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Sample records for chemically transformed malignant

  1. Defective Autophagy Initiates Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-05-19

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Park et al. (2016) elegantly demonstrate that a partial defect in autophagy supports malignant transformation as it favors the production of genotoxic reactive oxygen species by mitochondria.

  2. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that

  3. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that

  4. Twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Dorota; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Kowal, Małgorzata; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Polkowski, Wojciech; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, the cause of which remains unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. The presented study concerns the case of a 62-year-old woman in whom twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus in the dorsal part of the left foot developed. Several studies have pointed out the malignant transformation potential of lichen planus. Epidemiological studies from the last 20 years have revealed a malignant transformation rate of 0.27% per year, emphasizing the importance of the clinical follow-up of lichen planus patients.

  5. Malignant transformation in chronic osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous degeneration is a rare and late complication developing decades after the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. OBJECTIVES: To present the results from a retrospective study of six cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. METHODS: Six cases of chronic osteomyelitis related to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The cause and characteristics of the osteomyelitis were analyzed, as well as time up to malignancy, the suspicion signs for malignancy, the localization and histological type of the cancer, and the type and result of the treatment. RESULTS: The mean time between osteomyelitis onset and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 49.17 years (range: 32-65. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in five cases and from femur osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination indicated cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. All the patients were staged as N0M0, except for one, whose lomboaortic lymph nodes were affected. The treatment consisted of amputation proximal to the tumor in all patients. No patient presented signs of local recurrence and only one had carcinoma metastasis. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and proximal amputation are essential for prognosis and final results in carcinomatous degeneration secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  6. Malignant transformation in an anal condyloma acuminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeckam, G C; Idikio, H A; Nayak, V; Gardiner, J P

    1983-03-01

    A 61-year-old man had malignant transformation of an anal condyloma acuminatum, demonstrated by light and electron microscopic studies. Intranuclear virus-like particles were seen in the benign condylomatous koilocytotic cells but these were absent in the malignant cells. Multinucleation, syncytial giant cells and nuclear atypia in a condyloma acuminatum are considered features of in-situ carcinomatous change. Anal condyloma acuminatum requires wide excision and thorough examination of anorectal canal in order to exclude hidden disease, which will predispose to recurrence. Homosexuality is considered a predisposing factor. The authors stress the importance of histopathologic examination of all anorectal warts to exclude malignant change.

  7. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: An unusual malignant transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi G Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male.

  8. Multicentric malignant transformation of multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, T.; Hillmann, A.; Winkelmann, W. [Department of Orthopaedics, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, Albert-Schweitzer Strasse 33, D-48129 Muenster (Germany); Blasius, S. [Department of Pathology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, Albert-Schweitzer Strasse 33, D-48129 Muenster (Germany); Link, T. [Department of Radiology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, Albert-Schweitzer Strasse 33, D-48129 Muenster (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    We treated a patient with large multiple chondrosarcomas derived from multiple cartilaginous exostoses. One sarcoma originated in the left pubic bone and the other sarcoma in the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter of the left femur. Thirty months after hindquarter amputation, the patient is alive without relapse. This is the first report of a patient with synchronous multiple malignant transformation of multiple cartilaginous exostoses. (orig.) With 7 figs., 14 refs.

  9. Legendre transforms in chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberty, R.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    After introductory remarks on chemical thermodynamics, independent variables, and natural variables, the paper discusses the following: Callen's nomenclature for Legendre transformed thermodynamic potentials; Transforms for chemical work (gas reactions, biochemical reactions, and ligand binding and denaturation of macromolecules); Transforms for gravitational and centrifugal work; Transforms for mechanical work (tensile stress and shear stress); Transforms for surface work; Transforms for work of electrical transport (fundamental equations, thermodynamic properties and chemical reactions, and derivation of the equation for the membrane potential); Transforms for work of electric polarization; and Transforms for work of magnetic polarization. 92 references.

  10. Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia into chondroblastic osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Shaifali [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Smoker, Wendy R.K. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Frable, William J. [Department of Pathology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2002-02-01

    A case of malignant transformation of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia into maxillary chondroblastic osteosarcoma is presented. The clinical, radiographic, CT, MR imaging features and pathological findings of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and its malignant transformation are described. Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia is rare and has not previously been described in the English literature in this location in McCune-Albright syndrome and in the absence of radiation treatment. (orig.)

  11. Proteome profiling of keratinocytes transforming to malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitschke, Verena; Gerner, Christopher; Hofstätter, Elisabeth; Mohr, Thomas; Mayer, Rupert Laurenz; Pehamberger, Hubert; Kunstfeld, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    To shed light on the multistep process of squamous cell carcinoma development and the underlying pathologic mechanisms, we performed comparative proteome analysis of keratinocytes, keratinocytes stimulated with Il-1beta, and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Fractionation of the cells into supernatant, nucleus, and cytoplasm was followed by protein separation, proteolytic digest, and nano-LC separation, and fragmentation using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Specific bioinformatics tools were used to generate a list of keratinocyte-specific proteins. Ninety percent of these proteins were found to be upregulated in keratinocytes versus the A431 cells. Classification of the identified proteins by biologic function and gene set enrichment analysis revealed that keratinocytes produced more proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell adhesion, cell junction, calcium ion, calmodulin binding, cytoskeleton organization, and cytokinesis, whereas A431 produced more proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint, cell cycle process, RNA processing and transport, DNA damage and repair, RNA and DNA binding, and chromatin remodeling. The protein signatures of A431 and normal keratinocytes treated with IL-1beta showed marked similarity, confirming that inflammation is an important step in malignant transformation in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Thus, proteome profiling and bioinformatic processing may support the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, with the potential to facilitate development of early biomarkers and patient-tailored therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  13. microRNAs in the Malignant Transformation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Anne E; Li, Lihua; Kartha, Reena V; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2015-01-01

    Many cancers originate as benign neoplasms that transform into malignant cancerous tumors in a multistep progression that is regulated, in part, by microRNAs. Benign neoplasms, by definition, lack the ability to invade adjacent tissues or spread to distant sites through metastasis. The benign to malignant transition is a critical intervention stage as tumors diagnosed in subsequent nonlocalized and malignant stages are exponentially more difficult to treat successfully. This chapter explores the critical roles that microRNAs play in the transformation from benign to malignant in four representative cancers: colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and prostate cancer. Understanding how these microRNAs control this progression and transformation will lead to new therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers, resulting in improved treatments and patient outcomes.

  14. Malignant melanoma transformation within a nevus of Ito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sean R; Capra, Gregory; Martin, Peter; Wallace, Donna; Miller, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The mongolian spot, nevus of Ota, and nevus of Ito are the most common morphologic forms of the dermal melanocytoses, a group of benign pigmented lesions histologically characterized by the presence of melanocytes within the dermis. Nevus of Ito is clinically distinct, presenting with unilateral, bluish gray, patchy discolorations in the skin within the distributions of the posterior supraclavicular and lateral cutaneous brachial nerves. Although all dermal melanocytoses are generally considered benign, rare cases of malignant transformation associated with nevus of Ota have been described. Only one case of malignant melanoma transformation in association with nevus of Ito has previously been reported. We present the second description of malignant melanoma transformation within a nevus of Ito and provide comment on the malignant potential of the dermal melanocytoses.

  15. Malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, R M; Burkes, E J

    1977-03-01

    Two cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibro-odontomas are presented, along with a review of the literature on ameloblastic fibrosarcomas. The occurrence of this malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibromas, ameloblastic odontomas, and ameloblastic fibro-odontomas appears to be more frequent than previously thought. This potential transformation alone does not justify radical treatment of all these benign lesions. If there is recurrence accompanied by a histologic pattern change toward a more unorganized fibrous stroma with displacement of the epithelial component, however, then more extensive treatment procedures appear to be indicated.

  16. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  17. Radiotherapy for a repeatedly recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Chen, Jin-Yi; Chen, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy (RT) for ameloblastoma remains controversial and undetermined due to the rarity of the disease. A case of repeatedly recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation is presented. The clinical course and managements are described. The 63-year-old man had a recurrent ameloblastoma in the left mandible. Five years after the first surgical resection, he underwent 8 more rounds of surgical excision of the recurrent tumors. The malignant transformation occurred and the unresectable tumor invaded the masticator space, parapharyngeal space, and skull base. He received 3-dimensional conformal RT, at the dose of 66 Gray (Gy) in 33 fractions. The ulcerative exophytic mass had regressed gradually. After follow-up of 28 months, the tumor was well controlled. RT seems to be a feasible treatment option for recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Malignant transformation of aneurysmal bone cysts: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jiong; GAO You-shui; WANG Shu-qing; CAI Xuan-song

    2009-01-01

    @@ An aneurysmal bone cyst is a non-neoplastic, Adestructive and expansile lesion consisting of a "blood-filled sponge" that is defined to represent a benign reactive vascularity.1-3 Szendroi et al4 suggested that the aneurysmal bone cyst corresponds to a haemodynamic disturbance that is primary or secondary venous malformation of the bones. The association with trauma including fracture has also been noted and 25%-71% of such patients have a history of trauma.57 Conventionally, malignant transformation of aneurysmal bone cysts is perceived as a rare occurrence except those induced by irradiation.8-10~ Both malignant fibrous histiocytoma and osteosarcoma have been reported in the malignant transformation cases.

  19. Advances in recurrence and malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted papillomas

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    Sun, Qingjia; An, Lifeng; Zheng, Jun; Zhu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SIP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and sinus. SIP is characterized by aggressive malignant transformation and a high rate of recurrence. Inadequate removal of the tumor during surgery is one of the most significant contributors to SIP recurrence. A growing body of evidence suggests that molecular alteration in SIP, including human papilloma virus infections, single nucleotide polymorphisms of key genes, deregulation of signaling pathways and immunological changes, may lead to SIP occurrence and malignant transformation. However, the extent to which these molecular mechanisms contribute to SIP pathology and transformation remains unclear due to limited research. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the primary dependent factors that contribute to SIP etiology. The present article reviewed risk factors of progression and recurrence of SIP, including outdoor and industrial occupational exposure, smoking, septal deviation, SIP location, recurrent cases, stage of SIP-associated squamous cell carcinoma and choice of surgical method. PMID:28599459

  20. Malignant transformation of kissing nevus- a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel Sitaula, R; Batta, S; Shrestha, G B; Shrestha, J K

    2012-01-01

    Kissing nevus is a congenital nevus in adjacent parts of the eyelids. Malignant transformation of kissing or divided nevi of the eyelids is rarely described. To report a very rare case of malignant transformation of kissing nevus with ocular and extraocular spread. A 57- year- old man with 6/6 visual acuity in both eyes presented with a kissing nevus present since birth in right upper and lower eyelids which had a slow growth phase. The upper lid in the area of the nevus was thickened with a 20x12x15 mm black pigmented crusted hemorrhagic nodular lesions. The lower lid had a 6 mm black pigmented ulcerated lesion over the pre-existing nevus in the lateral third of the lid with full thickness infiltration. Another 5x4 mm pigmented lesion over the lower medial lid margin with a thickness of about 3 mm extended to the conjunctival side of the lower lid. Right sided pre-auricular and sub-maxillary nodes were palpable. A biopsy of tissue samples from the eyelid and pre-auricular nodes were consistent with malignant melanoma. Malignant transformation of kissing nevus is rare. It can spread to the conjunctiva,pre-auricular and sub-mandibular lymphnodes. © NEPjOPH.

  1. Malignant Transformation of an Aneurysmal Bone Cyst to Fibroblastic Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P; Wan, Jennifer J; Devulapalli, Kavi K; Horvai, Andrew E; O'Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are uncommon primary bone tumors typically regarded as histologically and clinically benign. Malignant transformation of these lesions occurs almost exclusively in the context of prior radiation exposure. However, 4 cases of an osteosarcoma developing without prior radiation exposure have been reported. In this article, we report a fifth case of degeneration of an aneurysmal bone cyst to a fibroblastic osteosarcoma. In addition to reviewing the earlier cases, we describe the radiologic, pathologic, and immunohistochemical basis of this diagnosis.

  2. Malignant transformation of ectopic pancreatic cells in the duodenal wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto; Bini; Paolo; Voghera; Alberto; Tapparo; Raffaele; Nunziata; Andrea; Demarchi; Matteo; Capocefalo; Renzo; Leli

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas (EP) is the relatively uncommon presence of pancreatic tissue outside the normal location of the pancreas. This condition is usually asymptomatic and rarely complicated by pancreatitis and malignant transformation. A few cases of neoplastic phenomena that developed from EP into the duodenal wall are described in the literature. Herein we report a case of gastric outlet obstruction due to adenocarcinoma arising from EP of the duodenal wall. The patient underwent a Whipple's procedure and had...

  3. Evaluation on Malignant Transformation of Oral Lichen Planus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    目的:口腔扁平苔藓(oral lichen planus,OLP)是否属于癌前病变,至今仍存在较大的争论.本文的目的在于评估OLP的癌变性质.方法:报告1995~2002年之间9例OLP的癌变病例.结果:5例OLP患者同时或继发为口腔鳞状细胞癌,1例为疣状癌,3例为上皮异常增生.其中7例发生在原OLP存在的部位,1例发生在其它部位,1例在同一部位同时存在OLP和鳞状细胞癌.OLP的癌变常发生在糜烂型和萎缩型,发生于颊粘膜、舌或牙龈.根据所制定的OLP的诊断及癌变标准,4例OLP患者发生了癌变.结论:OLP具有一定的癌变潜力,对OLP患者应每年随访2~4次,尤其是对发生在颊粘膜、舌或牙龈的糜烂型和萎缩型的患者.%Objective:To evaluate the malignant transformation of oral lichen planus(OLP).Methods:The malignant transformation of oral lichen planus was investigated between 1995 and 2002.The symptoms,the location of lesions,clinical history and histopathological feathers were carefully recorded.Results:5 cases had concurrent or subsequent oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),1 case developed verrucous carcinoma in the lower lip,3 patients were epithelial dysplasia histopathologically. In addition,7 patients were in an area of pre-existing OLP,1 in other site, in 1 case the diagnosis of OLP and SCC was synchronous.The malignant transformation occurred most frequently in the erosive and atrophic forms of OLP,and in the buccal mucosa, tongue or gingiva.According to the criteria of diagnosis and malignant transformation of OLP we established, 4 of the 9 patients were considered to develop malignant transformation.Conclusions:These data suggest the probability of some cases of at least OLP having an intrinsic property predisposing to malignant transformation.It is necessary to follow-up the patients regularly two to four times annually and to find early signs of malignant transformation.Follow-up are particularly important in patients with erosive and

  4. Evaluation of Reported Malignant Transformation of Vestibular Schwannoma: De Novo and After Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maducdoc, Marlon M; Ghavami, Yaser; Linskey, Mark E; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2015-09-01

    To critically analyze each reported case of malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) after either stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or microsurgery (MS). We searched the Pubmed/Medline database using the relevant key words vestibular schwannoma, acoustic neuroma, malignant, transformation, radiation, induced, stereotactic, radiosurgery, malignancy, GammaKnife, and CyberKnife and combinations thereof. Inclusion criteria for malignant transformation of VS after SRS included histopathology of initially benign VS, subsequent histopathology confirming malignant VS, reasonable latency period between malignancy and benign diagnoses. A neurotologist and a skull base neurosurgeon independently assessed each case report for quality, entry, exclusion criteria, and comparability of extracted data. We calculated median age, latency times, and survival times for each case report. Malignant transformation has been documented to occur after either SRS or MS. Eight cases were included that showed histopathologic evidence of malignant transformation after SRS and MS. Four cases of malignant transformation were included that demonstrated malignant transformation after MS only. Malignant transformation of VS can also occur de novo, and de novo malignant VSs are also encountered, which can confound a causal inference from either SRS or MS. Eighteen cases of primary malignant VS were included. Studies that were identified but not included in the review are summarized and tabulated. We found 12 studies of malignant transformation associated with NF2. The potential mechanism leading to malignant transformation of VS seems more obvious for SRS and is less understood for MS. Given a low incidence of de novo malignant schwannoma, the possibility that these are spontaneous events in either setting cannot be ruled out. Risk of malignant transformation of VS after either SRS or MS is not zero; however, the magnitude of this risk is probably minimal based on the evidence from eight

  5. [Transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenashev, E A; Cherekaev, V A; Kadasheva, A B; Kozlov, A V; Rotin, D L; Stepanian, M A

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare entity with only 18 cases of trigeminal nerve MPNST described by now and only one report of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve tumor into MPNST published up to date. One more case of malignant transformation of trigeminal nerve (1st division) tumor into MPNST is demonstrated.

  6. Leiomyosarcoma: a rare malignant transformation of a uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, G; D'Alfonso, A; Patacchiola, F; Di Stefano, L; Palermo, P; Carta, G

    2015-01-01

    The malignant transformation of a uterine leiomyoma is still debated and, if it occurs, it is very rare. The case of a patient affected by one small leiomyoma is described. Diagnosis was made postoperatively on histopathological examination. The case reported here is meant to underline the need to keep all uterine myomas in check since the transition into leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) may occur with an evolution over a time period which has not been established so far. Specific receptors for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) have also been identified in the myometrium of several animal species, including humans. Conventional LMSs express estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and androgen receptors (AR) in 30-40% of cases. In comparison with other more common uterine malignancies, uterine LMSs bear some resemblance to type 2 endometrial carcinomas and high-grade serous carcinomas of ovary/fallopian tube origin, based on their genetic instability, frequent p53 abnormalities, aggressive behavior, and resistance to chemotherapy. It could be useful to understand with further researches if hormonal stimulation could be a contributing factor of uterine leiomyoma transformation into LMS. Until today the oncogenic mechanisms underlying the development of uterine LMSs remain elusive.

  7. Chemical Transformations in Individual Ultrasmall Biomimetic Containers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel T. Chiu; Clyde F. Wilson; Frida Ryttsén; Anette Strömberg; Cecilia Farre; Anders Karlsson; Sture Nordholm; Anuj Gaggar; Biren P. Modi; Alexander Moscho; Roberto A. Garza-López; Owe Orwar; Richard N. Zare

    1999-01-01

    ... to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a short (10-microsecond), intense...

  8. Predictive factors of recurrence and malignant transformation in vocal cord leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the predictive risk factors of vocal cord leukoplakia recurrence and malignant transformation. From January 2009 to December 2013, 63 patients with a diagnosis of vocal cord leukoplakia were identified based on their medical records. The 63 patients comprised 62 males and one female. This study showed that the extent of vocal cord leukoplakia resulted in statistically significant differences for both the recurrence of vocal cord leukoplakia and malignant transformation (p leukoplakia and malignant transformation (p < 0.05). We suggest that the extent of lesion and the degree of dysplasia are predictive factors for the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation.

  9. Malignant transformation of intracranial meningeal melanocytoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fulin; Qiao, Guangyu; Lou, Xin; Song, Xin; Chen, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is an uncommon pigmented neoplasm that affects the CNS and develops in the cranial and spinal leptomeninges. Here we report on a case of malignant transformation of intracranial supratentorial meningeal melanocytoma which recurred after 3 years as malignant melanoma. This case demonstrates that the biological behavior of melanocytoma is uncertain and that these lesions may recur as malignant melanoma.

  10. Late Malignant Transformation of a Vestibular Schwannoma without Association to NFII or Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Broholm, Helle

    Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near-total exc...

  11. Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma in the absence of irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Broholm, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Late malignant transformation of vestibular schwannoma (VS) following irradiation has previously been reported 29 times in the literature. Here, the authors report the first late malignant transformation of VS unrelated to neurofibromatosis or radiation exposure. After undergoing a near-total exc...

  12. Differences in oral habit and lymphocyte subpopulation affect malignant transformation of patients with oral precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yang Yeh

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that age, alcohol consumption, and early activation of T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells are crucial in the malignant transformation of oral precancer. Analysis of patient's lymphocyte populations may help predict the malignant transformation of oral precancer.

  13. Hepatocellular adenoma with malignant transformation in male patients with non-cirrhotic livers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Lin An; Jian-Xiong Wu; Li-Ming Wang; Wei-Qi Rong; Fan Wu; Wei Sun; Wei-Bo Yu; Li Feng; Fa-Qiang Liu; Fei Tian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), with a risk of malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), classically develop in young women who are taking oral contraceptives. It is now clear that HCAs may also occur in men. However, it is rarely reported that HCAs with malignant transformation occur in male patients with non-cirrhotic livers. This study aimed to characterize the malignancy of HCAs occurring in male patients. Methods:Al patients with HCAs with malignant transformation who underwent hepatectomy at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical Col ege between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2011 were enrolled in the study. The clinical characteristics as well as radiologic and pathologic data were reviewed. Results:HCAs with malignant transformation were observed in 5 male patients with non-cirrhotic livers, but not in female patients. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were higher in patients with HCAs with malignant transformation than in patients with HCAs without malignant transformation. The diameters of the tumors with malignant transformation were larger than 5 cm in 3 cases and smaller than 5 cm in 2 cases. The 5 patients were all alive without recurrence by the end of the study period. The disease-free survival times of the 5 patients were 26, 48, 69, 69, and 92 months. Conclusion:Our results indicate that resection would be advised even if the presumptive diagnosis is adenoma smaller than 5 cm in diameter, especially in male patients.

  14. Liver cell adenoma with malignant transformation: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Ito; Makoto Sasaki; Chun-Yang Wen; Masahiro Nakashima; Toshihito Ueki; Hiromi Ishibashi; Michitami Yano; Masayoshi Kage; Masamichi Kojiro

    2003-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a liver mass detected by computed tomography. She had taken oral contraceptives for only one month at the age of thirty. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities, and laboratory data, including hepatic function tests, were within the normal range, with the exception of elevated levels of those serum proteins induced by the absence of vitamin K or by raised levels of the antagonist (PIVKA)-Ⅱ (3 502 AU/ml).Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic mass measuring 10x10 cm in the left posterior segment of the liver. Because hepatocellular carcinoma could not be completely excluded, this mass was resected. The tumor consisted of sheets of uniform cells with clear cytoplasm,perinuclear eosinophilic granules and round nuclei. These histological findings were consistent with liver cell adenoma.Background hepatic tissue appeared normal. After resection of the tumor, serum PIVKA-Ⅱ fell to within the normal range.An area of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a midtrabecular pattern was immunohistochemically found, which was positive for PIVKA-Ⅱ. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were CD34-positive, containing scattered PIVKA-Ⅱ positive cells.This tumor was therefore finally diagnosed as liver cell adenoma with focal malignant transformation to HCC.

  15. A chemical hemostatic technique for bleeding from malignant wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Masaki; Tokita, Hiromi; Okamura, Takashi; Yoshino, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer, skin cancer, and head and neck cancer often develops a hemorrhagic malignant wound. Bleeding from the tumor impairs patients' quality of life and can be life threatening, while surgical or electrical hemostasis is often unsuccessful because of the tumor's friability. We performed a chemical hemostatic treatment for breast cancer hemorrhage with zinc chloride paste (Mohs' paste), which is usually applied as a fixative in micrographic surgery for cutaneous neoplasms. Five patients with bleeding from breast cancer under various circumstances were treated with this technique in 2008. The method was successful on first application for all five patients, and hemostasis was maintained long term. This simple technique is effective for bleeding from malignant wounds and should be learned by health professionals performing cancer care.

  16. Polyfluorinated chemicals and transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, Thomas P. [Univ. of Applied Sciences Fresenius, Idstein (Germany). Inst. for Analytical Research; Lange, Frank Thomas (eds.) [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs. (orig.)

  17. Malignant transformation of ameloblastic fibroma to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo; Murakami, Ryuichi; Fujii, Tohru; Hirano, Akiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a rare malignant odontogenic tumour and is regarded as the malignant counterpart of the ameloblastic fibroma. The epithelial component remains benign, but the mesenchymal component becomes malignant. The diagnosis is made by histopathology. The case of a 26-year-old man who underwent curettage of an ameloblastic fibroma and died of an ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is presented, and the course of malignant transformation is analysed retrospectively. One-third of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma cases seem to have developed from recurrent ameloblastic fibromas. Knowledge of the malignant potential in the mesenchymal spindle cells of ameloblastic fibroma will assist in determining the management of these benign tumours, and may prevent malignant transformation to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma.

  18. Epilepsy due to a temporal ganglioglioma and its subsequent malignant transformation into a primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Bendersky, Damián; Tedesco, Nicolás; Christiansen, Silvia; García, María del Carmen; Ciraolo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare brain tumors, and their malignant changes are still less frequent. In these cases, almost always the malignant component is the glial one. However, there are few cases in which the neuronal component exhibits malignant transformation. Case Description: We described a case of a 14-year-old male patient who started with seizures and 5 years later, its frequency was almost daily despite being treated with several antiepileptic drugs. Magnetic resonance i...

  19. Oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes associated with malignant transformation of human kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2016-09-17

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in humans is positively influenced by oxidative stress status in kidneys. We recently reported that adaptive response to low level of chronic oxidative stress induces malignant transformation of immortalized human renal tubular epithelial cells. Epigenetic alterations in human RCC are well documented, but its role in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of kidney cells is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of epigenetic changes in chronic oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of HK-2, human renal tubular epithelial cells. The results revealed aberrant expression of epigenetic regulatory genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3a and MBD4) and histone modifications (HDAC1, HMT1 and HAT1) in HK-2 cells malignantly transformed by chronic oxidative stress. Additionally, both in vitro soft agar assay and in vivo nude mice study showing decreased tumorigenic potential of malignantly transformed HK-2 cells following treatment with DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza 2' dC further confirmed the crucial role of DNA hypermethyaltion in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation. Changes observed in global histone H3 acetylation (H3K9, H3K18, H3K27 and H3K14) and decrease in phospho-H2AX (Ser139) also suggest potential role of histone modifications in increased survival and malignant transformation of HK-2 cells by oxidative stress. In summary, the results of this study suggest that epigenetic reprogramming induced by low levels of oxidative stress act as driver for malignant transformation of kidney epithelial cells. Findings of this study are highly relevant in potential clinical application of epigenetic-based therapeutics for treatments of kidney cancers.

  20. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  1. Predictive Factors of Potential Malignant Transformation in Recurrent Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT demonstrates considerable diversity in histopathology and clinical behavior. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC is the rare malignant counterpart of CCOT and it frequently arises from malignant transformation of a recurrent CCOT. In this paper, we present a case of CCOT and discuss its distinct histopathologic features in recurrence. Then, we will have a review on clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical aspects of GCOC in the literature. Predictive factors of malignant transformation in a benign CCOT will also be discussed.

  2. Tumor-like microenvironment in oral lichen planus: evidence of malignant transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiao; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Xiaojing; Zhou, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting 0.1% to 4% of the world population. The WHO has already recognized it as an oral potentially malignant disorder. However, the reasons for the malignant transformation of OLP are far from being elucidated clearly. The purpose of this review is to clarify how the tumor-like microenvironment in OLP mediates its potentially malignant transformation. Areas covered: We review published articles on the microenvironment characteristics of tumors, the pathogenesis of OLP, and clinical studies of OLP. The main sources of literature derive from MEDLINE/Pubmed and Thomson Reuter's Web of Science. Expert commentary: The tumor-like microenvironment, including hypoxic, inflammatory, immune and acid microenvironment, greatly contributes to carcinogenesis of OLP patients. In order to effectively monitor the malignant transformation of OLP, future studies should focus on long-term follow-up and select important detection biomarkers.

  3. Malignant struma ovarii: a case report; Transformation maligne d'un goitre ovarien. A propos d'une observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slim, I.; El Bez, I.; Yeddes, I.; El Ajmi, W.; Letaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, F. [Institut Salah Azaiez, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Struma ovary is a mono dermal variant of ovarian teratoma, which predominantly contains thyroid tissue. Malignant transformation and metastasis are very rare. The treatment of malignant struma ovary remains controversial. We report the case of a patient with a recurrent struma ovary, treated 18 years ago. The malignant transformation and metastases were treated with a combination of surgery and {sup 131}I ablation therapy. (authors)

  4. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a retrospective cohort study of 218 Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zeng-Tong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral leukoplakia (OL is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. A new binary system to grade dysplasia was proposed by WHO, but the biological significance in predicting malignant transformation risk is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the rate of malignant transformation in a long-term follow-up cohort, explore the usefulness of the new binary system of grading dysplasia and identify significant risk factors of OL malignant transformation in China. Methods A total of 218 patients with clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OL were retrospectively reviewed. They were selected among all archived files at the Department of Oral Mucosal Diseases, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The mean follow-up period was 5.3 years. Results Among 218 cases, 39 (17.9% OL patients developed oral cancer, with a mean duration of 5.2 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that dysplasia was an independent risk factor for OL malignant transformation, but age, gender, lesion site, diet habit, smoking and ethanol intake were not risk factors. High-risk dysplastic OL was associated with a 4.57-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.36-8.84; P Conclusions The new binary system's function in predicting OL malignant transformation risk was investigated in this survey. The utilization of high-risk dysplasia as a significant indicator for evaluating malignant transformation risk in patients with OL was suggested, which may be helpful to guide treatment selection in clinical practice.

  5. Malignant transformation of spinal meningeal melanocytoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fulin; Li, Xianghong; Chen, Linghong; Pu, Xiaolu

    2007-05-01

    Meningeal melanocytomas are rare tumors and malignant transformation of these lesions is even rarer. The authors report on a case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a melanocytoma located at the L5-S1 level. After gross-total resection of the tumor, it recurred 1 year later as a malignant melanoma. In addition, multiple subcutaneous metastases were found at that time. The patient was treated with radiation therapy (5000 cGy). Five months later metastases in the liver and the left ninth rib were discovered. The pertinent literature is reviewed and disease criteria are presented to distinguish meningeal melanocytoma from malignant melanoma and from meningiomas or schwannomas containing melanotic pigment. Patients and investigators should be cautioned that a meningeal melanocytoma may recur and transform into a malignant melanoma.

  6. Secondary chondrosarcoma: Malignant transformation of pre-existing hereditary and non-hereditary cartilaginous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C.S. Vlok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary chondrosarcoma is a malignant hyaline cartilage tumour originating from a cartilaginous precursor, either osteochondroma or enchondroma. We contrast two different cases of biopsy-proven secondary chondrosarcomas resulting from benign, pre-existing cartilaginous lesions – our aim is to contrast and compare these two benign conditions consisting of multiple cartilaginous lesions – one hereditary and the other non-hereditary – and emphasise their potential for malignant transformation.

  7. Transformation of quiescent adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells into malignant glioma through a multistep reactivation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Rui Pedro; Kasina, Anita; McNeill, Robert S; Harbin, Jordan E; Foreman, Oded; Verhaak, Roel G W; Nishiyama, Akiko; Miller, C Ryan; Zong, Hui

    2014-10-07

    How malignant gliomas arise in a mature brain remains a mystery, hindering the development of preventive and therapeutic interventions. We previously showed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) can be transformed into glioma when mutations are introduced perinatally. However, adult OPCs rarely proliferate compared with their perinatal counterparts. Whether these relatively quiescent cells have the potential to transform is unknown, which is a critical question considering the late onset of human glioma. Additionally, the premalignant events taking place between initial mutation and a fully developed tumor mass are particularly poorly understood in glioma. Here we used a temporally controllable Cre transgene to delete p53 and NF1 specifically in adult OPCs and demonstrated that these cells consistently give rise to malignant gliomas. To investigate the transforming process of quiescent adult OPCs, we then tracked these cells throughout the premalignant phase, which revealed a dynamic multistep transformation, starting with rapid but transient hyperproliferative reactivation, followed by a long period of dormancy, and then final malignant transformation. Using pharmacological approaches, we discovered that mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is critical for both the initial OPC reactivation step and late-stage tumor cell proliferation and thus might be a potential target for both glioma prevention and treatment. In summary, our results firmly establish the transforming potential of adult OPCs and reveal an actionable multiphasic reactivation process that turns slowly dividing OPCs into malignant gliomas.

  8. Malignant transformation in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma: Addition to the spectrum of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign nerve sheath tumors include schwannomas, neurofibromas and perineuriomas. The malignant counterpart of a nerve sheath tumor is designated as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST. Lately, benign nerve sheath tumors comprising more than one component have been described, including hybrid schwannomas/perineuriomas. However, malignant transformation in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma has not been documented so far. Herein, we present a rare case of a young adult male who presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh that was excised elsewhere and submitted to us for histopathological review. One of the tissue sections displayed histopathological features of a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma, including alternate arrangement of benign schwann and perineurial cells, reinforced with S100-P and epithelial membrane antigen positivity, respectively, along with low MIB1 and negative p53 immunostaining. The other two tissue sections showed a spindly sarcomatous tumor that was immunohistochemically positive for S100-P, CD34, p53 and exhibited high MIB1 (30-40%. Diagnosis of a MPNST arising in a hybrid schwannoma/perineurioma was made. This unusual case forms yet another addition to the spectrum of a MPNST.

  9. Elucidating drivers of oral epithelial dysplasia formation and malignant transformation to cancer using RNAseq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Caroline; Graham, Jennifer L; Chengot, Preetha; Daly, Catherine; Chalkley, Rebecca; Ross, Lisa; Droop, Alastair; Rabbitts, Pamela; Stead, Lucy F

    2015-11-24

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent cancer with poor prognosis. Most OSCC progresses via a non-malignant stage called dysplasia. Effective treatment of dysplasia prior to potential malignant transformation is an unmet clinical need. To identify markers of early disease, we performed RNA sequencing of 19 matched HPV negative patient trios: normal oral mucosa, dysplasia and associated OSCC. We performed differential gene expression, principal component and correlated gene network analysis using these data. We found differences in the immune cell signatures present at different disease stages and were able to distinguish early events in pathogenesis, such as upregulation of many HOX genes, from later events, such as down-regulation of adherens junctions. We herein highlight novel coding and non-coding candidates for involvement in oral dysplasia development and malignant transformation, and speculate on how our findings may guide further translational research into the treatment of oral dysplasia.

