical upper-tropospheric air, the lowermost stratospheric air, and air from the deep stratosphere. The tracer relationships further allow the identification of tropospheric, stratospheric, and the transitional air mass made of a mixture of UT and LS air. Mapping of these air mass types onto the geo-spatial location in the cross-sections reveals a highly structured extratropical transition layer (ExTL. Finally, the ratio between the measured reactive nitrogen species (HNO3 + PAN + ClONO2 and O3 is analysed to estimate the influence of tropospheric pollution on the extratropical UTLS.

    In combination, these diagnostics provide the first example of a multi-species two-dimensional picture of a chemically inhomogeneous UTLS region. Since Rossby wave breaking occurs frequently in the region of the tropopause break, these observed fine scale filaments are

  3. Filamentary structure in chemical tracer distributions near the subtropical jet following a wave breaking event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of observations and analyses of trace gas cross sections in the extratropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. The spatially highly resolved (≈0.5 km vertically and 12.5 km horizontally cross sections of ozone (O3, nitric acid (HNO3, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, retrieved from the measurements of the CRISTA-NF infrared limb sounder flown on the Russian M55-Geophysica, revealed intricate layer structures in the region of the subtropical tropopause break. The chemical structure in this region shows an intertwined stratosphere and troposphere. The observed filaments in all discussed trace gases are of a spatial scale of less than 0.8 km vertically and about 200 km horizontally across the jet stream. Backward trajectory calculations confirm that the observed filaments are the result of a breaking Rossby wave in the preceding days. An analysis of the trace gas relationships between PAN and O3 identifies four distinct groups of air mass: polluted subtropical tropospheric air, clean tropical upper-tropospheric air, the lowermost stratospheric air, and air from the deep stratosphere. The tracer relationships further allow the identification of tropospheric, stratospheric, and the transitional air mass made of a mixture of UT and LS air. Mapping of these air mass types onto the geo-spatial location in the cross sections reveals a highly structured extratropical transition layer (ExTL. Finally, the ratio between the measured reactive nitrogen species (HNO3 + PAN + ClONO2 and O3 is analysed to estimate the influence of tropospheric pollution on the extratropical UTLS. In combination, these diagnostics provide the first example of a multi-species two-dimensional picture of the inhomogeneous distribution of chemical species within the UTLS region. Since Rossby wave breaking occurs frequently in the region of the tropopause break, these observed fine-scale filaments are likely ubiquitous in the region. The

  4. Comparative Studies of Chemical Effects following Nuclear Reactions and Transformations on Metal Organic Phenyl Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the chemical effects created by the energetic recoil atoms of nuclear reactions in solids and liquids was made on the basis of a broad comparison of the products formed by (n, γ) and (n, 2n) processes in the metalphenyl compounds of germanium, tin, lead, arsenic and antimony. In addition, the radioactive recoil products formed after the K-capture process on Ge68 - tetraphenyl are compared with the results from the (n, γ) -process on Ga-triphenyl and the (n,p) process on Ge-tetra phenyl. Finally, the studies include the β- transition on Ge77-tetraphenyl to As77. Applying different separation methods, e.g. adsorption chromatography on alumina, ion exchange and electrophoresis, the various radioactive recoil products were separated and the individual yields determined. It was found that in nuclear reactions the compounds of the mentioned metals having identical ligands formed practically the same classes of recoil products. The yield distribution however reveals characteristic alterations between the (n, γ) and (n, 2n) reaction. Only a small influence on the yields is perceptible when irradiations are performed in liquids and solutions. The large differences found for the new compounds formed by nuclear transformations are striking, not only in the kind of typical products but also in their percentage yields. Thus, several recoil products of Ge and Ga with metalorganic character were found by nuclear reactions on Ge-tetraphenyl that could not be detected at all by the K-capture process on Ge68-tetraphenyl. The β- decay on Ge77-tetraphenyl produces practically the same chemical compounds as were observed by nuclear reactions. However, a remarkable increase in the portion of the labelled parent molecules (retention) is typical for the β- transition. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical considerations of the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the reacting molecule by the nuclear recoil and the resulting excitation. The hypothesis is

  5. Quantification of surface defects on chemically protective gloves following their use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, K M; Jablonski, W; McQuillan, P B

    1998-01-01

    Chemically protective gloves are one of the most widely used barriers against hand exposure to pesticide contamination available to workers in primary industry. Polyvinyl chloride and nitrile butadiene rubber gloves were collected from four typical agricultural enterprises in Tasmania. Surface images of new and used gloves, up to 1000 x magnification, were obtained from an environmental scanning electron microscope and were used to classify defects, such as cracks, crazes, cavities, convexities, smooth areas and slumps. Some defects, e.g. cracks, were related to the working life of the gloves, whereas others, e.g. slumps, were associated with the manufacturing process. After viewing, the gloves were analysed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Phosphorus and sulfur peaks were indicative of pesticide retention. Rinsates from the interior of used polyvinyl chloride gloves were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Pesticide traces were found suggesting inadequate protection against dermal exposure. It is concluded that these gloves were unable to withstand the rigours of agricultural work because of the nature of the surface defects and they were contaminated with pesticides, outside and inside. Thus, their management needs improvement. PMID:9852491

  6. Analysis and prognosis of radiation exposure following the accident at the Siberian chemical combine Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the work (ground investigations and gamma aerial surveys) carried out jointly by the Rosgidromet organizations and Berezovgeologiya, data on the radiation exposure in Russia were obtained shortly after the accident of April 6, 1993 already. These data were transmitted to interested institutions. The measurements performed on April 11 and 12, 1993 indicated that within the isolines of 10 μR/h a contaminated area of up to 25 km in length and up to 6 km in width extended towards the northeastern direction. Thus, the contaminated area outside of the premises of the combine covered about 100 km2. The total amount of radioactive substances in this area was 530 - 590 Ci. Isotope composition of the radioactive trace was determined by ruthenium-103 (1%), ruthenium-106 (31%), zirconium-95 (22%), niobium-95 (45%) and plutonium-239 (0.02%). Contamination heterogeneity is caused by the existence of 'hot' particles with an activity of up to 10-11 Ci/particle. In the contaminated area the gamma exposure rate varied between 14 and 42 μR/h at 1 m height, yielding the maximum external radiation dose 100 mrem/year for the population of Georgievka. The Pu-239 inhalation dose of the population of Georgievka when passing the radioactive cloud did not exceed 1.5 mrem. A prognosis was made with regard to water contamination of the rivers Samuska and Tom during the flood in spring. Furthermore, contamination of the air layer adjacent to the ground resulting from the wind transport of radionuclides in the summer months at Georgievka was predicted. The values were far below the limits fixed according to the valid radiation protection regulations. However, that radionuclide concentration of the snow water may exceed the limits specified for drinking water. According to the data measured by the meteorological stations, the radioactive products were not entrained beyond the borders of the country. Source estimation was successfully obtained using RIMPUFF, the Risoe on

  7. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  8. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  9. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of levomilnacipran following a single oral dose of levomilnacipran extended-release capsule in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laishun Chen, William M Greenberg, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Julie Wangsa, Antonia Periclou, Parviz Ghahramani Forest Research Institute, a subsidiary of Actavis Inc., Jersey City, NJ, USA Purpose: Levomilnacipran extended-release (ER is indicated for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of levomilnacipran ER in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods: A total of 32 individuals participated in four groups (eight in each group with normal, mild, moderately, or severely impaired renal function. Each participant received one dose of levomilnacipran ER 40 mg. Blood and urine were assayed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results between normal and renally impaired groups were compared using analysis of variance. Safety measures included adverse events, laboratory evaluations, vital signs, suicidality, and electrocardiograms. Results: Following administration of levomilnacipran, mean (standard deviation maximum plasma concentration in participants with normal renal function, and mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment was 83.9 (21.0, 81.8 (23.4, 98.7 (18.1, and 122.1 (35.1 (ng/mL, respectively; area under the curve from time zero to infinity was 2,101.0 (516.9, 2,587.8 (649.9, 4,016.4 (995.4, and 5,900.8 (1,799.3 (h·ng/mL, respectively; terminal elimination half-life was 13.5 (2.8, 17.3 (3.5, 19.1 (4.6, and 27.7 (7.4 (hours, respectively; and renal clearance was 175.9 mL/min, 114.7 mL/min, 69.9 mL/min, and 28.6 mL/min, respectively. Levomilnacipran ER was generally well tolerated with no safety issues of concern identified. Conclusion: Renal impairment was associated with increased plasma levels of levomilnacipran and prolonged half-life. No dose adjustment is required for individuals with mild renal impairment; the recommended maximum daily maintenance dose of levomilnacipran ER should not exceed 80 mg for individuals with moderate renal impairment

  10. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States); Stubblefield, W.A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Hardness evaluation of prosthetic silicones containing opacifiers following chemical disinfection and accelerated aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of disinfection and aging on the hardness of silicones containing opacifiers and intended for use in facial prosthetics. A total of 90 samples were produced using a cylindrical metal mold 3 mm in height and 30 mm in diameter. The samples were fabricated from Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone in three groups: GI contained no opacifier, GII contained barium sulfate (Ba, and GIII contained titanium dioxide (Ti. The samples were disinfected using effervescent tablets (Ef, neutral soap (Ns, or 4% chlorhexidine (Cl 3 times a week for 60 days. After this period the samples underwent 1,008 hours of accelerated aging. The hardness was measured using a durometer immediately following the disinfection period and after 252, 504, and 1,008 hours of aging. The data were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < .05. The GIII group exhibited the greatest variation in hardness regardless of elapsed time. All groups displayed greater hardness after 1,008 hours of accelerated aging independent of disinfectant type. All of the hardness values were within the clinically acceptable range.

  12. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Inhibitory effects of various essential oils and individual components against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae and their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ozcelik, Berrin; Kan, Yüksel; Kartal, Murat

    2011-10-01

    In the current study, in vitro inhibitory activity of several essential oils obtained from the cultivated plants, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, Satureja cuneifolia, and a number of individual essential oil components of terpene and aromatic types were screened against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme, which makes this microorganism quite resistant against the antibiotics: trimetoprime-sulfametoksazol, sulbactam-ampicilin, clavulonate-amoxicilin, ceftriaxon, cefepime, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramicine, gentamisine, ofloxacin, and ciprofloksasin. All of the essential oils and the components exerted a remarkable inhibition ranging between 32 and 64 μg/mL against all of these strains as strong as the references (ampicilin and oflaxocin) inhibiting at 32 μg/mL. Besides, chemical compositions of the essential oils were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils and the pure components widely found in essential oils screened herein have shown remarkable inhibition against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains, which leads to the suggestion that they may be used as food preservatives for this purpose. Practical Application:  The essential oils obtained from Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita and M. spicata, O.cimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. onites, O. vulgare, and Satureja cuneifolia as well as common essential oil components have shown notable inhibitory effects against 10 isolated strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzyme and they might be used as food preservative or ingredient. PMID:22417594

  14. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... reacted differently in the two processes. The chemical composition changed little following enzyme treatment. After alkaline wet oxidation, fibers enriched in cellulose were obtained. With both materials, almost all hemicellulose (80%) together with a large portion of the lignin were solubilised by...... alkaline wet oxidation, but essentially all cellulose remained in the solid fraction. Following enzyme treatment most material remained as a solid. For wheat straw, reaction with acetic anhydride indicated that both treatments resulted in more hydroxyl groups being accessible for reaction. The enzyme...

  15. Chasing charge localization and chemical reactivity following photoionization in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrafast dynamics of the cationic hole formed in bulk liquid water following ionization is investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and an experimentally accessible signature is suggested that might be tracked by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. This is one of the fastest fundamental processes occurring in radiation-induced chemistry in aqueous systems and biological tissue. However, unlike the excess electron formed in the same process, the nature and time evolution of the cationic hole has been hitherto little studied. Simulations show that an initially partially delocalized cationic hole localizes within ∼30 fs after which proton transfer to a neighboring water molecule proceeds practically immediately, leading to the formation of the OH radical and the hydronium cation in a reaction which can be formally written as H2O++ H2O → OH + H3O+. The exact amount of initial spin delocalization is, however, somewhat method dependent, being realistically described by approximate density functional theory methods corrected for the self-interaction error. Localization, and then the evolving separation of spin and charge, changes the electronic structure of the radical center. This is manifested in the spectrum of electronic excitations which is calculated for the ensemble of ab initio molecular dynamics trajectories using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) formalism applying the equation of motion coupled-clusters method to the radical core. A clear spectroscopic signature is predicted by the theoretical model: as the hole transforms into a hydroxyl radical, a transient electronic absorption in the visible shifts to the blue, growing toward the near ultraviolet. Experimental evidence for this primary radiation-induced process is sought using femtosecond photoionization of liquid water excited with two photons at 11 eV. Transient absorption measurements carried out with ∼40 fs time resolution and broadband spectral probing across

  16. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Franke RM; Morton T; Devarakonda K

    2015-01-01

    Ryan M Franke, Terri Morton, Krishna Devarakonda Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Hazelwood, MO, USA Abstract: This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crosso...

  17. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of levomilnacipran following a single oral dose of levomilnacipran extended-release capsule in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chen,Laishun; Greenberg, William; Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Wangsa, Julie; Periclou,Antonia; Ghahramani, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Laishun Chen, William M Greenberg, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Julie Wangsa, Antonia Periclou, Parviz Ghahramani Forest Research Institute, a subsidiary of Actavis Inc., Jersey City, NJ, USA Purpose: Levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) is indicated for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of levomilnacipran ER in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods: A total of 32 individuals participated in four groups (eight in eac...

  18. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of levomilnacipran following a single oral dose of levomilnacipran extended-release capsule in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chen L; Greenberg WM; Brand-Schieber E; Wangsa J; Periclou A; Ghahramani P

    2015-01-01

    Laishun Chen, William M Greenberg, Elimor Brand-Schieber, Julie Wangsa, Antonia Periclou, Parviz Ghahramani Forest Research Institute, a subsidiary of Actavis Inc., Jersey City, NJ, USA Purpose: Levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) is indicated for treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of levomilnacipran ER in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods: A total of 32 individuals participated in four groups (eight in eac...

  19. The novel use of a biodegradable stent placed by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for the treatment of a hepaticojejunostomy biliary leak following an extended left hepatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L.; Moir, J; Brown, C; Williams, R.; French, JJ

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with jaundice, and subsequently underwent an extended left hepatectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy for a cholangiocarcinoma invading the head of the pancreas. The patient developed sepsis due to a biliary leak at the hepaticojejunostomy. We describe the original use of a biodegradable stent, deployed via percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography into the Roux limb, resulting in good drainage and resolution of sepsis. The chief benefit of this procedure is the lack ...

  20. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. PMID:25995013

  3. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels. - Highlights: • Storage of papaya extended to 28 days whilst retaining commercial quality. • Additive effect of low gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min) and hot-water treatment. • Significant reduction in surface fungal lesions. • No significant impact on colour change or flesh quality during storage

  4. Single-Stage Reconstruction of Achilles Tendon and Overlying Tissue With the Extended Temporoparietal Fasciagaleal Flap-23-Year Follow-Up and the Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobke, Marek; Suliman, Ahmed; Mackert, Gina A; Herrera, Fernando A; Singer, Robert; Nelson, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of an established "gold standard" for complex Achilles tendon and regional soft tissue defect reconstruction, many techniques have been advocated. Two cases describing a novel technique of successful repair with the review of literature are presented. The underlying problem consisted of Achilles tendon necrosis with local inflammation in the first case and tendon contracture with foot malposition due to a burn injury in the other. Each patient, upon debridement, had a 6-cm Achilles tendon defect with associated overlying soft tissue deficits reconstructed with an extended temporoparietal fasciagaleal flap and a split thickness skin graft. Both cases highlight the successful functional and aesthetic quality as well as the durability of concurrent vascularized tendon and soft tissue replacement and coverage in 2 distinct clinical scenarios. PMID:27070674

  5. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke RM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryan M Franke, Terri Morton, Krishna Devarakonda Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Hazelwood, MO, USA Abstract: This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK of biphasic immediate-release (IR/extended-release (ER oxycodone (OC/acetaminophen (APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18–55 years old participants (three trials and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet, 15/650 mg (two tablets, or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. Keywords: acetaminophen, acute pain, biphasic, extended release, fixed

  6. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  7. Pooled post hoc analysis of population pharmacokinetics of oxycodone and acetaminophen following a single oral dose of biphasic immediate-release/extended-release oxycodone/acetaminophen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ryan M; Morton, Terri; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluated the single-dose population pharmacokinetics (PK) of biphasic immediate-release (IR)/extended-release (ER) oxycodone (OC)/acetaminophen (APAP) 7.5/325 mg tablets administered under fasted conditions and the effects of a meal on their single-dose population PK. Data were pooled from four randomized, single-dose crossover trials enrolling healthy adult (18-55 years old) participants (three trials) and nondependent recreational users of prescription opioids (one trial) with a body weight of ≥59 kg. Participants received IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets in single doses of 7.5/325 mg (one tablet), 15/650 mg (two tablets), or 30/1,300 mg (four tablets) under fasted or fed conditions. Six variables were examined: sex, race, age, weight, height, and body mass index. Single-dose population PK was analyzed using first-order conditional estimation methods. A total of 151 participants were included in the analysis under fasted conditions, and 31 participants were included in the fed analysis. Under fasted conditions, a 10% change in body weight was accompanied by ~7.5% change in total body clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) of OC and APAP. Black participants had 17.3% lower CL/F and a 16.9% lower V/F of OC compared with white participants. Under fed conditions, the absorption rate constant of OC and APAP decreased significantly, although there was no effect on CL/F and V/F. Considering that the recommended dose for IR/ER OC/APAP 7.5/325 mg tablets is two tablets every 12 hours, adjustments of <50% are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment may be necessary for large deviations from average body weight, but the small PK effects associated with race and consumption of a meal are not clinically relevant. PMID:26316698

  8. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  9. Influence of chemical kinetics on postcolumn reaction in a capillary Taylor reactor with catechol analytes and photoluminescence following electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moon Chul; Weber, Stephen G

    2005-02-15

    Postcolumn derivatization reactions can enhance detector sensitivity and selectivity, but their successful combination with capillary liquid chromatography has been limited because of the small peak volumes in capillary chromatography. A capillary Taylor reactor (CTR), developed in our laboratory, provides simple and effective mixing and reaction in a 25-microm-radius postcolumn capillary. Homogenization of reactant streams occurs by radial diffusion, and a chemical reaction follows. Three characteristic times for a given reaction process can be predicted using simple physical and chemical parameters. Two of these times are the homogenization time, which governs how long it takes the molecules in the analyte and reagent streams to mix, and the reaction time, which governs how long the molecules in a homogeneous solution take to react. The third characteristic time is an adjustment to the reaction time called the start time, which represents an estimate of the average time the analyte stream spends without exposure to reagent. In this study, laser-induced fluorescence monitored the extent of the postcolumn reaction (reduction of Os(bpy)3(3+) by analyte to the photoluminescent Os(bpy)3(2+)) in a CTR. The reaction time depends on the reaction rates. Analysis of product versus time data yielded second-order reaction rate constants between the PFET reagent, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)osmium, and standards ((ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium cation and p-hydroquinone) or catechols (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The extent of the reactions in a CTR were then predicted from initial reaction conditions and compared to experimental results. Both the theory and experimental results suggested the reactions of catechols were generally kinetically controlled, while those of the standards were controlled by mixing time (1-2 s). Thus, the extent of homogenization can be monitored in a CTR using the relatively fast reaction of the reagent and p

  10. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critica...

  11. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  12. Extended Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Fatibene, L; Ferraris, M; Garruto, S

    2016-01-01

    We shall discuss cosmological models in extended theories of gravitation. We shall define a surface, called the model surface, in the space of observable parameters which characterises families of theories. We also show how this surface can be used to compare with observations. The model surface can potentially be used to falsify whole families of models instead reasoning on a single model basis as it is usually done by best fit arguments with observations.

  13. Extended follow-up following a phase 2b randomized trial of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP among children in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bejon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: "FFM ME-TRAP" is sequential immunisation with two attenuated poxvirus vectors (FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara delivering the pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen ME-TRAP. Over nine months follow-up in our original study, there was no evidence that FFM ME-TRAP provided protection against malaria. The incidence of malaria was slightly higher in children who received FFM ME-TRAP, but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3. Although the study was unblinded, another nine months follow-up was planned to monitor the incidence of malaria and other serious adverse events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 405 children aged 1-6 yrs were initially randomized to vaccination with either FFM ME-TRAP or control (rabies vaccine. 380 children were still available for follow-up after the first nine months. Children were seen weekly and whenever they were unwell for nine months monitoring. The axillary temperature was measured, and blood films taken when febrile. The primary analysis was time to parasitaemia >2,500/microl. During the second nine months monitoring, 49 events met the primary endpoint (febrile malaria with parasites >2,500/microl in the Intention To Treat (ITT group. 23 events occurred among the 189 children in the FFM ME-TRAP group, and 26 among the 194 children in the control group. In the full 18 months of monitoring, there were 63 events in the FFM ME-TRAP group and 60 in the control group (HR = 1.2, CI 0.84-1.73, p = 0.35. There was no evidence that the HR changed over the 18 months (test for interaction between time and vaccination p = 0.11. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with FFM ME-TRAP was not protective against malaria in this study. Malaria incidence during 18 months of surveillance was similar in both vaccine groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88335123.

  14. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh of...... possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life and the...

  15. Extended Lyapunov exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of a Lyapunov exponent can be extended to include an imaginary part. This extension requires the definition of a coordinate frame on the tangent space of the differential equation and an extension of the concept of a limit. The definition of extended Lyapunov exponents is based on the eigenvalues of the fundamental matrix. It is shown that the extended exponent agrees completely with the constant-coefficient case. It is shown that the eigenvectors and eigenvalues obey differential equations and can be propagated numerically without constructing the fundamental matrix itself. Bifurcation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors can also be followed numerically without recourse to the fundamental matrix. Two example applications of the method to the calculation of extended Lyapunov exponents are given. In the Lorenz problem, the real parts of the extended Lyapunov exponents agree quite well with previous results. Fourier-transform methods are used to show that the power spectrum of relative motion is discrete, with fundamental frequency quite close to the calculated imaginary part of the extended Lyapunov exponent. In the simple pendulum, the extended Lyapunov exponents are usually purely imaginary and are the relative oscillation frequencies of adjacent trajectories

  16. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within such...... extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms of...

  17. Extended Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering Scalar-Fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyse models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where inter...

  18. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Sellström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  19. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  20. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following a chemical terrorist attack: Decision criteria for multipathway exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  1. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  2. Extended follow-up of the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial comparing two sequential induction and maintenance treatment regimens for proliferative lupus nephritis based either on cyclophosphamide or on cyclosporine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, J; Sinikka Pesicková, S; Rysavá, R; Horák, P; Hrncír, Z; Lukác, J; Rovensky, J; Vítová, J; Havrda, M; Rychlík, I; Böhmova, J; Vlasáková, V; Slatinská, J; Zadrazil, J; Olejárová, M; Tegzova, D; Tesar, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the extended follow-up of the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial, a randomized prospective trial comparing two sequential induction and maintenance treatment regimens for proliferative lupus nephritis based either on cyclophosphamide (CPH) or cyclosporine A (CyA). Patients and methods Data for kidney function and adverse events were collected by a cross-sectional survey for 38 of 40 patients initially randomized in the CYCLOFA-LUNE trial. Results The median follow-up time was 7.7 years (range 5.0-10.3). Rates of renal impairment and end-stage renal disease, adverse events (death, cardiovascular event, tumor, premature menopause) did not differ between the CPH and CyA group, nor did mean serum creatinine, 24 h proteinuria and SLICC damage score at last follow-up. Most patients in both groups were still treated with glucocorticoids, other immunosuppressant agents and blood pressure lowering drugs. Conclusion An immunosuppressive regimen based on CyA achieved similar clinical results to that based on CPH in the very long term. PMID:24213308

  3. Tailor-made surfactants for optimized chemical EOR. Meeting oil reservoir conditions by applied knowledge of structure-performance relationship in extended surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, G.; Sorensen, W. [Sasol North America Inc., Westlake, LA (United States); Jakobs-Sauter, B. [Sasol Germany GmbH (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Formulating the surfactant package for chemical EOR is a time consuming and expensive process - the formulation needs to fit the specific reservoir conditions (like oil type, temperature, salinity, etc.) to give optimum performance and the number of formulation variables is virtually endless. This paper studies the impact of surfactant structure on EOR formulation ability and performance and how to adjust the structure of the surfactant molecule to meet a specific reservoir's needs. Data from salinity phase boundary studies of alcohol propoxy sulfates illustrate how changes in alcohol structure as well as in propylene oxide level can shift optimum salinity and temperature to the desired range in a given model oil. From these data the impact of individual structural units was evaluated. Application of the HLD model (Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Deviation) shows how to extrapolate from the known data set to actual reservoir conditions. This is illustrated by studies on crude oil samples. Additional tests study how effective the selected surfactants perform. The HLD concept proves to be a valuable tool to select and tailor surfactants to individual reservoir needs, thus simplifying the surfactant screening process for EOR formulations by pre-selection of suitable structures and ultimately reducing cost and effort on the way to the most effective chemical EOR package. (orig.)

  4. Single-molecule conductance of a chemically modified, π-extended tetrathiafulvalene and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis and single-molecule electrical transport properties of a molecular wire containing a π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF group and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ. We form single-molecule junctions using the in situ break junction technique using a homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope with a range of conductance between 10 G0 down to 10−7 G0. Within this range we do not observe a clear conductance signature of the neutral parent molecule, suggesting either that its conductance is too low or that it does not form a stable junction. Conversely, we do find a clear conductance signature in the experiments carried out on the charge-transfer complex. Due to the fact we expected this species to have a higher conductance than the neutral molecule, we believe this supports the idea that the conductance of the neutral molecule is very low, below our measurement sensitivity. This idea is further supported by theoretical calculations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported single-molecule conductance measurements on a molecular charge-transfer species.

  5. Study of the chemical environment of cerium in low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Currently, great attention has been given to rare earth doped optical glasses. These elements by having the 4f shell partially filled exhibit a wealth of sharp fluorescent transitions representing almost every region of the visible and near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, being of interest in photonics, when embedded in the glass matrix. In addition cerium oxide possess high hardness and stability to high temperatures, and it has been used in industry in different ways such as catalysts, fuel and solar cells, ultraviolet radiation filters, oxygen sensors and in the polishing of materials. In this context, cerium doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCA) glasses are considered good candidates for solid state laser active medium due to their good mechanical, optical and thermal properties. Recently it was shown that LSCA glasses doped with cerium oxide is a source of emitting white light, which is of technological applications interest. However it is known that increasing the dopant concentration in the glass matrix, an interaction of rare earth ions takes place leading to a closer proximity between the rare earth ions, and thus a reduction in their quantum efficiency. In this work, the local structure of Cerium in LSCA glasses was characterized by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS). The EXAFS and XANES measurements were performed in the Ce LIII-edge at the XAS beam line of LNLS facility (Campinas, Brazil) at room temperature. Structural parameters, coordination numbers (N), interatomic distance (R) and degree of disorder (σ2) were obtained from least squares fitting

  6. Source apportionment of air pollution in China: Extending the usefulness of receptor modeling by combining multivariate and chemical mass balance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research explores the possibility of using a two step method of identifying and quantifying air pollution emissions in an urban environment. The procedures uses a mathematical model called Target Transformation Factor Analysis (TTFA) to estimate source profiles using ambient trace element air concentration data. A source profile is analogous to a fingerprint since it is unique to each source of air pollution. The profiles estimated by TTFA are then employed in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source apportionment analysis for the air shed. Other known sources are estimated using source signatures from the literature. Applying the TTFA and CMB models in this fashion is called receptor modeling. Generically, a receptor model is the combination of measured air pollution concentration data with a numerical technique which apportions the measured air pollution among distinct source types. The results show that TTFA can be used to provide quantitative estimates of air pollution source profiles for an urban center in China. The number of profiles for unique source types was limited for the data set since emissions from certain types of sources co-varied during each sampling day. Consequently, the CMB analyses that applied the TTFA source profiles needed to be supplemented with standard U.S. EPA source profiles

  7. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    In the event of alleged use of organophosphorus nerve agents, all kinds of environmental samples can be received for analysis. These might include decontaminated and charred matter collected from the site of a suspected chemical attack. In other scenarios, such matter might be sampled to confirm the site of a chemical weapon test or clandestine laboratory decontaminated and burned to prevent discovery. To provide an analytical capability for these contingencies, we present a preliminary investigation of the effect of accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination on soil contaminated with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). The objectives were (a) to determine if VX or its degradation products were detectable in soil after an accelerant-based fire promoted by aviation fuel, including following decontamination with Decontamination Solution 2 (DS2) or aqueous sodium hypochlorite, (b) to develop analytical methods to support forensic analysis of accelerant-soaked, decontaminated and charred soil and (c) to inform the design of future experiments of this type to improve analytical fidelity. Our results show for the first time that modern analytical techniques can be used to identify residual VX and its degradation products in contaminated soil after an accelerant-based fire and after chemical decontamination and then fire. Comparison of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of VX and its impurities/degradation products from contaminated burnt soil, and burnt soil spiked with VX, indicated that the fire resulted in the production of diethyl methylphosphonate and O,S-diethyl methylphosphonothiolate (by an unknown mechanism). Other products identified were indicative of chemical decontamination, and some of these provided evidence of the decontaminant used, for example, ethyl 2-methoxyethyl methylphosphonate and bis(2-methoxyethyl) methylphosphonate following decontamination with DS2. Sample preparation

  8. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  9. Mechanical Properties of Titanium Nitride Nanocomposites Produced by Chemical Precursor Synthesis Followed by High-P,T Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Paul F.; Peter Crozier; Ray, Nicole M. T.; Hector, Andrew L.; Edward Bailey; Petuskey, William T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the high-P,T annealing and mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials with a highly nitrided bulk composition close to Ti3N4. Amorphous solids were precipitated from solution by ammonolysis of metal dialkylamide precursors followed by heating at 400–700 °C in flowing NH3 to produce reddish-brown amorphous/nanocrystalline materials. The precursors were then densified at 2 GPa and 200–700 °C to form monolithic ceramics. There was no evidence for N2 loss during the high-P,T...

  10. 延续护理在急性放射病患者远期效应随访应用%Application of extended nursing for patients with acute radiation sickness in long-term follow-up observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯; 王冰; 王媛; 刘燕杰; 姜恩海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effects of extended nursing for patients with acute radiation sickness ( ARS) in long-term follow-up observation.Methods The extended nursing was carried out to 3 patients ( Mei, Tian and Wang) with ARS from 2010 to 2013 after the Henan Co-60 radioactive source accident, and the European quality of life 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) form was used to investigate the condition of these patients.Moreover, we also investigated the compliance of the patients according to real follow-up time and scheduled time.Results After the extended nursing treatment from 2010 to 2013, EQ-5D index of Mei increased continually from 0.586 in 2010 to 0.848 in 2013, while the visual analogue scaling ( VAS) value increased continually from 78 in 2010 to 90 in 2013;EQ-5D index of Tian decreased from 0.848 in 2010 and 2011 to 0.537 in the first two years due to his suffering from diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma in 2012.However, the index increased to 0.653 in 2013 after the effective treatment.Tian’ s VAS value decreased from 95 in 2010 to 80 in 2012 and it increased to 88 in 2013.EQ-5D index of Wang did not have any changes during these 3 years but VAS value increased gradually from 95 in 2010 to 98 in 2013.Furthermore, we found that after the implementation of extended nursing, the real follow-up time was well matched with the scheduled time in these 3 patients without any lost follow-up.Conclusion The extended nursing in the long-term follow-up for the patients suffering from radiation accidents contributes to improve the patients’ life quality, promote their health recovery, and ensure their compliance of reexamination.%目的:分析延续护理在急性放射病( ARS)患者远期效应随访中应用的效果。方法2010—2013年对河南省钴-60放射源辐射事故中的3例ARS患者“梅”、“天”和“旺”实施延续护理,采用中文版《欧洲五维健康量表》(EQ-5D)对患者进行调查,并对其实

  11. Study of new optical fibres sensors for the follow-up of materials degradation and chemical species detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to elaborate optical sensors able to follow in situ the degradation of metallic structures and the life cycle of polymers as well as their degradations. Thus, corrosion optical fiber sensors have been developed to follow in situ the degradation of metallic structures. They have been tested by two methods: an optical method and an electrochemical method. The idea is original, it consists to couple these two methods in correlating the parameters describing the optical process and those describing the electrochemical process. This approach allows to have a more accurate idea on the percentage of the corroded metallic surface. It has been shown too the feasibility of a gas and heavy metals sensor in including in the polymer matrix cryptophanes macromolecules able to trap selectively the gaseous molecules or in conditioning a new molecule of calix[4]arene functionalized for detecting metallic pollutants. Optical fiber sensors for the monitoring of high tension liquid dielectrics have been developed too. The presence of decomposition gas infiltrated in the dielectric liquid has been detected. The light propagation in an optical fiber has been modelled. Two approaches have been studied: a direct approach which consists to model the phenomena of light attenuation and a statistical approach where the light diffusion is described by a normal law. The two models are validated by the experiment and the coherence is very well. (O.M.)

  12. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  13. Mechanical Properties of Titanium Nitride Nanocomposites Produced by Chemical Precursor Synthesis Followed by High-P,T Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. McMillan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the high-P,T annealing and mechanical properties of nanocomposite materials with a highly nitrided bulk composition close to Ti3N4. Amorphous solids were precipitated from solution by ammonolysis of metal dialkylamide precursors followed by heating at 400–700 °C in flowing NH3 to produce reddish-brown amorphous/nanocrystalline materials. The precursors were then densified at 2 GPa and 200–700 °C to form monolithic ceramics. There was no evidence for N2 loss during the high-P,T treatment. Micro- and nanoindentation experiments indicate hardness values between 4–20 GPa for loads ranging between 0.005–3 N. Young's modulus values were measured to lie in the range 200–650 GPa. Palmqvist cracks determined from microindentation experiments indicate fracture toughness values between 2–4 MPa·m1/2 similar to Si3N4, SiC and Al2O3. Significant variations in the hardness may be associated with the distribution of amorphous/crystalline regions and the very fine grained nature (~3 nm grain sizes of the crystalline component in these materials.

  14. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo arrays, with over 20,000 target genes, were used to evaluate o-NT- and BCA-induced RPMs, when compared to a non-transformed mesothelial cell line (Fred-PE). Analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed 169 cancer-related genes that were categorized into binding activity, growth and proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and invasion and metastasis. The microarray data were validated by positive correlation with quantitative real-time RT-PCR on 16 selected genes including igf1, tgfb3 and nov. Important carcinogenic pathways involved in RPM formation included insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), p38 MAPkinase, Wnt/β-catenin and integrin signaling pathways. This study demonstrated that mesotheliomas in rats exposed to o-NT- and BCA were similar to mesotheliomas in humans, at least at the cellular and molecular level

  15. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH)3. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known

  16. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Kerry J., E-mail: howe@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Mitchell, Lana, E-mail: lmitchell@alionscience.com [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kim, Seung-Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kee, Ernest J., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company, P.O. Box 270, Wadsworth, TX 77483 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH){sub 3}. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known.

  17. Recommended lists of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals for assessment of the performance of new or improved genotoxicity tests: a follow-up to an ECVAM workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Kasper, Peter; Müller, Lutz; Corvi, Raffaella; Speit, Günter

    2008-05-31

    At a recent ECVAM workshop considering ways to reduce the frequency of irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell genotoxicity tests [D. Kirkland, S. Pfuhler, D. Tweats, M. Aardema, R. Corvi, F. Darroudi, A. Elhajouji, H.-R. Glatt, P. Hastwell, M. Hayashi, P. Kasper, S. Kirchner, A. Lynch, D. Marzin, D. Maurici, J.-R. Meunier, L. Müller, G. Nohynek, J. Parry, E. Parry, V. Thybaud, R. Tice, J. van Benthem, P. Vanparys, P. White, How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary followup animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop, Mutat. Res. 628 (2007) 31-55], recommendations for improvements/modifications to existing tests, and suggestions for new assays were made. Following on from this, it was important to identify chemicals that could be used in the evaluation of modified or new assays. An expert panel was therefore convened and recommendations made for chemicals to fit three different sets of characteristics, namely: This paper therefore contains these three recommended lists of chemicals and describes how these should be used for any test-evaluation programme. PMID:18539078

  18. Extended MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct use of enlarged subsets of mathematically exact equations of change in moments of the velocity distribution function, each equation corresponding to one of the macroscopic variables to be retained, produces extended MHD models. The first relevant level of closure provides 'ten moment' equations in the density ρ, velocity v, scalar pressure p, and the traceless component of the pressure tensor t. The next 'thirteen moment' level also includes the thermal flux vector q, and further extended MHD models could be developed by including even higher level basic equations of change. Explicit invariant forms for the tensor t and the heat flux vector defining q follow from their respective basic equations of change. Except in the neighbourhood of a magnetic null, in magnetised plasma these forms may be resolved into known sums of their parallel, cross (or transverse) and perpendicular components. Parallel viscosity in an electron-ion plasma is specifically discussed. (author)

  19. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  20. 应用皮肤牵张带延期闭合骨筋膜室减张切口%Secondary wound closure following fasciotomy with the external tissue extender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫小春; 张志强; 王东; 马全平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of the external tissue extender (ETE) for secondary wound closure following fasciotomy after acute compartment syndrome. Methods Twenty one cases (age, 7- 36 years old) following fasciotomy were treated with the ETE for secondary wound closure. The wounds occurred in the leg in 17 cases, the forearm in 3 and the foot in 1. The largest wound measured 11 cm× 28 cm, the smallest 5 cm× 15 cm. One case was accompanied with exposure of the tibia, and the other with tendon. Placement of the ETE was carried out at 4- 7 days following fasciotomy. The secondary wound closure was done when the distance between the wound edges was smaller than 1 cm, usually at 3- 7 days after the ETE procedure. Results The wounds healed in 20 cases without skin grafting, forming a line like scar. In one case, part of the ETE had to be removed because of wound infection, and small skin grafting was done later. The wounds also healed well in those two cases with the exposure of the tibia and tendon after using the ETE. With 3- 15 months follow up, distant joints adjacent to the wounds showed good range of motion, without muscular contracture. Conclusion It is safe to use the ETE for secondary wound closure following fasciotomy after acute compartment syndrome. Wound closure with the ETE shows following advantages: 1) It is a simple, convenient and fast speed procedure, with a short stay of hospital and relatively low cost. 2) Skin graft is not needed, forming a line like scar after healing. It shows good skin quality and cosmetic appearance. 3) The procedure is also suitable for those cases with exposure of bone or tendon.%目的观察应用皮肤牵张带延期直接缝合骨筋膜室减张切口的效果。方法因骨筋膜室综合征而行切开减压术导致皮肤缺损患者21例,年龄7~36岁,小腿皮肤缺损17例、前臂皮肤缺损3例、足部皮肤缺损1例。缺损区最小5cm×15cm,最大11cm×28cm,合并

  1. The Effect of Risk Factors on the Levels of Chemical Elements in the Tibial Plateau of Patients with Osteoarthritis following Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the aforementioned chemical elements in tibial plateau samples obtained during knee arthroplasty. The gender-specific analysis of chemical element levels in the bone samples revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentration of Pb and Se/Pb ratio. The contents of elements in the tibial plateau in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA can be arranged in the following descending order: F− > K > Zn > Fe > Sr > Pb > Mn > Se > Cd > THg. We observed statistical significant effects of environmental factors including smoking, seafood diet, and geographical distribution on the levels of the elements in tibial bone. Significant positive correlation coefficients were found for the relationships K-Cd, Zn-Sr, Zn-F−, THg-Pb, Pb-Cd, Se-Se/Pb, Se-Se/Cd, Se/Pb-Se/Cd, Pb-Cd/Ca, Cd-Cd/Ca, and F−-F−/Ca·1000. Significant negative correlations were found for the relationships THg-Se/Pb, Pb-Se/Pb, Cd-Se/Pb, K-Se/Cd, Pb-Se/Cd, Cd-Se/Cd, THg-Se/THg, Pb-Se/THg, Se-Pb/Cd, Zn-Cd/Ca, and Se/Cd-Cd/Ca. The results reported here may provide a basis for establishing reference values for the tibial plateau in patients with OA who had undergone knee replacement surgery. The concentrations of elements in the bone with OA were determined by age, presence of implants, smoking, fish and seafood diet, and sport activity.

  2. Extended Library Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Devarai, Rajashekhar S.; Devarai, Kanyakumari S.

    1997-01-01

    Extension of library hours is useful both for public & LIS professional. Five laws, need for extended hours, problems of extended library hours, implication of extended library hours. ROCLOLIB are the related topics covered in the paper to highlight the importance of extended library hours.

  3. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  4. Extending the MINLO method

    CERN Document Server

    Frederix, Rikkert

    2015-01-01

    We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...

  5. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  6. One-stage total repair of anomalous origin of right pulmonary artery from aorta by the double-flap technique, followed by coarctation repair using extended end-to-end arch reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta combined with coarctation of aorta is a rare congenital malformation. The method chosen for performing a prompt surgery to correct the multiple disease lesions is important. Here we report one-stage surgical strategy which involved a double-flap technique alongside an extended end-to-end arch reconstruction in a newborn baby

  7. Solvent-free thermoplastic-poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonding mediated by UV irradiation followed by gas-phase chemical deposition of an adhesion linker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S. Y.; Lee, N. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Here, we introduce a solvent-free strategy for bonding various thermoplastic substrates with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation followed by the gas-phase chemical deposition of aminosilane on the UV-irradiated thermoplastic substrates. The thermoplastic substrates were first irradiated with UV for surface hydrophilic treatment and were then grafted with vacuum-evaporated aminosilane, where the alkoxysilane side reacted with the oxidized surface of the thermoplastic substrate. Next, the amine-terminated thermoplastic substrates were treated with corona discharge to oxidize the surface and were bonded with PDMS, which was also oxidized via corona discharge. The two substrates were then hermetically sealed and pressed under atmospheric pressure for 30 min at 60 °C. This process enabled the formation of a robust siloxane bond (Si-O-Si) between the thermoplastic substrate and PDMS under relatively mild conditions using an inexpensive and commercially available UV lamp and Tesla coil. Various thermoplastic substrates were examined for bonding with PDMS, including poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and polystyrene (PS). Surface characterizations were performed by measuring the contact angle and performing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and the bond strength was analyzed by conducting various mechanical force measurements such as pull, delamination, leak and burst tests. The average bond strengths for the PMMA-PDMS, PC-PDMS, PET-PDMS and PS-PDMS assemblies were measured at 823.6, 379.3, 291.2 and 229.0 kPa, respectively, confirming the highly reliable performance of the introduced bonding strategy.

  8. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  9. Vehicle integration of a range extender engine; Fahrzeugintegration eines Range-Extender-Antriebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Mike; Hall, Jonathan; Cains, Tony; Warth, Marco [Mahle Powertrain Ltd., Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15

    Range extenders might play a key role for the future success of electric vehicles. Mahle has developed a range extended electric powertrain for the small and compact car segment, suitable for everyday use with very low fuel consumption, full system integration and flexible vehicle installation. In the following, the implementation of the range extended electric powertrain into the car is spotlighted. (orig.)

  10. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot Water immersion of Papaya (Carica Papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, M.H.A.; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Continella, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and...... national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and...... 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The...

  11. A Comparison of RIA and LC-MS/MS Methods to Quantify Steroids in Rat Serum and Urine Following Exposure to an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available radio immunoassays (RIM) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIM to th...

  12. A screening method for ranking chemicals by their fate and behaviour in the environment and potential toxic effects in humans following non-occupational exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Troisi, G.; Duarte-Davidson, R.; Capelton, A

    2004-01-01

    A large number of chemicals are released intentionally or unintentionally into the environment each year. These include thousands of substances that are currently listed worldwide and several hundred new substances added annually (Mücke et al., 1986). When these compounds are used, they can reach microorganisms, plants, animals and man either in their original state or in the form of reaction and degradation products via air, water, soil or foodstuffs. Hence environmental chemicals can occur ...

  13. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills, who subsequently become pregnant or have a history of brownish facial discoloration. Scarring Reactivation of cold sores What can I expect after having a chemical peel? All peels require some follow-up care: ...

  14. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  15. A new extended quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended quintessence is obtained by coupling a normal scalar field to the Ricci scalar defined in the metric formalism. In this paper, we propose a new extended quintessence dark energy by introducing a non-minimal coupling between the quintessence and gravity, but with the Ricci scalar given from the Palatini formalism rather than the metric one. We find that the equation of state of the new extended quintessence can cross the phantom divide line, and moreover, it oscillates around the -1 line. We also show that the universe driven by the new extended quintessence will enter a dark energy dominated de Sitter phase in the future. (orig.)