  10. The potent oncogene NPM-ALK mediates malignant transformation of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wei, Fang; Wang, Hong Yi; Liu, Xiaobin; Roy, Darshan; Xiong, Qun-Bin; Jiang, Shuguang; Medvec, Andrew; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn; Watt, Christopher; Tomczak, Ewa; Kalos, Michael; Riley, James L; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2013-12-01

    With this study we have demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK results in their malignant transformation. The transformed cells become immortalized and display morphology and immunophenotype characteristic of patient-derived anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. These unique features, which are strictly dependent on NPM-ALK activity and expression, include perpetual cell growth, proliferation, and survival; activation of the key signal transduction pathways STAT3 and mTORC1; and expression of CD30 (the hallmark of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma) and of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and cell-surface protein PD-L1/CD274. Implantation of NPM-ALK-transformed CD4(+) T lymphocytes into immunodeficient mice resulted in formation of tumors indistinguishable from patients' anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Our findings demonstrate that the key aspects of human carcinogenesis closely recapitulating the features of the native tumors can be faithfully reproduced in vitro when an appropriate oncogene is used to transform its natural target cells; this in turn points to the fundamental role in malignant cell transformation of potent oncogenes expressed in the relevant target cells. Such transformed cells should permit study of the early stages of carcinogenesis, and in particular the initial oncogene-host cell interactions. This experimental design could also be useful for studies of the effects of early therapeutic intervention and likely also the mechanisms of malignant progression.

  11. The relevance of EGFR overexpression for the prediction of the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Jutta; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Agaimy, Abbas; Bechtold, Moritz; Gorecki, Patricia; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluated the relevance of EGFR overexpression in prediction of malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia (OLP). The retrospective study comprised paraffin-embedded tissue samples of OLP that transformed into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (n=53) and tissue samples of OLP that did not transform into OSCC (n=45) during a follow-up period of 5 years. EGFR overexpression was assessed immunohistochemically. A significantly different expression rate of EGFR was determined between transformed and non-transformed OLP (p=0.017). A statistically significant increase of EGFR expression for low dysplasia lesions in group I compared to group II was proven (D0, p=0.013; D1, p=0.049). By calculation of ROC curve and determination of highest Youden index the optimal threshold value [cut-off point (COP) = 44.96] for distinguishing the transformed from non-transformed lesions was estimated (critical expression rate of EGFR). Using the determined COP the correlation between high-risk lesions and the detection of increased expression rates were significant (p=0.001). In the future, the assessment of EGFR overexpression in OLP may allow identifying OLP lesions with an increased risk of malignant transformation that may have been regarded harmless when only the grade of dysplasia had been taken into account.

  12. Clinicopathological Profile and Malignant Transformation in Oral Lichen Planus: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath; Behura, Shyam Sundar; Nishat, Roquaiya; Dash, Kailash Chandra; Bhuyan, Lipsa; Ramachandra, Sujatha

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathologically diagnosed cases of oral lichen planus (OLP) in terms of age, gender, clinical variant, site, hyperpigmentation, systemic illness, grade of dysplasia, and associated malignant transformation. This study also intended to do a review of reported cases of OLP with malignant transformation. One hundred and forty-three cases of histopathologically diagnosed OLP between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinicopathological data including malignant transformation were obtained. The data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software for Windows version 20.0 (IBM SPSS, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A review of published literature on OLP with malignant transformation was also done from 1988 to 2017 and tabulated. OLP in this study showed a male predilection with most of the patients in the third decade. The buccal mucosa (bilateral presentation) was the most common site (79.72%), and reticular type was the most common clinical type (79.02%) followed by erosive type (20.98%). The majority (92.31%) of cases were diagnosed with OLP without dysplasia. The rest (7.69%) of dysplastic cases were predominantly seen in the buccal mucosa of 58 years and above, female patients manifesting mainly as erosive type. Two patients (1.4%) previously diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as OLP developed oral squamous cell carcinoma. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged male population and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of buccal mucosa. Two of our cases showed malignant transformation over an average period of 3.5 years. The outcome of this study emphasizes the role of clinical follow-up of patients with OLP.

  13. Silencing KRAS overexpression in arsenic-transformed prostate epithelial and stem cells partially mitigates malignant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Tokar, Erik J; Person, Rachel J; Waalkes, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen that likely targets the prostate. Chronic arsenic exposure malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to chronic arsenic exposed-prostate epithelial (CAsE-PE) cells, and a derivative normal prostate stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem to arsenic-cancer SCs (As-CSCs). The KRAS oncogene is highly overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells and activation precedes transformation, inferring mechanistic significance. As-CSCs also highly overexpress KRAS. Thus, we hypothesize KRAS activation is key in causing and maintaining an arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, and hence, KRAS knockdown (KD) may reverse this malignant phenotype. RNA interference using shRNAmirs to obtain KRAS KD was used in CAsE-PE and As-CSC cells. Cells analyzed 2 weeks post transduction showed KRAS protein decreased to 5% of control after KD, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD decreased phosphorylated ERK, indicating inhibition of RAS/ERK signaling, a proliferation/survival pathway activated with arsenic transformation. Secreted metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was increased by arsenic-induced malignant transformation, but KRAS KD from 4 weeks on decreased secreted MMP-9 activity by 50% in As-CSCs. Colony formation, a characteristic of cancer cells, was decreased in both KRAS KD transformants. KRAS KD also decreased the invasive capacity of both cell types. KRAS KD decreased proliferation in As-CSCs, consistent with loss of rapid tumor growth. Genes predicted to impact cell proliferation (eg, Cyclin D1, p16, and p21) changed accordingly in both KD cell types. Thus, KRAS silencing impacts aspects of arsenic-induced malignant phenotype, inducing loss of many typical cancer characteristics particularly in As-CSCs.

  14. Malignant transformation of neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis 1 is associated with CDKN2A/p16 inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G P; Stemmer-Rachamimov, A O; Ino, Y

    1999-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) are predisposed to develop multiple neurofibromas (NFs) and are at risk for transformation of NFs to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Little is known, however, about the biological events involved in the malignant transformation of NFs. We...

  15. A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a locally destructive tumor that occurs predominantly in long bones of post-pubertal adolescents and young adults, where it occurs in the epiphysis. The majority are treated by aggressive curettage or resection. Vascular invasion outside the boundary of the tumor can be seen. Metastasis, with identical morphology to the primary tumor, occurs in a few percent of cases, usually to the lung. On occasion GCTs of bone undergo frank malignant transformation to undifferentiated sarcomas. Here we report a case of GCT of bone that at the time of recurrence was found to have undergone malignant transformation. Concurrent metastases were found in the lung, but these were non-transformed GCT.

  16. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Ariyawardana, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to ascertain the malignant transformation rate of oral leukoplakia and the associated risk factors. Published literature was searched through several search engines from 1960 to the end of December 2013. The inclusion criteria included 'leukoplakia', 'pre-cancer', 'malignant transformation', 'follow-up' and 'outcome'. Two reviewers extracted the data independently and also assessed the quality of evidence. The search strategy resulted in 1032 abstracts or full-text articles, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. There was much variation in the definitions used by the various authors in their original reports to define oral leukoplakia or in the criteria used to recruit their patients for follow-up. The estimated overall (mean) malignant transformation rate for the total population described in these 24 studies amounts to 3.5% (405/11423), with a wide range between 0.13% and 34.0%. Based on the evidence presented, the features that stand out as significant determinants contributing to malignant potential of OL include advanced age, female sex, leukoplakia exceeding 200 mm(2) , non-homogeneous type (eg. erythroleukoplakia) and the higher grades of dysplasia. The review indicates that drawing meaningful evidence-based conclusions are difficult from retrospective studies of this nature. However, many of the determinants exposed in the review require further investigation by well-designed prospective studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-04-30

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells.

  18. EXPRESSION PATTERN OF LUNG CANCER RELATED GENES IN MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF BEP2D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范保星; 张开泰; 李刚; 谢玲; 马淑华; 葛世丽; 项小琼; 胡迎春; 王升启; 周平坤; 吴德昌

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression difference of 60 lung cancer associated genes in human bronchial epithelial malignant transformation cell model (BEP2D) induced by alpha-particles. Methods: 60 lung cancer associated genes were collected and micro-arrayed onto the microscope slides using Cartesian PixSys5500 cDNA Microarray machine. Total RNA from BEP2D cells and passage 20 (Rl5H-20), passage 35 (R15H-35) cells derived from BEP2D following 1.5 Gy alpha-particles was extracted and labeled by fluorescent dye. The labeled probe was then hybridized with the cDNA. Results: 40, 47, 20 genes were detected in BEP2D, R15H-20 and R15H-35 respectively. The expression level of tumor suppressor genes decreased greatly in the transformed R15H-35. Most oncogenes decreased slightly in R15H-20. Most growth factors expressed only in R15H-20. Conclusion: In human bronchial epithelial malignant transformed cell model generated by alpha-particles, the loss-function of tumor suppressor genes at initiation stage was dominant, some related oncogenes and growth factors promoted the malignant transformation.

  19. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes. Part 2, Progress report, July 1989--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  20. Malignant Transformation Six Months after Removal of Intracranial Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Lakhdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial epidermoid cysts are uncommon benign tumors of developmental origin; malignant transformation of benign epidermoid cysts is rare, and their prognosis remains poor. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the cerebellopontine angle. A 52-year-old man presented with left facial paralysis and cerebellar ataxia. He had undergone total removal of a benign epidermoid cyst six months previously. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a heterogeneous and cystic lesion in the left cerebellopontine angle with hydrocephalus. The cyst wall was enhanced by gadolinium. He underwent ventricle-peritoneal shunt and removal again; the histopathological examination revealed a squamous cell carcinoma possibly arising from an underlying epidermoid cyst. This entity is being reported for its rarity. The presence of contrast enhancement at the site of an epidermoid cyst combined with an acute, progressive neurological deficit should alert the neurosurgeon to the possibility of a malignant transformation.

  1. Rate of recurrence and malignant transformation in 88 cases with inverted papilloma between 1998-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygren, Alexander; Kiss, Katalin; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions The recurrence rate of IP in the current study is comparable to international and national studies. When the primary tumour was located in the frontal or the sphenoid sinus, the tumour seemed more likely to recur. Some recurrences were more than 2 years after primary surgery, suggesting...... continued need for long-term follow-up. The rate of malignant transformation in inverted papilloma cases has not changed in Denmark. Objectives Inverted papillomas are benign tumours located in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. They are known for their tendency to recur after surgery and show invasive...... is to establish whether the recurrence rate and the rate of malignant transformation of IP have changed with the application of these new techniques. Method A retrospective study between 1998-2008 including 88 cases with inverted papilloma. Results In total, 25.3% had recurrence. Combined surgical approach...

  2. Fibrous dysplasia: rapid malignant transformation into osteogenic sarcoma - A rare occurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia is rare, occurring in less than 1% of cases with a mean lag period of 13.5 years. We report a case of Osteogenic Sarcoma with chondroid differentiation in a pre-existing Fibrous Dysplasia occurring within one year of surgical resection and without any history of exposure to radiation. To the best of our knowledge and extensive search of literature, malignant transformation of Fibrous Dysplasia in such a short period of time, and without history of radiation exposure has never been reported from India.Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2012 Vol. 2, 335-337DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i4.6891

  3. Immortalized cells and one oncogene in malignant transformation: old insights on new explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nearly thirty years ago, it was first shown that malignant transformation with single oncogene necessarily requires the immortal state of the cell. From that time this thesis for the cells of human origin was not disproved. The basic point which we want to focus on by this short communication is the correct interpretation of the results obtained on the widely used human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Results Intensive literature analysis revealed an increasing number of recent studies discovering new oncogenes with non-overlapping functions. Since the 1970s, dozens of oncogenes have been identified in human cancer. Cultured cell lines are often used as model systems in these experiments. In some investigations the results obtained on such cells are interpreted by the authors as a malignant transformation of normal animal or even normal human cells (as for example with HEK293 cells). However, when a cell line gains the ability to undergo continuous cell division, the cells are not normal any more, they are immortalized cells. Nevertheless, the authors consider these cells as normal human ones, what is basically incorrect. Moreover, it was early demonstrated that the widely used human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells have a relationship to neurons. Conclusions Thus, the experiments with established cell lines reinforce the notion that immortality is an essential requirement for malignant transformation that cooperates with other oncogenic changes to program the neoplastic state and substances under such investigation should be interpreted as factors which do not malignantly transform normal cells alone, but possess the ability to enhance the tumorigenic potential of already immortalized cells. PMID:21605454

  4. [Key molecular mechanisms associated with cell malignant transformation in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, N N; Lebedev, T D; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2016-01-01

    Cancer, along with cardiovascular disorders, is one of the most important problems of healthcare. Pathologies of the hematopoietic system are the most prevalent in patients under 30 years of age, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is widespread and difficult to treat. The review considers the mechanisms that play a significant role in AML cell malignant transformation and shows the contributions of certain genes to both remission and resistance of AML cells to various treatments.

  5. [Malignant transformation of human fibroblasts by neutrons and by gamma radiation: Relationship to mutations induced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    A brief overview if provided of selected reports presented at the International Symposium on Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation- and Chemical Carcinogen-Induced Cell Transformation held at Mackinac Island, Michigan on September 19-23, 1993.

  6. The frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzak, Bozana Loncar; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Canjuga, Ivana; Baricević, Marinka; Balicević, Drinko; Sikora, Miroslav; Filipović-Zore, Irina

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia in a large group of oral medicine patients. Study included 12 508 patients who were referred between 1998 and 2007 to the Department of Oral Medicine. The frequency of OLP was 4.30%, leukoplakia 1.11%, and combined diagnoses 0.14%. In primary biopsies dysplasia was found in 12.96% of patients with leukoplakia and not in one with OLP and combined lesions. The highest frequency of leukoplakia was found in smokers. Women were found as predominant sufferers of both diseases and their combination. During the observed period often years malignant transformation of OLP was not detected, unlike leukoplakia where it was 0.64%. The frequency of OLP and leukoplakia in our study are comparable to other similar studies. The highest frequency of malignant transformation was observed in those patients who did not respond to our invitation to regular check-up. It is therefore neccessary to perform a detailed examination of the oral cavity in these patients and to raise patients awareness of the disease and the importance of regular follow-up.

  7. ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns predict the risk of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Hida, Kyoko; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Aya Yanagawa; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ito, Yoichi M.; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a clinically diagnosed preneoplastic lesion of the oral cavity with an increased oral cancer risk. However, the risk of malignant transformation is still difficult to assess. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression patterns of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and podoplanin in OL, and to determine their roles in predicting oral cancer development. In the present study, the expression patterns of ALDH1 and podoplanin were determined in samples from 79 patients with OL. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer-free survival, was analyzed during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. Expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was observed in 61 and 67% patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the expression of the proteins was correlated with the risk of progression to oral cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was associated with 3.02- and 2.62-fold increased risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The malignant transformation risk of OL was considerably higher in cases with expression of both proteins. Point-prevalence analysis revealed that 66% of patients with co-expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin developed oral cancer. Taken together, our data indicate that ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns in OL are associated with oral cancer development, suggesting that ALDH1 and podoplanin may be useful biomarkers to identify OL patients with a substantially high oral cancer risk. PMID:28123562

  8. ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns predict the risk of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Hida, Kyoko; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Aya Yanagawa; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ito, Yoichi M; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a clinically diagnosed preneoplastic lesion of the oral cavity with an increased oral cancer risk. However, the risk of malignant transformation is still difficult to assess. The objective of the present study was to examine the expression patterns of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and podoplanin in OL, and to determine their roles in predicting oral cancer development. In the present study, the expression patterns of ALDH1 and podoplanin were determined in samples from 79 patients with OL. The association between protein expression and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer-free survival, was analyzed during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years. Expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was observed in 61 and 67% patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the expression of the proteins was correlated with the risk of progression to oral cancer. Multivariate analysis revealed that expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin was associated with 3.02- and 2.62-fold increased risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The malignant transformation risk of OL was considerably higher in cases with expression of both proteins. Point-prevalence analysis revealed that 66% of patients with co-expression of ALDH1 and podoplanin developed oral cancer. Taken together, our data indicate that ALDH1 and podoplanin expression patterns in OL are associated with oral cancer development, suggesting that ALDH1 and podoplanin may be useful biomarkers to identify OL patients with a substantially high oral cancer risk.

  9. Secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone due to malignant transformation 40 years after surgery without radiation therapy, presenting as fever of unknown origin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesako, Hisataka; Osaka, Eiji; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Sugitani, Masahiko; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki

    2016-03-08

    Malignant transformation of giant cell tumors of bones, that is, secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone, is rare. The most common symptoms are local pain and swelling. There are no prior reports of giant cell tumor of bone with fever of unknown origin at the onset. Here we present a case of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone due to malignant transformation 40 years after surgery without radiation therapy, presenting as fever of unknown origin. A 75-year-old Asian man presented with a 3-week history of continuous pyrexia and left knee pain and swelling. He had been diagnosed at age 35 years with a giant cell tumor of bone of his left distal femur and underwent bone curettage and avascular fibula grafting at that time. Postoperative radiation therapy was not performed. He remained recurrence-free for 40 years after surgery. At age 75, histopathological findings suggested a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone. The tumor specimen expressed tumor necrosis factor-α. Neoplastic fever was suspected, and a naproxen test was conducted. His pyrexia showed immediate resolution. Surgery was performed under a diagnosis of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone with neoplastic fever. His pyrexia and inflammatory activities diminished postoperatively. This is the first reported case, to the best of our knowledge, of the detection of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone based on fever of unknown origin after long-term (40 years) follow-up. After curettage and bone grafting, giant cell tumor of bone may transform to malignancies within a few years or even decades after surgery. Therefore, meticulous follow-up is essential. The fever might be attributable to the tumor releasing inflammatory cytokines. Not only pain and swelling but also continuous pyrexia may suggest the diagnosis of a secondary malignant giant cell tumor of bone.

  10. Persistent exposure to Mycoplasma induces malignant transformation of human prostate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Namiki

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and molecular studies suggest infection and inflammation initiate certain cancers, including those of the prostate. The American Cancer Society, estimates that approximately 20% of all worldwide cancers are caused by infection. Mycoplasma, a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall, are among the few prokaryotes that can grow in close relationship with mammalian cells, often without any apparent pathology, for extended periods of time. In this study, the capacity of Mycoplasma genitalium, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis, a mycoplasma found at unusually high frequency among patients with AIDS, to induce a malignant phenotype in benign human prostate cells (BPH-1 was evaluated using a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. After 19 weeks of culture, infected BPH-1 cells achieved anchorage-independent growth and increased migration and invasion. Malignant transformation of infected BPH-1 cells was confirmed by the formation of xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Associated with these changes was an increase in karyotypic entropy, evident by the accumulation of chromosomal aberrations and polysomy. This is the first report describing the capacity of M. genitalium or M. hyorhinis infection to lead to the malignant transformation of benign human epithelial cells and may serve as a model to further study the relationship between prostatitis and prostatic carcinogenesis.

  11. Necrosis in benign salivary gland neoplasms. Not necessarily a sign of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C M; Damm, D; Neville, B; Rodu, B; Page, D; Weathers, D R

    1994-10-01

    Necrosis that occurs in a salivary gland neoplasm is usually considered to be an ominous sign, suggesting malignant transformation, particularly in lesions that have had no prior manipulation such as fine-needle aspiration. We describe five pleomorphic adenomas and two canalicular adenomas of salivary gland origin that exhibited necrosis, yet were otherwise benign. All lesions displayed a distinctive histopathologic pattern characterized by a narrow rim of viable tumor tissue at the periphery of the neoplasm combined with a diffuse central region that demonstrated apparent ischemic necrosis. No invasion of adjacent normal tissue was identified, and no recurrence or metastasis has been seen with these lesions. Caution should be exercised in the evaluation of salivary gland neoplasms with central necrosis to avoid misdiagnosis of all such lesions as malignant.

  12. Upregulated expression of Ezrin and invasive phenotype in malignantly transformed esophageal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Ying Shen; Li-Yan Xu; Ming-Hua Chen; En-Min Li; Jin-Tao Li; Xian-Ying Wu; Yi Zeng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between ezrin expression and invasive phenotype formation in malignantly transformed esophageal epithelial cells. METHODS: The experimental cell line employed in the present study was originated form the progressive induction of a human embryonic esophageal epithelial cell line (SHEE)by the E6E7 genes of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18.The cells at the 35th passage after induction called SHEEIMM were in a state of immortalized phase and used as the control,while that of the 85th passage denominated as SHEEMT represented the status of cells that were malignantly transformed. The expression changes of ezrin and its mRNA in both cell passages were respectively analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Invasive phenotype was assessed in vivo by inoculating these cells into the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice via subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection, and in vitro by inoculating them on the surface of the amnion membranes, which then was determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Upregulated expression of ezrin protein and its mRNA was observed in SHEEMT compared with that in SHEEIMM cells. The SHEEMT cells inoculated in SCID mice were observed forming tumor masses in both visceral organs and soft tissues in a period of 40 days with a special propensity to invading mesentery and pancreas, but did not exhibit hepatic metastases. Pathologically, these tumor cells harboring larger nucleus, nucleolus and less cytoplasm could infiltrate and destroy adjacent tissues. In the in vitro study,the inoculated SHEEMT cells could grow in cluster on the amniotic epithelial surface and intrude into the amniotic stroma. In contrast, unrestricted growth and invasiveness were not found in SHEEIMM cells in both in vivo and in vitroexperiment. CONCLUSION: The upregulated ezrin expression is one of the important factors that are possibly associated with the invasive phenotype formation in malignantly

  13. Induction of p16 during immortalization by HPV 16 and 18 and not during malignant transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Y.; Yang, X.; Yokoyama, M; Ferenczy, A.; Tang, S. C.; Pater, M M; Pater, A

    1997-01-01

    The p16 (MTS1) tumour-suppressor gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor that decelerates the cell cycle by inactivating the cdks that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma tumour-suppressor gene (Rb) protein (pRb). In cervical cancers, pRb is inactivated by the HPV E7 oncoprotein or by mutations. The hypothesis of earlier reports was that the disruption of the p16/cdk-cyclin/Rb cascade is essential for malignant cervical transformation/carcinogenesis. We previously established in vitro ...

  14. Solitary Endobronchial Papilloma with Malignant Transformation and Concomitant TB Infection: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting a case of solitary endobronchial papilloma located in posterior segment of the left upper lobe of the lung with malignant transformation and negative human papilloma virus (HPV) strains in a 40-year-old Saudi nonsmoker man. The patient had a concomitant tuberculosis (TB) infection. The patient received appropriate treatment in the form of anti-TB medication and surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma followed by chemotherapy. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence, resulting in a complete cure. We are reporting the case as well as a literature review related to the topic.

  15. Cadmium Malignantly Transforms Normal Human Breast Epithelial Cells into a Basal-like Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has recently been linked to cadmium exposure. Although not uniformly supported, it is hypothesized that cadmium acts as a metalloestrogenic carcinogen via the estrogen receptor (ER). Thus, we studied the effects of chronic exposure to cadmium on the normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, which is ER-negative but can convert to ER-positive during malignant transformation. Methods Cells were continuously exposed to low-level cadmium (2.5 μM) and checked in vi...

  16. The Case of an Elderly Male Patient with Unknown Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma within Presacral Teratoma (Teratoma with Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Tanriverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are rarely seen in adults, and presacral region is an area where they rarely settle in. Similarly, only about 1% of teratomas show malignant transformation. Malignant transformation is often associated with the area where teratoma settles in. Malignant transformation of mediastinal teratomas is more frequent than the ones located in retroperitoneal area and gonad. They most commonly show rhabdomyosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, enteric adenocarcinoma, and leukemia transformation. In teratomas showing malignant transformation, the clinical course is aggressive; and survival of patients with metastatic disease is very low. The primary treatment of teratomas with malignant transformations is surgical. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clear in patients, to whom surgical operation cannot be applied, or those who are with residual tumor, even if surgical operation can be applied to them, or those who are at metastatic stage. In this paper, we presented a 76-year-old male patient due to the histologic diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma within teratoma, in whom approximately 7 cm presacral mass was found during the radiographic examination made by the reason of low back pain and pelvic pain.

  17. The Case of an Elderly Male Patient with Unknown Primary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma within Presacral Teratoma (Teratoma with Malignant Transformation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokmert, Suna; Koca, Emine; Bulut, Naki; Gul, Suha; Yilmaz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    Teratomas are rarely seen in adults, and presacral region is an area where they rarely settle in. Similarly, only about 1% of teratomas show malignant transformation. Malignant transformation is often associated with the area where teratoma settles in. Malignant transformation of mediastinal teratomas is more frequent than the ones located in retroperitoneal area and gonad. They most commonly show rhabdomyosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, enteric adenocarcinoma, and leukemia transformation. In teratomas showing malignant transformation, the clinical course is aggressive; and survival of patients with metastatic disease is very low. The primary treatment of teratomas with malignant transformations is surgical. Effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clear in patients, to whom surgical operation cannot be applied, or those who are with residual tumor, even if surgical operation can be applied to them, or those who are at metastatic stage. In this paper, we presented a 76-year-old male patient due to the histologic diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma within teratoma, in whom approximately 7 cm presacral mass was found during the radiographic examination made by the reason of low back pain and pelvic pain. PMID:25874143

  18. Aliphatic nitro alcohols. Synthesis, chemical transformations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvekhgeimer, Mai-Genrikh A [A.N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile Academy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-31

    The data on the synthesis, chemical transformations and practical use of aliphatic nitro alcohols published over the last 25 years are described systematically and analysed. The bibliography includes 316 references.

  19. Unexpected Malignant Diagnosis in Colonic Biopsies: Malignant Transformation of Ovarian Mature Teratomas—Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in the colorectum is extremely unusual. Malignant transformation from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare event. The most common transformation is squamous cell carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma. It occurs more often in elderly patients, who usually present with advance disease. We report two unusual cases of postmenopausal women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma in colon biopsies. After surgical resections, the carcinoma was proven to be the result of malignant transformation of ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Since squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is extremely rare, the presence of squamous cell carcinoma in a colonic biopsy in a female patient should alert the clinicians to other possible primary sites, as seen in these cases.

  20. Malignant transformation of a putative eyelid papilloma to squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, K Tomo; Hoover, Clare E; Ehrhart, E J; Wobeser, Bruce K; Cohen, Loren B; Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2013-07-01

    A 6-year-old female spayed Chihuahua was presented for the evaluation of generalized pigmented cutaneous masses, one of which was present on the lower right eyelid. The dog was not on immunosuppressive medications and did not have historical or laboratory evidence of underlying endocrine disease, including hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction of a cutaneous biopsy from the left antebrachium containing representative lesions confirmed viral papillomatosis. Additionally, histopathology of the antebrachial mass revealed regions of epithelial dysplasia suggestive of possible early transformation to malignancy. Over the course of 5 months, the mass on the right lower eyelid progressed to encompass and efface the majority of the eyelid margin. Additionally, the eyelid tumor had changed from an ovoid, brown pigmented mass to an irregular, flesh-colored mass. At the dog's last recheck examination, a corneal ulcer had developed beneath the irregular dorsal margin of the tumor. Histopathology of the eyelid mass was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and was positive for the presence of papillomavirus using polymerase chain reaction. This report describes the transformation of a putative viral eyelid papilloma into a malignant SCC in an adult dog.

  1. Genes and Proteins Differentially Expressed during In Vitro Malignant Transformation of Bovine Pancreatic Duct Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jesnowski

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma has an extremely bad prognosis due to lack of early diagnostic markers and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, we have established an in vitro model recapitulating the first steps in the carcinogenesis of the pancreas. SV40 large T antigen-immortalized bovine pancreatic duct cells formed intrapancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors on k-rasmut transfection after orthotopic injection in the nude mouse pancreas. Here we identified genes and proteins differentially expressed in the course of malignant transformation using reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, respectively. We identified 34 differentially expressed genes, expressed sequence tags, and 15 unique proteins. Differential expression was verified for some of the genes or proteins in samples from pancreatic carcinoma. Among these genes and proteins, the majority had already been described either to be influenced by a mutated ras or to be differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, thus proving the feasibility of our model. Other genes and proteins (e.g., BBC1, GLTSCR2, and rhoGDlα, up to now, have not been implicated in pancreatic tumor development. Thus, we were able to establish an in vitro model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, which enabled us to identify genes and proteins differentially expressed during the early steps of malignant transformation.

  2. A Rare Case of Malignant Transformation of Oral Lichen Planus of the Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Joanne; Kokosis, George; Ogilvie, Michael; “Sara” Jiang, Xiaoyin; Powers, David B.; Rocke, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease associated with an increased risk in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Nearly all cases of malignant transformation have been reported in patients >40 years old. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with a 5-year history of erosive OLP who presented with malignant transformation to OSCC. Delineating the margins of the disease was impossible at presentation given her OLP, and she was initially treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy. She then developed a recurrence of the mandibular alveolar ridge. The patient was successfully treated with a composite resection including a segmental mandibulectomy, buccal mucosa resection, partial glossectomy, and ipsilateral neck dissection. This was reconstructed with a free fibula osteo-septo-cutaneous flap. Mandibular OSCC is a rare complication of OLP with few reports on effective reconstructive interventions. The case represents the youngest reported patient with mandibular OSCC arising in the context of OLP and highlights the utility of the free vascularized fibula graft in the treatment of these patients. PMID:28293492

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Luo, Man-Li; Desmedt, Christine; Nabavi, Sheida; Yadegarynia, Sina; Hong, Alex; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Gabrielson, Edward; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Pihan, German; Yuan, Xin; Sotirious, Christos; Dittmer, Dirk P; Fingeroth, Joyce D; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2016-07-01

    Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs) that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  4. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection of Mammary Epithelial Cells Promotes Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the human tumor virus, Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, promotes breast cancer remains controversial and a potential mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that EBV can infect primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs that express the receptor CD21. EBV infection leads to the expansion of early MEC progenitor cells with a stem cell phenotype, activates MET signaling and enforces a differentiation block. When MECs were implanted as xenografts, EBV infection cooperated with activated Ras and accelerated the formation of breast cancer. Infection in EBV-related tumors was of a latency type II pattern, similar to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A human gene expression signature for MECs infected with EBV, termed EBVness, was associated with high grade, estrogen-receptor-negative status, p53 mutation and poor survival. In 11/33 EBVness-positive tumors, EBV-DNA was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization for the viral LMP1 and BXLF2 genes. In an analysis of the TCGA breast cancer data EBVness correlated with the presence of the APOBEC mutational signature. We conclude that a contribution of EBV to breast cancer etiology is plausible, through a mechanism in which EBV infection predisposes mammary epithelial cells to malignant transformation, but is no longer required once malignant transformation has occurred.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cartularo

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  6. EMT inducers catalyze malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells and drive tumorigenesis towards claudin-low tumors in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Pierre Morel

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is an embryonic transdifferentiation process consisting of conversion of polarized epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal ones. EMT-inducing transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in multiple tumor types and are known to favor the metastatic dissemination process. Supporting oncogenic activity within primary lesions, the TWIST and ZEB proteins can prevent cells from undergoing oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis by abolishing both p53- and RB-dependent pathways. Here we show that they also downregulate PP2A phosphatase activity and efficiently cooperate with an oncogenic version of H-RAS in malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Thus, by down-regulating crucial tumor suppressor functions, EMT inducers make cells particularly prone to malignant conversion. Importantly, by analyzing transformed cells generated in vitro and by characterizing novel transgenic mouse models, we further demonstrate that cooperation between an EMT inducer and an active form of RAS is sufficient to trigger transformation of mammary epithelial cells into malignant cells exhibiting all the characteristic features of claudin-low tumors, including low expression of tight and adherens junction genes, EMT traits, and stem cell-like characteristics. Claudin-low tumors are believed to be the most primitive breast malignancies, having arisen through transformation of an early epithelial precursor with inherent stemness properties and metaplastic features. Challenging this prevailing view, we propose that these aggressive tumors arise from cells committed to luminal differentiation, through a process driven by EMT inducers and combining malignant transformation and transdifferentiation.

  7. Malignant Transformation Rate in Patients Presenting Oral Epithelial Dysplasia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffer A. Shariff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that assess malignant transformation rates (MTR of oral epithelial dysplasia. Materials and Methods. This review was planned and conducted in accordance with the meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE guidelines. PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were screened to identify observational studies. Quality assessments were completed by two reviewers independently using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Pooled-malignant transformation rate (MTR in person years, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analysis were calculated using STATA 13.0 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Results. Sixteen observational cohort studies were identified with a total of 3708 participants from Asia, North America, and Europe. Analysis showed a MTR of 10.5% (pooled-MTR: 10.5, 95% CI: 3.7 to 17.3; fixed effect model, I2=0.0%; Q-value = 2.389; p>0.05 among patients with histologically confirmed oral epithelia dysplasia undergoing long-term follow-up. Higher MTR in person year were seen among the sever dysplastic cases (pooled-MTR: 14.4%, 95% CI: 5.3% to 23.5%, studies published in Europe (pooled-MTR: 12.6%, 95% CI: 8.0% to 24.3%, and retrospective studies (pooled-MTR: 11.0%, 95% CI: 2.2% to 19.9%. Conclusion. These studies show that oral epithelial dysplasia has a significant high rate of transformation to cancer.

  8. Loss of canonical Smad4 signaling promotes KRAS driven malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Leung

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRAS (G12V expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-β resistant (TβR cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-β. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-β sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells.

  9. Angiocentric glioma transformed into anaplastic ependymoma: Review of the evidence for malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, James A; Gonzales, Michael F; Phal, Pramit M; Drummond, Katharine J

    2016-12-01

    Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe. This was confirmed on biopsy as AG and was followed with surveillance imaging. In April 2012, she presented with disease progression and underwent a left temporal lobectomy, with histology showing both AG and grade II astrocytoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy of 50 Gray in 28 fractions was administered. A small area of contrast enhancement appeared in the left parietal lobe in December 2012, which progressed over subsequent months. In June 2013, she underwent a near total excision, with histology showing anaplastic ependymoma. She received six cycles of adjuvant temozolamide. Despite this, the tumour continued to progress, with her seizure control deteriorating, and the development of a right hemiparesis. The patient died in January 2014, aged 19years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing Solid Component within Mature Ovarian Teratomas on MR: Does it Indicate a Malignant Transformation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Gyu; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the enhancing solid component within mature ovarian teratomas on pelvic MR examinations. Thirty-two women with surgically proven mature cystic teratomas underwent preoperative pelvic MR examinations. Five cases had an enhancing solid component within mature cystic ovarian teratomas on MR images. The MR images were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists by consensus, focusing on the enhancing portion of tumor and the tumor itself. The study subjects include 5 patients (15.6%) with enhancing solid components within the mature ovarian cystic teratomas. The mean tumor size was 9.8 cm and they were all unilateral. The enhancing solid components of the tumors had a variable appearance and were located in the peripheral region. No cases were found to have a transmural extension or direct invasion of the neighboring pelvic organ. An enhancing solid component associated with mature ovarian teratomas is not uncommon. This finding does not however, necessarily indicate malignant transformation.

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1978-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  12. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2010-01-01

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions of a nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size an...

  13. Behavior, a Balanced Network of Chemical Transformations(Biokinetics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.F.; Calvin, M.

    1954-01-13

    While the concept of a biological system as a balanced network of chemical transformations is not a new one, experimental definition of specific systems has been lacking. This paper defines theoretically and experimentally a number of such networks and their behavior and response to some limited environmental changes.

  14. Cooperation of Gata3, c-Myc and Notch in malignant transformation of double positive thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hamburg, Jan Piet; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Dingjan, Gemma M; Beverloo, H Berna; Diepstraten, Hans; Ling, Kam-Wing; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2008-06-01

    Gata transcription factors are critical regulators of proliferation and differentiation implicated in various human cancers, but specific genes activated by Gata proteins remain to be identified. We previously reported that enforced expression of Gata3 during T cell development in CD2-Gata3 transgenic mice induced CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) T cell lymphoma. Here, we show that the presence of the DO11.10 T-cell receptor transgene, which directs DP cells towards the CD4 lineage, resulted in enhanced lymphoma development and a dramatic increase in thymocyte cell size in CD2-Gata3 transgenic mice. CD2-Gata3 DP cells expressed high levels of the proto-oncogene c-Myc but the Notch1 signaling pathway, which is known to induce c-Myc, was not activated. Gene expression profiling showed that in CD2-Gata3 lymphoma cells transcription of c-Myc and its target genes was further increased. A substantial fraction of CD2-Gata3 lymphomas had trisomy of chromosome 15, leading to an increased c-Myc gene dose. Interestingly, most lymphomas showed high expression of the Notch targets Deltex1 and Hes1, often due to activating Notch1 PEST domain mutations. Therefore, we conclude that enforced Gata3 expression converts DP thymocytes into a pre-malignant state, characterized by high c-Myc expression, whereby subsequent induction of Notch1 signaling cooperates to establish malignant transformation. The finding that Gata3 regulates c-Myc expression levels, in a direct or indirect fashion, may explain the parallel phenotypes of mice with overexpression or deficiency of either of the two transcription factors.

  15. The cellular origin and malignant transformation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bruno; Corchete, Luis A; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; García-Sanz, Ramón; Perez, Jose J; Aires-Mejia, Irene; Sanchez, Maria-Luz; Barcena, Paloma; Alignani, Diego; Jimenez, Cristina; Sarasquete, Maria-Eugenia; Mateos, María-Victoria; Ocio, Enrique M; Puig, Noemi; Escalante, Fernando; Hernández, José; Cuello, Rebeca; García de Coca, Alfonso; Sierra, Magdalena; Montes, Maria-Carmen; González-López, Tomás J; Galende, Josefina; Bárez, Abelardo; Alonso, José; Pardal, Emilia; Orfao, Alberto; Gutierrez, Norma C; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2015-04-09

    Although information about the molecular pathogenesis of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) has significantly advanced, the precise cell of origin and the mechanisms behind WM transformation from immunoglobulin-M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) remain undetermined. Here, we undertook an integrative phenotypic, molecular, and genomic approach to study clonal B cells from newly diagnosed patients with IgM MGUS (n = 22), smoldering (n = 16), and symptomatic WM (n = 11). Through principal component analysis of multidimensional flow cytometry data, we demonstrated highly overlapping phenotypic profiles for clonal B cells from IgM MGUS, smoldering, and symptomatic WM patients. Similarly, virtually no genes were significantly deregulated between fluorescence-activated cell sorter-sorted clonal B cells from the 3 disease groups. Interestingly, the transcriptome of the Waldenström B-cell clone was highly different than that of normal CD25(-)CD22(+) B cells, whereas significantly less genes were differentially expressed and specific WM pathways normalized once the transcriptome of the Waldenström B-cell clone was compared with its normal phenotypic (CD25(+)CD22(+low)) B-cell counterpart. The frequency of specific copy number abnormalities [+4, del(6q23.3-6q25.3), +12, and +18q11-18q23] progressively increased from IgM MGUS and smoldering WM vs symptomatic WM (18% vs 20% and 73%, respectively; P = .008), suggesting a multistep transformation of clonal B cells that, albeit benign (ie, IgM MGUS and smoldering WM), already harbor the phenotypic and molecular signatures of the malignant Waldenström clone.

  16. Non-germ cell tumours arising in germ cell tumours (teratoma with malignant transformation) in men: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: alexandra.athanasiou@curie.net; Vanel, D. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); El Mesbahi, O. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Theodore, C. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Oncology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Fizazi, K. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: To describe the imaging findings of germ cell tumours (GCT) containing non-germ cell malignant components (also designated teratoma with malignant transformation or TMT). Patients and methods: The records of 14 male patients with GCT and a non-germ cell histological component TMT were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) studies before and after initial surgery and chemotherapy, as well as during follow-up. Imaging findings were correlated with the response to treatment and with overall survival. Pathological evaluation, immunohistochemistry, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were also taken into consideration. Sarcoma was identified in 10 out of 14 patients, with rhabdomyosarcoma ranking first (n = 4), followed by osteosarcoma (n = 2), fusiform cell sarcoma (n = 1), undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 1), neurosarcoma (n = 1) and myxoid sarcoma (n = 1). Other histological types of malignant transformation included adenocarcinoma (n = 3) and bronchoalveolar carcinoma (n = 1). Overall, 9 patients relapsed at a median time of 84 months (range 60-168). Results: Non-GCT malignant transformation was identified in the retroperitoneum (5), testis (3), mediastinum (3), peritoneum (2) and lungs (1). The CT and MR imaging findings before treatment and after relapse were evaluated with emphasis on imaging features that could possibly imply the presence of malignant transformation (heterogeneously enhancing soft-tissue masses, ossified masses with calcified lymph nodes, diffuse epiploic thickening associated with ascites and peritoneal nodules, pulmonary alveolar infiltration with septal thickening). All but 1 patient with TMT presented with nodal and distant metastases. The prognosis was poor: within a median follow-up of 59 months (range 3-180), 4 out of 14 patients were alive. Conclusion: TMT is rare and associated with poorer survival compared to GCT. Imaging can be useful

  17. Increased expression of fascin associated with malignant transformation of sinonasal inverted papilloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-liu; LIU Hong-gang; ZHANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Background Fascin, an actin binding protein, usually expressed at a low level in normal epithelium, but is significantly increased in transformed epithelial cells and several common carcinomas. In this study, we examined the expression of fascin by immunohistochemistry in sinonasal epithelium with chronic inflammation (control group), exophytic papilloma(EP), inverted papilloma (IP) with dysplasia and cancerated IP (including carcinoma in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma, SCC), and furthermore investigated the relationship between fascin expression and formation of malignant IP.Methods Fascin expression was immunohistochemically detected using monoclonal antibody against fascin in 86paraffin embedded tissues, including 10 cases of sinonasal mucosa with chronic inflammation, 10 of EP, 45 of IP with dysplasia (45 cases were divided into three groups: IP with mild dysplasia, IP with moderate dysplasia, and IP with severe dysplasia, 15 cases each), and 21 of cancerated IP.Results The level of fascin expression was significantly higher in the neoplastic tissue than that in control group. Fascin expression increased gradually with the progression from sinonasal epithelium with chronic inflammation, IP with mild dysplasia, IP with moderate dysplasia, IP with severe dysplasia, to cancerated IP, and significant difference of fascin expression was observed between any two groups of the five.Conclusion Precancerous lesions of IP exhibit elevated levels of fascin that may be associated with carcinogenesis of IP. Fascin may play a role in the formation of IP and EP.

  18. Benign spinal meningioma without dural attachment presenting delayed CSF dissemination and malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kyoji; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Saito, Atsushi; Nakai, Kei; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Benign spinal meningiomas have good prognoses, with low rates of recurrence and no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. However, we experienced an extremely rare case of initially benign non-dura-based spinal meningioma that showed multiple CSF disseminated lesions, which progressed for 14 years. A 29-year-old woman without neurofibromatosis presented with progressing dysesthesia in her lower limbs, low back pain, and intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the Th10/11 level. The patient underwent a tumor resection. Intraoperative findings indicated that the tumor had no dural attachment. Histopathological diagnosis after gross total removal was microcystic meningioma (grade I, WHO 2007). Seven years after the first operation, other lesions appeared at the levels of Th11/12, L1, and L2/3 in MRI. These tumors were slow growing and became symptomatic; thus, a second surgery was performed 14 years after the first operation. The histopathological diagnosis was atypical meningioma (grade II, WHO 2007). Benign spinal meningiomas show CSF dissemination extremely rarely, although some authors have reported non-dura-based intraspinal clear-cell meningiomas showing CSF dissemination. However, even in cases of WHO grade I, neurosurgeons should pay attention to late CSF dissemination and malignant transformation after surgical removal of non-dura-based intraspinal meningiomas.

  19. Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Chemical Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongming; Perman, Jason A; Zhu, Guangshan; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ), as the primary greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, triggers a series of environmental and energy related problems in the world. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop multiple methods to capture and convert CO2 into useful chemical products, which can significantly improve the environment and promote sustainable development. Over the past several decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown outstanding heterogeneous catalytic activity due in part to their high internal surface area and chemical functionalities. These properties and the ability to synthesize MOF platforms allow experiments to test structure-function relationships for transforming CO2 into useful chemicals. Herein, recent developments are highlighted for MOFs participating as catalysts for the chemical fixation and photochemical reduction of CO2 . Finally, opportunities and challenges facing MOF catalysts are discussed in this ongoing research area. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Abnormal Expression of Eukaryotic Translation Factors in Malignant Transformed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induced by Crystalline Nickel Sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the oncogenic potential of mouse translation initiation factor 3 (TIF3) and elongation factor-1δ (TEF-1δ) in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cells induced by crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS). Methods Abnormal expressions of human TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes in two kinds of NiS-transformed cells and NiS-tumorigenic cell lines were investigated and analyzed by the reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR), respectively. Results RT-PCR analysis primarily showed that both human TIF3 and TEF-1δ mRNA expressions in two kinds of NiS-transformed cells and NiS-tumorigenic cell lines were increased as compared with controls. FQ-PCR assay showed that the levels of TIF3 expressions in the transformed cells and tumorigenic cells were 3 and 4 times higher respectively, and the elevated expressions of TEF-1δ cDNA copies were 2.7- to 3.5-fold in transformed cells and 4.1- to 5.2-fold in tumorigenic cells when compared with non-transformed cells, indicating that the over-expressions of human TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes were related to malignant degree of the cells induced by nickel. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that there are markedly abnormal expressions of TIF3 and TEF-1δ genes during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cell lines induced by crystalline NiS. They seem to be the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for human carcinogensis due to nickel.

  1. Ovarian epithelial cancer: a role for PGE2-synthesis and signalling in malignant transformation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedin Lars

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The involvement of the cyclooxygenases (COX, in particular COX-2, is well documented for many tumours, e.g. colon, breast and prostate cancer, by both experimental and clinical studies. There are epidemiological data from subjects using NSAIDs, and experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis of prostaglandins (PGs as regulators of tumourigenesis in the ovary. One of the end products of PG-synthesis, PGE2, regulates several key-processes, which are characteristic for tumour growth, e.g. angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosisis. The present study investigated the pathway for PGE2 – synthesis and signalling in ovarian tumourigenesis by analysing specimen from normal ovaries (n = 18, benign (B (n = 8, borderline type (BL (n = 6 and malignant tumours (AC (n = 22. The expression and cell-specific localization of COX-1, COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1 and two of the receptors for PGE2, EP1 and EP2, were examined by immunoblotting (IB and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results The results are in line with earlier studies demonstrating an increase of COX-2 in AC compared to the normal ovary, B and BL tumours. Increased expressions were also observed for COX-1, mPGES-1 and EP-1 which all were significantly (p 1 was increased in stage III while no significant alterations were demonstrated for COX-1, mPGES-1 or EP2 for stage. IHC revealed staining of the tumour cells, but also increase of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP1–2 in the stromal compartment of AC (grades: moderately-, poorly- and undifferentiated. This observation suggests interactions between tumour cells and stromal cells (fibroblasts, immune cells, e.g. paracrine signalling mediated by growth factors, cytokines and possibly PGs. Conclusion The increases of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP1–2 in epithelial ovarian cancer, supports the hypothesis that PGE2-synthesis and signalling are of importance for malignant transformation and progression. The

  2. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes®: potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Cilurzo, Felisa; Fresta, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Topical application of anticancer drugs for the treatment of malignancies represents a new challenge in dermatology, potentially being an alternative therapeutic approach for the efficacious treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer, that is, actinic keratoses, and malignant lesions of the skin caused by ultraviolet radiation. Anti-proliferative and antimitotic drugs, including many of the taxanes, are currently under investigation for the treatment of cutaneous malignant transformation of actinic keratoses, particularly the squamous cell carcinoma. Paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® are proposed as topical drug delivery systems for the treatment of this pathology due to their suitable physicochemical characteristics and enhanced skin penetration ability for deep dermal delivery. Our in vitro data show that the skin application of paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® improved the permeation of paclitaxel in a stratum corneum-epidermis membrane model and increased its anti-proliferative activity in a squamous cell carcinoma model as compared to the free drug. The results obtained encouraged the use of the paclitaxel-loaded ethosomes® as the formulation for the potential treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, a malignant transformation of actinic keratoses.

  3. DNA aneuploidy as a topographic malignant transformation pattern in a pleomorphic adenoma of long-term evolution: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego Lorena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of long-term evolution of a submandibular pleomorphic adenoma. There is little information about topographic malignant transformation patterns of pleomorphic adenomas. Case presentation We extensively analyze a giant submandibular mixed tumor of 25-year evolution in a 57-year-old Caucasian woman. Deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy was evaluated in different superficial and deep areas using flow cytometry analysis and correlated with pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Superficial areas exhibited a typical histological pleomorphic adenoma pattern and were deoxyribonucleic acid diploid. Deep samples showed deoxyribonucleic acid aneuploidy, atypical histological benign features and expression of markers involved at an early-stage of malignant transformation, such as tumor protein 53 and antigen Ki67. Conclusion These findings revealed that deep tumor compartments may be involved in the initial stages of malignant transformation. Deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy analysis may provide an additional diagnosis tool and indicate 'uncertain' areas that require careful study to avoid diagnostic errors. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the usefulness of the technique.

  4. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P Conclusion Varying levels of differentially expressed proteins were possibly involved in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC.

  5. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation by chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from studies that showed that mutagenesis of mammalian cells can be achieved by carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, and aflatoxins when tested in the presence of fibroblasts and hepatocytes which are able to metabolize these carcinogens. Further, we have found that there is a relationship between the degree of mutant induction and the degree of carcinogenicity of the different chemicals tested. By simultaneously measuring the frequency of cell transformation and the frequency of mutation at one locus (ouabain resistance) in the same cell system, it was possible to estimate the genetic target site for cell transformation. The results indicated that the target site for transformation is approximately 20 times larger than that determined for ouabain resistance. The results suggest that cell transformation may be due to a mutational event and the mutation can occur in one out of a small number of the same or different genes, and that the cell-mediated mutagenesis approach may be a valuable means of detecting tissue-specific carcinogens.

  6. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2 and Its Receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 May Be Putative Biomarkers of Malignant Transformation of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions into Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Nayak

    Full Text Available There are several factors like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, genetic alterations, mutational factors that are involved in malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOLs to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is one of the prototypes of the large family of growth factors that bind heparin. FGF-2 induces angiogenesis and its receptors may play a role in synthesis of collagen. FGFs are involved in transmission of signals between the epithelium and connective tissue, and influence growth and differentiation of a wide variety of tissue including epithelia. The present study was undertaken to analyze expression of FGF-2 and its receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 in 72 PMOLs, 108 OSCC and 52 healthy controls, and their role in risk assessment for malignant transformation of Leukoplakia (LKP and Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF to OSCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3. IHC results were validated by Real Time PCR. Expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 was upregulated from PMOLs to OSCC. While 90% (9/10 of PMOLs which showed malignant transformation (transformed expressed FGF-2, only 24.19% cases (15/62 of PMOLs which were not transformed (untransformed to OSCC expressed FGF-2. Similarly, FGFR-2 expression was seen in 16/62 (25.81% of untransformed PMOLs and 8/10 (80% cases of transformed PMOLs. FGFR-3 expression was observed in 23/62 (37.10% cases of untransformed PMOLs and 6/10 (60% cases of transformed PMOLs. A significant association of FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression with malignant transformation from PMOLs to OSCC was observed both at phenotypic and molecular level. The results suggest that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 may be useful as biomarkers of malignant transformation in patients with OSMF and LKP.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Its Receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 May Be Putative Biomarkers of Malignant Transformation of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions into Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Seema; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Bhatia, Vikram; Chandra, Saumya; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S P

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, genetic alterations, mutational factors that are involved in malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOLs) to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is one of the prototypes of the large family of growth factors that bind heparin. FGF-2 induces angiogenesis and its receptors may play a role in synthesis of collagen. FGFs are involved in transmission of signals between the epithelium and connective tissue, and influence growth and differentiation of a wide variety of tissue including epithelia. The present study was undertaken to analyze expression of FGF-2 and its receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 in 72 PMOLs, 108 OSCC and 52 healthy controls, and their role in risk assessment for malignant transformation of Leukoplakia (LKP) and Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to OSCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3. IHC results were validated by Real Time PCR. Expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 was upregulated from PMOLs to OSCC. While 90% (9/10) of PMOLs which showed malignant transformation (transformed) expressed FGF-2, only 24.19% cases (15/62) of PMOLs which were not transformed (untransformed) to OSCC expressed FGF-2. Similarly, FGFR-2 expression was seen in 16/62 (25.81%) of untransformed PMOLs and 8/10 (80%) cases of transformed PMOLs. FGFR-3 expression was observed in 23/62 (37.10%) cases of untransformed PMOLs and 6/10 (60%) cases of transformed PMOLs. A significant association of FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression with malignant transformation from PMOLs to OSCC was observed both at phenotypic and molecular level. The results suggest that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 may be useful as biomarkers of malignant transformation in patients with OSMF and LKP.

  8. The combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong-Hui; Song, Xiao-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Jiang; Mao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common premalignancy in the oral cavity and can progress to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor implicated in multiple cancer types including OSCC. To assess the role of SMAD4 in oral leukoplakia malignant transformation, the authors investigated SMAD4 expression patterns in OL and OSCC using a highly specific antibody and correlated the patterns with the risk of malignant transformation oral leukoplakia. Immunohistochemistry and a quantitative imaging system were used to measure SMAD4 expression in OL from 88 OL patients, including 22 who later went through malignant transformation, and their OSCC counterpart. Forty-three (48.9%) of the 88 OL patients had strong SMAD4 expression. SMAD4 expression had no significant correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. Interestingly, 17 (39.5%) of the 43 OL lesions with strong SMAD4 expression went through malignant transformation whereas only 5 (11.1%) of the 45 OL lesions with weak SMAD4 expression did so (p = 0.002). The SMAD4 expression in OL was much higher than that in their OSCC counterpart. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia (p = 0.007) is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. In the multivariate analysis, both SMAD4 expression and grade of dysplasia were identified as independent factors for OL malignant transformation risk (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). It was concluded that high SMAD4 expression may be indicative of an early carcinogenic process in OL and serve as an independent biomarker in assessing malignant transformation risk in patients with OL, and the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  9. Atypical Proliferating Trichilemmal Cyst with Malignant Breast Skin Transformation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Antonio Capurso-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs are benign adnexal skin neoplasms that arise from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors are most commonly observed on the scalp and occur, most of the time, in elderly women. Malignant transformation of these neoplasms is a rare event; less than 50 cases have been reported in the English medical literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old Hispanic woman with a tumor located on the skin of one of her breasts that in her third surgical procedure the histologic examination revealed the presence of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor (MPTT. Furthermore, a review of the medical literature and a discussion of the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity are provided.

  10. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J. [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Merrick, B. Alex [Molecular Toxicology and Informatics Group, Biomolecular Screening Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrisville, NC 27560 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program Laboratory, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  11. An update on studies on etiological factors, disease progression, and malignant transformation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Bari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide estimates of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF show a confinement to Indians and Southeast Asians. In India, the prevalence of OSMF has increased over the past four decades from 0.03% to 6.42%. The condition is well recognized for its malignant potential rate of 7-30%. The condition has a multifactorial etiology and may remain either stationary or become severe, leaving an individual physically challenged both physically and psychologically. Hence, the study aims at reviewing studies done on various etiological factors leading to its onset. Their analysis may serve as an adjunct in defining the broad spectrum of the causation of this potentially malignant disorder.

  12. Malignant transformation of mature T cells after gammaretrovirus mediated transfer of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene therapy has been in use to cure hereditary and acquired diseases by incorporating the desired gene into the cells with the help of gammaretroviral vectors. Despite the success of this therapy in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, few patients developed leukemia as a major adverse event due to retroviral insertional mutagenesis within stem cells. In experimental animals also, retroviral-mediated gene transfer technique resulted in the development of leukemia. On the other hand, evidence suggests that mature T cells (TC are relatively resistant to transformation even after retroviral-mediated transfer of potent oncogenes Tcl1, ΔTrkA and LMO2 with no reported side effects yet. Aims: To further address the safety issue for TC use in gene therapy, this study investigated susceptibility of mature polyclonal TC to malignant transformation by the retroviral-mediated transfer of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK oncogene. Materials and Methods: Wild-type mature TC, isolated from C57BL/6 donor mice (genetic background Ly5.1 were transduced with gamma-retroviral vectors encoding the potent TC oncogene NPM-ALK or the control vector enhanced green fluorescent protein eGFP. The cells were then transplanted into RAG-1 deficient recipient mice (genetic background Ly5.2. Results: Two out of five mice from NPM-ALK oncogene group developed leukemia/lymphoma after latency periods (153 and 250 days, respectively. None of the mice from the control group developed any malignancy throughout the observational period. Conclusion: Mature polyclonal TC are relatively susceptible to malignant transformation after gamma-retroviral mediated transfer of NPM-ALK oncogene; hence safety of TC use in gene therapy should be further investigated to avoid the possible side-effect of development of leukemia/lymphoma.

  13. NIH 3T3 cells malignantly transformed by mot—2 show inactivation and cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADHWA; SYUICHITAKANO; 等

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies we have reported that a high level of expression of mot-2 protein results in malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as analyzed by anchorage independent growth and nude mice assays [Kaul et al.,Oncogene,17,907-11,1998].Mot-2 was found to interact with tumor suppressor protein p53.The transient overexpression of mot-2 was inhibitory to transcriptional activation function of p53 [Wadhwa et al.,J.Biol.Chem.,273,2958691,1998].We demonstrate here that mot-2 transfected stable clone of NIH 3T3 that showed malignant properties indeed show inactivation of p53 function as assayed by exogenous p53 dependent reporter.The expression level of p53 in response to UV-irradiation was lower in NIH 3T3/mot-2 as compared to NIH 3T3 cells and also exhibited delay in reachingpeak.Furthermore,upon serum starvation p53 was seen to translocate to the nucleus in NIH 3T3,but not in its mot-3 derivative.The data suggests that mot-2 mediated cytoplasmic sequestration and inactivation of p53 may operate,at least in part,for malignant phenotype of NIH 3T3/mot-2 cells.

  14. Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3 in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients.

  15. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J.; Merrick, B. Alex; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)-or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for in depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (>25-fold) and S100P (>40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcription start site. Decreased expression of NES (>15-fold) and NTM (>1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcription start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. PMID:25922126

  16. Slit-Robo signaling induces malignant transformation through Hakai-mediated E-cadherin degradation during colorectal epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Jie Zhou; Yan-Qing Ding; Jian-Guo Geng; Zhen H Geng; Shan Chi; Wenli Zhang; Xiao-Feng Niu; Shu-Jue Lan; Li Ma; Xuesong Yang; Li-Jing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The Slit family of guidance cues binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors and modulates cell migration. We report here that ectopic expression of Slit2 and Robol or recombinant Slit2 treatment of Robol-expressing colorectal epithelial carcinoma cells recruited an ubiquitin ligase Hakai for E-cadherin (E-cad) ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and tumor growth and liver metastasis, which were rescued by knockdown of Hakai. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous Robol or specific blockade of Slit2 binding to Robol prevented E-cad degradation and reversed EMT, resulting in diminished tumor growth and liver metastasis.Ectopic expression of Robol also triggered a malignant transformation in Siit2-positive human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Importantly, the expression of Slit2 and Robol was significantly associated with an increased metastatic risk and poorer overall survival in colorectal carcinoma patients. We conclude that engagement of Robol by Slit2 induces malignant transformation through Hakai-mediated E-cad ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation during colorectal epithelial cell carcinogenesis.

  17. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions.

  18. Towards optimal clinical and epidemiological registration of haematological malignancies: Guidelines for recording progressions, transformations and multiple diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Rous, Brian; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Middleton, Richard; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Maynadie, Marc; Zanetti, Roberto; Visser, Otto

    2015-06-01

    Haematological malignancies (HM) represent over 6% of the total cancer incidence in Europe and affect all ages, ranging between 45% of all cancers in children and 7% in the elderly. Thirty per cent of childhood cancer deaths are due to HM, 8% in the elderly. Their registration presents specific challenges, mainly because HM may transform or progress in the course of the disease into other types of HM. In the context of cancer registration decisions have to be made about classifying subsequent notifications on the same patient as the same tumour (progression), a transformation or a new tumour registration. Allocation of incidence date and method of diagnosis must also be standardised. We developed European Network of Cancer Registries (ENCR) recommendations providing specific advice for cancer registries to use haematology and molecular laboratories as data sources, conserve the original date of incidence in case of change of diagnosis, make provision for recording both the original as well as transformed tumour and to apply precise rules for recording and counting multiple diagnoses. A reference table advising on codes which reflect a potential transformation or a new tumour is included. This work will help to improve comparability of data produced by population-based cancer registries, which are indispensable for aetiological research, health care planning and clinical research, an increasing important area with the application of targeted therapies.

  19. Malignant transformation of a chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma in a patient with diencephalic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wal, Ester P.J. van der; Edwards-Brown, Mary [Department of Radiology, Indiana University, Division of Neuroradiology, James Whitcomb Riley Children' s Hospital, 702 Barnhill Drive, MRI Suite, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5200 (United States); Azzarelli, Biagio [Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Indiana University, Medical Science Building, A140, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5120 (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Chiasmatic gliomas with metastatic spread are rare in children and are usually associated with diencephalic syndrome. They are mostly pilocytic astrocytomas and their transformation to high-grade astrocytomas has never previously been reported in the pediatric population. We report leptomeningeal spread of a chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytoma in a child presenting with diencephalic syndrome. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiation. The tumor recurred with transformation into a high-grade astrocytoma. Radiation therapy may have played a role in transformation of the tumor, but more research is needed to further clarify the biological behavior of this tumor. (orig.)

  20. Mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation of teratomatous urothelial cells: Rare case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senjuti Dasgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of malignancies in somatic elements of mature cystic teratoma of ovary is rare. The malignancies that may be encountered in dermoid cyst include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, melanoma, sarcoma, carcinoid, and germ cell neoplasms. The development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in dermoid cyst is extremely rare with only four such cases having been reported in literature so far. Here we report the fifth case of such an occurrence in a 50-year-old postmenopausal multiparous female patient. She presented with pain and gradual swelling of abdomen for 1 month. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a solid space occupying lesion with few cystic components at right pelvis, raising the possibility of an ovarian neoplasm. The level of CA-125 was slightly raised (56∙45 U/ml. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed cyst wall lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Beneath the cyst wall, a tumor mass was present, histological features of which resembled that of high-grade TCC (stage pT1aNXMX. On immunohistochemical analysis, the tumor was found to be positive for CK7 and CK20 and negative for WT-1. These results were consistent with a diagnosis of TCC arising in urothelium of mature cystic teratoma. Reporting of such extremely rare cases is important for the assessment of prognostic factors and treatment protocols.

  1. Subsequent primary malignancies and acute myelogenous leukemia transformation among myelodysplastic syndrome patients treated with or without lenalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollison, Dana E; Shain, Kenneth H; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Hampras, Shalaka S; Fulp, William; Fisher, Kate; Al Ali, Najla H; Padron, Eric; Lancet, Jeffrey; Xu, Qiang; Olesnyckyj, Martha; Kenvin, Laurie; Knight, Robert; Dalton, William; List, Alan; Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-07-01

    The few studies that have examined rates of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation in lenalidomide-treated myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients have been limited to deletion 5q MDS. The association between lenalidomide and subsequent primary malignancies (SPMs) in MDS patients has not been evaluated previously. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the risk of both SPM and AML in association with lenalidomide. A cohort of MDS patients (n = 1248) treated between 2004 and 2012 at Moffitt Cancer Center were identified, and incident cases of SPM and AML transformation were ascertained. Using a nested case-control design, MDS controls were 1:1 matched to SPM (n = 41) and AML (n = 150) cases, on age and date of MDS diagnosis, gender, follow-up time, IPSS, and del (5q). Associations between lenalidomide and (1) SPM incidence and (2) AML transformation were estimated with hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the cohort and odds ratios (OR) in the case-control analysis. SPM incidence did not differ significantly between cohort MDS patients treated with (0.7 per 100 person-years) or without lenalidomide (1.4 per 100 person-years) (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.40-2.74), whereas a significantly reduced SPM risk was observed in the case-control sample (OR = 0.03, 95% CI = Lenalidomide was not associated with AML transformation in the cohort analysis (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.44-1.27) or in the case-control analyses (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.52-2.56), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lenalidomide was not associated with increased risk of SPM or AML transformation in a large cohort of MDS patients mostly including nondeletion 5q MDS.

  2. Microbial production and chemical transformation of poly-γ-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiuchi, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    Poly-γ-glutamate (PGA), a novel polyamide material with industrial applications, possesses a nylon-like backbone, is structurally similar to polyacrylic acid, is biodegradable and is safe for human consumption. PGA is frequently found in the mucilage of natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. To date, three different types of PGA, namely a homo polymer of D-glutamate (D-PGA), a homo polymer of L-glutamate (L-PGA), and a random copolymer consisting of D- and L-glutamate (DL-PGA), are known. This review will detail the occurrence and physiology of PGA. The proposed reaction mechanism of PGA synthesis including its localization and the structure of the involved enzyme, PGA synthetase, are described. The occurrence of multiple carboxyl residues in PGA likely plays a role in its relative unsuitability for the development of bio-nylon plastics and thus, establishment of an efficient PGA-reforming strategy is of great importance. Aside from the potential applications of PGA proposed to date, a new technique for chemical transformation of PGA is also discussed. Finally, some techniques for PGA and its derivatives in advanced material technology are presented.

  3. Insulation Materials of Transformer Using Chemical Mechanism of Moisture Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hussian Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    The composite insulation system of power transformers consisting of two insulation materials (cellulose and mineral oil) are the main insulation material of power transformer, the increase of moisture will reduce their insulation strength. Moisture equilibrium curves are the basis of power transformer moisture detection, however, the service data and theory analysis both indicate the present curves are not fit for old transformer. Therefore this research work is focused the law and mechanism ...

  4. Embryological signaling pathways in Barrett's metaplasia development and malignant transformation; mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, K; Meijer, C; van den Berg, A; Peters, F T M; Kruyt, F A E; Kleibeuker, J H

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's metaplasia of the esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a deadly disease with a 5-year overall survival of less than 20%. The molecular mechanisms of BE development and its transformation to EAC are poorly understood and current surveillance and treatme

  5. Constitutive phosphorylation of eps8 in tumor cell lines: relevance to malignant transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matoskova, B; Wong, W T; Salcini, A E;

    1995-01-01

    eps8, a recently identified tyrosine kinase substrate, has been shown to augment epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness, implicating it in EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated mitogenic signaling. We investigated the status of eps8 phosphorylation in normal and transformed cells and the role of eps...

  6. Extracellular localization of catalase is associated with the transformed state of malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Britta; Heinzelmann, Sonja; Motz, Manfred; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Oncogenic transformation is dependent on activated membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX). However, the resultant extracellular superoxide anions are also driving the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl pathway, which eliminates NOX-expressing transformed cells through selective apoptosis induction. Tumor progression is dependent on dominant interference with intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through membrane-associated catalase, which decomposes H2O2 and peroxynitrite and oxidizes NO. Particularly, the decomposition of extracellular peroxynitrite strictly requires membrane-associated catalase. We utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of catalase and neutralizing antibodies directed against the enzyme in combination with challenging H2O2 or peroxynitrite to determine activity and localization of catalase in cells from three distinct steps of multistage oncogenesis. Nontransformed cells did not generate extracellular superoxide anions and only showed intracellular catalase activity. Transformed cells showed superoxide anion-dependent intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling in the presence of suboptimal catalase activity in their membrane. Tumor cells exhibited tight control of intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through a high local concentration of membrane-associated catalase. These data demonstrate that translocation of catalase to the outside of the cell membrane is already associated with the transformation step. A strong local increase in the concentration of membrane-associated catalase is achieved during tumor progression and is controlled by tumor cell-derived H2O2 and by transglutaminase.