  16. Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Health Outcomes Following Prenatal Exposure to a Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Mixture in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Bromfield, John J; Klemp, Kara C; Meng, Chun-Xia; Wolfe, Andrew; Zoeller, R Thomas; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies. PMID:27560547

  17. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  18. Extende conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c{ge}1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification. (orig.).

  19. Extended conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  20. Environmental chemical data for perishable sediments and soils collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, and along the Louisiana Delta following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Shi, Honglan; Karstensen, Krista A.; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005, nearly one month after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, a team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Missouri University of Science and Technology deployed to southern Louisiana to collect perishable environmental data resulting from the impacts of these storms. Perishable samples collected for this investigation are subject to destruction or ruin by removal, mixing, or natural decay; therefore, collection is time-critical following the depositional event. A total of 238 samples of sediment, soil, and vegetation were collected to characterize chemical quality. For this analysis, 157 of the 238 samples were used to characterize trace element, iron, total organic carbon, pesticide, and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of deposited sediment and associated shallow soils. In decreasing order, the largest variability in trace element concentration was detected for lead, vanadium, chromium, copper, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Lead was determined to be the trace element of most concern because of the large concentrations present in the samples ranging from 4.50 to 551 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Sequential extraction analysis of lead indicate that 39.1 percent of the total lead concentration in post-hurricane sediment is associated with the iron-manganese oxide fraction. This fraction is considered extremely mobile under reducing environmental conditions, thereby making lead a potential health hazard. The presence of lead in post-hurricane sediments likely is from redistribution of pre-hurricane contaminated soils and sediments from Lake Pontchartrain and the flood control canals of New Orleans. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 49.1 mg/kg. Although Arsenic concentrations generally were small and consistent with other research results, all samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Level of 0.39 mg/kg. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.30 mg

  1. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  2. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Poppel Mireille NM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to common practice (CP. Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951. Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working

  3. Chemical constituents in sediment in Lake Pontchartrain and in street mud and canal sediment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Horowitz, Arthur J.; Skrobialowski, Stanley C.; Foreman, William T.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Elrick, Kent A.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Smith, James J.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Samples of street mud, suspended and bottom sediment in canals discharging to Lake Ponchartrain, and suspended and bottom sediment in the lake were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents to help evaluate the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the subsequent unwatering of New Orleans, Louisiana. The approach used for sampling and analysis of chemical data for the study is presented herein. Radionuclides, major and trace elements, and numerous organic compounds in sediment were analyzed. The organic compounds include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, urban waste indicator compounds, and current-use pesticides. Methods for the analysis of urban waste indicator compounds and current-use pesticides in sediment were developed only recently.

  4. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  5. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  6. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang

    2003-01-01

    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  7. An in vivo animal study assessing long-term changes in hypothalamic cytokines following perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture based on Arctic maternal body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nanqin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic distribution of environmental toxins is generally not uniform, with certain northern regions showing a particularly high concentration of pesticides, heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. For instance, Northern Canadians are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, organochlorine pesticides (OCs and methylmercury (MeHg, primarily through country foods. Previous studies have reported associations between neuronal pathology and exposure to such toxins. The present investigation assessed whether perinatal exposure (gestation and lactation of rats to a chemical mixture (27 constituents comprised of PCBs, OCs and MeHg based on Arctic maternal exposure profiles at concentrations near human exposure levels, would affect brain levels of several inflammatory cytokines Methods Rats were dosed during gestation and lactation and cytokine levels were measured in the brains of offspring at five months of age. Hypothalamic cytokine protein levels were measured with a suspension-based array system and differences were determined using ANOVA and post hoc statistical tests. Results The early life PCB treatment alone significantly elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in rats at five months of age to a degree comparable to that of the entire chemical mixture. Similarly, the full mixture (and to a lesser degree PCBs alone elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1b, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The full mixture of chemicals also moderately increased (in an additive fashion hypothalamic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Challenge with bacterial endotoxin at adulthood generally increased hypothalamic levels to such a degree that differences between the perinatally treated chemical groups were no longer detectable. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure at critical

  8. Roberge-Weiss phase transitions and extended Z3 symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kouno, H.; Sakai, Y.; Kashiwa, K; Matsuzaki, M.; Yahiro, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the Polyakov extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model with imaginary chemical potential, the relation between the Roberge-Weiss (RW) phase transition and the extended Z3 symmetry is studied. At low temperature, there is approximate continuous symmetry under the phase transformation of the Polyakov loop with the shift of the imaginary chemical potential. Due to this continuous symmetry, the Polyakov loop can oscillate smoothly as the imaginary chemical potential increases. At high temper...

  9. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment. PMID

  10. Changes in soil chemical properties and lettuce yield response following incorporation of biochar and cow dung to highly weathered acidic soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Osei, Benjamin;

    2016-01-01

    imposed on two highly weathered, acidic soils from the coastal savanna and tropical rainforest agroecological zones of Ghana, respectively, to elucidate their effect on yield of lettuce. The study showed that application of biochar solely or in combination with cow dung increased soil pH, total organic...... carbon, and cation exchange capacity, and temporarily increased soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon. Further, incorporation of combined application of cow dung and biochar increased lettuce yield more than sole incorporation of either amendment. The study demonstrated that corn cob biochar can...... improve soil chemical properties and lettuce yield if applied solely or in combination with cow dung....

  11. Carbon isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in fresh and saline (NaCl) water via continuous flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy following wet chemical oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thomas, Randal B.; Saad, Nabil; Thordsen, James J.; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the performance and limitations of a wet chemical oxidation carbon analyser interfaced with a cavity ring-down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS) in a continuous flow (CF) configuration for measuring δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (δ13C-DOC) in natural water samples. Low-chloride matrix (22.5 µg C/aliquot) may be analysed. The WCO-CRDS approach requires more total carbon (µg C/aliquot) than conventional CF-isotope ratio mass spectrometer, but is nonetheless applicable to a wide range of DOC concentration and water types, including brackish water, produced water, and basinal brines.

  12. An extended day program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  13. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis – chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min−1 and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values. - Highlights: • Sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation. • Thiourea can enhance the generation efficiency and eliminate the interference of copper. • Arsenic in soil Sample can be directly determined without sample pretreatment

  14. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis – chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min{sup −1} and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values. - Highlights: • Sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via pyrolysis–chemical vapor generation. • Thiourea can enhance the generation efficiency and eliminate the interference of copper. • Arsenic in soil Sample can be directly determined without sample pretreatment.

  15. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  16. Extended quantum color coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only ∼2√(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas ∼N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix

  17. Observation of ionospheric disturbances following a 5-kt chemical explosion. II - Prolonged anomalies and stratifications in the lower thermosphere after shock passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Jacobson, Abram R.

    1989-12-01

    Unusual stratifications and prolonged spectral deformations of radio echoes after the passage through the E region of the shock wave produced by a 5-kt chemical explosion have been observed. The observations were obtained by vertical HF pulsed ionospheric sounding. At the total reflection level of the sounding waves, at a horizontal distance of 30 km from the explosion, the passage of the shock wave generated a complex structure suggesting a significant deformation of the reflecting surface. Irregularities have also been observed in the E region for over 30 min after the shock passage by a network of continuous wave HF ionospheric sounders located 250 km west of the source. The origin of these structures is discussed.

  18. Comparative evaluation of acute toxicity by Vibrio fischeri and fern spore based bioassays in the follow-up of toxic chemicals degradation by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán, Javier; Bru, David; Pablos, Cristina; Catalá, Myriam

    2012-04-30

    The development of efficient bioassays is a necessary step for cost-effective environmental monitoring and evaluation of novel decontamination technologies. Marine Vibrio fischeri kits have demonstrated to be extremely sensitive but lack of ecological relevance, especially when assessing impacts on freshwater higher organisms. A novel riparian are fern spore microbioassay could merge higher ecological relevance and reduced costs. The aim of this work is the comparative evaluation of the V. fischeri and fern spore bioassays for the follow up of detoxification processes of water contaminated with cyanide and phenol by advanced oxidation technologies, using heterogeneous photocatalysis as example. In both cases, EC(50) values differed significantly for V. fischeri commercial kit, V. fischeri lab cultures and Polystichum setiferum fern spores (1.9, 16 and 101 mg cyanide L(-1) and 27.0, 49.3 and 1440 mg phenol L(-1), respectively). Whereas V. fischeri bioassays are extremely sensitive and dilution series must be prepared, toxicant solutions can be directly applied to spores. Spore microbioassay was also useful in the follow up of photoxidation processes of cyanide and phenol, also reflecting the formation of intermediate degradation by-products even more toxic than phenol. We conclude that this new microbioassay is a promising cost-effective tool for the follow up of decontamination processes. PMID:22341980

  19. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  20. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  1. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  2. Extended Holographic dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yungui

    2004-01-01

    The idea of relating the infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs is applied to Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation. We find that extended holographic dark energy from the Hubble scale or the particle horizon as the infrared cutoff will not give accelerating expansion. The dynamical cosmological constant with the event horizon as the infrared cutoff is a viable dark energy model.

  3. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues of...

  4. Lumbar herniation following extended autologous latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Sheila Margaret; Fatayer, Hiba; Achuthan, Rajgopal

    2013-01-01

    Background Reconstructive breast surgery is now recognized to be an important part of the treatment for breast cancer. Surgical reconstruction options consist of implants, autologous tissue transfer or a combination of the two. The latissimus dorsi flap is a pedicled musculocutaneous flap and is an established method of autologous breast reconstruction. Lumbar hernias are an unusual type of hernia, the majority occurring after surgery or trauma in this area. The reported incidence of a lumbar...

  5. Chemical protection against radiation effects on Serum transaminase and the levels of glutamic and pyruvic acids following gamma irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study been carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficiency of urea and vitamin E for protecting certain enzymatic systems from deleterious radiation effects. The activities of serum transaminase; aspartate aminotransferase (A S T) and alanine aminotransferase (A L T); as well as their relative substrates; glutamic and pyruvic acid levels; were selected for this study. The results indicated that whole body gamma irradiation at the dose of 7 Gy caused an evident elevation in the activities of both A S T and A L T and in the level of pyruvic acid at the experiment period (first,third,seventh and tenth days post irradiation). On the other hand the free glutamic acid level decreased at all post irradiation days. The variation in both enzymatic activities, pyruvic and glutamic acid levels became less pronounced in rats treated with either urea or vitamin E as chemical radioprotectors before whole body gamma irradiation. The results showed that the two agents are good radioprotectors, with respect to these parameters under investigation

  6. Direct determination of arsenic in soil samples by fast pyrolysis-chemical vapor generation using sodium formate as a reductant followed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xuchuan; Zhang, Jingya; Bu, Fanlong

    2015-09-01

    This new study shows for the first time that sodium formate can react with trace arsenic to form volatile species via fast pyrolysis - chemical vapor generation. We found that the presence of thiourea greatly enhanced the generation efficiency and eliminated the interference of copper. We studied the reaction temperature, the volume of sodium formate, the reaction acidity, and the carried argon rate using nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Under optimal conditions of T = 500 °C, the volumes of 30% sodium formate and 10% thiourea were 0.2 ml and 0.05 ml, respectively. The carrier argon rate was 300 ml min- 1 and the detection limit and precision of arsenic were 0.39 ng and 3.25%, respectively. The amount of arsenic in soil can be directly determined by adding trace amount of hydrochloric acid as a decomposition reagent without any sample pretreatment. The method was successfully applied to determine trace amount of arsenic in two soil-certified reference materials (GBW07453 and GBW07450), and the results were found to be in agreement with certified reference values.

  7. Chemical characteristics of different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria in China using microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xian-Qiang; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Long, Ze-Rong; Fan, Bing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria, also called "snow chrysanthemum" in China, is a flower tea material that has been reported to possess excellent pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical characteristics of different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were investigated based on microwave-assisted extraction and the simultaneous determination of 13 major active compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, including taxifolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, (R/S)-flavanomarein, isocoreopsin, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, isookanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, marein, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and N(1) ,N(5) ,N(10) ,N(14) -tetra-p-coumaroylspermine. Chemometric analysis based on the contents of investigated compounds from 13 samples showed that C. tinctoria and the related flower tea materials, Chrysanthemum morifolium cv "Hangju" and "Gongju," were in different clusters, and different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were obviously different. This study is helpful for the quality control and pharmacological evaluation of different parts from C. tinctoria and its related products. PMID:27291468

  8. Determination of Chemical Compounds Generated from Second-generation E-cigarettes Using a Sorbent Cartridge Followed by a Two-step Elution Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Senoo, Yui; Hayashida, Hideki; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We developed an analytical method for analyzing electronic cigarette (E-cigarette) smoke, and measured the carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds generated by 10 brands of second-generation E-cigarettes. A glass filter (Cambridge filter pad) for particulate matter and a solid sorbent tube packed with Carboxen-572 for gaseous compounds were used to collect E-cigarette smoke. These were then analyzed using a two-step elution method with carbon disulfide and methanol, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), acetone (AC), acrolein (ACR), propanal (PA), acetol (AT), glyoxal (GO), and methyl glyoxal (MGO) were detected by HPLC in some E-cigarettes. Propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GLY), and some esters were detected by GC/MS. GO and MGO exist mainly as particulate matter. AA, AC, ACR, PA, and AT exist mainly as gaseous compounds. FA exists as both particulate matter and gaseous compounds. These carbonyl compounds have carbon numbers C1 - C3. The main components of E-liquid are PG (C3) and GLY (C3). Therefore, the oxidation of liquids, such as PG and GLY in E-cigarettes upon incidental contact with the heating element in E-cigarette, is suggested as being a possible cause for carbonyl generation. When the puff number exceeds a critical point, carbonyl generation rapidly increases and then remains constant. The results of this study are now being used to determine the following E-cigarette smoking protocol: puff volume, 55 mL; puff duration, 2 s; and puff number, 30. E-cigarette analysis revealed very large variation in carbonyl concentration among not only different brands, but also different samples of the same product. Typical distributions of carbonyl concentration were not observed in any of the E-cigarettes tested, and the mean values greatly differed from median values. PMID:27169655

  9. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  10. Coevolution. Extending Prigogine Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The formal consideration of the concept of interaction in thermodynamic analysis makes it possible to deduce, in the broadest terms, new results related to the coevolution of interacting systems, irrespective of their distance from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I prove the existence of privileged coevolution trajectories characterized by the minimum joint production of internal entropy, a conclusion that extends Prigogine theorem to systems evolving far from thermodynamic equilibri...

  11. Fabrication of Sup erhydrophobic Surfaces on Aluminum Alloy Via Electro dep osition of Copp er Followed by Electro chemical Mo dification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Huang; D. K. Sarkar∗; X-Grant Chen

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces have been prepared by means of electrodeposition of copper on aluminum surfaces, followed by electrochemical modification using stearic acid organic molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the electrodeposited copper films follow“island growth mode”in the form of microdots and their number densities increase with the rise of the negative deposition potentials. At an electrodeposition potential of −0.2 V the number density of the copper microdots are found to be 4.5×104 cm−2 that are increased to 2.9×105 cm−2 at a potential of −0.8 V. Systematically, the distances between the microdots are found to be reduced from 26.6 µm to 11.03 µm with the increase of negative electrochemical potential from −0.2 V to −0.8 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have confirmed the formation of copper stearate on the stearic acid modified copper films. The roughness of the stearic acid modified electrodeposited copper films is found to increase with the increase in the density of the copper microdots. A critical copper deposition potential of −0.6 V in conjunction with the stearic acid modification provides a surface roughness of 6.2 µm with a water contact angle of 157◦, resulting in superhydrophobic properties on the aluminum sub-strates.

  12. Topological modelling of nanostructures and extended systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafi, Ali Reza; Iranmanesh, Ali; Ori, Ottorino

    2013-01-01

    Topological Modelling of Nanostructures and Extended Systems completes and expands upon the previously published title within this series: The Mathematics and Topology of Fullerenes (Vol. 4, 2011) by gathering the latest research and advances in materials science at nanoscale. It introduces a new speculative area and novel concepts like topochemical reactions and colored reactive topological indices and provides a better understanding of the physical-chemical behaviors of extended systems. Moreover, a charming new family of space-filling fullerenic crystals is here analyzed for the first time.

  13. Spatially Extended Modelocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Diffey, William M.; Gamble, Lisa; Keys, Andrew S.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the properties of optical fields that are extended in space over transverse dimensions of several meters or more in terms of both multiple spatial modes and also multiple temporal modes. We focus attention on the task of producing and maintaining well defined phase relationships for the set of spatial and temporal modes. In particular, we address operating regimes where the optical fields are not confined within an optical resonator, but still have well defined phase relations through the use of optical field sensing and correction techniques. Special applications of interest occur in safe beaming of optical power and in approaching optical intensities capable of producing nonlinear phenomena in the vacuum.

  14. Branes in extended spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Sakatani, Yuho

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to the brane worldvolume theory based on the geometry of extended field theories; double field theory and exceptional field theory. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that one can reproduce the conventional bosonic string/membrane actions, and the M5-brane action in the weak field approximation. At a glance, the proposed 5-brane action without approximation looks different from the known M5-brane actions, but it is consistent with the known non-linear self-duality relation, and it may provide a new formulation of a single M5-brane action. Actions for exotic branes are also discussed.

  15. Extended Diffraction Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Schlottmann, R B

    2009-01-01

    We present the development of extended diffraction tomography, a new approach to the solution of the linear seismic waveform inversion problem. This method has several appealing features, such as the use of arbitrary depth-dependent reference models and the decomposition of the full 2D or 3D inverse problem into a large number of independent 1D problems. This decomposition makes the method naturally highly parallelizable. Careful implementation yields significant robustness with respect to noise. Several synthetic examples are shown which characterize the benefits of our method and demonstrate the usefulness of choosing realistic 1D reference media.

  16. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  17. Milestones of Chemical Engineering Development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraste, M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Solving important problems of chemical and process industries stimulated the creation of a new scientific discipline, chemical engineering, which apart from other disciplines includes firm theoretical foundations, core subjects taught to entering students, widely adopted textbooks and journals. The new discipline, at the beginning of the 20th century, provided a way of analyzing the wide variety of processes in terms of small "unit operations". Later, the largely empirical approach of the unit operations was broadened by molecular explanations of macroscopic phenomena. It was not long before chemical engineering extended the operation approach to chemical reaction engineering. At the same time, process optimization prompted the system approach. Instead of looking for details, higher levels of organization were recognized by synthesis. The use of computers has become the key element in process modeling and control. The methods of chemical engineering have extended to other fields, while the discipline keeps the same basis and characteristics.The changes on the global market stimulate new trends in research and education. Product development has become an important segment of the discipline, which presumes an integrated approach to the phenomena and processes at different time and length levels following the possible transfer from molecule to product at process level.This paper mainly deals with the development of this discipline in Croatia, with a preview of the persons that contributed to the acceptance and propagation of the new concepts.

  18. Extended chameleon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.

  19. An Extended Lagrangian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A unique formulation of describing fluid motion is presented. The method, referred to as 'extended Lagrangian method,' is interesting from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The formulation offers accuracy in numerical solution by avoiding numerical diffusion resulting from mixing of fluxes in the Eulerian description. The present method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method have a similarity in spirit-eliminating the cross-streamline numerical diffusion. For this purpose, we suggest a simple grid constraint condition and utilize an accurate discretization procedure. This grid constraint is only applied to the transverse cell face parallel to the local stream velocity, and hence our method for the steady state problems naturally reduces to the streamline-curvature method, without explicitly solving the steady stream-coordinate equations formulated a priori. Unlike the Lagrangian method proposed by Loh and Hui which is valid only for steady supersonic flows, the present method is general and capable of treating subsonic flows and supersonic flows as well as unsteady flows, simply by invoking in the same code an appropriate grid constraint suggested in this paper. The approach is found to be robust and stable. It automatically adapts to flow features without resorting to clustering, thereby maintaining rather uniform grid spacing throughout and large time step. Moreover, the method is shown to resolve multi-dimensional discontinuities with a high level of accuracy, similar to that found in one-dimensional problems.

  20. Trace level determination of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in lanolin using gel permeation chromatography followed by dual gas chromatography and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometric confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Eric; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2002-03-15

    A methodology for multi-class pesticide determination at trace level in lanolin is presented. Gel permeation chromatography on a Bio-Beads SX-3 column followed by a dual GC chromatographic determination has been developed. The effluent of the analytical column (50% diphenyl-methyl- or 14% cyanopropyl-phenylpolysiloxane) was split into an electron-capture and a nitrogen-phosphorus detection system. The chromatographic system was optimised for 28 pesticides commonly used to control sheep pests and corresponding to organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyretroid classes. Identification has been carried out by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 94% and the detection limits from 20 to 97 ng/g depending on the pesticide class, the RSDs were below 10%. Finally, the developed analytical methodology has been successfully applied to the determination of pesticides in several lanolin samples. PMID:11990995

  1. Extended Power Up-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  2. HIFAR 1991 - extended shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) is a heavy water moderated and cooled, materials testing and research reactor producing a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1014 neutrons per square centimeter per second at a heat output of 10 megawatts. It is one of six similar research reactors designed in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and known as the DIDO class. HIFAR operates on a 28-day cycle - 24 days working and four days shutdown to carry out routine maintenance, check safety mechanisms and load fresh fuel. Rigorous maintenance, upgrading and refurbishment have been the key to keeping HIFAR in top condition. Another important factor has been the regular and very carefully implemented longer shutdowns for major maintenance and upgrading work. Top priorities for the 1991 extended shutdown summarized in this issue include: upgrading the total heavy water inventory, inspecting and cleaning the reactor main tank, installing three new collimators for neutron beam experiments and improving facilities for transmutation doped silicon production. The program also included improving the reactor's capabilities in neutron beam research and neutron transmutation doped silicon production. Further tasks carried out were cleaning and repair of main heat exchanger mesh screens and cleaning and painting the reactor plant room floor. Inspections performed in the 1991 have provided a much clearer picture of the condition of the reactor which have been under routine operation for 32 years. This work was aided greatly by remote camera surveillance techniques which have been refined and upgraded in the period since the last major shutdown. Live testing of the emergency core cooling system confirmed the efficacy of new developments in the emergency cooling. ills

  3. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS. PMID:11869820

  4. What Is Chemical Stoichiometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William R.; Missen, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical stoichiometry is discussed free from kinetic or thermodynamic considerations. The means for determining the following are presented: the number of stoichiometric degrees of freedom, the number of components, a permissible set of chemical equations, and a permissible set of components, for a closed system undergoing chemical reaction.…

  5. Predicion of Chemical Element Contents in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KESHAN-ZHE; QIANJUN-LONG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that the regularity for the dynamic changes of the chrono-sequences of chemical element contents in tree rings follows a k-order constant coefficient differential equation and substituting the differential with the difference,we could obtain the inferred value ym+k+1 by the formula:ym+k+1=c1ym+1+c2Ym+2+…ckym+kEach coefficient ci in the formula may be ascertained by use of the measured data in the chrono-sequences,Extending the chrono-sequences on the assumption that the regularity of dynamic changes wouldn't change in the near future,the contents of chemical elements in the soils may be predicted in terms of a logarithmic linear correlation model.Also,this extension method could be used for the reproduction of the contents of chemical elemets in soils during different periods of time in the past.

  6. Trigonometry in extended hyperbolic space and extended de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yunhi

    2007-01-01

    We study the hyperbolic cosine and sine laws in the extended hyperbolic space which contains hyperbolic space as a subset and is an analytic continuation of the hyperbolic space. And we also study the spherical cosine and sine laws in the extended de Sitter space which contains de Sitter Space $S^n_1$ as a subset and is also an analytic continuation of de Sitter space. In fact, the extended hyperbolic space and extended de Sitter space are the same space only differ by -1 multiple in the metric. Hence these two extended spaces clearly show and apparently explain that why many corresponding formulas in hyperbolic and spherical space are very similar each other. From these extended trigonometry laws, we can give a coherent and geometrically simple explanation for the various relations between the lengths and angles of hyperbolic polygons and relations on de Sitter polygons which lie on $S^2_1$.

  7. Point and extended defects in chemical vapour deposited diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homoepitaxially grown single crystal CVD diamond has a dislocation arrangement not seen in natural IIa diamond. Whereas in the latter, dislocations lie on (111) planes along [11-bar 0] directions, dislocations in CVD diamond lie nearly along the [001] growth axis and are arranged in bundles with almost four fold rotational symmetry. Their large strain is easily seen in birefringence and we model the arrangements in the bundle to account for the singular behaviour of the birefringence when the polarisers are rotated with respect to the crystal. The optical absorption spectrum of brown CVD diamond displays a continuum similar to that found in brown IIa natural diamonds but in addition broad point defect induced bands. We investigate the suggestion that the 2.38 eV (560 nm) peak is related to VNH. We suggest that the breadth of these bands is related to the large structural change when the defect is excited.

  8. Density fluctuations in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the density perturbation spectrum δρ/ρ in the extended inflationary model, in which the scalar curvature is coupled to a Brans-Dicke field. Through a conformal transformation and a redefinition of the Brans-Dicke field, the action of the theory is cast into a form with no coupling to the scalar curvature and a canonical kinetic term for the redefined field. Following Kolb, Salopek, and Turner, we calculate δρ/ρ using the transformed action and the standard recipe developed for conventional inflation. This recipe is expected to give a valid order-of-magnitude estimate, but a precise calculation would require a more careful treatment of several aspects of the problem. The spectrum behaves as a positive power of the wavelength, a feature that might be useful in building models to account for the observed large-scale structure of the universe. Our result for the overall amplitude of density perturbations differs slightly from that of the previous authors, and the reasons for these differences are discussed. We also point out that the conformal transformation method can be applied to a wider class of generalized gravity theories

  9. Extending the M inlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Rikkert; Hamilton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We consider improving P owheg+M inlo simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called M inlo ' programs. Whereas the existing M inlo ' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the M inlo ' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (H jj) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the H jj-M inlo simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, H j and H jj quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the potential of these ideas.

  10. Predicting Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification of drugs by integrating chemical-chemical interactions and similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification system, recommended by the World Health Organization, categories drugs into different classes according to their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. For a set of query compounds, how can we identify which ATC-class (or classes they belong to? It is an important and challenging problem because the information thus obtained would be quite useful for drug development and utilization. By hybridizing the informations of chemical-chemical interactions and chemical-chemical similarities, a novel method was developed for such purpose. It was observed by the jackknife test on a benchmark dataset of 3,883 drug compounds that the overall success rate achieved by the prediction method was about 73% in identifying the drugs among the following 14 main ATC-classes: (1 alimentary tract and metabolism; (2 blood and blood forming organs; (3 cardiovascular system; (4 dermatologicals; (5 genitourinary system and sex hormones; (6 systemic hormonal preparations, excluding sex hormones and insulins; (7 anti-infectives for systemic use; (8 antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents; (9 musculoskeletal system; (10 nervous system; (11 antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents; (12 respiratory system; (13 sensory organs; (14 various. Such a success rate is substantially higher than 7% by the random guess. It has not escaped our notice that the current method can be straightforwardly extended to identify the drugs for their 2(nd-level, 3(rd-level, 4(th-level, and 5(th-level ATC-classifications once the statistically significant benchmark data are available for these lower levels.

  11. Extendable self-avoiding walks

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmett, Geoffrey R.; Holroyd, Alexander E; Peres, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    The connective constant mu of a graph is the exponential growth rate of the number of n-step self-avoiding walks starting at a given vertex. A self-avoiding walk is said to be forward (respectively, backward) extendable if it may be extended forwards (respectively, backwards) to a singly infinite self-avoiding walk. It is called doubly extendable if it may be extended in both directions simultaneously to a doubly infinite self-avoiding walk. We prove that the connective constants for forward,...

  12. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  13. Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  14. Self-reported occupational exposure to chemical and physical factors and risk of skin problems: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Jose Hernan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Tynes, Tore; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Johannessen, Håkon A

    2015-11-01

    Prospective studies on occupational dermatoses in the general working population are sparse. This study investigated prospectively the impact of self-reported occupational exposure to chemicals and physical factors on the risk of skin problems. The cohort comprised respondents drawn randomly from the general population in Norway, who were registered employed in 2006 and 2009 (n = 6,745). Indoor dry air (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.6) was a significant baseline predictor of skin problems at follow-up, whereas exposure to cleaning products (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.5), water (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and indoor dry air (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.1) at both measurement time-points was significantly associated with skin problems. The population risk attributable to these factors was 16%. This study quantified the contribution of occupational exposure factors to skin problems in the general working population of Norway. PMID:25941012

  15. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  16. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  17. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  18. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Study of spatially extended dynamical systems using probabilistic cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanag, Vladimir K.

    1999-05-01

    Spatially extended dynamical systems are ubiquitous and include such things as insect and animal populations; complex chemical, technological, and geochemical processes; humanity itself, and much more. It is clearly desirable to have a certain universal tool with which the highly complex behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems can be analyzed and modelled. For this purpose, cellular automata seem to be good candidates. In the present review, emphasis is placed on the possibilities that various types of probabilistic cellular automata (PCA), such as DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) and LGCA (lattice-gas cellular automata), offer. The methods are primarily designed for modelling spatially extended dynamical systems with inner fluctuations accounted for. For the Willamowskii-Roessler and Oregonator models, PCA applications to the following problems are illustrated: the effect of fluctuations on the dynamics of nonlinear systems; Turing structure formation; the effect of hydrodynamic modes on the behaviour of nonlinear chemical systems (stirring effects); bifurcation changes in the dynamical regimes of complex systems with restricted geometry or low spatial dimension; and the description of chemical systems in microemulsions.

  19. Extend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    BBC的“广播可视化试验”进入第二阶段,继添加网络影像(webcam)、图片后,更加入演奏和艺术家信息,新闻和运动投稿到BBC的流行广播节目。这一试验将持续到7月31号.并由BBC5频道的Simon Mayo现场秀节目率先运行.然后扩展(Extend)到包括BBC1频道.

  20. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  1. Scalar potentials in extended supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on scalar potentials in extended supergravities is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. It is shown that in extended supergravities the overall scalar potentials can be written as a sum of squares of boosted structure constants of the gauge group K, which is a subgroup of the isometry group G of the corresponding σ-model over G/H (H is a subgroup of G). (U.K.)

  2. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  3. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and buy only as much as needed. Many household products are made of toxic chemicals. It is important ... follow label instructions, including any precautions. Never store household products in food or drink containers. Leave them in ...

  4. Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE's environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous

  5. Chemical Structure and Dynamics annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, S.D.; McDowell, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS and D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of-the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. The authors respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by: (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interfacial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in environmental chemistry and in nuclear waste processing and storage; and (3) developing state-of-the-art analytical methods for characterizing complex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. The focus of the research is defined primarily by DOE`s environmental problems: fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface environment, processing and storage of waste materials, cellular effects of chemical and radiological insult, and atmospheric chemistry as it relates to air quality and global change. Twenty-seven projects are described under the following topical sections: Reaction mechanisms at interfaces; High-energy processes at environmental interfaces; Cluster models of the condensed phase; and Miscellaneous.

  6. A New Mathematical Formulation of the Governing Equations for the Chemical Compositional Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bekbauov, Bakhbergen E; Berdyshev, Abdumauvlen

    2015-01-01

    It is the purpose of this work to develop new approach for chemical compositional reservoir simulation, which may be regarded as a sequential method. The development process can be roughly divided into the following two stages: (1) development of a new mathematical formulation for the sequential chemical compositional reservoir simulation, (2) implementation of a sequential solution approach for chemical compositional reservoir simulation based on the formulation described in this paper. This paper addresses the first stage of the development process by presenting a new mathematical formulation of the chemical compositional reservoir flow equations for the sequential simulation. The newly developed mathematical formulation is extended from the model formulation used in existing chemical compositional simulators. During the model development process, it was discovered that the currently used chemical compositional model estimates the adsorption effect on the transport of a component reasonably well but it viol...

  7. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics is investigated by analytically continuing the wave function in polar form into the complex plane. We derive the complex-extended version of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the continuity equation in Bohmian mechanics. Complex-extended Bohmian mechanics recovers the standard real-valued Bohmian mechanics on the real axis. The trajectories on the real axis are in accord with the standard real-valued Bohmian trajectories. The trajectories launched away from the real axis never intersect the real axis, and they display symmetry with respect to the real axis. Trajectories display hyperbolic deflection around nodes of the wave function in the complex plane. PMID:20387916

  8. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  9. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  10. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions are exposed. These examples will illustrate the notions introduced in another paper but at the same time they have a significance as realizations of some Schwartz disctibutions: delta(x), H(x), P(1/xsup(n)), etc. The important thing is that the asymptotic functions of these examples (which, on their part, are realizations of the above-mentioned distributions) can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. Some properties of the set of all extended asymptotic functions are considered which are essential for the next step of this approach

  11. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk......-taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from the...

  12. WFRC patrners: our extended family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2007-01-01

    For more than five decades the Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has worked with partners to provide research findings to managers of aquatic resources. Those partners form an extended family, a network of clients, colleagues, co-investigators, and customers. Our partners include numerous clients in other Department of Interior bureaus such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, and the National Park Service. But there is much more--we have partners in other federal agencies, state agencies, and universities. The extended family includes tribal governments, and non-government organizations such as the Nature Conservancy and the Lower Columbia River Estuary Program.

  13. Hyperpolarizabilities of extended molecular mechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harczuk, Ignat; Vahtras, Olav; Ågren, Hans

    2016-03-16

    We propose and evaluate algorithms for the calculation of molecular polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of extended chemical systems. These algorithms are generalizations of the Silberstein-Applequist procedure involving interacting induced classical dipoles through the localized polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. The models are evaluated in terms of interacting molecular units as well as interacting atomic units that result from the atomic decomposition scheme known as the LoProp transformation. We introduce a generalized LoProp scheme which applies to hyperpolarizabilities as well as to polarizabilities. The accuracy of the second-order Applequist method is tested for the first hyperpolarizability for the TIP3P water model using both Hartree-Fock and density functional theory evaluated with different basis sets. Possible applications and ramifications of the scheme are discussed. PMID:26954519

  14. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  15. Extended time-interval analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Riisager, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several extensions of the halflife analysis method recently suggested by Horvat and Hardy are put forward. Goodness-of-fit testing is included, and the method is extended to cases where more information is available for each decay event which allows applications also for e.g. γ decay data. The re...

  16. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  17. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  18. Lightweight extendable and retractable pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lightweight extendable and retractable telescopic pole is disclosed comprising a plurality of non-metallic telescoping cylinders with sliding and sealing surfaces between the cylinders, a first plug member on the upper end of the smallest cylinder, and a second plug member on the lower end of the largest cylinder, whereby fluid pressure admitted to the largest cylinder will cause the telescoping cylinders to slide relative to one another causing the pole to extend. An elastomeric member connects the first plug member with one of the intermediate cylinders to urge the cylinders back into a collapsed position when the fluid pressure in the cylinders is vented. Annular elastomer members are provided which seal one cylinder to another when the pole is fully extended and further serve to provide a cushion to prevent damage to the cylinders when the pole is urged back into its retractable position by the elastomeric members and the venting of the pressure. A value mechanism associated with the pole is provided to admit a fluid under pressure to the interior of the telescoping cylinders of the pole while pressurizing a pressure relief port having an opening larger than the inlet port in a closed position whereby removal of the pressure on the relief port will cause the relief port to open to quickly lower the pressure in the interior of the telescoping cylinders to thereby assist in the rapid retraction of the extended pole. 18 figs

  19. Offshore Extended Drillstem Testing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Hao

    1995-01-01

    @@ Bohai Corp. of CNOOC has started to study and working out the offshore extended drillstem testing system(OEDST) since 1991. Now the OEDST is worked out successfully, and approved on Feb. 15,1995. OEDST has some advantages, such as simple overall program and technological process,multiple and simple operation, easy for transporation ,and low cost with efficient result.

  20. Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toppan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work covers part of the material presented at the Advanced Summer School in Prague. It is mostly devoted to the structural properties of Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension. Several results are presented on the classification of linear, irreducible representations realized on a finite number of time-dependent fields. The connections between supersymmetry transformations, Clifford algebras and division algebras are discussed. A manifestly supersymmetric framework for constructing invariants without using the notion of superfields is presented. A few examples of one-dimensional, N-extended, off-shell invariant sigma models are computed. The relation between supersymmetry transformations and graph theory is outlined. The notion of the fusion algebra of irreps tensor products is presented. The relevance of one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as a way to extract information on higher dimensional supersymmetric field theories is discussed. 

  1. The Web-extended mind

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and penetration of the Web raises important questions about its effects, not just on our social activities, but also on the nature of our cognitive and epistemic profiles. The extended mind hypothesis may be particularly well-suited to addressing these questions because it encourages us to think about the way in which much of our cognitive success is grounded in processing loops that factor in the contributions of our extra-neural social and technological environments. When a...

  2. Extended Measures of Capital Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Selaive; Beatriz Velásquez; José Miguel Villena

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we extend de jure measures of capital account restrictions previously assembled by Miniane (2004) to a set of 181 economies for the period 1996-2005. Additionally, we propose two new measures of capital account restrictions. The first excludes prudential regulation and the second weights the indices by a proxy for the enforcement of capital restrictions. We analyze global tendencies and the process of capital account liberalization in Chile. For the group of economies, we observ...

  3. Extending minkowski norm illuminant estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso Rey, Perla

    2012-01-01

    The ability to obtain colour images invariant to changes of illumination is called colour constancy. An algorithm for colour constancy takes sensor responses - digital images - as input, estimates the ambient light and returns a corrected image in which the illuminant influence over the colours has been removed. In this thesis we investigate the step of illuminant estimation for colour constancy and aim to extend the state of the art in this field. We first revisit the Minko...

  4. Determination of chemical oxygen demand in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples using a novel method combining solid dilutions as a preparation step followed by optimized closed reflux and colorimetric measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Noguerol Arias, Joan; Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Romero, Eva; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an innovative sample preparation method for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in heterogeneous solid or semisolid samples, with high suspended solids and COD concentrations, using an optimized closed re flux colorimetric method.

  5. Dust as interstellar catalyst I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    CERN Document Server

    Minissale, M; Cazaux, S; Hocuk, S

    2015-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV and CR induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims. The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included into astrochemical models. Methods. We present a collection of experimental results of more than 10 reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice are used. We derive a formula to reproduce the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process, which considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II we extend these resul...

  6. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  7. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  8. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  9. Hamiltonian formalism of extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) system, including the Hall effect and the electron inertia effect, has a Hamiltonian structure embodied by a noncanonical Poisson algebra on an infinite-dimensional phase space. A nontrivial part of the formulation is the proof of Jacobi's identity for the Poisson bracket. We unearth a basic Lie algebra that generates the Poisson bracket. A class of similar Poisson algebra may be generated by the same Lie algebra, which encompasses the Hall MHD system and inertial MHD system. (paper)

  10. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  11. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  12. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  13. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  14. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  15. Chemical machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yardimeden

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials. Advantages and disadvantages of the chemical machining are mentioned.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, chemical machining process was described its importance as nontraditional machining process. The steps of process were discussed in detail. The tolerances of machined parts were examined.Findings: Paper describes the chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and machined materials.Practical implications: The machining operation should be carried out carefully to produce a desired geometry. Environmental laws have important effects when chemical machining is used.Originality/value: The importance of nontraditional machining processes is very high.

  16. Chemical Leukoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Romita, Paolo; Filoni, Angela; Foti, Caterina; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, is an acquired form of cutaneous pigment loss caused by exposure to a variety of chemicals that act through selective melanocytotoxicity. Most of these chemicals are phenols and aromatic or aliphatic catechols derivatives. These chemicals, however, are harmful for melanocytes in individuals with an individual susceptibility. Nowadays, chemical leukoderma is fairly common, caused by common domestic products. The presence of numerous acquired confetti- or pea-sized macules is clinically characteristic of chemical leukoderma, albeit not diagnostic. Other relevant diagnostic elements are a history of repeated exposure to a known or suspected depigmenting agent at the sites of onset and a macules distribution corresponding to sites of chemical exposure. Spontaneous repigmentation has been reported when the causative agent is avoided; the repigmentation process is perifollicular and gradual, taking place for a variable period of weeks to months. PMID:27172302

  17. Extended Ehrenfest theorem with radiative corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, L.; Cetto, A. M.; Valdés-Hernández, A.

    2015-10-01

    A set of basic evolution equations for the mean values of dynamical variables is obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation applied to the general problem of a particle subject to a random force. The specific case of stochastic electrodynamics is then considered, in which the random force is due to the zero-point radiation field. Elsewhere it has been shown that when this system reaches a state of energy balance, it becomes controlled by an equation identical to Schrödinger’s, if the radiationless approximation is made. The Fokker-Planck equation was shown to lead to the Ehrenfest theorem under such an approximation. Here we show that when the radiative terms are not neglected, an extended form of the Ehrenfest equation is obtained, from which follow, among others, the correct formulas for the atomic lifetimes and the (nonrelativistic) Lamb shift.

  18. An extended formulation of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended Lorentz invariant formulation of Maxwell's equations is presented which both includes time dependent and steady-state solutions. In this approach the charge and current densities are treated as intrinsic properties of the electromagnetic field itself, in vacuo. Two main results follow from such an approach. First, a longitudinal electric wave is predicted to propagate in vacuo. Second, an axially symmetric steady state can be outlined in which 'self-confined' electromagnetic radiation circulates in closed orbits around the axis of symmetry. For this state values are obtained of the charge, the spin, and the product between magnetic moment and mass which are of the same order of magnitude as those observed for some elementary particles such as the proton and electron. Consequently, this may provide certain areas of conventional elementary particle analysis with some complementary ideas. Whether the predicted new phenomena also correspond to physical realities is so far an open question which requires further investigation. With 6 refs. (Author)

  19. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ($C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incorporate the lines, areas, volumes,.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane,... dynamics of $p$-loops (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations ...

  20. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...

  1. Extendability of parallel sections in vector bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    I address the following question: Given a differentiable manifold M, what are the open subsets U of M such that, for all vector bundles E over M and all linear connections ∇ on E, any ∇-parallel section in E defined on U extends to a ∇-parallel section in E defined on M? For simply connected manifolds M (among others) I describe the entirety of all such sets U which are, in addition, the complement of a C1 submanifold, boundary allowed, of M. This delivers a partial positive answer to a problem posed by Antonio J. Di Scala and Gianni Manno (2014). Furthermore, in case M is an open submanifold of Rn, n ≥ 2, I prove that the complement of U in M, not required to be a submanifold now, can have arbitrarily large n-dimensional Lebesgue measure.

  2. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities are...... highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework with the...

  3. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  4. Modern Thermodynamics Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jitao

    2012-01-01

    "Modern Thermodynamics- Based on the Extended Carnot Theorem" provides comprehensive definitions and mathematical expressions of both classical and modern thermodynamics. The goal is to develop the fundamental theory on an extended Carnot theorem without incorporating any extraneous assumptions. In particular, it offers a fundamental thermodynamic and calculational methodology for the synthesis of low-pressure diamonds. It also discusses many "abnormal phenomena", such as spiral reactions, cyclic reactions, chemical oscillations, low-pressure carat-size diamond growth, biological systems, and more. The book is intended for chemists and physicists working in thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, phase diagrams, biochemistry and complex systems, as well as graduate students in these fields. Jitao Wang is a professor emeritus at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

  5. Pinosylvin-Based Polymers: Biodegradable Poly(Anhydride-Esters) for Extended Release of Antibacterial Pinosylvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Aime, Stephan; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    Pinosylvin is a natural stilbenoid known to exhibit antibacterial bioactivity against foodborne bacteria. In this work, pinosylvin is chemically incorporated into a poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) backbone via melt-condensation polymerization, and characterized with respect to its physicochemical and thermal properties. In vitro release studies demonstrate that pinosylvin-based PAEs hydrolytically degrade over 40 d to release pinosylvin. Pseudo-first order kinetic experiments on model compounds, butyric anhydride and 3-butylstilbene ester, indicate that the anhydride linkages hydrolyze first, followed by the ester bonds to ultimately release pinosylvin. An antibacterial assay shows that the released pinosylvin exhibit bioactivity, while in vitro cytocompatibility studies demonstrate that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. These preliminary findings suggest that the pinosylvin-based PAEs can serve as food preservatives in food packaging materials by safely providing antibacterial bioactivity over extended time periods. PMID:27071713

  6. Firm Growth Function and Extended-Gibrat’s Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atushi Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically show that the logarithmic average sales of firms first follow power-law growth and subsequently follow exponential growth, if the growth-rate distributions of the sales obey the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law. Here, the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law are statistically observed in short-term data, which denote the dependence of the growth-rate distributions on the initial values. In the derivation, we analytically show that the parameter of the extended-Gibrat’s property is identical to the power-law growth exponent and that it also decides the parameter of the exponential growth. By employing around one million bits of exhaustive sales data of Japanese firms in the ORBIS database, we confirmed our analytic results.