  7. Malignant transformation in trophic ulcers in leprosy: a study of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, S B; Mehta, J M

    1988-01-01

    Twelve cases of carcinomata arising in Trophic ulcers of Leprosy are presented. Out of these, 10 were on the plantar surface more commonly on the proximal part of foot, one on lower leg and dorsum of foot, and one in an ulcer over the lateral malleolus. Almost all presented with infected growths and regional lymphadenopathy. Three cases presented with advanced disease with fungating inguinal nodes and were fatal. Nine cases underwent below knee amputation under antibiotic cover as a definitive treatment and the lymph nodes were kept under observation. Histologically, all were low grade squamous cell carcinomas. In most cases lymph nodes regressed after removal of primary and in one case lymph nodes were positive for malignancy. This study was conducted at Dr. Bandorawalla Leprosy Hospital, Kondhawa, Pune 22 from the year 1981 to 1987.

  8. MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION IN A MATURE CYSTIC TERATOMA OF THE OVARY: A CASE OF RARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Germ cell tumors account for a majority of all ovarian tumors. Ninety five percent of germ cell tumors are dermoid cysts (Mature cystic teratoma. Carcinomas arising from mature cystic teratoma are quite rare. The most common malignancy being Squamous cell carcinoma (75%. In the present study we report a case of Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. A 45 year old female presented with mass in abdomen, pain abdomen and dysuria since one month. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-opherectomy was done. Histopathology showed well differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in the background of mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst. Purpose of this report was to create awareness among practitioners to consider this possibility in dermoid cysts of large size in older patients

  9. Recent progress on the role of Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, in malignant transformation of myeloid leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, A; Burchert, A; Maiwald, C; Gruss, H J; Serke, S; Huhn, D; Wittig, B; Liu, E

    1997-03-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) play an important role in the signal transduction of normal and malignant cells. There are different families of RTKs which are mainly characterized by differences in the ligang-binding extracellular domains. Axl (or UFO/Ark) is the first member of a new class of RTK with two fibronectin type III domains and two immunoglobulin-like domains present at the extracellular domain. The axl-gene has been isolated by means of gene transfection studies using DNA of patients with chronic myelogeneous leukemia. For a previous and the present study, we used a sensitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay to detect axl's mRNA in cells from normal and malignant hematopoietic tissue. Axl's mRNA expression was mainly detected in myelo-monocytic cells, whereas much weaker transcription was seen in lymphatic cells and in lymphatic leukemias. In normal bone marrow, axl was heavily transcribed in marrow stromal cells. Further, we analysed Axl protein expression using monoclonal antibody M50 in peripheral stem cell harvests; in most harvests, no co-expression of CD34 and Axl was detected. However, in one patient with AML in complete remission, Axl was co-expressed on 80% of the CD34-positive population. These data show that axl is preferentially expressed in monocytes and stromal cells. Furthermore, a fraction of CD34-positive progenitor cells may express Axl. The exact mechanism for transformation of myeloid progenitor cells through Axl, however, remains to be determined.

  10. Expression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) in pheochromocytoma as a potential marker for distinguishing benign versus malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Amousha, Mohamad Reza; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Sabet Kish, Nastaran; Heshmat, Ramin; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Saffar, Hiva; Haghpanah, Vahid; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The Distinction between malignant and benign pheochromocytoma has always been a diagnostic challenge over the last decades. To date, the only reliable criterion is metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible expression of pituitary-tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) and retinoblastoma (Rb) in benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Paraffin blocks of 44 and 11 patients diagnosed with benign and malignant pheochromocytoma were collected. Parameters such as sex, age, tumor size, necrosis, and histological features were compared between the benign and malignant groups as well as immunohistochemical labeling using specific antibodies. PTTG1 showed negative expression in all (44) benign and 9 out of 11 (81.8%) malignant tumors with only 2 out of 11 (18.2%) malignant tumors showed positive reactivity for PTTG1 (P: 0.037) with spindle cell histological pattern in both of them (P: 0.013). Although Rb expression in malignant tumors (81.8%) was slightly more than the benign ones (52.3%), no statistically significant correlation was observed (P: 0.087). These results suggest that PTTG1 immunostaining may play a key role in distinguishing between benign and malignant phaeochromocytoma. However, larger studies are necessary to confirm the outcomes of the present study.

  11. p53-independent upregulation of p21WAF1 in NIH 3T3 cells malignantly transformed by mot-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    ot-2 protein is shown to interact with p53 and inhibit its transcriptional activation function.Mot-2 overexpressing stable clones of NIH 3T3 cells were malignantly transformed,however,they had a high level of expression of a p53 downstream gene,P21waf1.The present study was undertaken to elucidate possible molecular mechanism(s) of such upregulation.An increased level of P21waf1 expression was detected in stable transfectants although an exogenous reporter gene driven by P21waf1 promoter exhibited lower activity in these cells suggesting that some post-transcriptional mechanism contributes to upregulation.Western analyses of transient and stable clones revealed that upregulation of P21waf1 in stable NIH 3T3/mot-2 cells may be mediated by cyclin D1 and cdk-2.

  12. A case series of transformation of teratoma to primitive neuroectodermal tumor: evolving management of a rare malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Dunne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a pathologic diagnosis that encompasses several different tumor types, including central nervous system tumors and Ewing’s sarcomas. Teratoma, a common element of germ cell tumor (GCT, has the ability to transform to malignant PNET in a small number of patients. Making a definitive diagnosis of PNET is difficult given its deviation from elements of GCT and its non-specific pathologic findings. Establishing the diagnosis is crucial as PNETs respond poorly to standard platinum-based chemotherapy used for treatment of GCT. Primary treatment for PNET is surgical, though this is often not feasible in many patients due to extensive disease at diagnosis. As an alternative, chemotherapy regimens traditionally used for Ewing’s sarcoma, such as vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide, have shown limited efficacy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative settings. Future research should delineate the genetic underpinnings of PNET and develop therapeutic options accordingly.

  13. Prevention of KLF4-mediated tumor initiation and malignant transformation by UAB30 rexinoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Deng, Wentao; Bailey, Sarah K.; Nail, Clint D.; Frost, Andra R.; Brouillette, Wayne J.; Muccio, Donald D.; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Ruppert, J. Michael; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor KLF4 acts in post-mitotic epithelial cells to promote differentiation, and functions in a context-dependent fashion as an oncogene. In the skin KLF4 is co-expressed with the nuclear receptors RARγ and RXRα, and formation of the skin permeability barrier is a shared function of these three proteins. We utilized a KLF4-transgenic mouse model of skin cancer in combination with cultured epithelial cells to examine functional interactions between KLF4 and retinoic acid receptors. In cultured cells, activation of a conditional, KLF4-estrogen receptor fusion protein by 4-hydroxytamoxifen resulted in rapid upregulation of transcripts for nuclear receptors including RARγ and RXRα. We tested retinoids in epithelial cell transformation assays, including an RAR-selective agonist (all-trans RA), an RXR-selective agonist (9-cis UAB30, rexinoid), and a pan agonist (9-cis RA). Unlike for several other genes, transformation by KLF4 was inhibited by each retinoid, implicating distinct nuclear receptor heterodimers as modulators of KLF4 transforming activity. When RXRα expression was suppressed by RNAi in cultured cells, transformation was promoted and the inhibitory effect of 9-cis UAB30 was attenuated. Similarly as shown for other mouse models of skin cancer, rexinoid prevented skin tumor initiation resulting from induction of KLF4 in basal keratinocytes. Rexinoid permitted KLF4 expression and KLF4-induced cell cycling, but attenuated the KLF4-induced misexpression of cytokeratin 1 in basal cells. Neoplastic lesions including hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma-like lesions were prevented for up to 30 days. Taken together, the results identify retinoid receptors including RXRα as ligand-dependent inhibitors of KLF4-mediated transformation or tumorigenesis. PMID:19197145

  14. Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted.

  15. First-principles simulations on bonding pathways of chemical transformations under hydrostatic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anguang; Zhang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    High pressure as a thermodynamic parameter provides a strong structural constraint to lead chemical transformations with selective ways. Thus, chemical transformations under pressure can create novel materials which may not be accessible by covalent synthesis. However, bonding evolution toward high pressure chemical transformations can be a complex process and may happen over widely different pressures. To understand bonding evolution pathways of high pressure chemical transformations, first-principles simulations were performed following hydrostatic compression enthalpy minimization paths to obtain experimentally and theoretically established phase transitions of carbon. The results showed that the chemical transformations from hydrostatic compression carbon to single-bonded phases were characterized by a sudden decrease in principal stress components, indicating the onset of chemical transformation. On this basis, a number of hydrostatic compression chemical transformations from molecular precursors to novel materials were predicted, such as hydrocarbon graphane, a hydrogenated carbon nitride sheet, and carbon nitrides. All predicted hydrostatic compression transformations are featured as a sudden change in principal stress components, representing chemical bonding destruction and formation reactions with a cell volume collapse.

  16. Chemical oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine transformation products in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Abilev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH during a water treatment has several disadvantages including formation of stable toxic byproducts. Effectiveness of treatment methods in relation to UDMH transformation products is currently poorly studied. This work considers the effectiveness of chemical oxidants in respect to main metabolites of UDMH – 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine, dimethylaminoacetontrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Experiments on chemical oxidation by Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite were conducted. Quantitative determination was performed by HPLC. Oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solid-phase microextraction. 1-Formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine was completely oxidized by Fenton's reagent with formation of formaldehyde N-formyl-N-methyl-hydrazone, 1,4-dihydro-1,4-dimethyl-5H-tetrazol-5-one by the action of potassium permanganate and N-methyl-N-nitro-methanamine in the presence of sodium nitrite. Oxidation of 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine also resulted in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Oxidation of dimethylaminoacetontrile proceeded with formation of hydroxyacetonitrile, dimethylformamide and 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole. After 30 days, dimethylaminoacetontrile was not detected in the presence of Fenton’s reagent and potassium permanganate, but it’s concentration in samples with sodium nitrite was 77.3 mg/L. In the presence of Fenton’s reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite after 30 days, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 85, 80 and 50%, respectively. In control sample, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 50%, indicating that sodium nitrite has no effect of on N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration. Only Fenton's reagent allowed to reduce the concentration of 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole to 50% in 30 days. In the presence of other oxidants, 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole

  17. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce F [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or

  18. Malignant transformation in non-recurrent peritoneal cystic mesothelioma Our experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Giuseppe; Accardo, Marina; De Vita, Ferdinando; Del Giudice, Santolo; Gallucci, Federica; Fabozzi, Alessio; De Falco, Massimo

    2016-01-29

    Il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico è un tumore raro. Si tratta di un tumore benigno, che tuttavia va incontro a recidive locali post-chirurgiche in oltre il 50% dei casi. È proprio a seguito di recidive ricorrenti che si possono determinare trasformazioni maligne di questa neoplasia, come descritto in Letteratura. Nel Giugno del 2004 un paziente di 73 anni è giunto presso la nostra struttura con una tumefazione addominale causa di dolore gravativo: si trattava di una massa di 16 cm, la cui struttura, agli esami strumentali (ecografia, TC con m.d.c. e RMN), appariva pluricistica. Attraverso una laparotomia mediana si è provveduto alla sua rimozione e il paziente è stato dimesso in VIII giornata post-operatoria senza complicanze. L’esame istologico, corredato da studio immunoistochimico e di microscopia elettronica, ha consentito di porre diagnosi di mesotelioma peritoneale pluricistico in trasformazione maligna. D’accordo con gli oncologi, in considerazione della scarsa efficacia dei trattamenti adiuvanti e della scarsità dei dati riportati in Letteratura sull’argomento, si è deciso di sottoporre il paziente unicamente ad uno stretto follow-up, con esecuzione di ecografia addominale ogni sei mesi e TC addominale ogni anno. Ad oggi, dieci anni dopo il trattamento, il paziente, di 83 anni, gode di un discreto stato di salute e non si sono verificate riprese o recidive di malattia, né locali, né a distanza. Oltre al fatto di essere risultato maligno alla sua prima manifestazione e non dopo ripetute recidive, il caso presenta altre particolarità: il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico, infatti, solitamente colpisce soggetti di sesso femminile (con un rapporto F:M di 4,5:1) ad un’età media di 60 anni, mentre il caso descritto riguarda un soggetto di sesso maschile di 73 anni. La nostra osservazione dimostra la possibilità che il mesotelioma peritoneale vada incontro a trasformazioni maligne già alla sua prima manifestazione e non esclusivamente dopo

  19. Abnormal promoter methylation of multiple genes in the malignant transformed PEP2D cells induced by alpha particles exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiP; SuiJL

    2002-01-01

    The 5' promoter regions of some genes contain CpG-rich areas,known as CpG islands,Methylation of the cytosine in these dinuleotides has important regulatory effects on gene expression.The functional significance of promoter hypermethylation would play the same roles in carcinogenesis as gene mutations.The promoter methylations p14ARF,p16INK4a,MGMT,GSTP1,BUB3 and DAPK genes were analyzed with methylation specific PCR(MSP) in the transformed human bronchial epithelial cells(BEP2D) induced by α-particles.The results indicated that p14ARF gene was not methylated in BEP2D cells,but was methylated in the malignant transformed BERP35T-1 cells,and the level of its transcription was depressed remarkable in the latter.However p16INK4a gene,which shares two exons with p14ARF gene,was not methylated.MGMT gene was methylated in both BEP2D and BERP35T-1.DAPK gene was partially methylated in BEP2D cells and methylated completely in BERP35T1.GSTP1 was not methylated in BEP2D cells and was methylated partly in BERP35T-1.BUB3 gene was not methylated in BEP2D as well as BERP35T1 cells and was further proved by sequencing analysis.

  20. Abnormal expression of c-Myc in human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by anti-BPDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan FU; Yiguo JIANG; Xuemin CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (anti-BPDE) is a metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a] P) and acts as a potent mutagen in mammalian systems. However, molecular mechanisms related to anti-BPDE-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression of proto-oncogene c-myc in human bronchial epithelial cells (16H BE-T) transformed by exposure to anti-BPDE. The levels ofmRNA and pro-tein of c-M yc were examined in the 16HBE-T and vehicle-treated control cells (16HBE-N) by using different meth-ods respectively, including reverse transcriptase-polymer-ase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemical meth-ods. The level of c-myc mRNA appeared to be signifi-cantly increased in 16HBE-T, as compared with those of the 16H BE-N. Likewise, the expression of c-Myc protein was significantly enhanced as compared with those of the control cells. Moreover, the localization of c-Myc protein shows mainly nuclear staining in 16HBE-T. In conclu-sion, the abnormal expression of c-Myc was present in anti-BPDE malignantly transformed 16HBE cells, which may be involved in the carcinogenesis molecular mech-anism of anti-BPDE.

  1. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus shale gas drilling flow back water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yixin; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Steven S.; Niu, Yingmei; DesMarais, Thomas L; Linn, Reka; Saunders, Eric; Fan, Zhihua; Lioy, Paul; Kluz, Thomas; Chen, Lung-Chi; Wu, Zhuangchun; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation is known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these waste waters, flow back water from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC50 values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependant. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show a better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. PMID:26210350

  2. Topics In Chemical Instrumentation: Fourier Transformations for Chemists Part I. Introduction to the Fourier Transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores how Fourier Transform (FT) mimics spectral transformation, how this property can be exploited to advantage in spectroscopy, and how the FT can be used in data treatment. A table displays a number of important FT serial/spectral pairs related by Fourier Transformations. A bibliography and listing of computer software related to…

  3. Malignant transformation of low grade gliomas into glioblastoma a series of 10 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rotariu1, S. Gaivas1, Z. Faiyad1, D. Haba2, B. Iliescu1, I. Poeata1

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffuse infiltrative low-gradegliomas (LGG of the cerebral hemispheresin the adult are tumors with distinctclinical, histological and molecularcharacteristics. WHO (World HealthOrganization classification recognizesgrade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomasand oligoastrocytomas. Conventional MRIis used for differential diagnosis, guidingsurgery, planning radiotherapy andmonitoring treatment response.Advanced imaging techniques areincreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Lowgradegliomas have been documented toundergo transformation into high-gradegliomas, and the time interval of thistransformation has been reported togenerally occur within 5 years in about 50%of patients diagnosed with low-gradegliomas.Methods: We have reviewed all adultpatients operated on for hemisphericglioblastoma at N Oblu Hospital in Iasibetween 2006 and 2009 and in particularthose patients with secondary glioblastoma.Results: from the total 110 cases ofglioblastoma, ten of them were secondaryto malignant transformation of anpreviously operated low grade glioma. Ofthe 10 patients with secondaryglioblastoma, the initial histology was: gr IIastocytoma in 6 cases, oligoastocytoma in 2cases and in oligodendroglioma in 2 cases.The mean patient age was 46.1± 0.9 yearsand the most frequent symptom wasrepresented by seizures 70%, the mean timefrom the first symptom to diagnosis was11,2 months. 40% of the cases had subtotalresection and 60% had total resection(defined by the surgeon at the time ofoperation. 5 patients received radiotherapypostoperatively, 2 received both radio andchemotherapy and 3 had no adjuvanttreatment. In our series the median time tomalignant transformation was 32,5 months.Conclusions: Younger age, normalneurological examination andoligodendroglial histology are favorableprognostic factors, total/near total resectioncan improve seizure control, progressionfreeand overall survival, mean whilereducing the risk of malignanttransformation. Early post

  4. Malignant transformation of a rat fibroma by the treatment with an anti-fibrosing drug: CY-168F (Plastenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen albino (Sprague Dawley rats with subcutaneous transplanted fibromas was used in the present study. The tumour was formed by typical fibroblasts in a dense collagen matrix and was provenient from a fibroma that appeared spontaneously in an albino rat of the same strain. Ultrastructurally collagen disclosed normal periodicity and the fibroblasts showed irregular notched nuclei with irregular distribution of chromatin, that suggests transitional aspects to fibrosarcoma. The 15 animals, from different passage groups, were divided into: 8 animals submitted to treatment with the drug acexamic acid (CY-168F - N acetyl-amino-6-hexanoic acid (plastenan and 7 untreated control animals. Three of the treated animals showed a malignant transformation to fibrosarcoma. transitional histological features from typical fibroma to highly indifferentiated fibrosarcoma could be detected in come animal subjected to repeated biopsies. Ultrastructural study disclosed nuclear alterations and hyperactive ergastoplasm and collagen containing inclusions into the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. In the group of 7 untreated naimals, no malignant transformation could be detected histologically. Two aspects deserve attention: the malignant potential of a typical fibroma and the apparent effect of an antifibrosing drug in inducing malignization of this tumour.Foram utilizados no presente estudo, quinze ratos albinos (Sprague Dawley portadores de fibronas transplantados no tecido subcutâneo da parede abdominal. O tumor era constituído por fibroblastos típicos, em uma densa matriz colagênica e eram provenientes de um fibroma que apareceu espontaneamente em um rato albino da mesma linhagem. Ultraestruturalmente o colágeno mostrava periodicidade normal e os fibroblastos mostravam núcleo irregularmente denteado, com cromatina irregularmente distribuída, sugerindo aspectos transicionais para um fibrossarcoma. Os quinze animais, de diferentes grupos de passagem do tumor, foram

  5. Dysregulation of mitotic machinery genes precedes genome instability during spontaneous pre-malignant transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Urzúa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based in epidemiological evidence, repetitive ovulation has been proposed to play a role in the origin of ovarian cancer by inducing an aberrant wound rupture-repair process of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE. Accordingly, long term cultures of isolated OSE cells undergo in vitro spontaneous transformation thus developing tumorigenic capacity upon extensive subcultivation. In this work, C57BL/6 mouse OSE (MOSE cells were cultured up to passage 28 and their RNA and DNA copy number profiles obtained at passages 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 23, 25 and 28 by means of DNA microarrays. Gene ontology, pathway and network analyses were focused in passages earlier than 20, which is a hallmark of malignancy in this model. Results At passage 14, 101 genes were up-regulated in absence of significant DNA copy number changes. Among these, the top-3 enriched functions (>30 fold, adj p < 0.05 comprised 7 genes coding for centralspindlin, chromosome passenger and minichromosome maintenance protein complexes. The genes Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1, Birc5 (Survivin, Nusap1 and Kif23 were the most recurrent in over a dozen GO terms related to the mitotic process. On the other hand, Pten plus the large non-coding RNAs Malat1 and Neat1 were among the 80 down-regulated genes with mRNA processing, nuclear bodies, ER-stress response and tumor suppression as relevant terms. Interestingly, the earliest discrete segmental aneuploidies arose by passage 18 in chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19. By passage 23, when MOSE cells express the malignant phenotype, the dysregulated gene expression repertoire expanded, DNA imbalances enlarged in size and covered additional loci. Conclusion Prior to early aneuploidies, overexpression of genes coding for the mitotic apparatus in passage-14 pre-malignant MOSE cells indicate an increased proliferation rate suggestive of replicative stress. Concomitant down-regulation of nuclear bodies and RNA processing related genes

  6. HuR and podoplanin expression is associated with a high risk of malignant transformation in patients with oral preneoplastic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yanagawa-Matsuda, Aya; Higashino, Fumihiro; Hida, Kyoko; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    The risk of malignant transformation in oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs) is challenging to assess. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression of ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR) and podoplanin in OPLs, and to evaluate the use of each protein as biomarkers for the risk assessment of malignant transformations. Immunohistochemistry for HuR and podoplanin was performed on the tissues of 51 patients with OPL, including cases of low grade dysplasia (LGD) and high grade dysplasia (HGD). The association between the protein expression patterns and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer free survival (OCFS) time, was analyzed during the follow-up period. HuR and podoplanin expression was observed in 28 (55%) and 36 (71%) of 51 patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the expression of HuR and podoplanin was associated with the risk of progression to oral cancer (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that HuR and podoplanin expression was associated with a 2.93-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98–10.34; P=0.055) and 2.06-fold (95% CI, 0.55–8.01; P=0.283) increase in risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The risk of OPL malignant transformation was considerably increased with the coexpression of HuR and podoplanin compared with the histological grading (95% CI, 1.64–23.59; P=0.005). The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression of HuR and podoplanin associates with malignant transformation and suggests that the proteins may be used as biomarkers to identify OPL patients with an increased risk of cancer development. PMID:27899983

  7. HuR and podoplanin expression is associated with a high risk of malignant transformation in patients with oral preneoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yanagawa-Matsuda, Aya; Higashino, Fumihiro; Hida, Kyoko; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2016-11-01

    The risk of malignant transformation in oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs) is challenging to assess. The objective of the present study was to determine the expression of ELAV like RNA binding protein 1 (HuR) and podoplanin in OPLs, and to evaluate the use of each protein as biomarkers for the risk assessment of malignant transformations. Immunohistochemistry for HuR and podoplanin was performed on the tissues of 51 patients with OPL, including cases of low grade dysplasia (LGD) and high grade dysplasia (HGD). The association between the protein expression patterns and clinicopathological parameters, including oral cancer free survival (OCFS) time, was analyzed during the follow-up period. HuR and podoplanin expression was observed in 28 (55%) and 36 (71%) of 51 patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the expression of HuR and podoplanin was associated with the risk of progression to oral cancer (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that HuR and podoplanin expression was associated with a 2.93-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-10.34; P=0.055) and 2.06-fold (95% CI, 0.55-8.01; P=0.283) increase in risk of malignant transformation, respectively. The risk of OPL malignant transformation was considerably increased with the coexpression of HuR and podoplanin compared with the histological grading (95% CI, 1.64-23.59; P=0.005). The results of the present study demonstrated that the expression of HuR and podoplanin associates with malignant transformation and suggests that the proteins may be used as biomarkers to identify OPL patients with an increased risk of cancer development.

  8. Concurrent presentation of erythrodermic lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma: Coincidence or malignant transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema M Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.

  10. Early Detection of Malignant Transformation in Resected WHO II Low-Grade Glioma Using Diffusion Tensor-Derived Quantitative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Martin T.; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.; Binczyk, Francisczek; Laun, Frederik B.; Weber, Christian; Bonekamp, David; Tarnawski, Rafal; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Polanska, Joanna; Majchrzak, Henryk; Stieltjes, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Objective Here, we retrospectively investigate the value of voxel-wisely plotted diffusion tensor-derived (DTI) axial, radial and mean diffusivity for the early detection of malignant transformation (MT) in WHO II glioma compared to contrast-enhanced images. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging follow-up between 2006–2014 after gross-tumor resection of intra-axial WHO II glioma. Axial/Mean/Radial diffusivity maps (AD/MD/RD) were generated from DTI data. ADmin/MDmin/RDmin values were quantified within tumor regions-of-interest generated by two independent readers including tumor contrast-to-noise (CNR). Sensitivity/specificity and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. Inter-reader agreement was assessed (Cohen’s kappa). Results Eighteen patients demonstrated malignant transformation (MT) confirmed in 8/18 by histopathology and in 10/18 through imaging follow-up. Twelve of 18 patients (66.6%) with MT showed diffusion restriction timely coincidental with contrast-enhancement (CE). In the remaining six patients (33.3%), the diffusion restriction preceded the CE. The mean gain in detection time using DTI was (0.8±0.5 years, p = 0.028). Compared to MDmin and RDmin, ROC-analysis showed best diagnostic value for ADmin (sensitivity/specificity 94.94%/89.7%, AUC 0.96; p<0.0001) to detect MT. CNR was highest for AD (1.83±0.14), compared to MD (1.31±0.19; p<0.003) and RD (0.90±0.23; p<0.0001). Cohen’s Kappa was 0.77 for ADmin, 0.71 for MDmin and 0.65 for RDmin (p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion MT is detectable at the same time point or earlier compared to T1w-CE by diffusion restriction in diffusion-tensor-derived maps. AD demonstrated highest sensitivity/specificity/tumor-contrast compared to radial or mean diffusivity (= apparent diffusion coefficient) to detect MT. PMID:27741525

  11. Combined chemical and physical transformation method with RbCl and sepiolite for the transformation of various bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Lee, Haram; Yoo, Seung Min; Yu, Myeong-Sang; Park, Hansoo; Na, Dokyun

    2017-04-01

    DNA transformation that delivers plasmid DNAs into bacterial cells is fundamental in genetic manipulation to engineer and study bacteria. Developed transformation methods to date are optimized to specific bacterial species for high efficiency. Thus, there is always a demand for simple and species-independent transformation methods. We herein describe the development of a chemico-physical transformation method that combines a rubidium chloride (RbCl)-based chemical method and sepiolite-based physical method, and report its use for the simple and efficient delivery of DNA into various bacterial species. Using this method, the best transformation efficiency for Escherichia coli DH5α was 4.3×10(6)CFU/μg of pUC19 plasmid, which is higher than or comparable to the reported transformation efficiencies to date. This method also allowed the introduction of plasmid DNAs into Bacillus subtilis (5.7×10(3)CFU/μg of pSEVA3b67Rb), Bacillus megaterium (2.5×10(3)CFU/μg of pSPAsp-hp), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (1.0×10(2)CFU/μg of pTRKH3-ermGFP), and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (2.2×10(2)CFU/μg of pMSP3535VA). Remarkably, even when the conventional chemical and physical methods failed to generate transformed cells in Bacillus sp. and Enterococcus faecalis, E. malodoratus and E. mundtii, our combined method showed a significant transformation efficiency (2.4×10(4), 4.5×10(2), 2×10(1), and 0.5×10(1)CFU/μg of plasmid DNA). Based on our results, we anticipate that our simple and efficient transformation method should prove usefulness for introducing DNA into various bacterial species without complicated optimization of parameters affecting DNA entry into the cell.

  12. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR may be a valuable diagnostic tool for determining the potential for malignant transformation of oral verrucous borderline lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    HABIBA, UMMA; KITAMURA, TETSUYA; YANAGAWA-MATSUDA, AYA; HIDA, KYOKO; HIGASHINO, FUMIHIRO; OHIRO, YOICHI; TOTSUKA, YASUNORI; SHINDOH, MASANOBU

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a benign lesion without malignant features. However, pathologists are sometimes presented with borderline lesions and are indecisive as to diagnose them as benign or malignant. Thus, these lesions are tentatively termed oral verrucous lesions (OVLs). HuR is an ARE mRNA-binding protein, normally localized in the nucleus but cytoplasmic exportation is frequently observed in cancer cells. The present study aimed to elucidate whether expression of the HuR protein facilitates the diagnosis of true malignant lesions. Clinicopathological features were evaluated, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki67 and HuR proteins was performed in 48 cases of OVH, OVC and OVL, and the outcomes were correlated using appropriate statistical analysis. The association of these three proteins in relation to malignant transformation was analyzed after a 3-year follow-up of 25 OVL cases. The basal characteristics (age, gender and location) of all cases had no significant association with the types of lesions. Gingiva (39.4%) was the common site for all lesions. Distribution of the examined proteins had a significant association with the lesions. As compared with the OVLs, the number of immunostained-positive cells was significantly higher in the OVCs and lower in the OVH cases. During follow-up, 24% of the OVLs underwent malignant transformation for which high HuR expression and a diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium were observed. Taken together, the high degree of HuR expression with diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium may be an effective diagnostic tool that determines the potential of OVLs for malignant transformation. PMID:24534848

  13. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR may be a valuable diagnostic tool for determining the potential for malignant transformation of oral verrucous borderline lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yanagawa-Matsuda, Aya; Hida, Kyoko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2014-04-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a benign lesion without malignant features. However, pathologists are sometimes presented with borderline lesions and are indecisive as to diagnose them as benign or malignant. Thus, these lesions are tentatively termed oral verrucous lesions (OVLs). HuR is an ARE mRNA-binding protein, normally localized in the nucleus but cytoplasmic exportation is frequently observed in cancer cells. The present study aimed to elucidate whether expression of the HuR protein facilitates the diagnosis of true malignant lesions. Clinicopathological features were evaluated, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki67 and HuR proteins was performed in 48 cases of OVH, OVC and OVL, and the outcomes were correlated using appropriate statistical analysis. The association of these three proteins in relation to malignant transformation was analyzed after a 3-year follow-up of 25 OVL cases. The basal characteristics (age, gender and location) of all cases had no significant association with the types of lesions. Gingiva (39.4%) was the common site for all lesions. Distribution of the examined proteins had a significant association with the lesions. As compared with the OVLs, the number of immunostained-positive cells was significantly higher in the OVCs and lower in the OVH cases. During follow-up, 24% of the OVLs underwent malignant transformation for which high HuR expression and a diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium were observed. Taken together, the high degree of HuR expression with diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium may be an effective diagnostic tool that determines the potential of OVLs for malignant transformation.

  14. Association of pituitary tumor transforming gene expression with early oral tumorigenesis and malignant progression of precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li-Jen; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Jhan, Jing-Ru; Chang, Lien-Cheng; Lin, Jing-Jer; Lou, Pei-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) is overexpressed in many types of human cancers and is involved in late-stage tumor progression. The role of PTTG1 in initiating tumorigenesis is unclear. PTTG1 expression was assessed in precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC). The association between the protein expression and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. The expression level of PTTG1 upon carcinogen treatment was also investigated. PTTG1 was overexpressed in both precancerous lesions and OSCC. The expression of PTTG1 was associated with carcinogen exposure in vivo and in vitro. PTTG1 overexpression was an independent factor for oral cancer development in precancerous lesions. This study provides the first evidence that PTTG1 is involved in the early stages of oral tumorigenesis. Carcinogen exposure may cause the initial induction of PTTG1 expression in oral precancerous lesions. PTTG1 overexpression is a potential prognosticator for malignant progression of oral precancerous lesions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin-releasing pituitary tumor: possible malignant transformation of the LH cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, F; Deruaz, J P; Perentes, E; Pelet, B; Gomez, F

    1986-05-01

    A pituitary tumor was diagnosed in a prepubertal 13-yr-old girl, who had elevated plasma LH (58 mIU/ml) and PRL (93 ng/ml) levels; decreased GH, ACTH, and FSH secretion; and diabetes insipidus. After surgery, plasma LH and PRL declined, but not to normal levels. Conventional external radiotherapy to the pituitary was immediately followed by a decrease in LH to prepubertal values (0.7 mIU/ml), while PRL levels became normal only after a long course of bromocriptine therapy. The pituitary tumor was composed of two distinct cell types: small polygonal cells, which were PRL positive by immunohistochemistry, and clusters of pleomorphic large frequently mitotic polynucleated cells, which were LH positive, some of them also being positive for the alpha-subunit or beta LH but not for beta FSH. Four years after surgery and radiotherapy, the patient deteriorated neurologically. Computed tomographic scan showed widespread frontal and periventricular tumor, which had the histological features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma. No PRL, LH, or alpha- or beta-subunits were detectable on immunocytochemistry. While the PRL-positive cells of the pituitary tumor displayed the histological and clinical features of PRL adenomas, the morphological characteristics of LH cells and the sharp decline of plasma LH levels after radiotherapy were suggestive of malignant transformation. In this context, the later brain tumor could have been the result of subependymal spread of the pituitary tumor after it lost its hormone-secreting capacity.

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  17. Microbial transformation of highly persistent chlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Organic pollutants can be transformed, both in unsaturated and saturated areas of the soil, by means of biologically mediated reactions. The potential of soil microorganisms to clean up polluted soils is enormous. However, soil systems are highly heterogeneous with respect to the spatial di

  18. Increment of DNA topoisomerases in chemically and virally transformed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.D.; Mladovan, A.G.; Baldi, A. (Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1988-03-01

    The activities of topoisomerases I and II were assayed in subcellular extracts obtained from nontumorigenic BALB/c 3T3 A31 and normal rat kidney (NRK) cell lines and from the same cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene (BP-A31), Moloney (M-MSV-A31) and Kirsten (K-A31) sarcoma viruses, and simian virus 40 (SV-NRK). The enzymatic activity of topoisomerase I was monitored by the relaxation of negatively supercoiled pBR322 DNA and by the formation of covalent complexes between {sup 32}P-labeled DNA and topoisomerase I. Topoisomerase II activity was determined by decatenation of kinetoplast DNA (k-DNA). It was found that nuclear and cytoplasmic type I topoisomerase specific activities were higher in every transformed cell line than in the normal counterparts. These differences cannot be attributed to an inhibitory factor present in A31 cells. When chromatin was treated at increasing ionic strengths, the 0.4 M NaCl extract showed the highest topoisomerase I specific activity. Spontaneously transformed A31 cells showed topoisomerase I activity similar to that of extracts of cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene. Topoisomerase II specific activity was also increased in SV-NRK cells, as judged by the assay for decatenation of k-DNA to yield minicircle DNA.

  19. Microbial transformation of highly persistent chlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Organic pollutants can be transformed, both in unsaturated and saturated areas of the soil, by means of biologically mediated reactions. The potential of soil microorganisms to clean up polluted soils is enormous. However, soil systems are highly heterogeneous with respect to the spatial

  20. Microbial transformation of highly persistent chlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Organic pollutants can be transformed, both in unsaturated and saturated areas of the soil, by means of biologically mediated reactions. The potential of soil microorganisms to clean up polluted soils is enormous. However, soil systems are highly heterogeneous with respect to the spatial distributio

  1. Hydroquinone-induced malignant transformation of TK6 cells by facilitating SIRT1-mediated p53 degradation and up-regulating KRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Chen, Jiajia; Yun, Lin; Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Xu, Yongchun; Yang, Hui; Liang, Hairong; Tang, Huanwen

    2016-09-30

    Hydroquinone (HQ), known as one of the metabolic products of benzene, causes a number of hematologic malignancies. The study evaluated the potential mechanism of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in HQ-induced TK6 cell malignant transformation. The data of our study show that short term exposure of TK6 cells to HQ led to a decrease expression of SIRT1. Knockdown of SIRT1 sensitized to the HQ-induced apoptosis in vitro and increased the expression of p53, p21 and γ-H2AX. Furthermore, chronic HQ-treated (20μM once a week for 19 weeks) caused carcinogenic transformation and was confirmed by abnormal cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) and subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice. SIRT1 increased KRAS expression, and decreased H3K9 and H3K18 acetylation, inhibited p53 signaling and the level of caspase-3 in HQ-induced transformation cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SIRT1 is involved in HQ-induced malignant transformation associated with suppressing p53 signaling and activation of KRAS.

  2. Characterization of novel transforming growth factor-beta type I receptors found in malignant pleural effusion tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leu Sy-Jye C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumors expressing a transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI mutant with sequence deletions in a nine-alanine (9A stretch of the signal peptide are reported to be highly associated with disease progression. Expression of this mutant could interfere with endogenous TGFβ signaling in the cell. However, little is known about the importance of the remaining part of the signal peptide on the cellular function of TβRI. Results We cloned and identified four new in-frame deletion variants of TβRI, designated DM1 to DM4, in pleural effusion-derived tumor cells. Intriguingly, DM1 and DM2, with a small region truncated in the putative signal peptide of TβRI, had a serious defect in their protein expression compared with that of the wild-type receptor. Using serial deletion mutagenesis, we characterized a region encoded by nucleotides 16–51 as a key element controlling TβRI protein expression. Consistently, both DM1 and DM2 have this peptide deleted. Experiments using cycloheximde and MG132 further confirmed its indispensable role for the protein stability of TβRI. In contrast, truncation of the 9A-stretch itself or a region downstream to the stretch barely affected TβRI expression. However, variants lacking a region C-terminal to the stretch completely lost their capability to conduct TGFβ-induced transcriptional activation. Intriguingly, expression of DM3 in a cell sensitive to TGFβ made it significantly refractory to TGFβ-mediated growth inhibition. The effect of DM3 was to ablate the apoptotic event induced by TGFβ. Conclusion We identified four new transcript variants of TβRI in malignant effusion tumor cells and characterized two key elements controlling its protein stability and transcriptional activation. Expression of one of variants bestowed cancer cells with a growth advantage in the presence of TGFβ. These results highlight the potential roles of some naturally occurring TβRI variants on the

  3. Malignant Transformation of a Mature Cystic Ovarian Teratoma into Thyroid Carcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Strumal Carcinoid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Hinshaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma (MCT is an infrequent, often asymptomatic event. We report the first example of a struma ovarii with a focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (a, mucinous adenocarcinoma (b, and strumal carcinoid tumor (c—all three arising in one mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. From our reviews, we found limited data to guide management when these malignant foci occur within an MCT. Consideration should be given to thyroidectomy followed by total-body scanning and serum studies for foci of thyroid carcinoma and adjuvant therapy with thyroidectomy and radioablation if residual disease is identified (a. Additionally, extrapolating from data for mucinous adenocarcinomas, consideration could be given to adjuvant chemotherapy after appropriate staging (b. Strumal carcinoid tumors should be treated as tumors of low malignant potential. Observation is appropriate if after complete staging, no invasive implants are noted (c.

  4. Microbial transformation of highly persistent chlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Middeldorp, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Organic pollutants can be transformed, both in unsaturated and saturated areas of the soil, by means of biologically mediated reactions. The potential of soil microorganisms to clean up polluted soils is enormous. However, soil systems are highly heterogeneous with respect to the spatial distribution of substrates, nutrients and microorganisms, and also with respect to various phases and interfaces (e.g. water, air, minerals, organic matter). To come to the development of appropriate soil bio...

  5. Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of the Biochemical Characteristics of Molecules Associated with the Malignant Transformation of Gastric Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xueqian; Liu, Yunjie; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Guiyong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyze the signature Raman spectra of genomic DNA, nuclei, and tissue of normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer and to investigate the biochemical transformation of molecules associated with gastric mucosa malignancy. Method Genomic DNA, nuclei, and tissue from normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Results 1) The Raman spectrum of gastric cancer genomic DNA showed that two peaks appeared, one at approximately 1090 cm-1 with a higher intensity than the peak at 1050 cm-1 in the spectrum. Characteristic peaks appeared at 950 cm-1, 1010 cm-1, and 1100-1600 cm-1. 2) Using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section, the intensity of the characteristic peak of nucleic acids at 1085 cm-1 was increased and shifted to 1088 cm-1 in cancer cells. The relative intensity of the characteristic peaks of nucleoproteins at 755 cm-1 and 1607 cm-1 was significantly increased in cancer cells compared with normal cells. 3) Compared with normal tissues, the peak representing PO2- symmetric stretching vibration shifted from 1088 cm-1 to 1083 cm-1 in cancer tissue, and the characteristic peak for collagen at 938 cm-1 shifted to 944 cm-1. In addition, an extra characteristic peak indicating C = C stretching vibration appeared at 1379 cm-1 in the lipid spectrum in cancer tissue. Conclusions The position, intensity, and shape of peaks in the Raman spectra of DNA, nuclei, and tissue from gastric cancer were significantly different compared with those of normal cells. These results indicate that the DNA phosphate backbone becomes unstable in cancer cells and might be broken; the relative content of histones is increased and stable; the relative collagen content is reduced, facilitating cancer cell metastasis; and the relative content of unsaturated fatty acids is increased, increasing the mobility of the plasma membrane of cancer cells. PMID:24710050

  6. Continuous-Flow Processes in Heterogeneously Catalyzed Transformations of Biomass Derivatives into Fuels and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Romero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow chemical processes offer several advantages as compared to batch chemistries. These are particularly relevant in the case of heterogeneously catalyzed transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into valuable chemicals and fuels. This work is aimed to provide an overview of key continuous flow processes developed to date dealing with a series of transformations of platform chemicals including alcohols, furanics, organic acids and polyols using a wide range of heterogeneous catalysts based on supported metals, solid acids and bifunctional (metal + acidic materials.

  7. Initiating nuclear-chemical transformations in native systems: Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2016-10-01

    A possible mechanism of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is proposed. Reasons why there is no ionizing radiation that could be detrimental to native systems during the corresponding nuclear reactions are given. It is established that the initial stage of these processes is associated with that of ATP hydrolysis, which initiates the action of the inner-shell electron of an atom participating in the reaction on its nucleus according to the mechanism of weak nuclear interaction. This results in the formation of a nucleus in a metastable state with a disturbed nucleon structure and a charge one unit lower than that of the initial nucleus. It is also assumed that the atom participating in the reaction is adsorbed near the mouth of one of the transport ATPases in the cell's cytoplasmic membrane, and the reason for the initiating impact the electron has on the nucleus is due to the emergence of a local electric field formed during ATP hydrolysis near the ion channel of a donor-acceptor pair of charges that is opposite to the direction of the average membrane field. It is concluded that as a result of the key role of weak nuclear interaction in these processes, the energy of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is released through the emission of neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are harmless to living organisms.

  8. Expression of a core 3 disialyl-Le(x) hexasaccharide in human colorectal cancers: a potential marker of malignant transformation in colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Herrmann, Annkatrin; Maes, Emmanuel; Carlstedt, Ingemar; Michalski, Jean-Claude; Capon, Calliope

    2009-02-01

    Cancer-associated alterations in cell surface and secreted glycoproteins have been catalogued for many years but many of the studies of alterations in mucin carbohydrate have relied on histochemical or immunohistochemical methods, with little direct chemical analysis. In this study, we analyzed the O-glycosylation pattern of MUC2 glycoprotein isolated from colorectal carcinomas, transitional mucosa and resection margins from three patients with blood group A, B and O, respectively. After alkaline borohydride treatment, the released oligosaccharides were structurally characterized by nanoESI Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry without prior fractionation or derivatization. As expected, we found an increased expression of sialyl-Tn antigen in the colonic cancer mucins. A more interesting feature was the increased expression of a core 3 sialyl-Le(x) hexasaccharide, NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3(NeuAcalpha2-6)GalNAc in tumor, which appeared to compete with its sulfo-Le(x) counterpart in normal tissue, SO3-3Galbeta1-4(Fucalpha1-3)GlcNAcbeta1-3(NeuAcalpha2-6)GalNAc. This antigen, whose structure was confirmed by NMR experiments, is based on a core 3 glycan and may be a potential marker for the malignant transformation of colonic cells. Unexpectedly, most of the glycans recovered in normal and carcinomas extracts were based on a sialylated core 3, GlcNAcbeta1-3(NeuAcalpha2-6)GalNAcol. Moreover, the pattern of glycosylation was very similar between mucins isolated from each sample, the main differences related to the level of expression of the major oligosaccharides. The data obtained in this investigation may have value for future screening studies on colorectal cancer.

  9. Reactive oxygen species via redox signaling to PI3K/AKT pathway contribute to the malignant growth of 4-hydroxy estradiol-transformed mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O Okoh

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 17-β-estradiol (E2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS on the induction of mammary tumorigenesis. We found that ROS-induced by repeated exposures to 4-hydroxy-estradiol (4-OH-E2, a predominant catechol metabolite of E2, caused transformation of normal human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells with malignant growth in nude mice. This was evident from inhibition of estrogen-induced breast tumor formation in the xenograft model by both overexpression of catalase as well as by co-treatment with Ebselen. To understand how 4-OH-E2 induces this malignant phenotype through ROS, we investigated the effects of 4-OH-E2 on redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways. During the malignant transformation process we observed that 4-OH-E2 treatment increased AKT phosphorylation through PI3K activation. The PI3K-mediated phosphorylation of AKT in 4-OH-E2-treated cells was inhibited by ROS modifiers as well as by silencing of AKT expression. RNA interference of AKT markedly inhibited 4-OH-E2-induced in vitro tumor formation. The expression of cell cycle genes, cdc2, PRC1 and PCNA and one of transcription factors that control the expression of these genes - nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1 was significantly up-regulated during the 4-OH-E2-mediated malignant transformation process. The increased expression of these genes was inhibited by ROS modifiers as well as by silencing of AKT expression. These results indicate that 4-OH-E2-induced cell transformation may be mediated, in part, through redox-sensitive AKT signal transduction pathways by up-regulating the expression of cell cycle genes cdc2, PRC1 and PCNA, and the transcription factor - NRF-1. In summary, our study has demonstrated that: (i 4-OH-E2 is one of the main estrogen metabolites that induce mammary tumorigenesis and (ii ROS-mediated signaling leading to the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the generation of 4-OH-E2

  10. Degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals by genetic transformants with two lignin degrading enzymes in Phlebia tremellosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hyunwoo; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T

    2011-10-01

    A white rot fungus Phlebia tremellosa produced lignin degrading enzymes, which showed degrading activity against various recalcitrant compounds. However, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity, one of lignin degrading enzymes, was very low in this fungus under various culture conditions. An expression vector that carried both the laccase and MnP genes was constructed using laccase genomic DNA of P. tremellosa and MnP cDNA from Polyporus brumalis. P. tremellosa was genetically transformed using the expression vector to obtain fungal transformants showing increased laccase and MnP activity. Many transformants showed highly increased laccase and MnP activity at the same time in liquid medium, and three of them were used to degrade endocrine disrupting chemicals. The transformant not only degraded bisphenol A and nonylphenol more rapidly but also removed the estrogenic activities of the chemicals faster than the wild type strain.

  11. The Role of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in Predicting Malignant Transformation of Plexiform Neurofibromas in Neurofibromatosis-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tovmassian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs are difficult to diagnose and treat and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality for patients with Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1. FDG-PET/CT is being increasingly used as an imaging modality to discriminate between benign and malignant plexiform neurofibromas. Objectives. To assess the value of FDG-PET/CT in differentiating between benign and malignant peripheral nerve lesions for patients with Neurofibromatosis-1. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was performed prior to application of stringent selection criteria. Ultimately 13 articles with 796 tumours were deemed eligible for inclusion into the review. Results. There was a significant difference between mean SUVmax of benign and malignant lesions (1.93 versus 7.48, resp.. Sensitivity ranged from 89 to 100% and specificity from 72 to 94%. ROC analysis was performed to maximise sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax cut-off; however no clear value was identified (range 3.1–6.1. Significant overlap was found between the SUVmax of benign and malignant lesions making differentiation of lesions difficult. Many of the studies suffered from having a small cohort and from not providing histological data on all lesions which underwent FDG-PET/CT. Conclusion. This systematic review is able to demonstrate that FDG-PET/CT is a useful noninvasive test for discriminating between benign and malignant lesions but has limitations and requires further prospective trials.

  12. Chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation of benign from malignant vertebral collapse in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Amit; Joshi, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of the first choice for evaluation of vertebral compression/collapse. Many MRI qualitative features help to differentiate benign from malignant collapse. We conducted this study to look for a quantitative difference in chemical shift values in benign and malignant collapse using dual-echo gradient echo in-phase/out-phase imaging. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations of a total of 38 patients were retrospectively included in the study who had vertebral compression/collapse with marrow edema in which final diagnosis was available at the time of imaging/follow-up. Signal intensity value in the region of abnormal marrow signal and adjacent normal vertebra was measured on in phase/out phase images. Signal intensity ratio (SIR) was measured by dividing signal intensity value on opposite phase images to that on in phase images. SIR was compared in normal vertebrae and benign and malignant vertebral collapse. Results: There were 21 males and 17 females with mean age of 52.4 years (range 28–76 years). Out of total 38 patients, 18 were of benign vertebral collapse and 20 of malignant vertebral collapse. SIR in normal vertebrae was 0.30 ± 0.14, 0.67 ± 0.18 in benign vertebral collapse, and 1.20 ± 0.27 in malignant vertebral collapse with significant difference in SIR of normal vertebrae versus benign collapse (P < 0.01) and in benign collapse versus malignant collapse (P < 0.01). Assuming a cutoff of <0.95 for benign collapse and ≥0.95 for malignant collapse, chemical shift imaging had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.4%. Conclusion: Chemical shift imaging is a rapid and useful sequence in differentiating benign from malignant vertebral collapse with good specificity and sensitivity.

  13. Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppmann, R.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Schatzmann, M.

    Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net source of reactive trace com- pounds, which are transported directly into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In particular, little is known about the amounts of VOC which are processed within the canopy. The goal of ECHO, which is presented in this poster, is to investigate these questions and to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the PBL. The investigation of emissions, chemical processing and vertical transport of biogenic VOC will be carried out in and above a mixed forest stand in Jülich, Germany. A large set of trace gases, free radicals and meteorologi- cal parameters will be measured at different heights in and above the canopy, covering concentrations of VOC, CO, O3, organic nitrates und NOx as well as organic aerosols. For the first time concentration profiles of OH, HO2, RO2 und NO3 radicals will be measured as well together with the actinic UV radiation field and photolysis frequen- cies of all relevant radical precursors (O3, NO2, peroxides, oxygenated VOC). The different tasks of the field experiments will be supported by simulation experiments investigating the primary emission and the uptake of VOC by the plants in stirred tank reactors, soil parameters and soil emissions in lysimeter experiments, and the chem- ical processing of the trace gases as observed in and above the forest stand in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The planning and interpretation of the field experiments is supported by simulations of the field site in a wind tunnel.

  14. MicroRNA profiling in Muc2 knockout mice of colitis-associated cancer model reveals epigenetic alterations during chronic colitis malignant transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Bao

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have demonstrated that genetic deletion of the Muc2 gene causes colorectal cancers in mice. The current study further showed that at the early stage (3 months the mice exhibited colorectal cancer, including a unique phenotype of rectal prolapsed (rectal severe inflammation and adenocarcinoma. Thus, the age of 3 months might be the key point of the transition from chronic inflammation to cancer. To determine the mechanisms of the malignant transformation, we conducted miRNA array on the colonic epithelial cells from the 3-month Muc2-/- and +/+ mice. MicroRNA profiling showed differential expression of miRNAs (i.e. lower or higher expression enrichments in Muc2-/- mice. 15 of them were validated by quantitative PCR. Based on relevance to cytokine and cancer, 4 miRNAs (miR-138, miR-145, miR-146a, and miR-150 were validate and were found significantly downregulated in human colitis and colorectal cancer tissues. The network of the targets of these miRNAs was characterized, and interestedly, miRNA-associated cytokines were significantly increased in Muc2-/-mice. This is the first to reveal the importance of aberrant expression of miRNAs in dynamically transformation from chronic colitis to colitis-associated cancer. These findings shed light on revealing the mechanisms of chronic colitis malignant transformation.

  15. Malignant transformation of human gastric epithelium cells via reactive oxygen species production and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation following 40-week exposure to ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Cui, Jinfeng; Meng, Xinxing; Xing, Lingxiao; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Lian, Weiguang; Zhang, Xianghong

    2016-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, is a possible carcinogenic to humans. We previously demonstrated that OTA treatment induced oxidative damage in human gastric epithelium cells (GES-1) in vitro. In this study, we found that long-term OTA treatment could result in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of GES-1 cells and induce anchorage-independent growth of cells in soft agar. Inoculation of OTA-treated GES-1 cells resulted in the formation of tumor xenografts in Balb/c nude mice in vivo, confirming that long-term OTA treatment can induce the malignant transformation of GES-1 cells. In addition, we found that long-term OTA treatment induced oxidative stress and activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the nuclear transition of β-catenin and the upregulation of the downstream molecules of the pathway. Finally, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited ROS formation and activation of the Wnt pathway in OTA-transformed GES-1 cells, which decreased the tumor formation abilities of these cells after inoculation in nude mice. These findings suggest that long-term OTA exposure induces the malignant transformation of GES-1 cells via intracellular ROS production and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  16. Involvement of the antioxidative property of morusin in blocking phorbol ester-induced malignant transformation of JB6 P(+) mouse epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pai-Shan; Hu, Chao-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Yean-Jang; Chung, Wei-Chia; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

    2017-02-25

    Chemoprevention has been acknowledged as an important and practical strategy for managing cancer. We have previously synthesized morusin, a prenylated flavonoid that exhibits anti-cancer progression activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer promotion potential of morusin by using the mouse epidermal JB6 P(+) cell model. Extensive evidence shows that tumor promotion by phorbol esters is due to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the effect of morusin on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ROS production was assessed. Noncytotoxic concentrations of morusin were found to dose-dependently reduce TPA-induced ROS production. Moreover, morusin inhibited TPA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, which can mediate cell proliferation and malignant transformation. Furthermore, morusin inhibited the TPA upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which may be regulated by AP-1 and NF-κB. In addition, noncytotoxic concentrations of morusin reduced the TPA-promoted cell growth of JB6 P(+) cells and inhibited TPA-induced malignant properties, such as cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration of JB6 P(+) cells. Similar to the effects of glutathione (GSH) pretreatment, morusin inhibited TPA-induced expression of N-cadeherin and vimentin, which are malignant cell surface proteins. Finally, morusin treatment dose-dependently suppressed the TPA-induced anchorage-independent cell transformation of JB6 P(+) cells. In conclusion, our results evidence that morusin possesses anti-cancer promotion potential because of its antioxidant property, which mediates multiple transformation-associated gene expression.

  17. Downregulation of miR-544 in tissue, but not in serum, is a novel biomarker of malignant transformation in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruimin; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Huimin; Lv, Hong; Fang, Fang; Kang, Xixiong

    2012-12-01

    Low-grade glioma is predisposed to progress to anaplastic astrocytoma and eventually secondary glioblastoma. The malignant transformation may involve the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of miR-544 in glioma progression and discuss whether it may be a novel biomarker of malignant transformation. The expression of miR-544 was measured in a series of 198 glioma samples (63 low-grade glioma, 44 anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 glioblastoma tumors) using microarrays. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expression levels of miR-544 in tissue and serum samples in an independent validated cohort (25 low-grade glioma, 21 anaplastic astrocytoma and 20 glioblastoma tumors). A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the correlation between miR-544 levels of tissue and serum samples. Microarrays revealed that the expression levels of miR-544 decreased significantly in anaplastic gliomas (PmiR-544 exhibited a progression-associated downregulation in glioma tumors. The levels of miR-544 in serum samples tended to be lower in anaplastic and glioblastoma patients compared with low-grade gliomas, but with no significant difference. The Pearson correlation analysis revealed a weakly positive correlation between tissue and serum levels of miR-544. These data support a significant role for miR-544 aberration in the malignant transformation of glioma. The downregulation of miR-544 in tissue may be used as a novel biomarker.

  18. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE.

  19. Optimal performance of a generalized irreversible four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new cyclic model of a four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer with irreversible mass transfer, mass leakage and internal dissipation is put forward in this paper. The optimal relation be-tween the coefficient of performance (COP) and the rate of energy pumping of the generalized irre-versible four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer has been derived by using finite-time thermodynamics or thermodynamic optimization. The maximum COP and the corresponding rate of energy pumping, as well as the maximum rate of energy pumping and the corresponding COP, have been obtained. Moreover, the influences of the irreversibility on the optimal performance of the iso-thermal chemical potential transformer have been revealed. It was found that the mass leakage affects the optimal performance both qualitatively and quantitatively, while the internal dissipation affects the optimal performance quantitatively. The results obtained herein can provide some new theoretical guidelines for the optimal design and development of a class of isothermal chemical potential trans-formers, such as mass exchangers, electrochemical, photochemical and solid state devices, fuel pumps, etc.

  20. Optimal performance of a generalized irreversible four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dan; CHEN LinGen; SUN FengRui

    2008-01-01

    A new cyclic model of a four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer with irreversible mass transfer, mass leakage and internal dissipation is put forward in this paper. The optimal relation between the coefficient of performance (COP) and the rate of energy pumping of the generalized irreversible four-reservoir isothermal chemical potential transformer has been derived by using finite-time thermodynamics or thermodynamic optimization. The maximum COP and the corresponding rate of energy pumping, as well as the maximum rate of energy pumping and the corresponding COP, have been obtained. Moreover, the influences of the irreversibility on the optimal performance of the isothermal chemical potential transformer have been revealed. It was found that the mass leakage affects the optimal performance both qualitatively and quantitatively, while the internal dissipation affects the optimal performance quantitatively. The results obtained herein can provide some new theoretical guidelines for the optimal design and development of a class of isothermal chemical potential transformers, such as mass exchangers, electrochemical, photochemical and solid state devices, fuel pumps, etc.

  1. Plant metabolites of the Siberian flora. Chemical transformations and the scope of practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, Elvira E; Raldugin, Victor A; Volcho, Konstantin P; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Tolstikov, Genrikh A [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    The results of studies of some terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolic derivatives isolated from Siberian plants are summarised. The structures of the compounds studied are presented and the chemical transformations of the available terpenoids and alkaloids are considered. Examples of practical application of natural compounds and their derivatives are given.

  2. Plant metabolites of the Siberian flora. Chemical transformations and the scope of practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Elvira E.; Raldugin, Victor A.; Volcho, Konstantin P.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

    2007-07-01

    The results of studies of some terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolic derivatives isolated from Siberian plants are summarised. The structures of the compounds studied are presented and the chemical transformations of the available terpenoids and alkaloids are considered. Examples of practical application of natural compounds and their derivatives are given.

  3. Expression profiling of 519 kinase genes in matched malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor/plexiform neurofibroma samples is discriminatory and identifies mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 as overexpressed with transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Thomas P; Henriksen, Kammi J; Tonsgard, James H; Montag, Anthony G; Krausz, Thomas N; Pytel, Peter

    2013-07-01

    About 50% of all malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) arise as neurofibromatosis type 1 associated lesions. In those patients malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are thought to arise through malignant transformation of a preexisting plexiform neurofibroma. The molecular changes associated with this transformation are still poorly understood. We sought to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of expression of kinases contributes to this malignant transformation. We analyzed expression of all 519 kinase genes in the human genome using the nanostring nCounter system. Twelve cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a background of preexisting plexiform neurofibroma were included. Both components were separately sampled. Statistical analysis compared global changes in expression levels as well as changes observed in the pairwise comparison of samples taken from the same surgical specimen. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on tissue array slides to confirm expression of selected proteins. The expression pattern of kinase genes can separate malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and preexisting plexiform neurofibromas. The majority of kinase genes is downregulated rather than overexpressed with malignant transformation. The patterns of expression changes are complex without simple recurring alteration. Pathway analysis demonstrates that differentially expressed kinases are enriched for kinases involved in the direct regulation of mitosis, and several of these show increased expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Immunohistochemical studies for the mitotic regulators BUB1B, PBK and NEK2 confirm higher expression levels at the protein level. These results suggest that the malignant transformation of plexiform neurofibroma is associated with distinct changes in the expression of kinase genes. The patterns of these changes are complex and heterogeneous. There is no single unifying alteration. Kinases involved

  4. Dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions during malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devailly, Guillaume; Grandin, Mélodie; Perriaud, Laury; Mathot, Pauline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Bidet, Yannick; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Bignon, Jean-Yves; Puisieux, Alain; Mehlen, Patrick; Dante, Robert

    2015-07-13

    DNA methylation is thought to induce transcriptional silencing through the combination of two mechanisms: the repulsion of transcriptional activators unable to bind their target sites when methylated, and the recruitment of transcriptional repressors with specific affinity for methylated DNA. The Methyl CpG Binding Domain proteins MeCP2, MBD1 and MBD2 belong to the latter category. Here, we present MBD2 ChIPseq data obtained from the endogenous MBD2 in an isogenic cellular model of oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells. In immortalized (HMEC-hTERT) or transformed (HMLER) cells, MBD2 was found in a large proportion of methylated regions and associated with transcriptional silencing. A redistribution of MBD2 on methylated DNA occurred during oncogenic transformation, frequently independently of local DNA methylation changes. Genes downregulated during HMEC-hTERT transformation preferentially gained MBD2 on their promoter. Furthermore, depletion of MBD2 induced an upregulation of MBD2-bound genes methylated at their promoter regions, in HMLER cells. Among the 3,160 genes downregulated in transformed cells, 380 genes were methylated at their promoter regions in both cell lines, specifically associated by MBD2 in HMLER cells, and upregulated upon MBD2 depletion in HMLER. The transcriptional MBD2-dependent downregulation occurring during oncogenic transformation was also observed in two additional models of mammary cell transformation. Thus, the dynamics of MBD2 deposition across methylated DNA regions was associated with the oncogenic transformation of human mammary cells.

  5. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Struma Testis with Malignant Transformation in the Lung Associated with Trisomy 17 Successfully Treated with Total Thyroidectomy and Radioiodine Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Barakat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Struma testis is a rare entity, and there are only few reports on the malignant transformation of a testicular teratoma to papillary thyroid carcinoma in the literature. In this report, we describe the malignant transformation of struma testis with distant lung metastasis associated with trisomy 17 and a coexisting papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid. Case Report: A 56-year-old man presented after a left orchiectomy for an undescended left testicle. Pathologic examination identified a monodermal teratoma composed of thyroid parenchyma and associated with a 1.7-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma. Further evaluation showed a pulmonary mass on a chest CT scan. Total thyroidectomy revealed a 0.5-mm focus of papillary thyroid cancer, and removal of the lung mass confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Array-comparative genomic hybridization of both tumors showed trisomy 17 in the struma testes and the lung metastasis. The patient responded well to radioactive iodine ablation and has no evidence of cancer 3 years later. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case of papillary thyroid cancer in struma testes metastatic to the lung. It highlights the difficulties in treating these patients. Surgery to remove cancer foci, followed by radioactive iodine ablation, resulted in an excellent response in our patient. Interestingly, trisomy 17, which has so far been observed only in noninvasive thyroid nodules, was associated with pulmonary metastasis in our patient.

  6. Clinical trial analyzing the impact of continuous defocused CO2 laser vaporisation on the malignant transformation of erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Thomas; Gentz, Irina; Kanatas, Anastasios; Ritschl, Lucas M; Mitchell, David A; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Deppe, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    The erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) represents a management challenge to the clinician and can have debilitating consequences to patients' quality of life. The aims of this work were to determine the incidence of malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients undergoing traditional symptomatic treatments (oral salve containing lidocaine hydrochloride or systemic diclofenac) compared to patients that were managed with a defocused continuous CO2 laser beam. A total of 171 patients with histologically confirmed erosive OLP were included into this study. After treatment, patients were assessed until completion of wound healing, at least every 3-6 months for the first 2 years, and every 6-12 months thereafter. The study included 87 women (50.9%) and 84 men (49.1%). A total of 103 patients (60.2%) underwent symptomatic conservative treatment, and 68 patients (39.8%) underwent continuous defocused CO2 laser treatments. SCC developed in 16 patients (9.4%), 2 patients (2.9%) after continuous defocused CO2 laser treatment and 14 patients (13.6%) with symptomatic treatment only. This study provides insight into the potential impact of the CO2 laser in the management of patients with erosive OLP and the influence on the recurrence rate of erosive OLP, as well as malignant transformation to oral SCC.

  7. Experimental Study onMalignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial CellsInduced by Glycidyl Methacrylate and Analysis on its Methylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An Na; WANG Quan Kai; YANG Min; HU Jie; DONG Lin; andXU Jian Ning

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo establish the model of human bronchial epithelial cells(16HBE) malignant transformation induced by glycidyl methacrylate(GMA)and define the different methylation genes at different stages. MethodsDNA was extracted at different 16HBE malignant phasesandchanges of genes DNA methylation atdifferent stages weredetectedusing Methylation chip of‘NimbleGen HG18 CpG Promoter Microarray Methylation’. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was usedto observe the methylation status ofsome genes, and then compared with the control groups. ResultsThe resultshowed that GMA induced 16HBE morphorlogical transformation at the dose of 8µg/mL, and cell exposed to GMA had 1374 genes in protophase, 825 genes inmetaphase, 1149 genes in anaphase, respectively; 30 genes are all methylation in the 3 stages; 318 genes in protophase but not inmetaphase and anaphase; 272 genes in metaphase but not inprotophase and anaphase; 683 genes in anaphase but not inmetaphase and protophase; 73 genes inprotophase andmetaphase but not in anaphase; 67 genes in protophase and anaphase but not inmetaphase; 59 genes inmetaphase and anaphase but not in protophase. ConclusionThe pattern of DNA methylation could change in the process of 16HBEinduced by GMA.

  8. Prospective validation of microRNA signatures for detecting pancreatic malignant transformation in endoscopic-ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Adam E.; Krell, Jonathan; Prado, Mireia Mato; Gall, Tamara M.H.; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Funel, Niccola; Giovannetti, Elisa; Castellano, Leandro; Basyouny, Mohamed; Habib, Nagy A.; Kaltsidis, Harry; Vlavianos, Panagiotis; Stebbing, Justin; Jiao, Long R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. Novel biomarkers are required to aid treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially ideal diagnostic biomarkers, as they are stable molecules, and tumour and tissue specific. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed an endoscopic-ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) 2-miRNA classifier (miR-21 + miR-155) capable of distinguishing benign from malignant pancreatic lesions with a sensitivity of 81.5% and a specificity of 85.7% (AUC 0.930). Validation FNA cohorts confirmed both miRNAs were overexpressed in malignant disease, while circulating miRNAs performed poorly. Methods Fifty-five patients with a suspicious pancreatic lesion on cross-sectional imaging were evaluated by EUS-FNA. At echo-endoscopy, the first part of the FNA was sent for cytological assessment and the second part was used for total RNA extraction. Candidate miRNAs were selected after careful review of the literature and expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Validation was performed on an independent cohort of EUS-FNAs, as well as formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) and plasma samples. Conclusions We provide further evidence for using miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic malignancy. We demonstrate the feasibility of using fresh EUS-FNAs to establish miRNA-based signatures unique to pancreatic malignant transformation and the potential to enhance risk stratification and selection for surgery. PMID:27086919

  9. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens. [Rats, hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro.

  10. Malignant Transformation of Endometrioma in a Woman with a History of Ovulation Induction and In Vitro Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri L. Woodard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to document a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary found in an endometriotic cyst that was suspected on pelvic ultrasound in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome, normal Ca125, and a recent history of ovulation induction for IVF. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy with left salpingo-oophorectomy and omental biopsies followed by reexploration, complete staging, and modified radical abdominal hysterectomy and right salpingo-oophorectomy. An endometrioma described as suspicious for malignancy by an experienced ultrasound examiner should prompt immediate referral to a gynecological oncologist irrespective of Ca125 levels especially in women with a history of ovulation induction and endometriosis.

  11. Anaplastic ameloblastic fibrosarcoma arising from recurrent ameloblastic fibroma: restricted molecular abnormalities of certain genes to the malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle D; Hanna, Ehab Y; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2007-07-01

    A rare case of anaplastic ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AS) arising in an ameloblastic fibroma (AF) of the maxilla of a 48-year-old patient 10 years after the primary excision is presented. The recurrent tumor retained focal areas of AF but manifested heterogeneous malignant features ranging from low-grade spindle to highly pleomorphic sarcomas. Biomarker analysis showed alterations of the p53 and c-KIT genes restricted to the sarcomatous component. The biological implications of these findings in the future management of these tumors are discussed.