  7. Application of activated sludge process followed by physical-chemical processes in the treatment of industrial saline effluent for reuse - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13006

    OpenAIRE

    Milene Carvalho Bongiovani; Márcia Dezotti; Geraldo André Thurler Fontoura

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of complex effluent with high salinity and sometimes with toxicity rates from a chemical plant is investigated. Two reactors were monitored continuously: control reactor R1 and reactor R2 adapted for saline effluent with 25h-HRT. The adaptation process to saline effluent (0 - 100%) was effective in removing COD and N-NH4+, respectively with 70 and 85% efficiency. After adaptation, the sequence coagulation/flocculation (40 mg L-1 PAC coagulant and 0.3 mg L-1 cationic polymer), ra...

  8. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  9. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  10. Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joshua A; Thompson, Amber L; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2016-05-11

    We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic-organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden-Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759

  11. Stellar structures in Extended Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, S.; De Laurentis, M.

    2016-09-01

    Stellar structures are investigated by considering the modified Lané-Emden equation coming out from Extended Gravity. In particular, this equation is obtained in the Newtonian limit of f ( R) -gravity by introducing a polytropic relation between the pressure and the density into the modified Poisson equation. The result is an integro-differential equation, which, in the limit f ( R) → R , becomes the standard Lané-Emden equation usually adopted in the stellar theory. We find the radial profiles of gravitational potential by solving for some values of the polytropic index. The solutions are compatible with those coming from General Relativity and could be physically relevant in order to address peculiar and extremely massive objects.

  12. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a...... supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter...... calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course...

  13. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  14. XHIP: An extended hipparcos compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E.; Francis, Ch.

    2012-05-01

    We present the Extended Hipparcos Compilation (XHIP), a database of all stars in the New Reduction of the Hipparcos Catalog extensively cross-referenced with data from a broad survey of presently available sources. The resulting collection uniquely assigns 116 096 spectral classifications, 46 392 radial velocities, and 18 549 homogenized iron abundances [Fe/H] to Hipparcos stars. Stellar classifications from SIMBAD, indications of multiplicity from CCDM or WDS, stellar ages from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey III, supplemental photometry from 2MASS and SIMBAD, and identifications of exoplanet host stars are also included. Parameters for solar encounters and Galactic orbits are calculated for a kinematically complete subset. Kinetic bias is found to be minimal. Our compilation is available through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg as Catalog V/137A.

  15. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    CERN Document Server

    Capovilla, R; Rojas, E; Capovilla, Riccardo; Guven, Jemal; Rojas, Efrain

    2004-01-01

    We consider a relativistic extended object described by a reparametrization invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behavior under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  16. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo N. Costa Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  17. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Braga, João P. M.; Lira, Jorge H. S.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-04-01

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  18. Extended optical model for fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for U,235234(n ,f ) , while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n ,f ) reactions. The 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for U,238235(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. The extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  19. International conference on matrix isolation spectroscopy. Extended Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    Seventy-five extended abstracts are arranged under the following headings: generation of reactive species and their isolation in matrices, spectra of metal atoms and cluster formation, stable molecules in matrices, Raman- and IR-spectroscopy, high-temperature molecules, reactive matrices, relaxation phenomena studied in matrices, and physical properties of matrices. (DLC)

  20. 76 FR 81897 - TRICARE; Extended Care Health Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Development Disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, , or a superseding... such exists. Following publication of the ``Notice'' in the Federal Register on December 4, 2007 (72 FR..., 2010 (75 FR 8927) the Demonstration was extended until March 14, 2012, under the same terms...

  1. Chemical networks*

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Wing-Fai

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One o...

  2. Extended Executive Information System (EEIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacheva, Todorka

    2004-01-01

    In the following paper a new class of executive information system is suggested. It is based on a selforganization in management and on a module modeling. The system is multifunctional and multidisciplinary. The structure elements of the system and the common features of the modules are discussed.

  3. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  4. Chemical machining

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yardimeden; T. Ozben; O. Cakir

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nontraditional machining processes are widely used to manufacture geometrically complex and precision parts for aerospace, electronics and automotive industries. There are different geometrically designed parts, such as deep internal cavities, miniaturized microelectronics and fine quality components may only be produced by nontraditional machining processes. This paper is aiming to give details of chemical machining process, industrial applications, applied chemical etchants and mac...

  5. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suk; Jerjen, Helmut; Lisker, Thorsten; Sung, Eon-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong

    2014-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg^2 or 60.1 Mpc^2. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 kms^-1. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been missed in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies of which 676 galaxies are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of opti...

  6. Extending the Relativity of Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 100 years ago, Einstein's special relativity demonstrated that time is a relative notion. The observed rate of a moving clock differs from the rate of a stationary clock. In fact, the observed rate depends on the clock's velocity. All admissible velocities are bounded by the speed of light. These predictions of special relativity have been verified experimentally in several different ways. It is natural to ask whether acceleration also influences the observed rate of a moving clock in addition to the influence due to its velocity. Today, there are several existing experimental techniques to test whether acceleration influences the observed rate of a clock. We introduce here an extension of special relativity, which we call extended relativity (ER), by assuming that acceleration effects the observed rate of a clock. We derive transformations between uniformly accelerated systems in ER. We show that ER predicts that there is a maximal acceleration. We obtain relativistic dynamics in ER. We show that Kundig's 1963 experiment indicates that acceleration does influence the rate of a clock, supporting the ER model and providing an estimate for the maximal acceleration. We will present an upcoming experiment which is designed to test whether acceleration influences the rate of a clock, and to determine the value of the maximal acceleration. A map for physics under ER will be presented. We will show how ER handles black-body radiation and some quantum properties of a Hydrogen-like atom.

  7. Pair extended coupled cluster doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreoever, pEC...

  8. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  9. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel, O.; Fuchs, B.

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is show...

  10. Chemical Radioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Upadhyay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systemsfrom radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion,antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.

  11. CPHD filter derivation for extended targets

    OpenAIRE

    Orguner, Umut

    2010-01-01

    This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.

  12. Extending Fourier transformations to Hamilton's quaternions and Clifford's geometric algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-10-01

    We show how Fourier transformations can be extended to Hamilton's algebra of quaternions. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions is only one example of the larger class of Clifford's geometric algebras, complete algebras encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. We introduce how Fourier transformations are extended to Clifford algebras and applied in electromagnetism, and in the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data.

  13. Spent HIFAR fuel elements behaviour under extended dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously unpublished observations of the behaviour of HIFAR spent fuel under extended dry storage conditions are reported. The two fuel elements EC802 (Mark III type) were irradiated in 1966, first examined in hot cells in 1967 and again examined in hot cells in 1983 following 16 years of stage, 11 years of which were in the ANSTO engineered dry storage facility. The elements showed negligible deterioration over this extended dry storage period, lending considerable confidence to the viability of dry storage technologies for the long term storage of spent aluminium clad research reactor fuels. 1 tab., 1 fig., 17 ills

  14. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Application of activated sludge process followed by physical-chemical processes in the treatment of industrial saline effluent for reuse - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Carvalho Bongiovani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of complex effluent with high salinity and sometimes with toxicity rates from a chemical plant is investigated. Two reactors were monitored continuously: control reactor R1 and reactor R2 adapted for saline effluent with 25h-HRT. The adaptation process to saline effluent (0 - 100% was effective in removing COD and N-NH4+, respectively with 70 and 85% efficiency. After adaptation, the sequence coagulation/flocculation (40 mg L-1 PAC coagulant and 0.3 mg L-1 cationic polymer, rapid downflow sand filter (120 m3 m-2 day and reverse osmosis to obtain water for reuse was analyzed. Results obtained by coagulation/flocculation and sand filter sequence were satisfactory, mainly with the removal rates of turbidity at 50-65 and 98%, respectively. Average removals of 91, 87, 98 and 98% were obtained for COD, N-NH4+, TOC and Cl-, respectively, in reverse osmosis, with all parameters below the limits for reuse in cooling towers. However, membrane fouling was detected.  

  16. Fast throughput determination of 21 allergenic disperse dyes from river water using reusable three-dimensional interconnected magnetic chemically modified graphene oxide followed by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Shan-Shan; Zhan, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jun-Chao; Xu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-01-29

    We report the template-free fabrication of three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures, i.e., three-dimensional interconnected magnetic chemically modified graphene oxide (3D-Mag-CMGO), through a simple and low-cost self-assembly process using one-pot reaction based on solvothermal method. The excellent properties of the 3D-Mag-CMGO are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR, elementary analyzer (EA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The easiness-to-handle of the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (Mag-dSPE) procedure is developed for preconcentration of 21 allergenic disperse dyes from river water. The obtained results show the higher extraction capacity of 3D-Mag-CMGO with recoveries between 80.0-112.0%. Furthermore, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for determination of 21 allergenic disperse dyes in river at sub-ppt levels has been developed with pretreatment of the samples by Mag-dSPE. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the allergenic disperse dyes are between 0.57-34.05ng/L. Validation results on linearity, specificity, trueness and precision, as well as on application to the analysis of 21 allergenic disperse dyes in fifty real samples demonstrate the applicability to environment monitoring analysis. PMID:26777090

  17. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  18. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  19. Part-per-trillion level determination of antifouling pesticides and their byproducts in seawater samples by off-line solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K; Ferrer, I; Barceló, D

    2000-05-19

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of antifouling pesticides and some of their byproducts such as dichlofluanid, diuron and its byproducts [demethyldiuron and 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea], (2-thiocyanomethylthio)ben: zothiazole, chlorothalonil, Sea-nine 211, Irgarol 1051 and one of its byproducts (2-methylthio-4-tert.-butylamino-s-triazine) in seawater was developed. The extraction of these compounds from the filtered seawater samples was performed off-line with different solid-phase extraction sorbents using (I) a 500 mg graphitized carbon black cartridge (ENVI-Carb) and (II) 200 mg polymeric cartridges (LiChrolut EN and Isolute ENV+) and passing 500 ml of the sample through these cartridges. The detection was carried out by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry both in the negative and positive ion modes. The recovery ranged from 76 to 96% for the whole antifouling group with the ENVI-Carb cartridges and the detection limit was at the part-per-trillion level except for TCMTB. The method utilizing the polymeric cartridge proved to be very useful, time saving and with good recoveries when only Irgarol and its byproduct, Sea-nine 211 and diuron and its byproducts, have to be analyzed. The different cartridges were applied to the analysis of these pesticides in different marinas of the Catalan coast; diuron, dichlofluanid, Sea-nine 211, Irgarol as well as demethyldiuron and the Irgarol byproduct being the must ubiquitous pollutants. Maximum concentration levels were 2-3.5 microg/l of diuron and Sea-nine 211, respectively. PMID:10870693

  20. Unnecessary Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  1. Chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of chemical kinetics. It starts summary of chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism, and explains basic velocity law, experiment method for determination of reaction velocity, temperature dependence of reaction velocity, theory of reaction velocity, theory on reaction of unimolecular, process of atom and free radical, reaction in solution, catalysis, photochemical reaction, such as experiment and photochemical law and rapid reaction like flame, beam of molecule and shock tube.

  2. Effects of motivation on car-following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesser, T.

    1982-01-01

    Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

  3. Calculations of NMR chemical shifts with APW-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Robert; Blaha, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a full potential, all electron augmented plane wave (APW) implementation of first-principles calculations of NMR chemical shifts. In order to obtain the induced current we follow a perturbation approach [Pickard and Mauri, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.63.245101 63, 245101 (2001)] and extended the common APW + local orbital (LO) basis by several LOs at higher energies. The calculated all-electron current is represented in traditional APW manner as Fourier series in the interstitial region and with a spherical harmonics representation inside the nonoverlapping atomic spheres. The current is integrated using a “pseudocharge” technique. The implementation is validated by comparison of the computed chemical shifts with some “exact” results for spherical atoms and for a set of solids and molecules with available published data.

  4. Quantum Potential and Symmetries in Extended Phase Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadollah Nasiri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the quantum potential is studied for a particle in a linear and a harmonic potential by means of an extended phase space technique. This is done by obtaining an expression for the quantum potential in momentum space representation followed by the generalization of this concept to extended phase space. It is shown that there exists an extended canonical transformation that removes the expression for the quantum potential in the dynamical equation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates that changes the physical potential to an effective one. The representation where the quantum potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form, is one in which the dynamical equation turns out to be the Wigner equation.

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  7. Chemical interaction between undamaged plants

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood, Robert; Ninkovic, Velemir; Pettersson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Most research on plant–plant chemical interactions has focussed on events following herbivore or pathogen attack. However, undamaged plants also interact chemically as a natural facet of their behaviour, and this may have consequences for insects that use the plants as hosts. In this review, the links between allelopathy and insect behaviour are outlined. Findings on how chemical interactions between different plant species and genotypes affect aphid herbivores and their natural e...

  8. Hybrid strategies for nanolithography and chemical patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Charan

    Remarkable technological advances in photolithography have extended patterning to the sub-50-nm regime. However, because photolithography is a top-down approach, it faces substantial technological and economic challenges in maintaining the downward scaling trends of feature sizes below 30 nm. Concurrently, fundamental research on chemical self-assembly has enabled the path to access molecular length scales. The key to the success of photolithography is its inherent economies of scale, which justify the large capital investment for its implementation. In this thesis research, top-down and bottom-up approaches have been combined synergistically, and these hybrid strategies have been employed in applications that do not have the economies of scale found in semiconductor chip manufacturing. The specific instances of techniques developed here include molecular-ruler lithography and a series of nanoscale chemical patterning methods. Molecular-ruler lithography utilizes self-assembled multilayered films as a sidewall spacer on initial photolithographically patterned gold features (parent) to place a second-generation feature (daughter) in precise proximity to the parent. The parent-daughter separation, which is on the nanometer length scale, is defined by the thickness of the molecular-ruler resist. Analogous to protocols followed in industry to evaluate lithographic performance, electrical test-pad structures were designed to interrogate the nanostructures patterned by molecular-ruler nanolithography, failure modes creating electrical shorts were mapped to each lithographic step, and subsequent lithographic optimization was performed to pattern nanoscale devices with excellent electrical performance. The optimized lithographic processes were applied to generate nanoscale devices such as nanowires and thin-film transistors (TFTs). Metallic nanowires were patterned by depositing a tertiary generation material in the nanogap and surrounding micron-scale regions, and then

  9. Dust as interstellar catalyst. I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.; Cazaux, S.; Hocuk, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV- and cosmic-ray-induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included in astrochemical models. Methods: We present a collection of experimental results of more than ten reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice were used. We derived a formula for reproducing the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process that considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II of this study we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results: The equipartition of energy correctly describes the chemical desorption process on bare surfaces. On icy surfaces, the chemical desorption process is much less efficient, and a better description of the interaction with the surface is still needed. Conclusions: We show that the mechanism that directly transforms solid species into gas phase species is efficient for many reactions.

  10. Positive mass theorem in extended supergravities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nozawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Witten–Nester formalism, we present a useful prescription using Weyl spinors towards the positivity of mass. As a generalization of arXiv:1310.1663, we show that some “positivity conditions” must be imposed upon the gauge connections appearing in the supercovariant derivative acting on spinors. A complete classification of the connection fulfilling the positivity conditions is given. It turns out that these positivity conditions are indeed satisfied for a number of extended supergravity theories. It is shown that the positivity property holds for the Einstein-complex scalar system, provided that the target space is Hodge–Kähler and the potential is expressed in terms of the superpotential. In the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theory with a dilaton potential, the dilaton coupling function and the superpotential are fixed by the positive mass property. We also explore the N=8 gauged supergravity and demonstrate that the positivity of the mass holds independently of the gaugings and the deformation parameters.

  11. Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2014-01-01

    HAZOP studies are widely accepted in chemical and petroleum industries as the method for conducting process hazard analysis related to design, maintenance and operation of th e systems. In this paper, a HAZOP reasoning method based on function-oriented modelling, multilevel flow modelling (MFM) is...... extended with functi on roles to complete HAZOP studies in principle. A graphical MFM editor, which is combined with the reasoning engine (MFM Workbench) developed by DTU is applied to automate HAZOP studies. The method is proposed to suppor t the ‘brain-storming’ sessions in traditional HAZOP analysis. As...... a case study, the extended MFM-based HAZOP methodology is applied to an o ffshore three-phase separation process. The results show that the cause-consequence analysis in MFM can infer the cause and effect of a deviation used in HAZOP and used to fill HAZOP worksheet. This paper is the first pa per...

  12. Two Methods for Extending Quantum Key Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Min; LIAO Chang-jun; LIU Song-hao

    2006-01-01

    Because the rates of quantum key distribution systems are too low,the interleaving technique and interpolation technique are used to extend the capacity of the quantum key warehouse to increase the quantum key rates of quantum secure communication systems. the simulation technique can extend random sequences and that their randomness are invariable. The correlative theory and technique of digital singal processing is an effective method of extending the quantum dey warehouse.

  13. The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.

    1998-01-01

    Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.

  14. Correlation functions for extended mass galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Naseer; Hamid, Mubashir; Masood, Tabasum

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of clustering of galaxies on the basis of correlation functions in an expanding Universe is studied by using equation of state, taking gravitational interaction between galaxies of extended nature into consideration. The partial differential equation for the extended mass structures of a two-point correlation function developed earlier by Iqbal, Ahmad and Khan is studied on the basis of assigned boundary conditions. The solution for the correlation function for extended structures satisfies the basic boundary conditions, which seem to be sufficient for understanding the phenomena, and provides a new insight into the gravitational clustering problem for extended mass structures.

  15. Chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Wing-Fai

    2015-09-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental ideas of how chemical networks are build, their strengths and limitations. The chemical reactions that occur in disks combine the cold phase reactions used to model cold molecular clouds with the hot chemistry applied to planetary atmosphere models. With a general understanding of the different types of reactions that can occur, one can proceed in building a network of chemical reactions and use it to explain the abundance of species seen in disks. One on-going research subject is finding new paths to synthesize species either in the gas-phase or on grain surfaces. Specific formation routes for water or carbon monoxide are discussed in more details. 13th Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  16. Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schroedinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given

  17. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina;

    Even though most chemicals regulation is still conducted on a chemical by chemical basis, mixture toxicity is achieving increasing attention. The scientific understanding has increased substantially in the last decades, and a general consensus now seems to have been acieved that concentration...... addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing the...... likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  19. Chemical pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Andreas; Amstutz, Nahid; Delahaye, Sandra; Sadki, Asmaâ; Schenker, Sabine; Sieber, Regula; Zerara, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    The physical and photophysical properties of three classic transition metal complexes, namely [Fe(bpy)3]2+, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, and [Co(bpy)3]2+, can be tuned by doping them into a variety of inert crystalline host lattices. The underlying guest-host interactions are discussed in terms of a chemical pressure.

  20. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  1. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  2. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  3. Semi-continuous and multigroup models in extended kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Koller, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study energy discretization of the Boltzmann equation in the framework of extended kinetic theory. In case that external fields can be neglected, the semi- continuous Boltzmann equation yields a sound basis for various generalizations. Semi-continuous kinetic equations describing a three component gas mixture interacting with monochromatic photons as well as a four component gas mixture undergoing chemical reactions are established and investigated. These equations reflect all major aspects (conservation laws, equilibria, H-theorem) of the full continuous kinetic description. For the treatment of the spatial dependence, an expansion of the distribution function in terms of Legendre polynomials is carried out. An implicit finite differencing scheme is combined with the operator splitting method. The obtained numerical schemes are applied to the space homogeneous study of binary chemical reactions and to spatially one-dimensional laser-induced acoustic waves. In the presence of exte...

  4. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects. PMID:26948730

  5. Lévy Bases and Extended Subordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole

    The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields....

  6. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...

  7. Chemical Graph Theory--The Mathematical Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Ivan

    The impact that research done in chemical graph theory (CGT) had and has on "serious" or "pure" mathematics is examined. Although this impact is minor, it is not fully negligible. By means of two case studies we intend to demonstrate the following general features of the CGT --> Mathematics connection: (a) Scholars familiar with chemistry design a mathematical model of the examined chemical phenomena; (b) such a model may require the usage of non-trivial mathematical objects and methods, and may lead to difficult and interesting mathematical problems; (c) in order to grasp the significance of a particular mathematical object/method/problem of CGT, mathematicians need a very long time, sometimes as much as 20-30 years; (d) once this significance is recognized, a vigorous mathematical research begins; (e) mathematicians usually generalize and extend the original object/method/problem of CGT, and the results they obtain may be lacking value for CGT. The two case studies pertain to the graph energy and the connectivity (or Randic) index.