  12. FOXM1 upregulation is an early event in human squamous cell carcinoma and it is enhanced by nicotine during malignant transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilios Gemenetzidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR, expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array was used to 'trace' the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23, were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that

  13. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Batishko, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Schultz, John F.

    2002-10-01

    The infrared sensors task at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development will include detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology relevant to these primary missions is also likely to be useful for battlefield chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemical weapons destruction facilities or industrial chemical plants, and law enforcement applications. PNNL will seek to serve organizations with direct interest in these missions through collaborative research and development efforts approved by NA-22. During FY02, PNNL began assembling a remote IR detection capability that would allow field experiments to be conducted. The capability consists of a commercially available FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) emission spectrometer and a frequency-modulation differential-absorption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system being developed at PNNL. To provide environmental protection for these systems, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and procured. While the FTIR system was field-ready, the FM-DIAL system required many modifications to prepare for field deployment. This document provides an overview of the FTIR system, summarizes the modifications made to the FM-DIAL system, and describes the salient features of the remote systems trailer.

  14. Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Asha, Padmaja [National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Yitao [State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau (China); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5 μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Luteolin inhibited Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. • Luteolin inhibited chronic Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation.

  15. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transformer fault diagnosis based on chemical reaction optimization algorithm and relevance vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power transformer is one of the most important equipment in power system. In order to predict the potential fault of power transformer and identify the fault types correctly, we proposed a transformer fault intelligent diagnosis model based on chemical reaction optimization (CRO algorithm and relevance vector machine(RVM. RVM is a powerful machine learning method, which can solve nonlinear, high-dimensional classification problems with a limited number of samples. CRO algorithm has well global optimization and simple calculation, so it is suitable to solve parameter optimization problems. In this paper, firstly, a multi-layer RVM classification model was built by binary tree recognition strategy. Secondly, CRO algorithm was adopted to optimize the kernel function parameters which could enhance the performance of RVM classifiers. Compared with IEC three-ratio method and the RVM model, the CRO-RVM model not only overcomes the coding defect problem of IEC three-ratio method, but also has higher classification accuracy than the RVM model. Finally, the new method was applied to analyze a transformer fault case, Its predicted result accord well with the real situation. The research provides a practical method for transformer fault intelligent diagnosis and prediction.

  17. Note: Dissolved hydrogen detection in power transformer oil based on chemically etched fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Ma, Guo-ming; Song, Hong-tu; Zhou, Hong-yang; Li, Cheng-rong; Luo, Ying-ting; Wang, Hong-bin

    2015-10-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor based on chemically etched cladding to detect dissolved hydrogen is proposed and studied in this paper. Low hydrogen concentration tests have been carried out in mixed gases and transformer oil to investigate the repeatability and sensitivity. Moreover, to estimate the influence of etched cladding thickness, a physical model of FBG-based hydrogen sensor is analyzed. Experimental results prove that thin cladding chemically etched by HF acid solution improves the response to hydrogen detection in oil effectively. At last, the sensitivity of FBG sensor chemically etched 16 μm could be as high as 0.060 pm/(μl/l), increased by more than 30% in comparison to un-etched FBG.

  18. Tumor angiogenesis: A potential marker of the ongoing process of malignant transformation in leukoplakia patients, removing the veil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The diagnosis of malignant and potentially malignant epithelial lesions of the oral mucosa is based on a careful histologic evaluation of a representative biopsy specimen. The site for the biopsy, however, is always a subjective choice that raises doubts about its representativeness. So far, no simple and reliable method is available for selecting the most appropriate area for biopsy. Colposcopy, a well-known gynecological diagnostic procedure, is helpful in the selection of these sites of epithelial dysplasia depending upon the vascular patterns. Aims: The present study aimed at assessing the vascular patterns by colposcopic findings and selecting the biopsy site in leukoplakia patients and compared the two methods, clinical criteria, and colposcopic examination, for selecting the biopsy site. Settings and Design: Sixty patients between the ages of 30-60 years clinically diagnosed with leukoplakia were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each of the subject, a thorough clinical examination was carried out followed by colpospopic examination for the selection of biopsy site. The histopathological findings were then compared in the two cases. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using paired t-test. Results: Based on clinical criteria, a sensitivity of 0.5714 (57% and a specificity of 0.5000 (50% and that guided by colposcopic examination to be 0.8571 (85% and 0.6667 (66%, respectively, was found. Conclusions: From the study, it was concluded that colposcopic examination could prove to be a valuable diagnostic adjunct in the selection of biopsy site for leukoplakia patients.

  19. [Research on construction of sheep lung adenomas virus pEGFP-C1/exJSRV-env and induction of malignant transformation in NIH3T3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Zhuan-Jia; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Shu-Ying

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to construct a eukaryotic expression system for envelope gene of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, observes its localization in 293T cells, and investigates the potential in inducing malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells. By RT-PCR, the full-length cDNA of envelope gene of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (exJSRV-env) was amplified from the extract of naturally infected sheep lung. The clone of target gene was sub-cloned into eukaryotic expression system pEGFP-C1, and validated by PCR, restriction endonuclease, and sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis concerning biological function and cellular localiza tion of exJSRV-env was also performed. The recombinant clone of exJSRV-env was transfected into 293T cells and NIH3T3 cells by Lipofectamine LTX. The expression and celluar localization in 293T cells were validated by confocal microscopy. Soft agar colony formation assay was employed to test the anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3. DNA sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Kpn I and Hind III indicated the correct construction of the recombinant plasmid, which was named pEGFP-C1/exJSRV-env. Amino acid sequence alignment of exJSRV-env with reference sequences found 85%-100% homogeneity. A YRNM motif was discovered at the cytoplasmic tail of envelope gene, which is exclusively found in exogenous viruses. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that our clone of exJSRV-env clustered closely with pathogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses. Fluorescence microscopy indicated typical membrane localization of exJSRV-env protein. NIH3T3 cells transfected with exJSRV-env lost contact inhibition, and acquired colony forming ability in soft agar. This study indicated that envelope protein of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus can induce malignant transformation of mouse fibroblast cell NIH3T3. Discoveries of this study provide a basis for further structural and functional research on Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein.

  20. Long-term exposures to low doses of silver nanoparticles enhanced in vitro malignant cell transformation in non-tumorigenic BEAS-2B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Wun Hak; Park, Cho Hee; Jung, Shi Eun; Moon, Byeonghak; Ahn, Huiyeon; Ryu, Jung Seok; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Yu, Il Je; Oh, Seung Min

    2016-12-01

    To predict carcinogenic potential of AgNPs on the respiratory system, BEAS-2B cells (human bronchial epithelial cells) were chronically exposed to low- and non-cytotoxic dose (0.13 and 1.33μg/ml) of AgNPs for 4months (#40 passages). To assess malignant cell transformation of chronic exposure to AgNPs, several bioassays including anchorage independent agar colony formation, cell migration/invasion assay, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were performed in BEAS-2B cells. Chronic exposure to AgNPs showed a significant increase of anchorage independent agar colony formation and cell migration/invasion. EMT, which is the loss of epithelial markers (E-Cadherin and Keratin) and the gain of mesenchymal marker (N-cadherin and Vimentin), was induced by chronic exposure to AgNPs. These responses indicated that chronic exposure to AgNPs could acquire characteristics of tumorigenic cells from normal BEAS-2B cells. In addition, caspase-3, p-p53, p-p38, and p-JNK were significantly decreased, while p-ERK1/2 was significantly increased. MMP-9 related to cell migration/invasion was upregulated, while a MMP-9 inhibitor, TIMP-1 was down-regulated. These results indicated that BEAS-2B cells exposed to AgNPs could induce anti-apoptotic response/anoikis resistance, and cell migration/invasion by complex regulation of MAPK kinase (p38, JNK, and ERK) and p53 signaling pathways. Therefore, we suggested that long-term exposure to low-dose of AgNPs could enhance malignant cell transformation in non-tumorigenic BEAS-2B cells. Our findings provide useful information needed to assess the carcinogenic potential of AgNPs.

  1. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish

    2017-01-01

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra- methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe 3 O 4) or a mixture of ( γ-Fe 2 O 3 + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 ∘C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  2. Reduced trisialoganglioside synthesis in chemically but not mos-transformed mouse epidermal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, L.; Colburn, N.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific decrease in the net de novo synthesis ((1-14C)-glucosamine incorporation) of cell surface trisialoganglioside (GT) occurs in preneoplastic mouse JB6 epidermal cells in response to tumor-promoting phorbol esters, mezerein, or epidermal growth factor, all of which promote neoplastic transformation in JB6 cells, but not in response to the bladder promoter sodium cyclamate, a nonpromoter in JB6 cells. The ganglioside showing elevated synthesis after mezerein or epidermal growth factor exposure is monosialoganglioside 1, whereas disialoganglioside 1b synthesis is elevated after phorbol ester exposure. Primary mouse epidermal cells and putatively initiated epidermal cell lines selected for their resistance to induction of terminal differentiation by high calcium are resistant to promotion of anchorage-independent transformation by 2-week exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. In both cell types, little or no decrease in GT synthesis occurs in response to short-term 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate exposure, thus extending further our previous observation that this GT response is restricted to promotable cells. A decreased synthesis of GT also occurs consistently in cell lines transformed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or N-methyl-N-nitro-nitrosoguanidine as compared with their nontransformed counterparts but not in cell lines transformed by a cloned integrated murine sarcoma provirus containing the oncogenic sequence v-mos. Thus, reduced cell surface GT synthesis may be important both in the induction and in the maintenance of the chemically transformed but not viral oncogene mos-transformed phenotype in mouse epidermal cells.

  3. Phase transformation and chemical decomposition of nanocrystalline SnO2 under heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Alex B.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Zhang, Jiaming; Kluth, Patrick; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2017-09-01

    A crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformation, including chemical decomposition, has been observed in SnO2 nanopowder irradiated by 2.2 GeV 197Au ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the transformation from tetragonal SnO2 (P42/mnm) to tetragonal SnO (P4/nmm), with trace quantities of β-Sn (I41/amd). At a fluence of approximately 2.0 × 1012 ions/cm2, diffraction maxima corresponding to SnO became clearly evident and increased in intensity as fluence increased. The proportion of SnO, as determined by Rietveld refinement of XRD data, reached 23.1 ± 0.8% at the maximum fluence investigated of 2.4 × 1013 ions/cm2. Raman spectra show high photoluminescence (PL) intensity before and during initial SnO formation, indicating the importance of oxygen vacancies in the transformation process. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis provided evidence of ion tracks, but no tracks were observed using high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). The transformation likely occurs through a multiple-impact mechanism, based on the accumulation of O vacancies, defect ordering, and partially localized Sn reduction.

  4. Chemical transformation of CO2 during its capture by waste biomass derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Kan, Yue; Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is a porous carbonaceous material with high alkalinity and rich minerals, making it possible for CO2 capture. In this study, biochars derived from pig manure, sewage sludge, and wheat straw were evaluated for their CO2 sorption behavior. All three biochars showed high sorption abilities for CO2, with the maximum capacities reaching 18.2-34.4 mg g(-1) at 25 °C. Elevating sorption temperature and moisture content promoted the transition of CO2 uptake from physical to chemical process. Mineral components such as Mg, Ca, Fe, K, etc. in biochar induced the chemical sorption of CO2 via the mineralogical reactions which occupied 17.7%-50.9% of the total sorption. FeOOH in sewage sludge biochar was transformed by sorbed CO2 into Fe(OH)2CO3, while the sorbed CO2 in pig manure biochar was precipitated as K2Ca(CO3)2 and CaMg(CO3)2, which resulted in a dominant increase of insoluble inorganic carbon in both biochars. For wheat straw biochar, sorbed CO2 induced CaCO3 transformed into soluble Ca(HCO3)2, which led to a dominant increase of soluble inorganic carbons. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that biochar as a unique carbonaceous material could distinctly be a promising sorbent for CO2 capture in which chemical sorption induced by mineralogical reactions played an important role.

  5. Fast Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging of Crystalline Materials and Dynamic Phase Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Ren Liang; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Spoerke, Erik David; Pan, Wei; Zuo, Jian Min

    2016-04-13

    Atomic-scale phenomena fundamentally influence materials form and function that makes the ability to locally probe and study these processes critical to advancing our understanding and development of materials. Atomic-scale chemical imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a powerful approach to investigate solid crystal structures. Inefficient X-ray emission and collection, however, require long acquisition times (typically hundreds of seconds), making the technique incompatible with electron-beam sensitive materials and study of dynamic material phenomena. Here we describe an atomic-scale STEM-EDS chemical imaging technique that decreases the acquisition time to as little as one second, a reduction of more than 100 times. We demonstrate this new approach using LaAlO3 single crystal and study dynamic phase transformation in beam-sensitive Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) lithium ion battery cathode material. By capturing a series of time-lapsed chemical maps, we show for the first time clear atomic-scale evidence of preferred Ni-mobility in LNMO transformation, revealing new kinetic mechanisms. These examples highlight the potential of this approach toward temporal, atomic-scale mapping of crystal structure and chemistry for investigating dynamic material phenomena.

  6. Preparation and properties of the magnetic absorbent polymer via the chemical transformation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyu; Zhang, Suhong; Guo, Jianying; Wen, Jing; Qiao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic polyacrylic acid sodium polymer (MPAAS) was prepared by chemical transformation method. Key parameters were investigated in the synthesis process of the magnetic polymer and an optimum preparation condition was gained. The structure of the magnetic polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrosocopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Magnetic property of the magnetic polymer was measured by the magnet and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Both the swelling ratio and kinetics and the water retention ratio and kinetics were investigated. Based on the results, it can be gained that both swelling rate and equilibrium swelling rate were lowered after magnetization while the water retention ability of the magnetic polymer is stronger than that of the polymer.

  7. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. EFFECT OF DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance of Pneumococcus Type III. The significance of the effect of the enzyme, and its bearing on the chemical nature of the transforming substance, together with certain considerations concerning the biological specificity of desoxyribonucleic acids in general, are discussed.

  8. In Situ Malignant Transformation and Progenitor-Mediated Cell Budding: Two Different Pathways for Breast Ductal and Lobular Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Mina Izadjoo, Guohong Song, Alexander Stojadinovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human breast lobular and ductal structures and the derived tumors from these structures differ substantial in their morphology, microenvironment, biological presentation, functions, and clinical prognosis. Based on these differences, we have proposed that pre-invasive lobular tumors may progress to invasive lesions through “in situ malignant transformation”, in which the entire myoepithelial cell layer within a given lobule or lobular clusters undergoes extensive degeneration and disruptions, which allows the entire epithelial cell population associated with these myoepithelial cell layers directly invade the stroma or vascular structures. In contrast, pre-invasive ductal tumors may invade the stroma or vascular structures through “progenitor-mediated cell budding”, in which focal myoepithelial cell degeneration-induced aberrant leukocyte infiltration causes focal disruptions in the tumor capsules, which selectively favor monoclonal proliferation of the overlying tumor stem cells or a biologically more aggressive cell clone. Our current study attempted to provide more direct morphological and immunohistochemical data that are consistent with our hypotheses.

  9. Solution-phase synthesis of inorganic nanostructures by chemical transformation from reactive templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The solution-phase synthesis by chemical transformation from reactive templates has proved to be very effective in morphology-controlled synthesis of inorganic nanostructures. This review paper summarizes the recent progress in solution-phase synthesis of one-dimensional and hollow inorganic nanostructures via reactive templates, focusing on the approaches developed in our lab. The formation mechanisms based on reactive templates are discussed in depth to show the general concepts for the preparation processes. An outlook on the future development in this area is also presented.

  10. Doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes controlled via chemical transformation of encapsulated nickelocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamova, Marianna V.; Sauer, Markus; Saito, Takeshi; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Pichler, Thomas; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Controlled doping of carbon nanotubes is elemental for their electronic applications. Here we report an approach to tune the polarity and degree of doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes via filling with nickelocene followed by encapsulated reactions. Using Raman, photoemission spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we show that nickelocene molecules transform into nickel carbides, nickel and inner carbon nanotubes with reaction temperatures as low as 250 °C. The doping efficiency is determined for each chemical component. Synchronous charge transfer among the molecular components allows bipolar doping of the carbon nanotubes to be achieved in a broad range of +/-0.0012 e- per carbon.

  11. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  12. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  13. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  14. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  15. The structural evolution and diffusion during the chemical transformation from cobalt to cobalt phosphide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    We report the structural evolution and the diffusion processes which occur during the phase transformation of nanoparticles (NPs), ε-Co to Co 2P to CoP, from a reaction with tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) investigations were used to elucidate the changes in the local structure of cobalt atoms which occur as the chemical transformation progresses. The lack of long-range order, spread in interatomic distances, and overall increase in mean-square disorder compared with bulk structure reveal the decrease in the NP\\'s structural order compared with bulk structure, which contributes to their deviation from bulk-like behavior. Results from EXAFS show both the Co2P and CoP phases contain excess Co. Results from EXAFS, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations reveal that the inward diffusion of phosphorus is more favorable at the beginning of the transformation from ε-Co to Co2P by forming an amorphous Co-P shell, while retaining a crystalline cobalt core. When the major phase of the sample turns to Co 2P, the diffusion processes reverse and cobalt atom out-diffusion is favored, leaving a hollow void, characteristic of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. For the transformation from Co2P to CoP theory predicts an outward diffusion of cobalt while the anion lattice remains intact. In real samples, however, the Co-rich nanoparticles continue Kirkendall hollowing. Knowledge about the transformation method and structural properties provides a means to tailor the synthesis and composition of the NPs to facilitate their use in applications. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  17. Efficient and selective chemical transformations under flow conditions: The combination of supported catalysts and supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Isabel Burguete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current trends in the combined use of supported catalytic systems, either on solid supports or in liquid phases and supercritical fluids (scFs, to develop selective and enantioselective chemical transformations under continuous and semi-continuous flow conditions. The results presented have been selected to highlight how the combined use of those two elements can contribute to: (i Significant improvements in productivity as a result of the enhanced diffusion of substrates and reagents through the interfaces favored by the scF phase; (ii the long term stability of the catalytic systems, which also contributes to the improvement of the final productivity, as the use of an appropriate immobilization strategy facilitates catalyst isolation and reuse; (iii the development of highly efficient selective or, when applicable, enantioselective chemical transformations. Although the examples reported in the literature and considered in this review are currently confined to a limited number of fields, a significant development in this area can be envisaged for the near future due to the clear advantages of these systems over the conventional ones.

  18. Integration of HPV6 and downregulation of AKR1C3 expression mark malignant transformation in a patient with juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ulrich Huebbers

    Full Text Available Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP is associated with low risk human papillomavirus (HPV types 6 and 11. Malignant transformation has been reported solely for HPV11-associated RRP in 2-4% of all RRP-cases, but not for HPV6. The molecular mechanisms in the carcinogenesis of low risk HPV-associated cancers are to date unknown. We report of a female patient, who presented with a laryngeal carcinoma at the age of 24 years. She had a history of juvenile-onset RRP with an onset at the age of three and subsequently several hundred surgical interventions due to multiple recurrences of RRP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR or bead-based hybridization followed by direct sequencing identified HPV6 in tissue sections of previous papilloma and the carcinoma. P16(INK4A, p53 and pRb immunostainings were negative in all lesions. HPV6 specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH revealed nuclear staining suggesting episomal virus in the papilloma and a single integration site in the carcinoma. Integration-specific amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts PCR (APOT-PCR showed integration in the aldo-keto reductase 1C3 gene (AKR1C3 on chromosome 10p15.1. ArrayCGH detected loss of the other gene copy as part of a deletion at 10p14-p15.2. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the protein AKR1C3 showed a marked reduction of its expression in the carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying a first case of HPV6-associated laryngeal carcinoma in juvenile-onset RRP, i.e. that HPV6 integration in the AKR1C3 gene resulted in loss of its expression. Alterations of AKR1C gene expression have previously been implicated in the tumorigenesis of other (HPV-related malignancies.

  19. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a vegetable oil used as dielectric coolant in distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Neffer A.; Abonia, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.abonia@correounivalle.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Cadavid, Hector [Grupo GRALTA, Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Vargas, Ines H. [Area de Ingenieria de Distribucion, Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EPM), Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a complete UV-Vis, IR and (1H, 13C and DEPT) NMR spectroscopic analysis was performed for a FR3 vegetable oil sample used as dielectric coolant in an experimental distribution transformer. The same spectroscopic analysis was performed for three used FR3 oil samples (i.e., 4 months in use, 8 months in use and 7 years in use), removed from several operating distribution transformers. Comparison of the data indicated that no significant spectroscopic changes, and hence, no structural changes occurred to the oils by the use. Chemical transformations like catalytic hydrogenation (hardening) and hydrolysis were performed to the FR3 oil sample and the obtained products were analyzed by spectroscopic methods in order to collect further structural information about the FR3 oil. Accelerated aging tests in laboratory were also performed for three FR3 oil samples affording interesting information about the structure of the degradation products. These findings would be valuable to search for a spectroscopy-based technique for monitoring the lifetime and performance of this insulating vegetable oil. (author)

  20. Mechano-chemical spinodal decomposition: A phenomenological theory of phase transformations in multi-component, crystalline solids

    CERN Document Server

    Rudraraju, Shiva; Garikipati, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We present a new phenomenological treatment of phase transformations in multi-component crystalline solids driven by free energy density functions that are non-convex in mechanical and chemical variables. We identify the mechano-chemical spinodal as the region in strain-composition space where the free energy density function is non-convex. Our treatment describes diffusional phase transformations that are accompanied by symmetry breaking structural changes of the crystal unit cell due to mechanical instabilities in the mechano-chemical spinodal. This approach is relevant to phase transformations wherein the structural order parameters can be expressed as linear combinations of strains relative to a high-symmetry reference crystal. Because the local strains in an inhomogeneous, transforming microstructure can be finite, the elasticity problem must account for geometric nonlinearity. Furthermore, for physical consistency and mathematical well-posedness, we regularize the free energy density functions by interf...

  1. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant human gastric tissue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Mohammad Javad Chaichi; Tahereh Khadjvand

    2011-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be considered to be a fast and non-invasive tool for distinguishing between normal and cancerous cells and tissues without the need for laborious and invasive sampling procedures. Gastric samples from four patients (age, 65±2 years) were analysed. Samples were obtained from the organs removed during gastrectomy and then classified as normal or cancerous. Classification was based on histopathological examinations at our institution. Formalin-fixed sections of gastric tissue were analysed by FTIR-microspectroscopy. To characterize differences between sections of normal and cancerous tissue, specific regions of the spectra were analysed to study variations in the levels of metabolites. To distinguish between two conditions (normal and cancerous), changes in the relative intensity of bands in the range 600–4000 cm−1 were analysed. A FTIR spectral map of the bands in the region 2800–3100 cm–1 and 900–1800 cm–1 were created to analyse pathological changes in tissues. The limited data available showed that normal gastric tissue had stronger absorption than cancerous tissue over a wide region in the four patients. There was a significant decrease in total biomolecular components for cancerous tissue compared with normal tissue.

  2. Clinicopathological characteristics of malignant transformation in 85 cases of oral leukoplakia%口腔黏膜白斑癌变85例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岩; 郭竹玲; 罗海燕; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    目的 明确不同程度的上皮增生与癌变的关系、癌变的组织学表现以及癌变前的上皮增生程度、组织学特点与白斑癌变临床表现的关系.方法 回顾性研究1832例口腔黏膜白斑的组织切片,分析口腔黏膜白斑癌变的临床病理学特点并进行统计学分析,对各种率的比较采用卡方检验,对不同上皮增生程度癌变时间的差异进行秩和检验,检验水准为双侧α=0.05.结果 1832例白斑中有85例(4.6%)癌变;异常增生白斑和中、重度异常增生白斑的癌变率[分别为12.9% (55/428)20.6% (22/107)、19%( 12/63)]显著高于单纯增生白斑的癌变率[2.1% (30/1404)](P值均小于0.005).85例癌变白斑中,29例单纯增生者中有10例为非均质型(34%),50例异常增生白斑中35例为非均质型(70%),二者差异有统计学意义(P <0.005);959例男性白斑中26例(2.7%)癌变,873例女性白斑中59例(6.8%)癌变,男、女癌变率差异有统计学意义(P<O.005).结论 上皮单纯增生白斑也可癌变,上皮异常增生白斑的癌变危险性高于上皮单纯增生;女性白斑患者的癌变率高于男性;癌变的非均质型白斑伴上皮异常增生者多于伴单纯增生者.%Objective To investigate the histological features of oral leukoplakia which underwent malignant transformation and its correlation with the clinical manifestation.Methods A total of 1832 cases of oral leukoplakia were reviewed and the clinicopathological characteristics of malignant transformation were analyzed.Results Malignant transformation occurred in 85 cases(4.6% ) of the 1832 cases.Thirty cases (2.1% ) of 1404 cases with simple epithelial hyperplasia had malignant transformation. Fifty-five cases ( 12.9% ) in 428 cases with epithelial dysplasia were transformed to malignancy,especially in the cases with moderate or severe dysplasia,in which the ratio of malignant transformation was higher than in the cases with simple

  3. Chemical Constraints Governing the Origin of Metabolism: The Thermodynamic Landscape of Carbon Group Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies were estimated for four types reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed that (1) when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves two different types of functional groups, transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is strongly dependent on the type of functional group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, and the group that accepts the shared electron-pair during synthesis, and (3) the energetics of C-C bond transformation is determined primarily by the half-reaction energies of the couples: carbonyl/carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid/carbon dioxide, alcohol/carbonyl, and hydrocarbon/alcohol. The energy of hydrogen-transfer between carbon groups was found to depend on the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry of the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modem metabolism) is strongly constrained by the (1) limited disproportionation energy of organic substrates that can be dissipated in a few irreversible reactions, (2) the energy-dominance of few half-reaction couples in carbon-carbon bond transformation that establishes whether a chemical reaction is energetically irreversible, reversible or unfeasible, and (3) the dependence of the transformation-energy on the oxidation state of carbon groups (functional group type) which is

  4. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of diffusion-weighted MRI and chemical-shift imaging in the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral body fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geith, Tobias; Schmidt, Gerwin; Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Dürr, Hans Roland; Reiser, Maximilian; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the diagnostic value of qualitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), quantitative DWI, and chemical-shift imaging in a single prospective cohort of patients with acute osteoporotic and malignant vertebral fractures. The study group was composed of patients with 26 osteoporotic vertebral fractures (18 women, eight men; mean age, 69 years; age range, 31 years 6 months to 86 years 2 months) and 20 malignant vertebral fractures (nine women, 11 men; mean age, 63.4 years; age range, 24 years 8 months to 86 years 4 months). T1-weighted, STIR, and T2-weighted sequences were acquired at 1.5 T. A DW reverse fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) sequence at different delta values was evaluated qualitatively. A DW echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence and a DW single-shot turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence at different b values were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using the apparent diffusion coefficient. Opposed-phase sequences were used to assess signal intensity qualitatively. The signal loss between in- and opposed-phase images was determined quantitatively. Two-tailed Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed. Sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were determined. Qualitative DW-PSIF imaging (delta = 3 ms) showed the best performance for distinguishing between benign and malignant fractures (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 88.5%; accuracy, 93.5%). Qualitative DW-EPI (b = 50 s/mm(2) [p = 1.00]; b = 250 s/mm(2) [p = 0.50]) and DW single-shot TSE imaging (b = 100 s/mm(2) [p = 1.00]; b = 250 s/mm(2) [p = 0.18]; b = 400 s/mm(2) [p = 0.18]; b = 600 s/mm(2) [p = 0.39]) did not indicate significant differences between benign and malignant fractures. DW-EPI using a b value of 500 s/mm(2) (p = 0.01) indicated significant differences between benign and malignant vertebral fractures. Quantitative DW-EPI (p = 0.09) and qualitative opposed-phase imaging (p = 0

  5. Chemical characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, P; Byerley, T J; Eick, J D; Witt, J D

    1992-01-01

    Irreversible bonding of composite materials to tooth structure depends on chemical as well as mechanical adhesion. The proposed bonding mechanism for several commercial dental adhesives is chemical adhesion to the dentin surface. The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to characterize the chemical nature of the surface interaction between dentin and two commercial adhesives by use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR/PAS). The occlusal thirds of the crowns of freshly extracted, non-carious, unerupted human molars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. Dentin disks, 6 mm x 2 mm, were prepared from these sectioned teeth. The exposed dentin surface was treated with either Scotchbond 2, a BIS-GMA resin, or Dentin-Adhesit, a polyurethane resin. All spectra were recorded from 4000 to 400 cm-1 by use of an Analect RFX-65 FTIR spectrometer equipped with an MTEC Photoacoustics Model 200 photoacoustic cell. An initial spectrum of the dentin surface was collected. This surface was primed according to manufacturer's instructions and spectra recorded of the primed surface plus one to three layers of adhesive. By comparison of these spectra, it was possible for us to record changes in the phosphate and amide I and II bands due to surface interactions between the adhesive and the dentin. Although early results do not indicate covalent bonding between the dentin and these adhesives, this technique presents several advantages for spectroscopic evaluation of the dentin/adhesive interface.

  6. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectrometry: Using Interferograms To Determine Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, R. M.; McClure, W. Fred

    1989-12-01

    Previous research conducted in this laboratory has demonstrated several advantages accrued by transforming near infrared spectra from the wavelength domain to the Fourier domain. Those advantages include: [1] smoothing wavelength domain data without loss of end points, [2] correcting for particle size phenomena encountered in solid sample analyses by simply omitting the mean term Fourier coefficient from the "retransformation process", [3] minimizing the multicollinearity problem prevalent in wavelength space, [4] generating wavelength-space derivatives from Fourier space without loss of end points, [5] performing band enhancements via Fourier self-deconvolution, [6] identifying sample type using Fourier vectors, [7] estimating chemical composition using only the first few Fourier coefficients, [8] cutting of computer storage requirements by more than 96%, [9] cutting of calibration time by more than 96%, hence [10] reducing the drudgery of maintaining calibrations. That the first 12 Fourier coefficients contain sufficient information to determine chemical constituents in many products has turned out to be a major advantage leading us to understand that the chemical absorption information in the wavelength spectrum of a sample obtained with an interferometer was also present in the interferogram.

  7. Sp100 as a potent tumor suppressor: accelerated senescence and rapid malignant transformation of human fibroblasts through modulation of an embryonic stem cell program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negorev, Dmitri G; Vladimirova, Olga V; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Nikonova, Elena V; Demarest, Renee M; Capobianco, Anthony J; Showe, Michael K; Rauscher, Frank J; Showe, Louise C; Maul, Gerd G

    2010-12-01

    Identifying the functions of proteins, which associate with specific subnuclear structures, is critical to understanding eukaryotic nuclear dynamics. Sp100 is a prototypical protein of ND10/PML nuclear bodies, which colocalizes with Daxx and the proto-oncogenic PML. Sp100 isoforms contain SAND, PHD, Bromo, and HMG domains and are highly sumoylated, all characteristics suggestive of a role in chromatin-mediated gene regulation. A role for Sp100 in oncogenesis has not been defined previously. Using selective Sp100 isoform-knockdown approaches, we show that normal human diploid fibroblasts with reduced Sp100 levels rapidly senesce. Subsequently, small rapidly dividing Sp100 minus cells emerge from the senescing fibroblasts and are found to be highly tumorigenic in nude mice. The derivation of these tumorigenic cells from the parental fibroblasts is confirmed by microsatellite analysis. The small rapidly dividing Sp100 minus cells now also lack ND10/PML bodies, and exhibit genomic instability and p53 cytoplasmic sequestration. They have also activated MYC, RAS, and TERT pathways and express mesenchymal to epithelial transdifferentiation (MET) markers. Reintroduction of expression of only the Sp100A isoform is sufficient to maintain senescence and to inhibit emergence of the highly tumorigenic cells. Global transcriptome studies, quantitative PCR, and protein studies, as well as immunolocalization studies during the course of the transformation, reveal that a transient expression of stem cell markers precedes the malignant transformation. These results identify a role for Sp100 as a tumor suppressor in addition to its role in maintaining ND10/PML bodies and in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  8. Chemical characteristics of fulvic acids from Arctic surface waters: Microbial contributions and photochemical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Rose M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Chin, Yu-Ping; Miller, Penney; Jaros, Chris L.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) originating from the extensive Arctic tundra is an important source of organic material to the Arctic Ocean. Chemical characteristics of whole water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the fulvic acid fraction of DOM were studied from nine surface waters in the Arctic region of Alaska to gain insight into the extent of microbial and photochemical transformation of this DOM. All the fulvic acids had a strong terrestrial/higher plant signature, with uniformly depleted δ13C values of -28‰, and low fluorescence indices around 1.3. Several of the measured chemical characteristics of the Arctic fulvic acids were related to water residence time, a measure of environmental exposure to sunlight and microbial activity. For example, fulvic acids from Arctic streams had higher aromatic contents, higher specific absorbance values, lower nitrogen content, lower amino acid-like fluorescence and were more depleted in δ15N relative to fulvic acids isolated from lake and coastal surface waters. The differences in the nitrogen signature between the lake and coastal fulvic acids compared to the stream fulvic acids indicated that microbial contributions to the fulvic acid pool increased with increasing water residence time. The photo-lability of the fulvic acids was positively correlated with water residence time, suggesting that the fulvic acids isolated from source waters with larger water residence times (i.e., lakes and coastal waters) have experienced greater photochemical degradation than the stream fulvic acids. In addition, many of the initial differences in fulvic acid chemical characteristics across the gradient of water residence times were consistent with changes observed in fulvic acid photolysis experiments. Taken together, results from this study suggest that photochemical processes predominantly control the chemical character of fulvic acids in Arctic surface waters. Our findings show that hydrologic transport in addition to

  9. Use of the Distance Transform for Integration of Local Measurements: Principle and Application in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbier, Loïc; Bazer-Bachi, Frédéric; Blouët, Yannick; Moreaud, Maxime; Moizan-Basle, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    We propose an original methodology to integrate local measurement for nontrivial object shape. The method employs the distance transform of the object and least-square fitting of numerically computed weighting functions extracted from it. The method is exemplified in the field of chemical engineering by calculating the global metal concentration in catalyst grains from uneven metal distribution profiles. Applying the methodology on synthetic profiles with the help of a very simple deposition model allows us to evaluate the accuracy of the method. For high symmetry objects such as an infinite cylinder, relative errors on global concentration are lower than 1% for well-resolved profiles. For a less symmetrical object, a tetralobe, the best estimator gives a relative error below 5% at the cost of increased measurement time. Applicability on a real case is demonstrated on an aged hydrodemetallation catalyst. Sampling of catalyst grains at the inlet and outlet of the reactor allowed conclusions concerning different reactivity for the trapped metals.

  10. Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Movable Boundary Domains under Intensive Physical-Chemical Transformation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garashchenko A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of solving problems of simulating temperature fields in domains with movable boundaries of characteristic zones of intensive physical-chemical and thermomechanical transformations to be realized in materials upon high-temperature heating have been presented. Intumescent fire-protective coatings based on organic and mineral materials are the object of study. Features of numerical realization of input equation systems taking into account, in particular, a dynamics of considerable increase and subsequent decrease of the intumescent layer thickness have been considered. Example calculations for structures of metal and wood protected with various coatings are given. Results of calculating two-dimensional temperature fields in polymer composite square-shaped structures with internal cruciform load-bearing elements have been presented. The intumescent coating is arranged on the external surface of a structure. The solution of the above-listed problems is of important significance to provide fire protection of different-purpose structures and products.

  11. Chemical and physical transformations of mercury in the ocean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Batrakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is well known as a dangerous neurotoxin enriched in the environment by human activities. It disperses over the globe, cycling between different environmental media. The ocean plays an important role in the global mercury cycle, acting both as a dispersion medium and as an exposure pathway. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the major physical and chemical transformations of mercury in the ocean. This review describes the mechanisms and provides a compilation of available rate constants for the major processes in seawater, including oxidation and reduction reactions under light and dark conditions, biotic and abiotic methylation/demethylation, and adsorption by particles. These data could be useful for the development of transport models describing processes undergone by mercury in the ocean.

  12. Chemical and physical transformations of mercury in the ocean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Batrakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is well known as a dangerous neurotoxin enriched in the environment by human activities. It disperses over the globe, cycling between different environmental media. The ocean plays an important role in the global mercury cycle, acting both as a dispersion medium and as an exposure pathway. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the major physical and chemical transformations of mercury in the ocean. This review describes the mechanisms and provides a compilation of available rate constants for the major processes in seawater, including oxidation and reduction reactions under light and dark conditions, biotic and abiotic methylation/demethylation, and adsorption by particles. In perspective, these data could be useful for the development of transport models describing processes undergone by mercury in the ocean and in air–seawater exchange.

  13. Similarity transformation approach for ferromagnetic mixed convection flow in the presence of chemically reactive magnetic dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ijaz Khan, Muhammad; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Waqas, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    A simple model of chemical reactions for two dimensional ferrofluid flows is constructed. The impact of magnetic dipole and mixed convection is further analyzed. Flow is caused by linear stretching of the sheet. Similarity transformation is adopted to convert the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations and then solved by Euler's explicit method. The characteristics of sundry parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are graphically elaborated. It is noted that the impact of magneto-thermomechanical interaction is to slow down the fluid motion. The skin friction coefficient enhances and affects the rate of heat transfer. For higher values of ferrohydrodynamics, the interaction velocity shows decreasing behavior. Further the Prandtl number on temperature has opposite behavior when compared with thermal radiation and ferrohydrodynamics interaction.

  14. The chemically driven phase transformation in a memristive abacus capable of calculating decimal fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanni; Xia, Yidong; Yin, Kuibo; Lu, Jianxin; Yin, Qiaonan; Yin, Jiang; Sun, Litao; Liu, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    The accurate calculation of decimal fractions is still a challenge for the binary-coded computations that rely on von Neumann paradigm. Here, we report a kind of memristive abacus based on synaptic Ag-Ge-Se device, in which the memristive long-term potentiation and depression are caused by a chemically driven phase transformation. The growth and the rupture of conductive Ag₂Se dendrites are confirmed via in situ transmission electron microscopy. By detecting the change in memristive synaptic weight, the quantity of input signals applied onto the device can be "counted". This makes it possible to achieve the functions of abacus that is basically a counting frame. We demonstrate through experimental studies that this kind of memristive abacus can calculate decimal fractions in the light of the abacus algorithms. This approach opens up a new route to do decimal arithmetic in memristive devices without encoding binary-coded decimal.

  15. The chemical transformation of calcium in Shenhua coal during combustion in a muffle furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Sida [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering; Shu, Xinqian [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical reaction characteristics of calcium in three samples of Shenhua coal, i.e. raw sample, hydrochloric acid washed sample and hydrochloric acid washed light fraction, during combustion in a muffle furnace have been investigated in this paper. Ca is bound by calcite and organic matter in Shenhua coal. X ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis has been conducted to these samples' combustion products obtained by heating at different temperatures. It has been found that the organically-bound calcium could easily react with clays and transform into gehlenite and anorthite partially if combusted under 815 C, whilst the excluded minerals promoted the conversion of gehlenite to anorthite. Calcite in Shenhua coal decomposed into calcium oxide and partially transformed into calcium sulfate under 815 C, and formed gehlenite and anorthite under 1,050 C. Calcite and other HCl-dissolved minerals in Shenhua coal were responsible mainly for the characteristic that the clay minerals in Shenhua coal hardly became mullite during combustion.

  16. Seeded growth of metal-doped plasmonic oxide heterodimer nanocrystals and their chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingchen; Reifsnyder Hickey, Danielle; Fei, Jiayang; Diroll, Benjamin T; Paik, Taejong; Chen, Jun; Murray, Christopher B

    2014-04-02

    We have developed a generalized seeded-growth methodology for the synthesis of monodisperse metal-doped plasmonic oxide heterodimer nanocrystals (NCs) with a near-unity morphological yield. Using indium-doped cadmium oxide (ICO) as an example, we show that a wide variety of preformed metal NCs (Au, Pt, Pd, FePt, etc.) can serve as the seeds for the tailored synthesis of metal-ICO heterodimers with exquisite size, shape, and composition control, facilitated by the delayed nucleation mechanism of the CdO phase. The metal-ICO heterodimers exhibit broadly tunable near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonances, and dual plasmonic bands are observed for Au-ICO heterodimers. We further demonstrate that the oxide domain of the Au-ICO heterodimers can be selectively and controllably transformed into a series of partially and completely hollow cadmium chalcogenide nanoarchitectures with unprecedented structural complexity, leaving the metal domain intact. Our work not only represents an exciting addition to the rapidly expanding library of chemical reactions that produce colloidal hybrid NCs, but it also provides a general route for the bottom-up chemical design of multicomponent metal-oxide-semiconductor NCs in a rational and sequential manner.

  17. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed.

  18. Physical and chemical transformations of cereal food during oral digestion in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebler, C; Karinthi, A; Devaux, M F; Guillon, F; Gallant, D J; Bouchet, B; Melegari, C; Barry, J L

    1998-11-01

    Chemical and physical transformations of solid food begin in the mouth, but the oral phase of digestion has rarely been studied. In the present study, twelve healthy volunteers masticated mouthfuls of either bread or spaghetti for a physiologically-determined time, and the levels of particle degradation and starch digestion before swallowing were compared for each food. The amounts of saliva moistening bread and spaghetti before swallowing were, respectively, 220 (SEM 12) v. 39 (SEM 6) g/kg fresh matter. Particle size reduction also differed since bread particles were highly degraded, showing a loss of structure, whereas spaghetti retained its physical structure, with rough and incomplete reduction of particle size. Starch hydrolysis was twice as high for bread as for spaghetti, mainly because of the release of high-molecular-mass alpha-glucans. The production of oligosaccharides was similar after mastication of the two foods, respectively 125 (SEM 8) and 92 (SEM 7) g/kg total starch. Starch hydrolysis, which clearly began in the mouth, depended on the initial structure of the food, as in the breakdown of solid food. These significant physical and chemical degradations of solid foods during oral digestion may influence the entire digestive process.

  19. ASSESSING THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DAMMAR ASPHALT USING FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Setyawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dammar Asphalt (Daspal is expected to be used as a bio-asphalt renewable binder for road construction. It is made with a modification of the "Jabung", which is the dammar gum based material mixed with grounded red brick debris and low quality cooking oil at a certain ratio. Dammar gum is obtained from the Dipterocarpaceae family of trees in India and East Asia, most are produced by tapping trees. The gum varies in color from clear to pale yellow. Dammar gum is a triterpenoid resin, containing a large number of triterpenes and their oxidation products. Many of them are low molecular weight compounds. The objective of this research is to analyze the chemical properties of Daspal uses a Resonance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR method to compare with conventional asphalt. The investigation using spectral data showed that all types of Daspal have similar functional groups of Saturate, Aromatic, Resins, and Asphalten as the 60/70 penetration conventional bitumen, so that based on its chemical properties Daspal can be considered as bioaspal.

  20. Physical and Chemical Transformation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Aqueous Sol after Preparation and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The co-precipitation method followed by ultrasound and heat treatment is a common way to prepare below 100 nm sized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for biomedical studies and applications. The size and pH value of the obtained calcium phosphate nanoparticles in aqueous sol have a strong impact on the interactions with cells and tissue. The physical and chemical properties of material samples for in vitro and in vivo studies are often assumed to remain constant from the time after fabrication to the actual use. Only little attention is paid to eventual changes of the material over time or due to the different in vitro conditions. In this study, the physical and chemical transformation of calcium phosphate nanoparticles after preparation and in vitro was investigated. As the result showed, dispersed nano sized amorphous calcium phosphate precipitation as well as crystallized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles continue to crystallize even when kept at 4 ℃ leading to declining pH values and particle sizes.Due to the pH buffer in the medium the pH value of the cell culture remained stable after adding 20% nanoparticle sol in vitro. However, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles immediately became unstable in the presents of cell culture medium. The resulting loose agglomerations showed a size of above 500 nm.

  1. Dying for love: Perimenopausal degeneration of vaginal microbiome drives the chronic inflammation-malignant transformation of benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2017-04-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause. Hence the major hypothesis is that prostatic cancer may arise due to chronic infection and inflammation in the prostate gland consequent upon the altered microbiome of the menopausal female genital tract. This has implications for testing and diagnosis, treatment, population health and personal hygiene practices. It suggests that male dyspareunia, although almost never encountered in clinical practice may in fact be relatively common in older males, and in particular if diagnosed, represents a critical opportunity for therapeutic intervention to interrupt the chronic inflammation - cancer transformation and progression which has been well documented in other tissues. It implies that the coordinated application of next generation sequencing to the microbiome of the lower genital tracts of male and female couples, including seminal fluid, will have both research applications to further explore this sequence, as well as finding application as a potential population level screening procedure as is presently done for the "Thin Prep" cervical screening for human papillomavirus in females. Moreover this insight opens up new opportunities for chemointervention and chemoprevention for this important clinicopathological progression. These considerations give rise to the exciting possibility that prostatic malignancy may be preventable by various methods of local

  2. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  3. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

  4. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  5. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for complex thiophenic mixture analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2013-10-01

    Rationale Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) are detrimental species for refining processes in petroleum industry. Current mass spectrometric Methods that determine their composition are often preceded by derivatization and dopant addition approaches. Different ionization Methods have different impact on the molecular assignment of complex PASHs. The analysis of such species under atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) is still considered limited due to uncontrolled ion generation with low- and high-mass PASHs. Methods The ionization behavior of a model mixture of five selected PASH standards was investigated using an APCI source with nitrogen as the reagent gas. A complex thiophenic fraction was separated from a vacuum gas oil (VGO) and injected using the same method. The samples were analyzed using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). RESULTS PASH model analytes were successfully ionized and mainly [M + H]+ ions were produced. The same ionization pattern was observed for the real thiophenic sample. It was found that S1 class species were the major sulfur-containing species found in the VGO sample. These species indicated the presence of alkylated benzothiophenic (BT), dibenzothiophenic (DBT) and benzonaphthothiophenic (BNT) series that were detected by APCI-FTICR MS. CONCLUSIONS This study provides an established APCI-FTICR MS method for the analysis of complex PASHs. PASHs were detected without using any derivatization and without fragmentation. The method can be used for the analysis of S-containing crude oil samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Organic Acids Regulation of Chemical-Microbial Phosphorus Transformations in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Paredes, Cecilia; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney D; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc; George, Timothy S; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Blackwell, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip M

    2016-11-01

    We have used an integrated approach to study the mobility of inorganic phosphorus (P) from soil solid phase as well as the microbial biomass P and respiration at increasing doses of citric and oxalic acid in two different soils with contrasting agronomic P status. Citric or oxalic acids significantly increased soil solution P concentrations for doses over 2 mmol kg(-1). However, low organic acid doses (soils, treatment with the tribasic citric acid led to a greater increase in soil solution P than the dibasic oxalic acid, likely due to the rapid degrading of oxalic acids in soils. After equilibration of soils with citric or oxalic acids, the adsorbed-to-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) and desorption rate constants (k-1) decreased whereas an increase in the response time of solution P equilibration (Tc) was observed. The extent of this effect was shown to be both soil and organic acid specific. Our results illustrate the critical thresholds of organic acid concentration necessary to mobilize sorbed and precipitated P, bringing new insight on how the exudation of organic acids regulate chemical-microbial soil phosphorus transformations.

  7. Long-range transport of Saharan dust and chemical transformations over the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Protonotariou, A.; Papangelis, G.; Tombrou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Gerasopoulos, E.

    2016-09-01

    Three recent Saharan dust outbreaks during different seasons (4-6 days in winter of 2009, late autumn of 2010 and summer of 2011) are selected in order to study the chemical footprint and aging processes of dust intrusions over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). The applied model system (PMCAMx, WRF and GEOS-CHEM) and methodology are found competent to reproduce dust production, long-range transport and chemical transformations over the EM, with the synergistic use of synoptic patterns analysis, optical depth retrievals, back-trajectories, surface and satellite aerosol measurements. The dust loads were high during the cold period events and much lighter during summertime, when transport was mainly in the free troposphere. In all cases, dust originated from the northwest and/or west Saharan desert and reached the EM from the west/southwest. Sensitivity runs underlie the effect of dust transport on the chemical constituents of aerosols over the EM and show a large impact on calcium (70-90% of maximum daily values 2-5 μg m-3), with its gradient at surface level being around -10% per 100 km along the dust pathway. For the cold period cases, this value can also be considered analogous to the dust dissipation ratio, because the plume is vertically extended down to the surface layers. Interestingly, the surface particulate nitrate concentrations over the EM are reversely affected by the approaching dust loads, exhibiting the highest values (up to 6 μg m-3) and the largest dust fraction (ca. 70%) during summertime. This is attributed to the enhanced nitric acid formation under high atmospheric temperature and insolation, its uptake onto the carbonate dust particles, and their effective accumulation, due to low deposition rates over the sea and scarce precipitation. Sulfate formation onto dust particles is found insignificant (rapid reaction with ammonia and/or sea-salt), while the influence of dust and sea-salt on sodium, when spatio-temporal averages are calculated, is

  8. Attainable entanglement of unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance with the chemical shift

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Y; Ohba, I; Yoshida, N; Mikami, Shuji; Ohba, Ichiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Yu, Brown, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 71}, 032341 (2005)] investigated the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Their research gave an insight into the role of the entanglement in a liquid-state NMR quantum computer. Moreover, they attempted to reveal the role of mixed-state entanglement in quantum computing. However, they assumed that the Zeeman energy of each nuclear spin which corresponds to a qubit takes a common value for all; there is no chemical shift. In this paper, we research a model with the chemical shifts and analytically derive the physical parameter region where unitary transformed thermal states are entangled, by the positive partial transposition (PPT) criterion with respect to any bipartition. We examine the effect of the chemical shifts on the boundary between the separability and the nonseparability, and find it is negligible.

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Potential Platforms for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Chemical Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenyang

    field favours more than the richness of exposed nitrogen atoms for the interactions between MOFs and CO2 molecules, which provides a new perspective for future design of new MOFs and other types of porous materials for CO2 capture. Meanwhile, to address the water/moisture stability issue of MOFs, remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel clusters is achieved by strengthening the bonding between organic ligands and triangular inorganic copper trimers, which in turn enhances the stability of the whole MOF network and provides a better understanding of the mechanism promoting prospective suitable MOFs with enhanced water stability. In contrast with CO2 capture by sorbent materials, the chemical transformation of the captured CO2 into value-added products represents an alternative which is attractive and sustainable, and has been of escalating interest. The nanospace within MOFs not only provides the inner porosity for CO2 capture, but also engenders accessible room for substrate molecules for catalytic purpose. It is demonstrated that high catalytic efficiency for chemical fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates under ambient conditions is achieved on MOF-based nanoreactors featuring a high-density of well-oriented Lewis active sites. Furthermore, described for the first time is that CO 2 can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of a MOF to generate carboxylate groups. This proof-of-concept study contributes a different perspective to the current landscape of CO2 capture and transformation. In closing, the overarching goal of this work is not only to seek efficient MOF adsorbents for CO2 capture, but also to present a new yet attractive scenario of CO2 utilization on MOF platforms.

  10. Effect of chemical ordering annealing on martensitic transformation and superelasticity in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, M.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Advanced Composites Centre for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), University of Bristol, Queen’s Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.X., E-mail: xxzhang@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, L.S.; Geng, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Peng, H.X., E-mail: hxpengwork@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Composites Science Innovation (InCSI), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Chemical ordering annealing on Ni–Mn–Ga microwires was found to reduce the defect density and internal stress. • Chemical ordering annealing on Ni–Mn–Ga microwires was found to increase the MT temperatures, Curie point and saturation magnetization. • Chemical ordering annealing on Ni–Mn–Ga microwires was found to decrease the SIM stress and improve the superelastic reversibility. • Chemical ordering annealing on Ni–Mn–Ga microwires was found to weaken the temperature dependences of the superelastic stresses. - Abstract: Polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga microwires of diameter 30–80 μm were prepared by melt-extraction technique on a large scale. The rapidly solidified microwires exhibit a fairly high ductility and excellent shape memory property. Here, with the aim to reduce the defect density, internal stress and compositional inhomogeneity in the as-extracted microwires, a stepwise chemical ordering annealing heat treatment was carried out and the effect of annealing on martensitic transformation, magnetic properties and superelastic behavior were investigated. The results indicate that annealing increase the transformation temperature and decrease the transformation hysteresis. These are related to composition homogenization, increase of atomic ordering and decrease in internal stress and defects. During mechanical tests, the stress-induced martensite (SIM) formation took place at a much lower stress after annealing treatment. The annealed microwires also demonstrate a lower superelastic hysteresis and a higher recovery rate compared to the as-extracted microwires. The temperature dependence of SIM stress is weaker after annealing, which is related to the enthalpy change (ΔH) and phase transformation temperature change according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation.

  11. Chemical transformations drive complex self-assembly of uracil on close-packed coinage metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthoula C; Fischer, Sybille; Reichert, Joachim; Diller, Katharina; Blobner, Florian; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Seitsonen, Ari P; Barth, Johannes V

    2012-03-27

    We address the interplay of adsorption, chemical nature, and self-assembly of uracil on the Ag(111) and Cu(111) surfaces as a function of molecular coverage (0.3 to 1 monolayer) and temperature. We find that both metal surfaces act as templates and the Cu(111) surface acts additionally as a catalyst for the resulting self-assembled structures. With a combination of STM, synchrotron XPS, and NEXAFS studies, we unravel a distinct polymorphism on Cu(111), in stark contrast to what is observed for the case of uracil on the more inert Ag(111) surface. On Ag(111) uracil adsorbs flat and intact and forms close-packed two-dimensional islands. The self-assembly is driven by stable hydrogen-bonded dimers with poor two-dimensional order. On Cu(111) complex structures are observed exhibiting, in addition, a strong annealing temperature dependence. We determine the corresponding structural transformations to be driven by gradual deprotonation of the uracil molecules. Our XPS study reveals unambiguously the tautomeric signature of uracil in the contact layer and on Cu(111) the molecule's deprotonation sites. The metal-mediated deprotonation of uracil and the subsequent electron localization in the molecule determine important biological reactions. Our data show a dependence between molecular coverage and molecule-metal interaction on Cu(111), as the molecules tilt at higher coverages in order to accommodate a higher packing density. After deprotonation of both uracil N atoms, we observe an adsorption geometry that can be understood as coordinative anchoring with a significant charge redistribution in the molecule. DFT calculations are employed to analyze the surface bonding and accurately describe the pertaining electronic structure.

  12. Malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Alkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of patients with malignant mesothelioma have had exposure to asbestos fibers. Other patients without this exposure have had chronic pleural inflammation or received radiation to the thorax. Occasionally patients present with no obvious exposure history relevant to the development of malignant mesothelioma. This diagnosis needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all patients with unexplained pleural disease.

  13. Pleural malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent.

  14. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops.

  15. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : INDUCTION OF TRANSFORMATION BY A DESOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FRACTION ISOLATED FROM PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, O T; Macleod, C M; McCarty, M

    1944-02-01

    1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

  16. Phase I study of GC1008 (fresolimumab: a human anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ monoclonal antibody in patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: In this multi-center phase I trial, cohorts of patients with previously treated malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma received intravenous GC1008 at 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, or 15 mg/kg on days 0, 28, 42, and 56. Patients achieving at least stable disease were eligible to receive Extended Treatment consisting of 4 doses of GC1008 every 2 weeks for up to 2 additional courses. Pharmacokinetic and exploratory biomarker assessments were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients, 28 with malignant melanoma and 1 with renal cell carcinoma, were enrolled and treated, 22 in the dose-escalation part and 7 in a safety cohort expansion. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, and the maximum dose, 15 mg/kg, was determined to be safe. The development of reversible cutaneous keratoacanthomas/squamous-cell carcinomas (4 patients and hyperkeratosis was the major adverse event observed. One malignant melanoma patient achieved a partial response, and six had stable disease with a median progression-free survival of 24 weeks for these 7 patients (range, 16.4-44.4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: GC1008 had no dose-limiting toxicity up to 15 mg/kg. In patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, multiple doses of GC1008 demonstrated acceptable safety and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity, warranting further studies of single agent and combination treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00356460.

  17. Application of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical and chemometrics analyses to the characterization of agro-industrial waste

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Merlin; Barbara Arruda Nogueira; Vanderlei Aparecido de Lima; Larissa Macedo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Agroindustrial waste in general presents significant levels of nutrients and organic matter and has therefore been frequently put to agricultural use. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and carbon content, as well as the qualitative characteristics through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of four samples of poultry litter and one sample of cattle manure, from the southwestern region...

  18. Malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need surgery, tell both your surgeon and anesthesiologist before surgery if: You know that you or ... IN. Malignant hyperthermia and muscle-related disorders. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  19. Roles of the RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathways in malignant transformation and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubrey, James A; Steelman, Linda S; Abrams, Steven L; Lee, John T; Chang, Fumin; Bertrand, Fred E; Navolanic, Patrick M; Terrian, David M; Franklin, Richard A; D'Assoro, Antonio B; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Mazzarino, Maria Clorinda; Stivala, Franca; Libra, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT signaling cascades play critical roles in the transmission of signals from growth factor receptors to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. Components of these pathways are mutated or aberrantly expressed in human cancer (e.g., Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, PTEN, Akt). Also, mutations occur at genes encoding upstream receptors (e.g., EGFR and Flt-3) and chimeric chromosomal translocations (e.g., BCR-ABL) which transmit their signals through these cascades. These pathways interact with each other to regulate growth and in some cases tumorigenesis. For example, in some cells, PTEN mutation may contribute to suppression of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade due to the ability of elevated activated Akt levels to phosphorylate and inactivate Raf-1. We have investigated the genetic structures and functional roles of these two signaling pathways in the malignant transformation and drug resistance of hematopoietic, breast and prostate cancer cells. Although both of these pathways are commonly thought to have anti-apoptotic and drug resistance effects on cells, they display different cell-lineage-specific effects. Induced Raf expression can abrogate the cytokine dependence of certain hematopoietic cell lines (FDC-P1 and TF-1), a trait associated with tumorigenesis. In contrast, expression of activated PI3K or Akt does not abrogate the cytokine dependence of these hematopoietic cell lines, but does have positive effects on cell survival. However, activated PI3K and Akt can synergize with activated Raf to abrogate the cytokine dependence of another hematopoietic cell line (FL5.12) which is not transformed by activated Raf expression by itself. Activated Raf and Akt also confer a drug-resistant phenotype to these cells. Raf is more associated with proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis while Akt is more associated with the long-term clonogenicity. In breast cancer cells, activated Raf conferred resistance to the chemotherapeutic drugs

  20. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society.......The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  1. Mechanistic insights into chemical and photochemical transformations of bismuth vanadate photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Francesca M.; Cooper, Jason K.; Kunzelmann, Viktoria; McDowell, Matthew T.; Yu, Jie; Larson, David M.; Borys, Nicholas J.; Abelyan, Christine; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Yu, Kin Man; Yang, Jinhui; Chen, Le; Shaner, Matthew R.; Spurgeon, Joshua; Houle, Frances A.; Persson, Kristin A.; Sharp, Ian D.

    2016-07-01

    Artificial photosynthesis relies on the availability of semiconductors that are chemically stable and can efficiently capture solar energy. Although metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for their promise to resist oxidative attack, materials in this class can suffer from chemical and photochemical instability. Here we present a methodology for evaluating corrosion mechanisms and apply it to bismuth vanadate, a state-of-the-art photoanode. Analysis of changing morphology and composition under solar water splitting conditions reveals chemical instabilities that are not predicted from thermodynamic considerations of stable solid oxide phases, as represented by the Pourbaix diagram for the system. Computational modelling indicates that photoexcited charge carriers accumulated at the surface destabilize the lattice, and that self-passivation by formation of a chemically stable surface phase is kinetically hindered. Although chemical stability of metal oxides cannot be assumed, insight into corrosion mechanisms aids development of protection strategies and discovery of semiconductors with improved stability.

  2. Mechanistic insights into chemical and photochemical transformations of bismuth vanadate photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Francesca M; Cooper, Jason K; Kunzelmann, Viktoria; McDowell, Matthew T; Yu, Jie; Larson, David M; Borys, Nicholas J; Abelyan, Christine; Beeman, Jeffrey W; Yu, Kin Man; Yang, Jinhui; Chen, Le; Shaner, Matthew R; Spurgeon, Joshua; Houle, Frances A; Persson, Kristin A; Sharp, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Artificial photosynthesis relies on the availability of semiconductors that are chemically stable and can efficiently capture solar energy. Although metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for their promise to resist oxidative attack, materials in this class can suffer from chemical and photochemical instability. Here we present a methodology for evaluating corrosion mechanisms and apply it to bismuth vanadate, a state-of-the-art photoanode. Analysis of changing morphology and composition under solar water splitting conditions reveals chemical instabilities that are not predicted from thermodynamic considerations of stable solid oxide phases, as represented by the Pourbaix diagram for the system. Computational modelling indicates that photoexcited charge carriers accumulated at the surface destabilize the lattice, and that self-passivation by formation of a chemically stable surface phase is kinetically hindered. Although chemical stability of metal oxides cannot be assumed, insight into corrosion mechanisms aids development of protection strategies and discovery of semiconductors with improved stability.

  3. Soil pH Dynamics and Nitrogen Transformations Under Long-Term Chemical Fertilization in Four Typical Chinese Croplands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hong-qi; XU Ming-gang; L Jia-long; HE Xin-hua; LI Jian-wei; SHI Xiao-jun; PENG Chang; WANG Bo-ren; ZHANG Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    Long-term fertilization experiment provides the platform for understanding the proton budgets in nitrogen transformations of agricultural ecosystems. We analyzed the historical (1990-2005) observations on four agricultural long-term experiments in China (Changping, Chongqing, Gongzhuling and Qiyang) under four different fertilizations, i.e., no-fertilizer (control), sole chemical nitrogen fertilizer (FN), sole chemical phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FPK) and chemical nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FNPK). The significant decline in topsoil pH was caused not only by chemical N fertilization (0.29 and 0.89∆pH at Gongzhuling and Qiyang, respectively) but also by chemical PK fertilization (0.59∆pH at Gongzhuling). The enhancement of available nutrients in the topsoil due to long-term direct nutrients supply with chemical fertilizers was in the descending order of available P (168-599%)>available K (16-189%)>available N (9-33%). The relative rate of soil pH decline was lower under long-term judicious chemical fertilization (-0.036-0.034 ∆pH yr-1) than that under long-term sole N or PK fertilization (0.016-0.086 ∆pH yr-1). Long-term judicious chemical fertilization with N, P and K elements decreases the nutritional limitation to normal crop growth, under which more N output was distributed in biomass removal rather than the loss via nitrate leaching. We concluded that the N distribution percentage of nitrate leaching to biomass removal might be a suitable indicator to the sensitivity of agricultural ecosystems to acid inputs.

  4. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

    2007-06-01

    Groups aquifers facilitating the inter-aquifer flow of the confined Kurnub paleowater into the karstic formations of the Judea Group. Two periods of Neogene brine formation are considered: the post-Messinan inland lagoon resulting in drying up of the Sdom Sea and the evaporation of the Pleistocene Samra Lake, which went further through the stage of Lake Lisan to the present Dead Sea. For the first period, major element hydrochemistry suggests that the saline waters and brines in the Jordan-Dead Sea Arava Valley transform evolved from the gradual evaporation of an accumulating mixture of sea-, ground-, and surface water. Due to the precipitation of carbonates, gypsum, and halite, such an evaporating primary water body was strongly enriched in Mg, Br, and B and shows high molar ratios of Br/Cl, B/Cl, and Mg/Ca but low Na/Cl ratios. The development of the Br/Cl ratio is chemically modelled, showing that indeed brine development is explicable that way. Along with the evaporation brine, evaporites formed which are leached by infiltrating fresh water yielding secondary brines with Na/Cl ratios of 1. When primary brines infiltrated the sub-surface, they were subjected to Mg Ca exchange in limestones (dolomitization) and to chloritization and albitization in basic igneous rocks turning them into Ca-Cl brines. These tertiary brines are omnipresent in the Rift. The brines of the late Lisan and Dead Sea were generated by evaporating drainage waters, which leached halite, gypsum, and carbonates from the soil and from the sub-surface. All these brines are still being flushed out by meteoric water, resulting in saline groundwaters. This flushing is regionally enhanced by intensive groundwater exploitation. In variable proportions, the Neogene and late Lisan Lake and Recent Dead Sea brines have to be considered as the most serious sources of salinization of groundwaters in the Rift. Deep-seated pre-Sdom brines cannot strictly be excluded, but if active they play a negligible role only.

  5. Wet-chemical synthesis and martensitic phase transformation of Au-Cd nanoparticles with near-equiatomic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommen, Christoph; Wilde, Gerhard; Roesner, Harald

    2004-09-08

    Nanometre-sized freestanding alloy particles of B2-ordered AuCd with an average composition of Au{sub 50}Cd{sub 50} (at.%) were synthesized by a wet-chemical process. The thermoelastic transformation behaviour with respect to particle size was investigated by means of calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The martensitic transformation start temperature, M{sub s}, of nanometre-sized AuCd particles was determined to about 49 K and thus drastically lowered compared to AuCd bulk alloys. The lowering of the transformation temperatures is discussed on the basis of the obtained calorimetric data regarding the following two aspects: firstly, a reduction in the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature, T{sub 0}, and secondly, a suppression of the martensite formation due to the absence of pre-existing nucleation sites in the small AuCd particles. Moreover, it is demonstrated that due to a coarsening of the nanometre-sized alloy particles during a heat treatment, the martensitic transformation was shifted towards ambient temperature.

  6. Application of in vitro cell transformation assays in regulatory toxicology for pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanparys, Philippe; Corvi, Raffaella; Aardema, Marilyn J; Gribaldo, Laura; Hayashi, Makoto; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Schechtman, Leonard

    2012-04-11

    Two year rodent bioassays play a key role in the assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals to humans. The seventh amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will ban in 2013 the marketing of cosmetic and personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal models. Thus 2-year rodent bioassays will not be available for cosmetics/personal care products. Furthermore, for large testing programs like REACH, in vivo carcinogenicity testing is impractical. Alternative ways to carcinogenicity assessment are urgently required. In terms of standardization and validation, the most advanced in vitro tests for carcinogenicity are the cell transformation assays (CTAs). Although CTAs do not mimic the whole carcinogenesis process in vivo, they represent a valuable support in identifying transforming potential of chemicals. CTAs have been shown to detect genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic carcinogens and are helpful in the determination of thresholds for genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The extensive review on CTAs by the OECD (OECD (2007) Environmental Health and Safety Publications, Series on Testing and Assessment, No. 31) and the proven within- and between-laboratories reproducibility of the SHE CTAs justifies broader use of these methods to assess carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

  7. Determining Chemical Reactivity Driving Biological Activity from SMILES Transformations: The Bonding Mechanism of Anti-HIV Pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the molecular mechanism of a chemical-biological interaction and bonding stands as the ultimate goal of any modern quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR study. To this end the present work employs the main chemical reactivity structural descriptors (electronegativity, chemical hardness, chemical power, electrophilicity to unfold the variational QSAR though their min-max correspondence principles as applied to the Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES transformation of selected uracil derivatives with anti-HIV potential with the aim of establishing the main stages whereby the given compounds may inhibit HIV infection. The bonding can be completely described by explicitly considering by means of basic indices and chemical reactivity principles two forms of SMILES structures of the pyrimidines, the Longest SMILES Molecular Chain (LoSMoC and the Branching SMILES (BraS, respectively, as the effective forms involved in the anti-HIV activity mechanism and according to the present work, also necessary intermediates in molecular pathways targeting/docking biological sites of interest.