  8. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on simplified desulfurizer introduction (Changshou Chemical Industry Main Works); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo) (Changshou kako sohei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results in the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of simplified desulfurizers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. The operation record data are periodically sent from the sites, to analyze the performance. In addition, experts were dispatched to survey the operation conditions of facilities introduced in the model project. Conditions of absorber, mist eliminator, scaling in ducts, and machineries including pumps were inspected by the experts to provide some guidance and advice. The utilization of by-product gypsum was also surveyed by the experts dispatched at the sites. The gypsum samples obtained were analyzed to provide some advice about its utilization. The project in this fiscal year has been successfully progressed, and the situation of demonstration operation is satisfied. 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Imaging following acute knee trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowski, R; Roemer, F; Englund, M; Tiderius, C J; Swärd, P; Frobell, R B

    2014-10-01

    Joint injury has been recognized as a potent risk factor for the onset of osteoarthritis. The vast majority of studies using imaging technology for longitudinal assessment of patients following joint injury have focused on the injured knee joint, specifically in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and meniscus tears where a high risk for rapid onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis is well known. Although there are many imaging modalities under constant development, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important instrument for longitudinal monitoring after joint injury. MR imaging is sensitive for detecting early cartilage degeneration and can evaluate other joint structures including the menisci, bone marrow, tendons, and ligaments which can be sources of pain following acute injury. In this review, focusing on imaging following acute knee trauma, several studies were identified with promising short-term results of osseous and soft tissue changes after joint injury. However, studies connecting these promising short-term results to the development of osteoarthritis were limited which is likely due to the long follow-up periods needed to document the radiographic and clinical onset of the disease. Thus, it is recommended that additional high quality longitudinal studies with extended follow-up periods be performed to further investigate the long-term consequences of the early osseous and soft tissue changes identified on MR imaging after acute knee trauma. PMID:25278054

  10. Longitudinal changes in extended roles in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify the extent and scope of changes to radiography practice. Method: Questionnaires were sent to radiology managers at acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in 2000 as a follow-up to an initial survey conducted in 1998. Information was sought on region, teaching/non-teaching status, the nature of extended role tasks undertaken and the year in which these tasks were first undertaken. Results: Some 172 questionnaires were returned from a total of 253 dispatched (68%). In 161 hospitals radiographers administered intravenous injections and performed barium enemas in 119 hospitals, while a red-dot system was in operation in 141 hospitals. Reporting by radiographers had increased since 1998. Replies indicated that, at 124 hospitals, radiographers were reporting in ultrasound. Skeletal reporting was the second most-frequently-reported activity, with 63 hospitals indicating that radiographers reported in this modality, while barium enemas were reported by radiographers in 34 hospitals. Reporting was also undertaken by radiographers in mammography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics and chest radiography in a small minority of hospitals. There was no statistically significant difference between the adoption of tasks in non-teaching and teaching hospitals with the exception of radiographer-performed barium enemas (P=0.014) and red-dot systems (P=0.05). Radiographers were more likely to undertake both of these activities at non-teaching hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Regional differences were apparent in reporting, with a greater prevalence in the English regions than Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. Conclusion: The study provided data that demonstrated the extent to which hospitals are utilizing the developing skills of radiographers. This has important implications for future education and training needs for radiographers and for delivery of imaging services

  11. Extended model for Richtmyer-Meshkov mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikaelian, K O

    2009-11-18

    We examine four Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) experiments on shock-generated turbulent mix and find them to be in good agreement with our earlier simple model in which the growth rate h of the mixing layer following a shock or reshock is constant and given by 2{alpha}A{Delta}v, independent of initial conditions h{sub 0}. Here A is the Atwood number ({rho}{sub B}-{rho}{sub A})/({rho}{sub B} + {rho}{sub A}), {rho}{sub A,B} are the densities of the two fluids, {Delta}V is the jump in velocity induced by the shock or reshock, and {alpha} is the constant measured in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments: {alpha}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.05-0.07, {alpha}{sup spike} {approx} (1.8-2.5){alpha}{sup bubble} for A {approx} 0.7-1.0. In the extended model the growth rate beings to day after a time t*, when h = h*, slowing down from h = h{sub 0} + 2{alpha}A{Delta}vt to h {approx} t{sup {theta}} behavior, with {theta}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.25 and {theta}{sup spike} {approx} 0.36 for A {approx} 0.7. They ascribe this change-over to loss of memory of the direction of the shock or reshock, signaling transition from highly directional to isotropic turbulence. In the simplest extension of the model h*/h{sub 0} is independent of {Delta}v and depends only on A. They find that h*/h{sub 0} {approx} 2.5-3.5 for A {approx} 0.7-1.0.

  12. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  13. Chemical flashlamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have characterized the optical output and Nd:glass pumping performance of large-scale (120-cm-long, 1.2-cm-inner-diam), metal-oxidizer chemical flashlamps supplied to us by G.T.E. Sylvania. The experimental results were obtained on the same test bed that was used to study xenon electrical flashlamps, as described in Dependence of Flashlamp Performance on Gas Fill and Bore Size, earlier in this section. The peak Nd inversion levels produced by the chemical lamps were less than or equal to 10% of those generated by a xenon lamp of similar size and energy loading. The Peak Nd levels are in good agreement with predictions for the pumping rates in Nd:glass by a blackbody at the color temperatures of 30000 to 50000C, which they have measured during the burn of the pyrotechnic lamp

  14. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  15. Primary retention following nuclear recoil in β-decay: Proposed synthesis of a metastable rare gas oxide (38ArO4) from (38ClO4−) and the evolution of chemical bonding over the nuclear transmutation reaction path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon tetroxide (ArO4) is the last member of the N=50 e– isoelectronic and isosteric series of ions: SiO44−, PO43−, SO42−, and ClO4−. A high level computational study demonstrated that while ArO4 is kinetically stable it has a considerable positive enthalpy of formation (of ∼298 kcal/mol) (Lindh et al., 1999. J. Phys. Chem. A 103, pp. 8295–8302) confirming earlier predictions by Pyykkö (1990. Phys. Scr. 33, pp. 52–53). ArO4 can be expected to be difficult to synthesize by traditional chemistry due to its metastability and has not yet been synthesized at the time of writing. A computational investigation of the changes in the chemical bonding of chlorate (ClO4−) when the central chlorine atom undergoes a nuclear transmutation from the unstable artificial chlorine isotope 38Cl to the stable rare argon isotope 38Ar through β-decay, hence potentially leading to the formation of ArO4, is reported. A mathematical model is presented that allows for the prediction of yields following the recoil of a nucleus upon ejecting a β-electron. It is demonstrated that below a critical angle between the ejected β-electron and that of the accompanying antineutrino their respective linear momentums can cancel to such an extent as imparting a recoil to the daughter atom insufficient for breaking the Ar–O bond. As a result, a primary retention yield of ∼1% of ArO4 is predicted following the nuclear disintegration. The study is conducted at the quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations [QCISD/6−311+G(3df)] level of theory followed by an analysis of the electron density by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Crossed potential energy surfaces (PES) were used to construct a PES from the metastable ArO4 ground singlet state to the Ar–O bond dissociation product ArO3+O(3P) from which the predicted barrier to dissociation is ca. 22 kcal/mol and the exothermic reaction energy is ca. 28 kcal/mol [(U)MP2/6–311+G

  16. Ring-extended derivatives of gramicidin S with furanoid sugar amino acids in the turn region have enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, A.D.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Grotenbreg, G.M.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2009-01-01

    (Chemical Equation Presented) A series of ring-extended gramicidin S (GS) derivatives containing furanoid sugar amino acids were evaluated. Although the extended GS derivatives have a less well-defined secondary structure as determined by NMR and CD, some derivatives show an improved biological prof

  17. Pi-Extended Diindole-Fused Azapentacenone: Synthesis, Characterization, and Photophysical and Lithium-Storage Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Renping; Ai, Wei; Dong, Dai; Li, Jiewei; Chen, Lin; Xie, Linghai; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Pi-extended polyaromatics tend to exhibit improved electronic properties with respect to the intrinsic structures. Herein, the rational design of a π-extended diindole-fused diazapentacenone (IP), with a nine-ring-fused core, obtained by applying an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts diacylation synthetic routine, is reported. The chemical structure, physical properties, and morphology of IP were fully characterized. Serving as an organic cathode material for a lithium-ion battery, the as-prepared nanorods of π-extended IP display higher conductivity and superior electrochemical performance than those of the naked diazapentacenone without diindole fusion. PMID:26717256

  18. EFFECT OF PROCESSING AND POLYMER VARIABLES ON INVITRO RELEASE OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Rajendran et al.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to develop an extended release tablet of Metoprolol Succinate for the treatment of hypertension. Four extended release formulations F1-F4 were developed using varying proportions of Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K100M, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and Eudragit L30 D55 by wet granulation. Five extended release formulations F5-F9 containing HPMC K100M and HPMC 5cps in varying concentration were developed by direct compression. The physico-chemical and in-vitro...

  19. Affective Match: Leader Emotional Displays, Follower Positive Affect, and Follower Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Damen, Frederic; Knippenberg, Barbara; Van Knippenberg, Daan

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLeader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending this earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the “affective match” between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders’ emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of leader emotional displays. Leader display of emotions has more positive effects on follower behavior if the match between the valence of leader emotion and follower PA is strong rathe...

  20. Theoretical Studies of Chemical Reactions following Electronic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Galina M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of multi-configurational wave functions is demonstrated for several processes: tautomerization reactions in the ground and excited states of the DNA base adenine, dissociation of glycine molecule after electronic excitation, and decomposition/deformation of novel rare gas molecules HRgF. These processes involve bond brealung/formation and require multi-configurational approaches that include dynamic correlation.

  1. Electron transfer to large extended viologens follow a route to the deterministic chaos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Kolivoška, Viliam; Valášek, Michal; Fanelli, N.

    Nice : International Society of Electrochemistry , 2010. S09-P-056. [Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry /61./. 26.09.2010-01.10.2010, Nice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 140; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA AV ČR IAA400400802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : deterministic chaos * electrochemistry * electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  2. Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowicz, D E; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Weiniger, C F

    2014-07-01

    Encapsulated local anesthetics extend postoperative analgesic effect following site-directed nerve injection; potentially reducing postoperative complications. Our study aim was to investigate efficacy of our improved extended duration formulation - 15% bupivacaine in poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 synthesized by ring opening polymerization. In vitro, around 70% of bupivacaine was released from the p(DLLA-CO) 3:7 after 10 days. A single injection of the optimal formulation of 15% bupivacaine-polymer or plain (0.5%) bupivacaine (control), was injected via a 22G needle beside the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia; followed (in some animals) by a 1cm longitudinal incision through the skin and fascia of the paw area. Behavioral tests for sensory and motor block assessment were done using Hargreave's hot plate score, von Frey filaments and rearing count. The 15% bupivacaine formulation significantly prolonged sensory block duration up to at least 48 h. Following surgery, motor block was observed for 48 h following administration of bupivacaine-polymer formulation and rearing was reduced (returning to baseline after 48 h). No significant differences in mechanical nociceptive response were observed. The optimized bupivacaine-polymer formulation prolonged duration of local anesthesia effect in our animal model up to at least 48 h. PMID:24726301

  3. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based on the W...... educational success originates in the immediate family, the extended family and in interactions between these two family environments.......Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based on the...... Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...

  4. Coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop in an extended NJL model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2006-01-01

    The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with a Polyakov loop is extended to finite isospin chemical potential case, which is characterized by simultaneous coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop. The pion condensate, chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop as functions of temperature and isospin chemical potential are investigated by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. The resulting $(T,\\mu_I)$ phase diagram is studied with emphasis on the critical point and Po...

  5. Extended impregnation kraft cooking of softwood : Effects on reject, yield, pulping uniformity, and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Converting wood into paper is a complex process involving many different stages, one of which is pulping. Pulping involves liberating the wood fibres from each other, which can be done either chemically or mechanically. This thesis focuses on the most common chemical pulping method, the kraft cooking process, and especially on a recently developed improvement of the impregnation phase, which is the first part of a kraft cook. Extended impregnation kraft cooking (EIC) technique is demonstrated...

  6. Parameter-Free Extended Edit Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fuad, Muhammad Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The edit distance is the most famous distance to compute the similarity between two strings of characters. The main drawback of the edit distance is that it is based on local procedures which reflect only a local view of similarity. To remedy this problem we presented in a previous work the extended edit distance, which adds a global view of similarity between two strings. However, the extended edit distance includes a parameter whose computation requires a long training time. In this paper w...

  7. IMM Iterated Extended Particle Filter Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wan; Shouyong Wang; Xing Qin

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the tracking problem of radar maneuvering target in nonlinear system model and non-Gaussian noise background, this paper puts forward one interacting multiple model (IMM) iterated extended particle filter algorithm (IMM-IEHPF). The algorithm makes use of multiple modes to model the target motion form to track any maneuvering target and each mode uses iterated extended particle filter (IEHPF) to deal with the state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian system. IEH...

  8. The extended Betz–Lanchester limit

    OpenAIRE

    Cuerva Tejero, Alvaro; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro

    2005-01-01

    A proposal for an extended formulation of the power coefficient of a wind turbine is presented. This new formulation is a generalization of the Betz–Lanchester expression for the power coefficient as function of the axial deceleration of the wind speed provoked by the wind turbine in operation. The extended power coefficient takes into account the benefits of the power produced and the cost associated to the production of this energy. By the simple model proposed is evidenced that the purely ...

  9. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  10. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, Mh, of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on Mh-integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  11. Collaborative Product Introduction within Extended Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Kerstin

    2005-01-01

    The trend of outsourcing within the electronic industry has contributed to the creation of new types of extended enterprises. These extended enterprises must be able to manage a challenging situation with shorter product life cycles and increased collaboration between companies during the vital product introduction process. For the electronic industry, which is currently acting in an “era of hyper-competition”, it is a challenge to implement an efficient and flexible collaboration within an e...

  12. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  13. Extended Connectors: Structuring Glue Operators in BIP

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Baranov; Simon Bliudze

    2013-01-01

    Based on a variation of the BIP operational semantics using the offer predicate introduced in our previous work, we extend the algebras used to model glue operators in BIP to encompass priorities. This extension uses the Algebra of Causal Interaction Trees, T(P), as a pivot: existing transformations automatically provide the extensions for the Algebra of Connectors. We then extend the axiomatisation of T(P), since the equivalence induced by the new operational semantics is weaker than that in...

  14. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  15. Invariant scalar product on extended Poincaré algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods can be used to calculate explicitly the Killing form on a Lie algebra. The first one is a direct calculation of the traces of the generators in a matrix representation of the algebra, and the second one is the usage of the group invariance of the scalar product. We use both methods in our calculation of the scalar product on the extended Poincaré algebra LG(P) in order to have a cross check of our results. The algebra is infinite-dimensional and requires careful treatment of the infinities. The scalar product on the extended algebra LG(P) found by both methods coincides and the important conclusion which follows is that Poincaré generators are orthogonal to the gauge generators. (paper)

  16. Chemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of chemical spectroscopy with neutrons is to utilize the dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections on isotope and on momentum transfer (which probes the spatial extent of the excitation) to understand fundamental and applied aspects of the dynamics of molecules and fluids. Chemical spectroscopy is divided into three energy ranges: vibrational spectroscopy, 25-500 MeV, for which much of the work is done on Be-filter analyzer instruments; low energy spectroscopy, less than 25 MeV; and high resolution spectroscopy, less than 1 MeV, which typically is performed on backscattering spectrometers. Representative examples of measurements of the Q-depenence of vibrational spectra, higher energy resolution as well as extension of the Q-range to lower values at high energy transfers, and provisions of higher sensitivities in vibrational spectroscopy are discussed. High resolution, high sensitivity, and polarization analysis studies in low energy spectroscopy are discussed. Applications of very high resolution spectroscopy are also discussed

  17. Chemical sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the author focuses on chemical sputtering by keV ions, treating two specific examples: the chemical effects occurring when bombarding simple condensed gases and the mechanisms of the ion-assisted etching process. First, however, the mechanism of sputtering of condensed gases in general is discussed. These mechanisms have been investigated using condensed noble gases as target material. The thesis is a compilation of articles published elsewhere. Contents: sputtering of condensed noble gases by keV heavy ions; surface distribution as an observable factor in the energy distribution of sputtered particles; reactive sputtering of simple condensed gases by keV heavy ion bombardment; mass spectra of nozzle-produced small molecular clusters of H2O, NH3, CO and CH4; mass and energy distribution of particles sputter-etched from Si in a XeF2 environment; argon-ion assisted etching of silicon by molecular chlorine; energy distribution of sputtered poly-atomic molecules. (Auth.)

  18. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  19. Chemical basis for minimal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Ikegami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the physicochemical origins of movement. We propose how this system may be useful in the study of minimal perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. A chemical reaction within the oil droplet induces an instability, the symmetry of the oil droplet breaks, and the droplet begins to move through the aqueous phase. The complement of physical phenomena that is then generated indicates the presence of feedback cycles that, as will be argued, form the basis for self-regulation, homeostasis, and perhaps an extended form of autopoiesis. We discuss the result that simple chemical systems are capable of sensory-motor coupling and possess a homeodynamic state from which cognitive processes may emerge. PMID:20586578

  20. Extending the scope of singlet-state spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Riddhiman; Ahuja, Puneet; Moskau, Detlef; Vasos, Paul R; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2007-12-21

    Different decoupling sequences are tested-using various shaped radio-frequency (RF) pulses-to achieve the longest possible lifetimes of singlet-state populations over the widest possible bandwidths, that is, ranges of offsets and relative chemical shifts of the nuclei involved in the singlet states. The use of sinc or refocusing broadband universal rotation pulses (RE-BURP) for decoupling during the intervals where singlet-state populations are preserved allows one to extend the useful bandwidth with respect to prior state-of-the-art methods based on composite-pulse WALTZ decoupling. The improved sinc decoupling sequences afford a more reliable and sensitive measure of the lifetimes of singlet states in pairs of spins that have widely different chemical shifts, such as the two aromatic protons H(5) and H(6) in uracil. Similar advantages are expected for nucleotides in RNA and DNA. Alternative approaches, in particular frequency-modulated decoupling sequences, also appear to be effective in preserving singlet-state populations, even though the profiles of the apparent relaxation rate constants as a function of the offset are somewhat perturbed. The best decoupling sequences prove their utility in sustaining longer lifetimes of singlet states than previously achieved for the side-chain tyrosine protons in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) at 600 MHz (14.1 T), where the differences of chemical shifts between coupled protons are a challenge. PMID:18061913

  1. Use of Irradiation to Extend the Shelf Life of Dried White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is an alternative technology to extend the shelf life of food-stuffs. White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) which is a perishable food stuff having a short shelf life. Effects of gamma irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy on the quality of dried white oyster mushroom during storage was observed. The objective of the experiment was to improve the hygienic quality and to extend the shelf life of dried white oyster mushroom using irradiation technology. Fresh mushroom was cleaned, sorted, washed, and drained. The mushroom was then dried in two ways, namely: sun drying method and electrical oven drying method. Dried mushroom was vacuum packed in polypropylene (PP) pouch then irradiated at a of dose 5 kGy and an unirradiated control was also applied. The vacuum packed samples was stored at low temperature (18-20oC) with a relative humidity (RH) of 65-70% and observed periodically every month up to 3 months of storage. The samples were analyzed according to the following parameters i.e, : total bacterial count, total mould and yeast count, moisture content, pH, aw, contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, carotenoid and organoleptic properties, respectively. The results showed that irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy could eliminate significantly microbial growth 2 log cycle in the samples, while there were no changes in physico-chemical and organoleptic properties up to 3 months of storage, while control samples were still acceptable only up to 2 months of storage. (author)

  2. Solute drag on perfect and extended dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, R. B.; Cai, W.

    2016-04-01

    The drag force exerted on a moving dislocation by a field of mobile solutes is studied in the steady state. The drag force is numerically calculated as a function of the dislocation velocity for both perfect and extended dislocations. The sensitivity of the non-dimensionalized force-velocity curve to the various controlling parameters is assessed, and an approximate analytical force-velocity expression is given. A non-dimensional parameter S characterizing the strength of the solute-dislocation interaction, the background solute fraction ?, and the dislocation character angle ?, are found to have the strongest influence on the force-velocity curve. Within the model considered here, a perfect screw dislocation experiences no solute drag, but an extended screw dislocation experiences a non-zero drag force that is about 10 to 30% of the drag on an extended edge dislocation. The solutes can change the spacing between the Shockley partials in both stationary and moving extended dislocations, even when the stacking fault energy remains unaltered. Under certain conditions, the solutes destabilize an extended dislocation by either collapsing it into a perfect dislocation or causing the partials to separate unboundedly. It is proposed that the latter instability may lead to the formation of large faulted areas and deformation twins in low stacking fault energy materials containing solutes, consistent with experimental observations of copper and stainless steel containing hydrogen.

  3. Scombrotoxinism: Protracted Illness following Misdiagnosis in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghan-Shyam Lohiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scombrotoxinism is an acute toxin-induced illness caused primarily by bacterial synthesis of histamine in decomposed fish. Case Report. Immediately after taking 2-3 bites of cooked salmon, a clerical worker developed oral burning, urticaria, and asthma. In the emergency department, she was diagnosed with “allergies”; scombrotoxinism was never considered. She then developed wide-ranging symptoms (e.g., chronic fatigue, asthma, anxiety, multiple chemical sensitivity, and paresthesiae and saw many specialists (in pulmonology, otorhinolaryngology, allergy, toxicology, neurology, psychology, and immunology. During the next 500+ days, she had extensive testing (allergy screens, brain MRI, electroencephalogram, electromyogram, nerve conduction velocity, heavy metal screen, and blood chemistry with essentially normal results. She filed a workers’ compensation claim since this injury occurred following a business meal. She was evaluated by a Qualified Medical Evaluator (GL on day 504, who diagnosed scombrotoxinism. Comment. Scombrotoxinism should be considered in all patients presenting to the emergency department with “oral burning” or allergy symptoms following “fish consumption.” Initial attention to such history would have led to a correct diagnosis and averted this patient’s extended illness. Specialist referrals and tests should be ordered only if clinically indicated and not for diagnostic fishing expedition. Meticulous history is crucial in resolving clinical dilemmas.

  4. Electronic Property Modulation of One-Dimensional Extended Graphdiyne Nanowires from a First-Principle Crystal Orbital View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    Graphdiyne and derivatives with delocalized π-electron systems are of particular interest owing to their structural, electronic, and transport properties, which are important for potential applications in next-generation electronics. Inspired by recently obtained extended graphdiyne nanowires, explorations of the modulation of the band gap and carrier mobility of this new species are still needed before application in device fabrication. To provide a deeper understanding of these issues, herein we present theoretical studies of one-dimensional extended graphdiyne nanowires using first-principle calculations. Modulation of the electronic properties of the extended graphdiyne nanowire was investigated systemically by considering several chemical and physical factors, including electric field, chemical functionalization, and carbo-merization. The band gap was observed to increase upon application of an electric field parallel to the plane of the synthesized graphdiyne nanowire in a non-periodic direction. Although chemical functionalization and carbo-merization caused the band gaps to decrease, the semiconducting property of the nanowires was preserved. Band gap engineering of the extended graphdiyne nanowires was explored regarding the field strength and the number of -C≡C- units in the carbon chain fragments. The charge carrier mobility of chemically functionalized and carbo-merized extended graphdiyne nanowires was also calculated to provide a comparison with pristine nanowire. Moreover, crystal orbital analysis was performed in order to discern the electronic and charge transport properties of the extended graphdiyne nanowires modified by the aforementioned chemical and physical factors. PMID:27308216

  5. Extended field-of-view sonography: evaluation of the superficial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of extended-field-of-view 2-dimensional ultrasonography technique in superficial lesions. During a 6-month period, 44 patients with superficial lesions on various parts of their bodies were evaluated with extended-field-of-view ultrasonography in addition to routine traditional 2-dimensional ultrasonography. If the diagnosis could not be made without the extended-field-of-view images, it was considered diagnostic. The radiologist decided if the extended-field-of-view ultrasonography helped spatial orientation, communicate findings, or compare the contralateral side in a single image, or if it was useful for follow-up evaluation. By using extended-field-of-view imaging including the surrounding anatomy, 22 musculoskeletal, 8 scrotal, 8 thyroid, 2 breast, and 4 abdominal wall lesions were documented successfully as a single image. Nevertheless, no new cases were diagnosed solely based on the extended-field-of-view images. Extended-field-of-view ultrasonography was considered helpful for spatial orientation in 25 cases (56.8%), for comparing the contralateral side in 16 cases (36.3%), and for communicating findings in 20 cases (45.4%). It was useful for follow-up evaluation in 13 cases (29.5%). None of the extended-field-of-view images was diagnostic. However, they did provide valuable additional information and better documentation of the lesions. (author)

  6. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  7. Extended Kalman filter sensor failure detection method for pressurizer monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development of the sensor failure detection and isolation system (FDIS) methodology, which is suitable for implementation in nuclear plant control systems. The methodology is based on the extended Kalman filter applied to a pressurized water reactor pressurizer. The utilization of the Kalman filter follows the standard procedure: First, an estimate of the state variables and the corresponding covariances are obtained; then, based on the state equations, the estimated state variables are propagated until the next measurements for the new estimate

  8. Solubility of triglycerides in water using an extended surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the extended surfactant X-AES (C12−14-(PO)16-(EO)2-SO4Na) was used for the formation of nano-emulsions, including a high content of vegetable oil. The desired surfactant to oil ratio was 1:2, which was achieved. First, the binary surfactant-water system was characterized over the whole concentration range. The following six different phases were observed: a micellar, a hexagonal, a lamellar, a bicontinuous cubic, a reverse hexagonal, and an isotropic liquid phase containing...

  9. Extended collective bands in neutron-rich 109Ru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Huai-Bo; ZHU Sheng-Jiang; J.H. Hamilton; A.V. Ramayya; J. K. Hwang; K. Li; S.H. Liu; Y.X. Luo; J.O. Rasmussen; C.T. Goodin; I. Y. Lee; WANG Jian-Guo; CHE Xing-Lai; GU Long

    2009-01-01

    Levels in the neutron-rich 109Ru have been studied by observing the prompt γ-rays following the spontaneous fission fragments of 252Cf. The ground state band and the negative parity bands have been confirmed and extended. A positive parity band with the band head level at 332.5 keV is newly identified and suggested as a single-neutron excitation band built on the 7/2+ [404] Nilsson orbital. Some structural characteristics of these bands are discussed.

  10. Rough sets: the classical and extended views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZIARKO Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The article is a comprehensive review of two major approaches to rough set theory: the classic rough setmodel introduced by Pawlak and the probabilistic approaches. The classic model is presented as a staging ground to the discussion of two varieties of the probabilistic approach, i.e. of the variable precision and Bayesian rough set models. Both of these models extend the classic model to deal with stochastic interactions while preserving the basicideas of the original rough set theory, such as set approximations, data dependencies, reducts etc. The probabilistic models are able to handle weaker data interactions than the classic model, thus extending the applicability of the rough set paradigm. The extended models are presented in considerable detail with some illustrative examples.

  11. The validity of the extended energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for δW in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional δWB is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment

  12. Extending Double Optical Gating to the Midinfrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Timothy; Camper, Antoine; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade there has been great interest in creating broadband isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). Primarily these IAPs have been generated using Ti:Sapphire 800nm short pulses, namely through spatiotemporal gating with the attosecond lighthouse technique, amplitude gating, polarization gating, and double optical gating (DOG). Here we present theoretical calculations and experimental investigations into extending DOG to using a 2 μm driving wavelength, the benefits of which include extended harmonic cutoff and longer input driving pulse durations. It is proposed that broadband IAPs with cutoffs extending up to 250 eV can be generated in Argon by using >30 fs pulses from the passively-CEP stabilized 2 μm idler out of an optical parametric amplifier combined with a collinear DOG experimental setup.

  13. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  14. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models

  15. The extended Z N -Toda hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong

    2015-11-01

    We construct the extended flow equations of a new Z N -Toda hierarchy taking values in a commutative subalgebra Z N of gl( N, C). We give the Hirota bilinear equations and tau function of this new extended Z N -Toda hierarchy. Taking the presence of logarithmic terms into account, we construct some extended vertex operators in generalized Hirota bilinear equations, which might be useful in topological field theory and the Gromov-Witten theory. We present the Darboux transformations and bi-Hamiltonian structure of this hierarchy. Using Hamiltonian tau-symmetry, we obtain another tau function of this hierarchy with some unknown mysterious relation to the tau function derived using the Sato theory.

  16. Risk assessment of endocrine active chemicals: identifying chemicals of regulatory concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Remi; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Lewis, Dick; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2012-10-01

    The European regulation on plant protection products (1107/2009) (EC, 2009a), the revisions to the biocides Directive (COM[2009]267) (EC, 2009b), and the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') (EC.2006) only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or wildlife species. In the absence of agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption within these pieces of legislation a European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. The resulting ECETOC technical report (ECETOC, 2009a) and the associated workshop (ECETOC, 2009b) presented a science-based concept on how to identify endocrine activity and disrupting properties of chemicals for both human health and the environment. The synthesis of the technical report and the workshop report was published by the ECETOC task force (Bars et al., 2011a,b). Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine activity and disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies were proposed. These criteria combined the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. A key element in the data evaluation is the consideration of all available information in a weight-of-evidence approach. However, to be able to discriminate chemicals with endocrine properties of low concern from those of higher concern (for regulatory purposes), the task force recognised that the concept needed further refinement. Following a discussion of the key factors at a second workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists

  17. Phase transition and Thermodynamical geometry of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS Black Holes in Extended Phase Space

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole in the extended phase space by treating the cosmological constant as being related to the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the contribution of the charge of the black hole to the chemical potential is always positive and the existence of charge make the chemical potential become positive ...

  18. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10-3 range

  19. NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

  20. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  1. The Extended Mind: Coupling Environment and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrobel, Susie

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes embodiment and cognitive extension as examples of strong anticipation as defined by Dubois. Clark and Chalmers formulated a thesis which states that parts of the environment, if coupled successfully, can become part of the extended mind. This coupling, be it deliberate or unintentional, shifts the observer-world boundary outwards when the observer encompasses parts of his environment. The resulting extended observer forms a new systemic whole, which consists of both the assimilated context and the recalibrated version of the original observer. Recalibration occurs when conditioning and adaptation lead to corresponding changes on the neural level, for instance, when an agent compensates for delays in a control loop. Plasticity is a prerequisite for any successful incorporation of external structures. However, uncoupled parts of the observer must remain inviolate in order to preserve the boundary. Neither the extended mind nor the core observer are absolute concepts. Depending on whether we focus on local-scale interactions or on large-scale behaviour, boundaries are formed at different interfacial cuts, which lead to either an endo- or an exo-perspective or endo- or exo-anticipation, respectively. For biological extended agents which undergo a transition from exo- to endo-states, a tell-tale sign of a successful exo-endo transition is invisibility. This invisibility occurs when the agent is no longer aware of the delay originally introduced into the control loop by the assimilated part of the environment. Explaining the world in terms of effective causality is not sufficient to account for extended minds. The latter require explanations in terms of final causation. For extended minds, this ordering principle comes in the shape of nested hierarchical layers. The interfaces of these layers may have merged for an endo-observer, whereas an exo-observer can make out the detailed structure, including artificially introduced delays. A sufficient

  2. Supersymmetry in quantum mechanics: an extended view

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, A R P

    2004-01-01

    The concept of supersymmetry in a quantum mechanical system is extended, permitting the recognition of many more supersymmetric systems, including very familiar ones such as the free particle. Its spectrum is shown to be supersymmetric, with space-time symmetries used for the explicit construction. No fermionic or Grassmann variables need to be invoked. Our construction extends supersymmetry to continuous spectra. Most notably, while the free particle in one dimension has generally been regarded as having a doubly degenerate continuum throughout, the construction clarifies taht there is a single zero energy state at the base of the spectrum.

  3. Modeling of extended defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED) is one of the biggest modeling challenges present in predicting scaled technologies. Damage from implantation of dopant ions changes the diffusivities of the dopants and precipitates to form complex extended defects. Developing a quantitative model for the extended defect behavior during short time, low temperature anneals is a key to explaining TED. This paper reviews some of the modeling developments over the last several years, and discusses some of the challenges that remain to be addressed. Two examples of models compared to experimental work are presented and discussed

  4. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-03-27

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.

  5. Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural

  6. Design of an Extended Mission for GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Wallace, Mark S.; Hatch, Sara J.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    2012-01-01

    The GRAIL extended mission will extend the measurement of the lunar gravity field beyond what was achieved by the primary GRAIL mission this past spring (2012). By lowering the orbits of the two GRAIL spacecraft to less than half the altitude of the primary mission orbits on average, the resolution of the gravity field measurements will be improved by a factor of two, yielding a signicant improvement in our knowledge of the structure of the upper crust of the Moon. The challenges of flying so low and the design which will meet those challenges is presented here.

  7. Irregular galaxies with extended H I emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRAO 43-m telescope has been used to obtain H I 21-cm fluxes of a large number of irregular galaxies integrated over a 21-arcmin beam, which can be used for determining total gas masses of these systems. The data are compared with fluxes obtained by Fisher and Tully (1975, 1981) with a 10-arcmin beam to identify those galaxies which may have extended H I distributions relative to the optical sizes. Seven good candidate systems are listed. The presence of extended H I in irregular galaxies does not seem to correlate with basic global galaxian properties. 23 references

  8. Elements of Comparative Law on Extended Confiscation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boroi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the special seizure and extended confiscation measures, we consider that Romania, although later than the deadline indicated in the text of article 6, paragraph 3 of Decision 2005/212/JAI, has responded positively to the requirements of harmonization of national legislation with EU legislation. We believe, however, that this regulation on extended seizure has the effect of limiting the requirements of seizure of goods through crime, practically limiting the application of seizure in respect of goods originating from committing offenses.

  9. Extended forward sensitivity analysis for uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the extended forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. Two well-defined benchmark problems with manufactured solutions are utilized to demonstrate the method. (author)

  10. Extending the Shelf-life of Pear Fruits by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on lesion diameters of grey mold disease of pear and some physico-chemical parameters of pear fruits were studied in this investigation as a pre storage treatment for extend shelf life of pear fruits. Pear fruits (Pyrus Communis, L.) were exposed to different gamma irradiation doses 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy and stored for 10, 20 and 30 days in 0 degree C and 85-90% RH. The increment of irradiant dose caused decrement of lesion diameters of grey mold disease of pear. The narrowest diameters were recorded with 3.0 KGy irradiation dose. The low dose of gamma irradiation 0.5 KGy gave a relatively high value of firmness although in higher doses firmness of pear fruits decreased. The highest loss weight was found in unirradiated fruits while the loss of weight in all irradiated fruits was still lower than those of unirradiated ones and low radiation doses decreased the loss of weight. Total soluble solid increased with increasing in storage periods with respect to gamma irradiation effect there was fluctuation in total soluble solid values. There was a decreasing in acidity during storage of irradiated and un-irradiated fruits. Free amino acid and soluble protein show a slight increasing at 0.5 KGy such increasing was followed by a gradual decrease in higher gamma irradiation doses

  11. Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Santoro, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Volpe, Tristan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warden, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-20

    In contrast to the Cold War bilateral global competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, the modern nuclear age features a more complex, multiplayer arena on the regional scale. With the exception of the U.S. and Russia, most major powers retain relatively small nuclear arsenals or technical hedge capabilities. The U.S., with strong interests and security partnerships in Europe, Northeast Asia, and the Middle East, must navigate through long-standing rivalries and active conflicts while attempting to divine the intentions of less experienced nuclear decision makers in charge of weak domestic institutions. As a result, analysts and policymakers must think globally about U.S. extended deterrence. How have the requirements of extended deterrence and assurance changed? Are there important threads that connect each region? What should the U.S. do differently? To explore these questions, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s Center for Global Security Research, in partnership with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the Pacific Forum CSIS, held a workshop on “Thinking Globally about U.S. Extended Deterrence” in Washington, DC on November 2, 2015. The workshop brought together approximately 40 U.S. and foreign deterrence specialists and government officials, all attending in their private capacities. The participants joined a day of not-for-attribution discussions on the changing deterrence and assurance requirements, the threads that connect the regions, and U.S. strategy to deal with emerging challenges. The following is a summary of key takeaways.

  12. Cellular Liver Regeneration after Extended Hepatic Resection in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ladurner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The liver has an enormous capacity to regenerate itself. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the regeneration is due to hypertrophy or hyperplasia of the remnant liver after extended resection and whether a portosystemic shunt is beneficial. Material and methods. An extended left hemihepatectomy was performed in 25 pigs, and in 14 after performing a portosystemic shunt. During follow up, liver regeneration was estimated by macroscopic markers such as liver volume and size of the portal fields [mm2] as well as the amount of hepatocytes per portal field and the amount of hepatocytes per mm2. Results. Regardless of the operation procedure, the volume of the remnant liver increased about 2.5 fold at the end of the first week after resection. The size of the portal fields increased significantly as well as the number of hepatocytes in the portal fields. Interestingly, the number of hepatocytes per mm2 remained the same. Conclusion. After extended resection, liver regeneration was achieved by an extensive and significant hyperplasia of hepatocytes within the preexisting portal fields and not by de novo synthesis of new portal fields. However, there was no difference in liver regeneration regarding the operation procedure performed with or without portosystemic shunt.

  13. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  14. Extended First Law for Entanglement Entropy in Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    The first law for the holographic entanglement entropy of spheres in a boundary CFT with a bulk Lovelock dual is extended to include variations of the bulk Lovelock coupling constants. Such variations in the bulk correspond to perturbations within a family of boundary CFTs. The new contribution to the first law is found to be the product of the variation $\\delta a$ of the A-type trace anomaly coefficient for even dimensional CFTs, or more generally its extension $\\delta a^*$ to include odd dimensional boundaries, times the ratio $S/a^*$. Since $a^*$ is a measure of the number of degrees of freedom $N$ per unit volume of the boundary CFT, this new term has the form $\\mu\\delta N$, where the chemical potential $\\mu$ is given by the entanglement entropy per degree of freedom.

  15. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  16. An Extended Analysis of Requirements Traceability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dandong(蒋丹东); Zhang Shensheng; Chen Lu

    2004-01-01

    A new extended meta model of traceability is presented. Then, a formalized fine-grained model of traceability is described. Some major issues about this model, including trace units, requirements and relations within the model, are further analyzed. Finally, a case study that comes from a key project of 863 Program is given.

  17. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Denecker, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

  18. Prototype for Extended XDB Using Wiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Sung Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype of extended XDB. XDB is an open-source and extensible database architecture developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA to provide integration of heterogeneous and distributed information resources for scientific and engineering applications. XDB enables an unlimited number of desktops and distributed information sources to be linked seamlessly and efficiently into an information grid using Data Access and Retrieval Composition (DARC protocol whichprovides a contextual search and retrieval capability useful for lightweight web applications. This paper shows the usage of XDB on common data management in the enterprise without burdening users and application developers with unnecessary complexity and formal schemas. Supported by NASA Ames Research Center through NASA Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD Higher Education grant, a project team at Fairfield University extended this concept and developed an extended XDB protocol and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki. The technical specification of the protocol was posted to Source Forge (sourceforge.net and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki was developed. The prototype was created for 16 tags of the MediaWiki dialect. As part of future works, the prototype will be further extended to the complete Wiki markups and other dialects of Wiki.

  19. Extending Transitional Services to Former Foster Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Ben; Barth, Richard P.; Wildfire, Judy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what a private agency expended while addressing the transitional needs of former long-term foster youth and examines the association between expenditures and adult outcomes. Not all young adults accepted supports extended to them. In the sample, 41% of the young adults incurred expenses after age 19. Of those using supports,…

  20. Lectures on extended affine Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the structure theory of extended affine Lie algebras, which provide a common framework for finite-dimensional semisimple, affine and toroidal Lie algebras. The notes are based on a lecture series given during the Fields Institute summer school at the University of Ottawa in June 2009.

  1. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory

  2. Fixed point resolution in extended WZW models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formula is derived for the fixed point resolution matrices of simple current extended WZW models and coset conformal field theories. Unlike the analogous matrices for unextended WZW models, these matrices are in general not symmetric, and they may have field-dependent twists. They thus provide non-trivial realizations of the general conditions presented in earlier work with Fuchs and Schweigert

  3. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  4. Computation of unirational fields (extended abstract)

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for computing all algebraic intermediate subfields in a separably generated unirational field extension (which in particular includes the zero characteristic case). One of the main tools is Groebner bases theory. Our algorithm also requires computing computing primitive elements and factoring over algebraic extensions. Moreover, the method can be extended to finitely generated K-algebras.

  5. Advances in nuclear and radiochemistry. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication compiles extended abstracts of the conference. Conference topics were: fundamental nuclear chemistry (nuclear reactions, radioactive decay), actinides, transactinides, radioanalytics (nuclear and non-nuclear methods), nuclear technology (techniques, cross sections, radionuclide production), radiotracers in life sciences (radiopharmaceutical chemistry), radioactive indicators in research and chemistry, radionuclides in geochemistry and cosmochemistry, nuclear fuel cycle (waste management, transmutation, partitioning), radioecology and environmental sciences. (uke)

  6. Dynamics of extended AGB star envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, C; Sedlmayr, E

    2010-01-01

    The dust formed in extended circumstellar envelopes of long-period variables and Miras has a strong influence on the envelope dynamics. A radiatively driven instability caused by the formation of dust leads to the development of an autonomous dynamics characterised by a set of distinct frequencies. We study the interplay between the envelope's internal dynamics and an external excitation by a pulsating star.

  7. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes how to embed

  8. Extended tree-level gauge mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...

  9. Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1995-01-01

    The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.

  10. Extended Cesaro Operator from to Bloch Space

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhu Yang

    2009-01-01

    Let g be a holomorphic function of the unit ball B in several complex variables, and denote by  the induced extended Cesaro operator. This paper discussed the boundedness and compactness of  acting from  to Bloch space in the unit ball.

  11. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  12. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  13. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help...

  14. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  15. Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2(δE2) compatible with negative heat capacities, C α, as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14–0.18

  16. Extended Learning Institute. Policies and Procedures Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Larry

    This manual describes the Extended Learning Institute (ELI) at John Tyler Community College in Virginia. The ELI is a comprehensive program of instruction using alternative delivery systems (e.g., television, print-based, radio, and newspapers). General procedures and policies are delineated in section I, including registration and student and…

  17. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…

  18. Quantum field theories of extended objects

    CERN Document Server

    Friedan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    First steps are taken in a project to construct a general class of conformal and perhaps, eventually, non-conformal quantum field theories of (n-1)-dimensional extended objects in a d=2n dimensional conformal space-time manifold M. The fields live on the spaces E of relative integral (n-1)-cycles in M -- the integral (n-1)-currents of given boundary. Each E is a complete metric space geometrically analogous to a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. For example, if $M=S^d$, $\\Sigma = S^2$. The quantum fields on E are to be mapped to observables in a 2d CFT on $\\Sigma$. The correlation functions on E are to be given by the 2d correlation functions on $\\Sigma$. The goal is to construct a CFT of extended objects in d=2n dimensions for every 2d CFT, and eventually a non-conformal QFT of extended objects for every non-conformal 2d QFT, so that all the technology of 2d QFT can be applied to the construction and analysis of quantum field theories of extended objects. The project depends crucially on settling some mathematical q...

  19. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...

  20. Analytical solutions of the extended Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extended Boussinesq equation for the description of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem has been studied and analyzed with the Painleve test. It has been shown that the equation does not pass the Painleve test, but the necessary condition for the existence of meromorphic solutions is satisfied

  1. Plasmonic gas and chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Andreas; Giessen, Harald; Liu, Na

    2014-06-01

    Sensitive and robust detection of gases and chemical reactions constitutes a cornerstone of scientific research and key industrial applications. In an effort to reach progressively smaller reagent concentrations and sensing volumes, optical sensor technology has experienced a paradigm shift from extended thin-film systems towards engineered nanoscale devices. In this size regime, plasmonic particles and nanostructures provide an ideal toolkit for the realization of novel sensing concepts. This is due to their unique ability to simultaneously focus light into subwavelength hotspots of the electromagnetic field and to transmit minute changes of the local environment back into the farfield as a modulation of their optical response. Since the basic building blocks of a plasmonic system are commonly noble metal nanoparticles or nanostructures, plasmonics can easily be integrated with a plethora of chemically or catalytically active materials and compounds to investigate processes ranging from hydrogen absorption in palladium to the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT). In this review, we will discuss a multitude of plasmonic sensing strategies, spanning the technological scale from simple plasmonic particles embedded in extended thin films to highly engineered complex plasmonic nanostructures. Due to their flexibility and excellent sensing performance, plasmonic structures may open an exciting pathway towards the detection of chemical and catalytic events down to the single molecule level.

  2. Do landslides follow landslides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Jalal; Temme, Arnaud; Bregt, Arnold; Wallinga, Jakob; Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps are typically obtained by quantifying relations between landslides and conditioning attributes. Here, we take a fundamentally different starting point: path dependency and self-organization, i.e. the effect of landslides on landslides. We test two hypotheses: first, that landslides do preferentially follow landslides, and second, that follow-up landslides are different from those that do not follow other slides. Results indicate that there is indeed a considerable amount of overlap among landslides that affect the overall affected area by landsliding. This is more than expected: the number of overlaps among landslides is more than would occur of slides were randomly placed in the study area. Overlaps of slides with previous slides occur frequently within a period of about ten years after a previous slide, yet decrease considerably over time. Also the second hypothesis is confirmed: follow-up landslides indeed have different properties in terms of power law and shape than those that are not associated. Particularly, follow-up landslides are larger and more elongated than non-follow up landslides. Moreover, after fitting an inverse gamma function to the magnitude-frequency distributions of follow-up and non-follow-up slides, it was found that the alpha parameter that controls the prevalence of very extreme events, is much larger for follow-up slides than for non-follow-up slides. Also the rollover value is substantially larger for follow-up landslides than non-follow up landslides . The prevalence of follow-up slides in the first approximately ten years after a previous slides, and the fact that follow-up slides are different from other slides, should have implications for susceptibility studies. Apparently, susceptibility (conventionally a purely spatial concept) changes with the time since previous landslides happened. We explore possible mechanisms for this that may allow us to include these temporal changes in landslide

  3. Elaborated Odor Test for Extended Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Henry, Emily J.; Mast, Dion J.; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Tapia, Alma S.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns were raised when incidental exposure to a proprietary bonding material revealed the material had an irritating odor. The NASA-STD-6001B document describes a supplemental test method option for programs to evaluate materials with odor concerns (Test 6, Odor Assessment). In addition to the supplemental standard odor assessment with less than 10 seconds of exposure, the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Materials Flight Acceptance Testing section was requested to perform an odor test with an extended duration to evaluate effects of an extended exposure and to more closely simulate realistic exposure scenarios. With approval from the NASA Johnson Space Center Industrial Hygienist, WSTF developed a 15-minute odor test method. WSTF performed this extended-duration odor test to evaluate the odor and physical effects of the bonding material configured between two aluminum plates, after the safety of the gas was verified via toxicity analysis per NASA-STD-6001B Test 7, Determination of Offgassed Products. During extended-duration testing, odor panel members were arranged near the test material in a small room with the air handlers and doors closed to minimize dilution. The odor panel members wafted gas toward themselves and recorded their individual assessments of odor and physical effects at various intervals during the 15-minute exposure and posttest. A posttest interview was conducted to obtain further information. Testing was effective in providing data for comparison and selection of an optimal offgassing and odor containment configuration. The developed test method for extended exposure is proposed as a useful tool for further evaluating materials with identified odors of concern if continued use of the material is anticipated.

  4. Extended Informatics Paradigm in Biological and Psychological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobilas KIRVELIS

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present extended informatics paradigm (EIP. This paradigm expands concept of informatics from traditional information and communication technologies (ICT to a wide use of informational thinking, databases and related technologies in biology and psychology. The essential difference of EIP is an especial attention to nature and purpose of information in organized biological and/or psychological systems. Information as a phenomenon appeared on the Earth 3-4 billion years ago, when the life originated. Informatics paradigm considers the physical and chemical transformations of energy and matter as flows that are controlled, or as the signals for purposive informational control programs. Brain as product of biological evolution accomplishes a quick information processing, thinking and psychical activity. The information is born in control systems of organized systems. The organized systems are represented as informational closed-loop coding-decoding structures. Therefore, the scope of bioinformatics which is generally taught as a skill to deal with biological data bases should be extended, as well as the subject of informational psychology.

  5. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF METAPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahishek Perumalla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim and of the present study is to develop a pharmaceutically stable and quality improved formulation of Metoprolol succinate extended release pellets. To achieve this goal various prototype formulation trials were formulated and the evaluated with respect to the various quality controls such as dissolution, assay and stability studies will be under taken. Metoprolol succinate is used in the treatment of hyper tension, angina pectoris (chest pain and myocardial infarction. The study was undertaken with an aim to formulate Metoprolol succinate extended release pellets. The optimized batch MSER CF7 is made up of 7% wetting agent and 4.5% binder. The evaluation tests that were conducted for the pellets also showed satisfactory results.The best trial was optimized by comparing the drug release profile with the innovator and the MSER F7 showed better results compared to the other formulations and the evaluation studies were conducted for the MSER F7. It showed good results in formulation of stable dose.The pellets were evaluated for the flow properties, sieve analysis and accelerated stability studies for 3months. The pellets showed good flow properties and also showed uniform size which indicates uniform coating.Finally we concluded that the Metoprolol succinate pellets MSER F7 are prepared and these showed good physico-chemical properties and the dissolution results showed satisfactory results when compared with the innovator drug.

  6. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours

  7. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride Extended Release Tablets by Melt Congealing Method

    OpenAIRE

    Javeer, S. D.; Pandit, Reshma; Jain, S. P.; Amin, Purnima

    2010-01-01

    Trimetazidine dihydrochloride, a cellular antiischemic agent indicated in the management and prophylaxis of angina pectoris is given as 20 mg thrice daily in the conventional dosage regimen. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and evaluate twice a day extended release tablets containing 30 mg trimetazidine dihydrochloride. The method developed to formulate these extended release tablets was melt congealing followed by wet granulation which exhibited uniform sustained release act...

  9. EXTENDED WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED IMAGE INPAINTING ALGORITHM FOR NATURAL SCENE IMAGE COMPLETION

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sangeetha; Dr.P.Sengottuvelan; E.Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an exemplar based image inpainting using extended wavelet transform. The Image inpainting modifies an image with the available information outside the region to be inpainted in an undetectable way. The extended wavelet transform is in two dimensions. The Laplacian pyramid is first used to capture the point discontinuities, and then followed by a directional filter bank to link point discontinuities into linear structures. The proposed model effectively captu...

  10. Thermodynamically predicted oscillations in closed chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zilbergleyt, B

    2010-01-01

    All known up to now models of chemical oscillations are based exclusively on kinetic considerations. The chemical gross-process equation is split usually by elementary steps, each step is supplied by an arrow and a differential equation, joint solution to such a construction under certain, often ad hoc chosen conditions and with ad hoc numerical coefficients leads to chemical oscillations. Kinetic perception of chemical oscillations reigns without exclusions. However, as it was recently shown by the author for the laser and for the electrochemical systems, chemical oscillations follow also from solutions to the basic expressions of discrete thermodynamics of chemical equilibria. Graphically those solutions are various fork bifurcation diagrams, and, in certain types of chemical systems, oscillations are well pronounced in the bistable bifurcation areas. In this work we describe a general thermodynamic approach to chemical oscillations as opposite to kinetic models, and depict some of their new features like s...

  11. The courageous follower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, N W; Schultz, J H

    1997-04-01

    With the recent changes in the delivery of medical care in the United States, physicians are being thrust into new and unsettling roles. Many are finding themselves for the first time in the role of the follower, subject to myriad types of leadership. Leaders frequently complain that leading physicians is like "herding cats." What are the characteristics of followers? Do physicians make good followers? This article examines the role of the "cats"--what is effective followership, why physicians may fall short in followership skills, and how physicians might become better "followers." PMID:10166542

  12. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  13. Introduction to Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this lecture I will introduce the concept of galactic chemical evolution, namely the study of how and where the chemical elements formed and how they were distributed in the stars and gas in galaxies. The main ingredients to build models of galactic chemical evolution will be described. They include: initial conditions, star formation history, stellar nucleosynthesis and gas flows in and out of galaxies. Then some simple analytical models and their solutions will be discussed together with the main criticisms associated to them. The yield per stellar generation will be defined and the hypothesis of instantaneous recycling approximation will be critically discussed. Detailed numerical models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type, able to follow the time evolution of the abundances of single elements, will be discussed and their predictions will be compared to observational data. The comparisons will include stellar abundances as well as interstellar medium ones, measured in galax...

  14. Twistor spinors and extended conformal superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We show that the first-order symmetry operators of twistor spinors can be constructed from conformal Killing-Yano forms in constant curvature backgrounds and from normal conformal Killing-Yano forms in Einstein manifolds. We express the conditions on conformal Killing-Yano forms to obtain mutually commuting symmetry operators of twistor spinors. Conformal superalgebras which consist of conformal Killing vectors and twistor spinors and play important roles in supersymmetric field theories in conformal backgrounds are extended to more general superalgebras by using the graded Lie algebra structure of conformal Killing-Yano forms and the symmetry operators of twistor spinors. The even part of the extended conformal superalgebra corresponds to conformal Killing-Yano forms and the odd part consists of twistor spinors.

  15. Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.

  16. Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文伟; 白彦魁

    2012-01-01

    Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

  17. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results

  18. Statistical mechanics of extended black objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the considerations of a previous paper on black hole statistical mechanics to the case of black extended objects such as black strings and black membranes in 10-dimensional space-time. We obtain a general expression for the Euclidean action of quantum black p-branes and derive their corresponding degeneracy of states. The statistical mechanics of a gas of black p-branes is then analyzed in the microcanonical ensemble. As in the case of black holes, the equilibrium state is not thermal and the stable configuration is the one for which a single black object carries most of the energy. Again, neutral black p-branes obey the bootstrap condition and it is then possible to argue that their scattering amplitudes satisfy crossing symmetry. Finally, arguments identifying quantum black p-branes with ordinary quantum branes of different dimensionality are presented

  19. XINIX: Extended Inverted Index for Keyword Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomon Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Keyword search is the easiest way to access the data in the face of information explosion. Inverted lists are used to index documents to access those documents according to a set of keywords efficiently. These inverted lists are large in size. So, many compression techniques have been proposed to reduce the storage space and disk I/O time. This paper presents a convenient index structure, which is an extension of the Generalized Inverted Index (GINIX. Ginix merges the consecutive IDs in inverted lists into interval lists and it reduces the size of the inverted index. The new index structure is called Extended Inverted Index (XINIX which extends the structure of Ginix. The primary objective of Xinix is to minimize the storage cost. Xinix not only reduces the storage cost, but also increase the search performance, compared with traditional inverted indexes.

  20. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously-introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum, which are essential to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatical...

  1. Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...

  2. Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi

    2009-01-01

    Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.

  3. Extended phase space. I. Classical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical field theory is developed in the arena of extended phase space V8, the space of position, time, momentum, and energy. This enables one to incorporate Born's reciprocity which demands equal status for the variables q and p. The present formulation is covariant under the extended Poincare group P8 acting in V8. Variational methods for classical field theory are generalized. Besides the usual concept of the total 4-momentum, one encounters the notion of average position and time of the field distributions. The total charge emerges from a dynamical viewpoint. The Dirac and Duffin--Kemmer algebras are generalized in this setting. The corresponding wave equations would lead to a dynamical theory of the elementary particles. The symplectic structure is not considered because of the difficulties to represent spinors

  4. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: dombriz@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  5. GQL: Extending XQuery to Query GML Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jihong; ZHU Fubao; ZHOU Jiaogen; NIU Liping

    2006-01-01

    GML is becoming the de facto standard for electronic data exchange among the applications of Web and distributed geographic information systems. However, the conventional query languages (e.g. SQL and its extended versions) are not suitable for direct querying and updating of GML documents. Even the effective approaches working well with XML could not guarantee good results when applied to GML documents. Although XQuery is a powerful standard query language for XML, it is not proposed for querying spatial features, which constitute the most important components in GML documents. We propose GQL, a query language specification to support spatial queries over GML documents by extending XQuery. The data model, algebra, and formal semantics as well as various spatial functions and operations of GQL are presented in detail.

  6. Coherent state description of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient method of describing an extended object in quantum field theory, which is regarded as a hadron, is presented. We describe the extended object by a coherent state and treat it on the basis of a variational approximation. The stability and orthogonality problems which are crucial in any attempt to render a physical significance to such a coherent state are investigated. From the stability condition, it is shown that only the models which induce the spontaneous breakdown of symmetry have a stable coherent state. We also show that several topological conservation laws can be understood as a reflection of the orthogonality properties of the Hilbert space. As simple examples, we discuss a self-coupled neutral scalar model, a charged scalar model, the Higgs model and the O(3) iso-triplet scalar model. (auth.)

  7. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  8. Extended Connectors: Structuring Glue Operators in BIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Baranov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a variation of the BIP operational semantics using the offer predicate introduced in our previous work, we extend the algebras used to model glue operators in BIP to encompass priorities. This extension uses the Algebra of Causal Interaction Trees, T(P, as a pivot: existing transformations automatically provide the extensions for the Algebra of Connectors. We then extend the axiomatisation of T(P, since the equivalence induced by the new operational semantics is weaker than that induced by the interaction semantics. This extension leads to canonical normal forms for all structures and to a simplification of the algorithm for the synthesis of connectors from Boolean coordination constraints.

  9. Extended Target Recognition in Cognitive Radar Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of adaptive waveform design for extended target recognition in cognitive radar networks. A closed-loop active target recognition radar system is extended to the case of a centralized cognitive radar network, in which a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT framework is employed. Using Doppler velocities measured by multiple radars, the target aspect angle for each radar is calculated. The joint probability of each target hypothesis is then updated using observations from different radar line of sights (LOS. Based on these probabilities, a minimum correlation algorithm is proposed to adaptively design the transmit waveform for each radar in an amplitude fluctuation situation. Simulation results demonstrate performance improvements due to the cognitive radar network and adaptive waveform design. Our minimum correlation algorithm outperforms the eigen-waveform solution and other non-cognitive waveform design approaches.

  10. Extended phase space for a spinning particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, S. [Dept. of Math. Methods in Phys., Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1995-12-21

    The extended phase space of an elementary (relativistic) system is introduced in the spirit of Souriau's (1970) definition of the 'space of motions' for such a system. Our 'modification' consists in taking into account not only the symmetry (Poincare) group but also its action on the (Minkowski) spacetime, i.e. the full covariant system. This yields a general procedure to construct spaces in which the equations of motion can be formulated: phase trajectories of the system are identified as characteristics on some constraint submanifold ('mass and spin shell') in the extended phase space. Our formulation is generally applicable to any homogeneous spacetime (e.g. de Sitter) and also to Poisson actions. Calculations concerning the Minkowski case for non-zero spin particles show an intriguing alternative: we should either accept two-dimensional trajectories or (Poisson) non-commuting spacetime coordinates. (author)

  11. Speciality chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.J.; Knifton, J.F. (Shell Development Company, Houston, TX (USA))

    1992-04-01

    Texaco has undertaken research to investigate the use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as building blocks for the manufacture of amidocarbonylation products. The amidocarbonylation reaction offers a convenient method to construct two functionalities - amido and carboxylate - simultaneously. Texaco has extended this chemistry to make a variety of speciality chemicals by tailoring cobalt catalysts. Products which have been made including: surface active agents such as the C{sub 14} - C{sub 16} alkyl amidoacids; surfactants; intermediates for sweeteners like aspartame; food additives like glutamic acid; and chelating agents such as polyamidoacids. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Reconstructing the extended nasal tip defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Reconstruction of large facial defects requires surgical skill, an understanding of engineering principles, an artistic eye, and patience to design the most elegant solution for each patient. Extended nasal tip defects, which may involve additional facial subunits, require even more thoughtful analysis and planning. Reconstructive surgeons need to be aware of the pros and cons of various options for flaps, the use of a delay stage, and sequencing and scheduling of staged operations to achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:24037937

  13. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R; Gómez-Bock, M; Mondragón, M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  14. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  15. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems. For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  16. Thermal leptogenesis in extended supersymmetric seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Romão, J C; Sarkar, U; Valle, J W F

    2007-01-01

    We consider an extended supersymmetric SO(10) seesaw model with only doublet Higgs scalars, in which neutrino masses are suppressed by the scale of D-parity violation. Leptogenesis can occur at the TeV scale through the decay of a singlet Sigma, thereby avoiding the gravitino crisis. Washout of the asymmetry can be effectively suppressed by the absence of direct couplings of Sigma to leptons.

  17. From self-organized to extended criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaoloAllegrini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as "critical", and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term "criticality" has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: i In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; ii For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; iii Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with he temporal complexity of physical

  18. From self-organized to extended criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Elisa; Allegrini, Paolo; Geneston, Elvis; West, Bruce J; Grigolini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as "critical," and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term "criticality" has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: (i) In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; (ii) For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; (iii) Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the main conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with the temporal complexity of physical critical

  19. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    OpenAIRE

    Rossum, van, M.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Python is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes how to embed the Python interpreter in another application, for use as an extension language. Finally, it shows how to compile and link extension modules so that they can be loaded dynamically (at run time) into t...

  20. Fusion Rules for Extended Current Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Ernest; Gepner, Doron

    1996-01-01

    The initial classification of fusion rules have shown that rational conformal field theory is very limited. In this paper we study the fusion rules of extend ed current algebras. Explicit formulas are given for the S matrix and the fusion rules, based on the full splitting of the fixed point fields. We find that in s ome cases sensible fusion rules are obtained, while in others this procedure lea ds to fractional fusion constants.

  1. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying ou...

  2. An Extended Colored Zee-Babu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    We study the extended colored Zee-Babu model introducing a vector-like quark and singlet scalar. The active neutrino mass matrix and muon anomalous magnetic moment are analyzed, which can be fitted to experimental data satisfying the constraints from flavor changing neutral current. Then we discuss signature of our model via vector-like quark production. In addition, the diphoton excess can be explained with the contribution from vector-like quark

  3. Spectral phase conjugation via extended phase matching

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the copropagating three-wave-mixing parametric process, with appropriate type-II extended phase matching and pumped with a short second-harmonic pulse, can perform spectral phase conjugation and parametric amplification, which shows a threshold behavior analogous to backward wave oscillation. The process is also analyzed in the Heisenberg picture, which predicts a spontaneous parametric down conversion rate in agreement with the experimental result reported by Kuzucu et al. [...

  4. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy.

  5. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  6. A Theory for Valiant's Matchcircuits (Extended Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Angsheng; Xia, Mingji

    2008-01-01

    The computational function of a matchgate is represented by its character matrix. In this article, we show that all nonsingular character matrices are closed under matrix inverse operation, so that for every $k$, the nonsingular character matrices of $k$-bit matchgates form a group, extending the recent work of Cai and Choudhary (2006) of the same result for the case of $k=2$, and that the single and the two-bit matchgates are universal for matchcirc...

  7. Gibbs conditioning extended, Boltzmann conditioning introduced

    OpenAIRE

    Grendar, Marian

    2004-01-01

    Conditional Equi-concentration of Types on I-projections (ICET) and Extended Gibbs Conditioning Principle (EGCP) provide an extension of Conditioned Weak Law of Large Numbers and of Gibbs Conditioning Principle to the case of non-unique Relative Entropy Maximizing (REM) distribution (aka I-projection). ICET and EGCP give a probabilistic justification to REM under rather general conditions. mu-projection variants of the results are introduced. They provide a probabilistic justification to Maxi...

  8. Extended Generalized Feistel Networks using Matrix Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Thierry Pierre; Minier, Marine; Thomas, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    While Generalized Feistel Networks have been widely studied in the literature as a building block of a block cipher, we propose in this paper a unified vision to easily represent them through a matrix representation. We then propose a new class of such schemes called Extended Generalized Feistel Networks well suited for cryptographic applications. We instantiate those proposals into two particular constructions and we finally analyze their security.

  9. Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?

    OpenAIRE

    Dollens, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and bio...

  10. Dynamics of extended bodies in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon's approach to describe the dynamics of extended bodies in metric theories of gravity is elaborated. The exact, general relation between the centre-of-mass 4-velocity and the 4-momentum is derived. Quasi-rigid bodies are defined, and their equations of motion are shown to be determinate for a given metric. Multipole approximations are considered, and the physical meaning of quasi-rigidity is investigated by establishing an approximate connection with continuum mechanics. (orig.)

  11. A Spatially Extended Model for Residential Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Aguilera; Edgardo Ugalde

    2006-01-01

    We analyze urban spatial segregation phenomenon in terms of the income distribution over a population, and an inflationary parameter weighting the evolution of housing prices. For this, we develop a discrete spatially extended model based on a multiagent approach. In our model, the mobility of socioeconomic agents is driven only by the housing prices. Agents exchange location in order to fit their status to the cost of their ...

  12. Top partner probes of extended Higgs sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, John(Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, U.S.A.); Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ratios to these extended Higgs sector states. In fact, top partner decays may provide the most promising discovery mode for such scalars, especially given the large backgrounds to direct and associated production. In this paper, we present a search strategy for top partner ...

  13. Knowledge Management System Design Using Extended Gaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Learning resource centre can be achieved with the help of a network of collaborating,coordinating and communicating software agents. Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting newmeans of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. The designing of the interactingagents is done with the help of Gaia, extended for the multiagent systems. Gaia is a methodology foragent-oriented analysis and design proposed by M. Wooldridge [9].

  14. Extended enterprise architecture with the FADEE

    OpenAIRE

    Goethals, Frank; Vandenbulcke, Jacques; Lemahieu, Wilfried; Snoeck, Monique; Cumps, Bjorn

    2004-01-01

    Business-to-Business integration (B2Bi) is considered to be not merely an IT-issue, but also a business problem. This paper draws attention to the challenges companies within an Extended Enterprise are confronted with when integrating their systems. We primarily pay attention to coordination problems that may arise. To overcome these problems we propose the use of Enterprise Architecture descriptions. We discuss the powers of using Enterprise Architecture descriptions in integration exercises...

  15. Extended Corporate Citizenship : A Libertarian Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Jukka; Räsänen, Petri

    2011-01-01

    We argue that the idea of ECC (Extended Corporate Citizenship) is more in line with libertarian than liberal thinking. The basic idea of ECC is the dislocation of the provider of citizenship rights from governments to corporations: corporations provide and administrate the same citizenship rights, which governments provided earlier, before the political processes started the privatization of these entitlements (since the 1980’s and 1990’s). According to John Rawls’ liberal viewpoint, citizens...

  16. Classical limits of an extended unitary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the limiting cases of an extended unitary model and it is shown that rotational, vibrational and transition excitation spectra are generated depending on the parameters ratio. The limits concerned resemble, by some properties, the analogous limits of an interacting boson model, however, the physical nature of the two models is different. Their generality is caused by the group structure similarity. 31 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs

  17. Implementing MPI-2 Extended Collective Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro; Silva, JoÃo Gabriel

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a first approach to implement MPI-2’s Extended Collective Operations. We aimed to ascertain the feasibility and effectiveness of such a project based on existing algorithms. The focus is on the intercommunicator operations, as these represent the main extension of the MPI-2 standard on the MPI-1 collective operations. We expose the algorithms, key features and some performance results. The implementation was done on top of WMPI and honors the MPICH layer...

  18. Extended BRS algebra and color confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the color-confinement criteria proposed by Kugo and Ojima. With the use of the extended BRS symmetry and the Nakanishi's theorem, we look for the representations of the BRS algebra compatible with the first condition of their criteria (the K-O condition) and then ask whether or not they are physically acceptable. As a result, the quartet mechanism does not work, and the K-O condition is not regarded as a confinement condition. (author)

  19. Extended phase space for a spinning particle

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1994-01-01

    Extended phase space of an elementary (relativistic) system is introduced in the spirit of the Souriau's definition of the `space of motions' for such system. Our formulation is generally applicable to any homogeneous space-time (e.g. de Sitter) and also to Poisson actions. Calculations concerning the Minkowski case for non-zero spin particles show an intriguing alternative: we should either accept two-dimensional trajectories or (Poisson) noncommuting space-time coordinates.

  20. Extending the rigidity of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    We give the most general conditions to date which lead to uniqueness of the general relativistic Hamiltonian. Namely, we show that all spatially covariant generalizations of the scalar constraint which extend the standard one while remaining quadratic in the momenta are second class. Unlike previous investigations along these lines, we do not require a specific Poisson bracket algebra, and the quadratic dependence on the momenta is completely general, with an arbitrary local operator as the kinetic term.