  8. Determining chemical reactivity driving biological activity from SMILES transformations: the bonding mechanism of anti-HIV pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V; Dudaş, Nicoleta A

    2013-07-30

    Assessing the molecular mechanism of a chemical-biological interaction and bonding stands as the ultimate goal of any modern quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. To this end the present work employs the main chemical reactivity structural descriptors (electronegativity, chemical hardness, chemical power, electrophilicity) to unfold the variational QSAR though their min-max correspondence principles as applied to the Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) transformation of selected uracil derivatives with anti-HIV potential with the aim of establishing the main stages whereby the given compounds may inhibit HIV infection. The bonding can be completely described by explicitly considering by means of basic indices and chemical reactivity principles two forms of SMILES structures of the pyrimidines, the Longest SMILES Molecular Chain (LoSMoC) and the Branching SMILES (BraS), respectively, as the effective forms involved in the anti-HIV activity mechanism and according to the present work, also necessary intermediates in molecular pathways targeting/docking biological sites of interest.

  9. Molecular perspectives on solid-state phase transformation and chemical reactivity of drugs: metoclopramide as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang

    2015-02-01

    Here, I provide an overview of the solid-state characteristics, phase transformations and chemical reactions of metoclopramide hydrochloride monohydrate (MCP HCl H2O). Three unique techniques, including thermoanalytical methods, one-step simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, and hot-stage microscopic (HSM) imaging, have been applied to study the solid-state phase transitions of MCP HCl H2O in continuous dehydration, amorphization and recrystallization processes. I also review the effects of grinding or heating on ion-exchange reactions, milling, compression or colyophilization on Maillard reactions, and γ-ray irradiation or electron beams on radiolysis in the solid state. I also report the exposure of MCP HCl H2O in solution to light, irradiation, oxidants or π-acceptors. This review will serve as a useful keynote for the evolving realm of solid-state chemistry research.

  10. Influence of Chemical Composition on Phase Transformation Temperature and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Hot Work Die Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hao-jie; WU Xiao-chun; MIN Yong-an

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the uniform design method,six kinds of martensitie hot work die steels were designed.The phase transformation temperatures including Ac1,Ac3,and M,were measured by DIL805A quenching dilatometer.The influences of the main elements on phase transformation temperatures were analyzed by quadratic stepwise regression analysis,and three corresponding equations were obtained.These equations,in which the interactions of the elements were considered,showed more effectiveness than the traditional ones.In addition,the thermal expansion coefficients of these steels in annealed state and quenched state were also obtained during the tests.The influences of chemical composition and temperature on the thermal expansion coefficient were analyzed;the equations obtained Were verified by using several kinds of steels.The predicted values were in accordance with the results of the experiments.

  11. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-03-31

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens. (HLW)

  12. Mechanistic insights into chemical and photochemical transformations of bismuth vanadate photoanodes

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Francesca M.; Cooper, Jason K.; Kunzelmann, Viktoria; McDowell, Matthew T.; Yu, Jie; Larson, David M.; Borys, Nicholas J.; Abelyan, Christine; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Yu, Kin Man; Yang, Jinhui; Chen, Le; Shaner, Matthew R.; Spurgeon, Joshua; Houle, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis relies on the availability of semiconductors that are chemically stable and can efficiently capture solar energy. Although metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for their promise to resist oxidative attack, materials in this class can suffer from chemical and photochemical instability. Here we present a methodology for evaluating corrosion mechanisms and apply it to bismuth vanadate, a state-of-the-art photoanode. Analysis of changing morphology and compo...

  13. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: Chemical fractionation and (31)P NMR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Junna

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling or reuse by pyrolyzing crop residue has recently elicited increased research interest. However, the effects of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions on P species have not been fully understood. Such knowledge is important in identifying the agronomic and environmental uses of biochar. Residues of three main Chinese agricultural crops and the biochars (produced at 300°C-600°C) derived from these crops were used to determine P transformations during pyrolysis. Hedley sequential fractionation and (31)P NMR analyses were used in the investigation. Our results showed that P transformation in biochar was significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature regardless of feedstock (Wheat straw, maize straw and peanut husk). Pyrolysis treatment transformed water soluble P into a labile (NaHCO3-Pi) or semi-labile pool (NaOH-Pi) and into a stable pool (Dil. HCl P and residual-P). At the same time, organic P was transformed into inorganic P fractions which was identified by the rapid decomposition of organic P detected with solution (31)P NMR. The P transformation during pyrolysis process suggested more stable P was formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. This result was also evidenced by the presence of less soluble or stable P species, such as such as poly-P, crandallite (CaAl3(OH)5(PO4)2) and Wavellite (Al3(OH)3(PO4)2·5H2O), as detected by solid-state (31)P NMR in biochars formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, a significant proportion of less soluble pyrophosphate was identified by solution (2%-35%) and solid-state (8%-53%) (31)P NMR, which was also responsible for the stable P forms at higher pyrolysis temperature although their solubility or stability requires further investigation. Results suggested that a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature retains P availability regardless of feedstock during pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  15. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Phy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia is a rare metabolic crisis triggered by volatile anesthetics and/or succinylcholine. It is important to remember that hyperthermia is not always present and may even present late in the course. Early recognition of the most common signs and symptoms is critical to diagnosis and treatment. Malignant hyperthermia was associated with a high mortality rate, but this has decreased with the use of dantrolene.  Although this is frequently reported in the anesthesia and surgical literature, it is important that critical care units that use succinylcholine as part of their intubation sequence be prepared to identify and treat this serious syndrome.

  16. Malignant glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about pathophysiology and clinical, therapeutic and prophylactic approaches for malignant glaucoma. This type of glaucoma can occur after different surgical procedures. It can also occur in aphakic, phakic and pseudophakic eyes and develop spontaneously in individuals with no ocular surgical history, or associated with topical miotics. Currently, the ultrasound biomicroscopy has provided many interesting and useful findings for diagnosis and monitoring the treatment of malignant glaucoma. It occurs more often in short eyes in which pre operative measurements of the anterior chamber depth and axial length are extremely important for its prophylaxis and diagnosis.

  17. Design and Use of Nanostructured Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Selective Transformation of Fine Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimiro Dal Santo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured single-site heterogeneous catalysts possess the advantages of classical solid catalysts, in terms of easy recovery and recycling, together with a defined tailored chemical and steric environment around the catalytically active metal site. The use of inorganic oxide supports with selected shape and porosity at a nanometric level may have a relevant impact on the regio- and stereochemistry of the catalytic reaction. Analogously, by choosing the optimal preparation techniques to obtain spatially isolated and well-characterised active sites, it is possible to achieve performances that are comparable to (or, in the most favourable cases, better than those obtained with homogeneous systems. Such catalysts are therefore particularly suitable for the transformation of highly-functionalised fine chemicals and some relevant examples where high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity are crucial will be described.

  18. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  19. The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K–AKT–NFκB cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India); Siddharth, Sumit [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India); Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Life Science, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751021 (India); Choudhuri, Tathagata [Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Life Science, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751021 (India); Wyatt, Michael D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Kundu, Chanakya Nath, E-mail: cnkundu@gmail.com [Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India)

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011 μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003 μg Cd/1 × 10{sup 7} cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25 μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K–AKT–NFκB protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K–AKT–NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure of CSC causes malignant transformation in MCF-10A. • MCF-10A-Tr cells showed a distinct

  20. Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosols in the Marine Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere: Vertical Transport and Chemical Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P. K.; Murphy, D. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Thomson, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) mission (Monterey, CA, spring 2002) nearly 400,000 positive and negative mass spectra of single atmospheric aerosols were acquired using the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. The primary focus of the mission was to investigate the composition of air masses along the western coast of the United States. Of particular interest to the mission was to study the influence of anthropogenic emissions from Asia on aerosol composition. To accomplish these goals, the WP-3 aircraft, equipped with a suite of instruments including PALMS, covered a large spatial area flying from 0 - 8000 m altitude covering most of the western coastline from Canada to southern California including flights over the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan areas. The in situ measurements of single particle aerosol mass spectra by PALMS allow for good spatial and vertical resolution of the aerosol composition. By observing the changes in aerosol composition as a function of altitude, the vertical transport of sea salt aerosols over marine and urban environments is examined. Using measurements of other chemical tracers along with the aerosol composition, the chemical processing of these aerosols during transport both vertically and inland can be discerned. These results add insight into the transport and chemical evolution of sea salt aerosol.

  1. 骨髓间充质干细胞的诱导分化及其恶性转化%Induced differentiation and malignant transformation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小刚; 吕农华

    2011-01-01

    背景:近年来有研究认为骨髓间充质干细胞可发生恶性转化,成为恶性肿瘤的细胞起源.目的:综述近年来诱导骨髓间充质干细胞分化的方法、定向分化的细胞种类及其恶性转化的相关研究进展.方法:应用计算机分别以"bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells" AND "differentiation"和"bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells" AND "transformation" 为关键词检索Pubmed数据库(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)、SPRINGER数据库(http://www.springerlink.com)及Elsevier数据库(http://www.sciencedirect.com),时间限定为2000-01/2010-11,语言种类为English.通过阅读标题和摘要进行初筛,排除重复性研究、Meta分析,选择近期发表或发表在权威杂志的31篇相关文献进行综述.结果与结论:体外诱导骨髓间充质干细胞分化的方法主要有特定条件培养液、细胞共培养和损伤病理模型组织细胞或血清3大类.骨髓间充质干细胞可定向诱导分化为内、中及外胚层来源的几乎所有组织类型的细胞.有实验研究及临床病例个案报道,骨髓间充质干细胞可发生恶性转化,成为多种肿瘤的细胞起源.这提示骨髓间充质干细胞临床应用的安全性问题值得进一步深入研究,同时这也可能为肿瘤生物学研究提供了新视野.%BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can undergo malignant transformation and become the origin of malignant tumor cells.OBJETIVE: To review the research progress in the methods and directions of induced differentiation and malignant transformation of BMSCs in recent years.METHODS: The Pubmed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), SPRINGER database (http://www.springerlink.com)and Elsevier database (http://www.sciencedirect.com) were searched online with the key words of "mesenchymal stem cells" AND "differentiation" or "bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells" AND "transformation" in English. Papers were

  2. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells transform malignantly in vitro spontaneously%脂肪组织来源的干细胞体外培养随机恶性转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂英; 杨立业; 李文玉; 郑佳坤; 陈辉; 陈强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) whether malignant transformation in vitro. Methods ADSCs were isolated and cultured from adipose tissues of mice, which were observed whether to occur malignant transformation. The tissue-specific markers of transformed cells were detected by immunocytochemistry, and the chromosome structure were analyzed. The transformed cells were transplanted into nude mice to investigate their tumorigenicity. Results A flask of ADSCs were successively cultured for 4 months and a number of cells had transformed and immortalized in vitro. The ADSCs were cultured more than 100 generations and still maintained the original cell proliferation rate. The marker of vimentin, PCNA, Ki67 and VEGF-c were expressed but the pan-CK and p16 were not expressed, which showed the cells were mesenchymal origin. Meanwhile, the chromosome analysis showed all cells were aneuploidy and translocation were very common. Microvilli structure of cell surface could be observed by transmission electron microscopy. There was no clone formation ability of transformed ADSCs in soft agar media. Nude mice subcutaneously transplanted could form tumor tissue that the main component was sarcoma. Conclusion Adipose tissue-derived stem cells could malignantly transformed spontaneously in vitro, and which also could form tumors in nude mice after transplantation.%目的:研究脂肪来源干细胞在体外能否恶性转化。方法从小鼠脂肪组织培养出脂肪组织来源干细胞(ADSCs),观察细胞是否发生恶性转化,应用免疫细胞化学方法检测转化细胞的相关标志物的表达,并对其染色体结构进行分析,并将转化细胞移植到裸鼠皮下以检测其成瘤性。结果1个培养瓶中的细胞在体外培养4个月左右发生了转化,已经永生化,目前体外培养超过100代,细胞仍维持原来的增殖速度。细胞表达中胚层的标志物vimentin,但不表达pan-CK,说明其

  3. Laccase-mediated transformations of endocrine disrupting chemicals abolish binding affinities to estrogen receptors and their estrogenic activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Viana, María Teresa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to mainly affect aquatic organisms, producing negative effects in aquaculture. Transformation of the estrogenic compounds 17β-estradiol (E2), bisphenol-A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and triclosan (TCS) by laccase of Coriolopsis gallica was studied. Laccase is able to efficiently transform them into polymers. The estrogenic activity of the EDCs and their laccase transformation products was evaluated in vitro as their affinity for the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) and for the ligand binding domain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) estrogen receptor alpha (zfERαLBD). E2, BPA, NP, and TCS showed higher affinity for the zfERαLBD than for hERα. After laccase treatment, no affinity was found, except a marginal affinity of E2 products for the zfERαLBD. Endocrine disruption studies in vivo on zebrafish were performed using the induction of vitellogenin 1 as a biomarker (VTG1 mRNA levels). The use of enzymatic bioreactors, containing immobilized laccase, efficiently eliminates the endocrine activity of BPA and TCS, and significantly reduces the effects of E2. The potential use of enzymatic reactors to eliminate the endocrine activity of EDCs in supply water for aquaculture is discussed.

  4. Aging study on carboxymethyl cellulose-coated zero-valent iron nanoparticles in water: Chemical transformation and structural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Haoran, E-mail: dongh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Zhao, Feng; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Fan, Changzheng; Zhang, Lihua; Zeng, Yalan; He, Qi; Xie, Yankai; Wu, Yanan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The chemical transformation and structural evolution of CMC-nZVI were investigated. • CMC could slow down the aging rate of nZVI and alter the species transformation. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and/or γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the dominant corrosion products of bare nZVI after aging. • γ-FeOOH is the primary corrosion product of CMC-nZVI after aging. - Abstract: To assess the long-term fate and the associated risks of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) used in the water remediation, it is essential to understand the chemical transformations during aging of nZVI in water. This study investigated the compositional and structural evolution of bare nZVI and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated nZVI in static water over a period of 90 days. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the corrosion products of nZVI and CMC-nZVI. Results show that both the structures and the compositions of the corrosion products change with the process of aging, but the coating of CMC could slow down the aging rate of nZVI (as indicated by the slower drop in Fe{sup 0} intensity in XRD pattern). For the bare nZVI, magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and/or maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are the dominant corrosion products after 90 days of aging. However, for the CMC-nZVI, the core-shell spheres collapses to acicular-shaped structures after aging with crystalline lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) as the primary end product. Moreover, more lepidocrocite present in the corrosion products of CMC-nZVI with higher loading of CMC, which reveals that the CMC coating could influence the transformation of iron oxides.

  5. 36. Study on p16INK4a and p15INK4b genes of human bronchial epithelial cells malignantly transformed by cyclophosphamide and thiotepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Transformed human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B induced by CP and TEPA were used to study abnormity of the tumor suppressor genes p15INK4b and p16INK4a, through which we can provide clues for explanations of the molecular mechanism in carcinogenesis of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by CP and TEPA. Analysis of the genomic DNA from the transformed BEAS-CP, and BEAS-T cells using PCR amplification, singe strand conformation polymorphism(SSCP) and DNA sequencing

  6. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C. Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1129-1130.Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse affect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. The amount of NO3 delivered by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico is well documented, but the relative contributions of different sources of NO3, and the magnitude of subsequent in-stream transformations of NO3, are not well understood. Forty-two water samples collected in 1997 and 1998 at eight stations located either on the Mississippi River or its major tributaries were analysed for NO3, total nitrogen (N), atrazine, chloride concentrations and NO3 stable isotopes (15N and 18O). These data are used to assess the magnitude and nature of in-stream N transformation and to determine if the 15N and Thebes, IL. In both Lagrangian sets, mass-balance calculations indicate only a small amount of in-stream N loss. The stable isotope data from the samples suggest that in-stream N assimilation and not denitrification accounts for most of the N loss in the lower Mississippi River during the spring and early summer months. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Preface to the Issue: Transformations of Biomass and its Derivatives to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongfei; Biddinger, Elizabeth J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Nimlos, Mark; Liu, Haichao

    2016-07-01

    The research activities on biofuels and bio-products have been growing steadily regardless the volatility of the crude oil price in the past decade. The major driver is the imperative need of tackling the challenge of climate change. With the low carbon footprints, fuels and chemicals produced from renewable biomass resources, as the replacement of their petroleum counterparts, can contribute significantly on carbon emission reduction.

  8. Invited presentation:'Synchrotron Methods to Reveal Chemical Processes at Interfaces During Material Formation and Transformation'

    OpenAIRE

    Breynaert, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Material chemistry depends on interdisciplinary research targeting design, (trans-) formation, structure analysis and application of materials and minerals. Insight in the chemical processes occurring at interfaces not only enables design and synthesis of new technologically attractive structures, but also provides key information for a score of other research fields with direct impact on our daily lives. X-ray based techniques play a key role as they provide essential information...

  9. Retrieval algorithm of quantitative analysis of passive Fourier transform infrared (FTRD) remote sensing measurements of chemical gas cloud from measuring the transmissivity by passive remote Fourier transform infrared

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi-Ming; Liu Wen-qing; Gao Ming-Guang; Tong Jing-Jing; Zhang Wian-Shu; Xu Liang; Wei Xiuai

    2008-01-01

    Passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) remote sensing measurement of chemical gas cloud is a vital technology.It takes an important part in many fields for the detection of released gases.The principle of concentration measurement is based on the Beer-Lambert law.Unlike the active measurement,for the passive remote sensing,in most cases,the difference between the temperature of the gas cloud and the brightness temperature of the background is usually a few kelvins.The gas cloud emission is almost equal to the background emission,thereby the emission of the gas cloud cannot be ignored.The concentration retrieval algorithm is quite different from the active measurement.In this paper,the concentration retrieval algorithm for the passive FTIR remote measurement of gas cloud is presented in detail,which involves radiative transfer model,radiometric calibration,absorption coefficient calculation,et al.The background spectrum has a broad feature,which is a slowly varying function of frequency.In this paper,the background spectrum is fitted with a polynomial by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method which is a kind of nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm.No background spectra are required.Thus,this method allows mobile,real-time and fast measurements of gas clouds.

  10. Clinical analysis of high-risk factors on malignant transformation of hydatidiform mole%高危因素对葡萄胎后恶变的影响临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁哨雅

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析有恶变高危因素的葡萄胎患者的临床特点,为提高妊娠滋养细胞肿瘤(GTN)的诊治手段提供借鉴。方法回顾性分析该院妇产科2007年1月至2013年12月162例在行清宫术后病理检查诊断为葡萄胎患者的临床资料,观察GTN的临床表现、治疗效果等,比较有高危因素与无高危因素葡萄胎后GTN患者的临床特点。结果162例葡萄胎患者中,有46例恶变,其中有高危因素患者36例,无高危因素患者10例。比较两类患者恶变率、临床表现及治疗后效果,早期葡萄胎合并高危因素患者恶变率及临床表现与无合并高危因素患者比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);葡萄胎后GTN患者治疗效果比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论葡萄胎恶变率与患者发病年龄、子宫大小、卵巢黄素囊肿等高危因素有关。因此,对患者高危因素进行正确评估,对临床早期预测葡萄胎恶变及给予预防性化疗有一定指导意义,也有助于诊治GTN和提高临床疗效。%Objective To analyze the clinical features of hydatidiform mole patients with high-risk factors,in order to provide reference for improving the diagnosis of the gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTN). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of 162 hydatidiform mole patients ,who were diagnosed after uterine curettage by pathological ex-amination in the Obstetrics Department of the hospital from January 2007 to December 2013. To observe the clinical manifesta-tions of GTN,therapeutic effect and so on,and compare the clinical features of hydatidiform mole patients with and without high-risk factors. Results Amon the 162 patients with hydatidiform mole,46 cases had malignant transformation,including 36 cases with high-risk factors and 10 cases without high-risk factors. The malignant transformation rate,clinical manifestation and thera-peutic effects between the two

  11. Malignant Fade between the China’s Social Transformation and the Sports Value Identification%中国社会转型与体育价值认同的恶性消退

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 丰硕蕾; 郑薇娜

    2016-01-01

    For coping with the challenge of the history the social transformation, we should be vigilant the inadequate oversight mechanisms, media broadcast the lack of fair, large poor economic conditions hanging, diverse leisure time, professional concept of honor and disgrace to deepen and facilities into symbolic form on sports value identity of malignant fade. At the same time , we need to be mindful the general physical health values , generalized theory of mind quality value, generic quality of life orientation, enhance the social consciousness, pan-black patriotic emotion value and negative physical trend of malignant fading of the process of social transformation.%为应对社会转型进程带来的历史挑战,需警惕监管机制欠完善、媒介播报缺公允、经济条件悬差大、闲暇时间取向多元、职业荣耻观待深化、场馆设施流于象征形式等因素对体育价值认同的恶性消退。同时,亦需警惕泛体质健康价值观、泛心志品质价值论、泛生活品质取向论、泛社会意识增进观、泛爱国情感价值论等负面性体育思潮对社会转型进程的恶性消退。

  12. Chemical and microstructural transformations in lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes following pulsed laser exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutey, Adrian H.A., E-mail: adrian.lutey2@unibo.it [DIN, Università di Bologna, viale Risorgimento, 2, Bologna (Italy); Fiorini, Maurizio [DICAM, Università di Bologna, via Terracini, 28, Bologna (Italy); Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro [DIN, Università di Bologna, viale Risorgimento, 2, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes are exposed to pulsed laser radiation. • Raman spectroscopy is performed on regions approaching the incisions and cuts. • Chemical and microstructural changes in the active electrode layers are limited to the visible HAZ. • Some oxidation and degradation of the olive LiFePO{sub 4} cathode active material takes place in the HAZ. • The anode polycrystalline graphite structure becomes less ordered (higher D/G ratio) in the HAZ. - Abstract: Multi-layer lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery electrodes are exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser radiation of wavelength 1064 nm. Test parameters are chosen to achieve characteristic interaction types ranging from partial incision of the active coating layers only to complete penetration of the electrodes with high visual cut quality. Raman spectroscopy is performed on unexposed regions and at points approaching each incision, highlighting changes in chemical composition and microstructure in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Thermogravimetric analysis is performed on the unexposed electrode active materials to distinguish the development of compositional changes under conditions of slow heating below the melting and sublimation temperatures. A brief theoretical description of the physical phenomena taking place during laser exposure is provided in terms of direct ablation during each laser pulse and vaporization or thermal degradation due to conductive heat transfer on a much longer time-scale, with characteristics of the HAZ reported in terms of these changes. For all laser exposures carried out in the study, chemical and microstructural changes are limited to the visible HAZ. Some degree of oxidation and LFP olivine phase degradation is observed in the cathode, while the polycrystalline graphite structure becomes less ordered in the anode. Where complete penetration is achieved, melting of the cathode active layer and combustion of the anode active layer take place

  13. Malignant transformation of CD4+ T lymphocytes mediated by oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK recapitulates IL-2-induced cell signaling and gene expression reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Halasa, Krzysztof; Liu, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    by the STAT5 and STAT3 transcription factors, whereas transcription of Egr-1 and Fosl-1 was induced by the MEK-ERK pathway. Finally, we found that Egr-1, a protein not associated previously with either IL-2 or ALK, contributes to the cell proliferation. These findings indicate that NPM/ALK transforms......Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), physiologically expressed only by nervous system cells, displays a remarkable capacity to transform CD4(+) T lymphocytes and other types of nonneural cells. In this study, we report that activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK chimeric protein, the dominant form of ALK...... expressed in T cell lymphomas (TCLs), closely resembles cell activation induced by IL-2, the key cytokine supporting growth and survival of normal CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Direct comparison of gene expression by ALK(+) TCL cells treated with an ALK inhibitor and IL-2-dependent ALK(-) TCL cells stimulated...

  14. Unconditionally stable, second-order accurate schemes for solid state phase transformations driven by mechano-chemical spinodal decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Sagiyama, Koki; Garikipati, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    We consider solid state phase transformations that are caused by free energy densities with domains of non-convexity in strain-composition space. We refer to the non-convex domains as mechano-chemical spinodals. The non-convexity with respect to composition causes segregation into phases with different crystal structures. If, for one of these crystal structures, the free energy density is also non-convex with respect to strain, there is potential for the corresponding phase to further separate into multiple variants. For mathematical well-posedness the free energy description must be enhanced by interface terms that penalize gradients with respect to strain and composition. A system of PDEs results that couples the classical Cahn-Hilliard equation with those of gradient elasticity. Since the materials systems of interest display finite strains, the appropriate description is Toupin's theory of gradient elasticity at finite strains. The presence of strain and composition gradients in the free energy density le...

  15. Interactions and chemical transformations of coronene inside and outside carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botka, Bea; Füstös, Melinda E; Tóháti, Hajnalka M; Németh, Katalin; Klupp, Gyöngyi; Szekrényes, Zsolt; Kocsis, Dorina; Utczás, Margita; Székely, Edit; Váczi, Tamás; Tarczay, György; Hackl, Rudi; Chamberlain, Thomas W; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Kamarás, Katalin

    2014-04-09

    By exposing flat and curved carbon surfaces to coronene, a variety of van der Waals hybrid heterostructures are prepared, including coronene encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, and coronene and dicoronylene adsorbed on nanotubes or graphite via π-π interactions. The structure of the final product is determined by the temperature of the experiment and the curvature of the carbon surface. While at temperatures below and close to the sublimation point of coronene, nanotubes with suitable diameters are filled with single coronene molecules, at higher temperatures additional dimerization and oligomerization of coronene occurs on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The fact that dicoronylene and possible higher oligomers are formed at lower temperatures than expected for vapor-phase polymerization indicates the active role of the carbon surface used primarily as template. Removal of adsorbed species from the nanotube surface is of utmost importance for reliable characterization of encapsulated molecules: it is demonstrated that the green fluorescence attributed previously to encapsulated coronene is instead caused by dicoronylene adsorbed on the surface which can be solubilized and removed using surfactants. After removing most of the adsorbed layer, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy was employed to follow the transformation dynamics of coronene molecules inside nanotubes.

  16. Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, M; Sekar, N; Jayakumar, V S; Joe, I Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of a well-known food dye sunset yellow FCF (E110) has been recorded and analysed. Assignments of the vibrational spectrum has been facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of the optimized molecular structure obtained on the basis of B3LYP with 6-31G(d) along with the 'LANL2DZ' basis sets give clear evidence for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and strong hydrogen bonding enhancing the optical nonlinearity of the molecule. The first hyperpolarizability of the acidic monoazo dye 'E110' is computed. Azo stretching frequencies have been lowered due to conjugation and pi-electron delocalization. Hydroxyl vibrations with intramolecular H-bonding are analyzed, supported by the computed results. The natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis confirms this strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and nitrogen of the azo group of the molecule. Assignments of benzene and naphthalene ring vibrations are found to agree well with the theoretical wave numbers.

  17. Ion-radical intermediates of the radiation-chemical transformations of organic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.; Sosulin, Ilya S.; Saenko, Elizaveta V.; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2016-07-01

    The spectral features and reactions of ion-radical intermediates produced from organic carbonates in low-temperature matrices were investigated by EPR spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. It was shown that radical cations of diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate underwent intramolecular hydrogen transfer to yield alkyl-type species, as was suggested previously. Meanwhile, radical cation of EC demonstrates a ring cleavage even at 77 K, while radical cation of PC is probably intrinsically stable and undergo an ion-molecule reaction with a neighboring neutral molecule in dimers or associates. Radical anions were obtained in glassy matrices of diethyl ether or perdeuteroethanol. The radical anions of linear carbonates show photoinduced fragmentation to yield the corresponding alkyl radicals; such process may also occur directly under radiolysis. Radical anions of cyclic carbonates are relatively stable and yield only trace amounts of fragmentation products under similar conditions.

  18. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  19. Versatile chemical transformations of benzoxazole based ligands on complexation with 3d-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasco, Olga; Novitchi, Ghenadie; Jeanneau, Erwann; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Roques, Nans; Luneau, Dominique

    2012-02-20

    Two benzoxazoles derivative ligands were synthesized from the condensation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone (DTBBQ) with ethanolamine or 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane in methanol. Condensation of DTBBQ with ethanolamine gives the expected 5,7-di-tert-butyl-2-methylenhydroxylbenzoxazole (HL1) while with 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane it gives (2-hydroxyethyl-2-{2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1-phenol-6 amino}-2{5,7-di-tert-butyl-benzoxazole}) (H(2)L2) with only one benzoxazole ring instead of the symmetric bis-benzoxazole derivative. The structure of HL1 and H(2)L2 were confirmed by NMR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction on a single crystal for HL1. The reaction of HL1 with CuCl(2) gives a mononuclear [Cu(II)(HL1)(2)Cl(2)] (1) complex for which the crystal structure shows that HL1 is preserved. In contrast, upon reaction with nickel(II), cobalt(II), and manganese(II) H(2)L2 is further oxidized and transformed in new ligands HL3 in mononuclear complexes [M(II)(L3)(2)] (M = Ni(II) (2); M = Co(II) (3)) and H(2)L4 in tetranuclear complex [Mn(II)(4)(HL4)(4)Cl(4)] (4) as found from the crystal structures of complexes 2-4. Electrochemical studies for complexes 2 and 3 evidence complicated redox properties. [Mn(II)(4)(HL4)(4)Cl(4)] (4) has a cubane-like structure with a "4 + 2" fashion The magnetic susceptibility of 4 is well fitted considering one Mn---Mn interaction J(a)(Mn(II)-Mn(II)) = -0.50(1) cm(-1) with g = 2.00(7).

  20. Developing superhydrophobic and oleophobic nanostructure by a facile chemical transformation of zirconium hydroxide surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arundhati; Malik, Satya Narayan; Bahadur, D.

    2016-02-01

    Stable hydro/oleo-phobic and superhydrophobic nanopowders, useful for self-cleaning applications, are synthesized at room temperature by modifying Zr(OH)4·nH2O with a very low surface-energy molecule-1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyltrichlorosilane whose long chain {sbnd (CH2)2(CF2)9CF3 moiety (PFD)} serves as surface-protrusion. The PFD-content is varied over 3.6-18.7 wt% in optimizing a hydrophilic to hydro/oleo-phobic or even to superhydrophobic transformation. Two halos in the X-ray diffraction pattern of amorphous Zr(OH)4·nH2O are accompanied by a peak at 2θ = 18.0° which grows in intensity progressively as the PFD-content increases from 5.2 to 18.7 wt%. The peak corresponds to sbnd CF2sbnd CF2sbnd crystalline order (10-20 nm) at the PFD-functionalized surface. The microstructure shows Zr(OH)4·nH2O as a cloud-like phase, bonded to plate-like sheaths (PFD moiety). The Csbnd F stretching bands at 1150 and 1210 cm-1 grow in intensity relative to that of Osbnd H stretching at 3460 cm-1 in proportion to the PFD-content. An 18.7 wt% PFD-functionalized sample exhibits a high contact angle CA = 153° for water (contact angle hysteresis = 4° and roll-off angle oleophobicity. Surface-energy reduction due to PFD moiety together with an optimal spacing between the surface-protrusions explains the water/organic liquid repellency.

  1. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4

  2. Studies on chemical composition and energy transformation in river Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi due to environmental degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Jaiswal, Dolly; Watal, Geeta

    2009-05-01

    Impact of effluents discharged in Ganga through various sources on chemical composition, energy transformation rate and level of heavy metals was studied at Kanpur and Varanasi. The effluents were found to be nil in oxygen with acidic in oxygen with acidic to neutral pH (6.8-7.0) and having very high values of free CO2 (40-68 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (300.0-412.0 mg l(-1)), conductance (1082.0-1824.0 micromhos), total dissolved solids (542.0-912.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (228.0-330.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (42.0-60.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (8.4-18.2 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (98.0-248.0 mg l(-1)). The heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn were also quite high in the effluents (48.6-78.4, 54.0-84.6, 9.8-12.4, 72.4-84.0 and 148.6-284.0 microg l(-1) respectively). The discharged effluents induced severe reduction in oxygen (av. 0.82-3.4 mg l(-1)) and sharp increase in the level of free CO2 (av. 10.8-24.8 mg l(-1)), alkalinity (182.4-288.4 mg l(-1)), conductance (480.0- 628.0 mmhos), total dissolved solids (254.0-315.0 mg l(-1)), hardness (170.0-259.0 mg l(-1)), chloride (36.0-52.0 mg l(-1)), organic matter (4.8-6.8 mg l(-1)) and BOD load (36.4-58.4 mg l(-1)) at the discharge point (OF zones) from their comparatively much lower values before discharge (AOF zone). The rate of energy transformation and photosynthetic efficiency also reduced considerably at the discharge point (av. 1060-2101 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.09-0.18%) from high values before discharged point (av. 4045-4733 calm(-2)day(-1) and 0.34-0.42%). The level of Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Zn also showed higher values at the discharged point (20.4-38.0, 22.4-54.8, 5.2-7.8, 30.8-72.0 and 64.8-120.8 microg l(-1) respectively). Considerable improvement was observed below the discharge (BOF zone). Comparison with earlier observation revealed that the magnitude of impact has reduced considerably after the regulation in the discharge both in he respect of chemical composition and energy transformation rates.

  3. Bioactivity of chemically transformed humic matter from vermicompost on plant root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Pasqualoto Canellas, Luciano; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Oliveira Aguiar, Natália; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Azevedo, Mariana; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-03-24

    Chemical reactions (hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, methylation, alkyl compounds detachment) were applied to modify the structure of humic substances (HS) isolated from vermicompost. Structural and conformational changes of these humic derivatives were assessed by elemental analyses, size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS-NMR), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR), whereas their bioactivity was evaluated by changes in root architecture and proton pump activation of tomato and maize. All humic derivatives exhibited a large bioactivity compared to original HS, both KMnO(4)-oxidized and methylated materials being the most effective. Whereas no general relationship was found between bioactivity and humic molecular sizes, the hydrophobicity index was significantly related with proton pump stimulation. It is suggested that the hydrophobic domain can preserve bioactive molecules such as auxins in the humic matter. In contact with root-exuded organic acids the hydrophobic weak forces could be disrupted, releasing bioactive compounds from humic aggregates. These findings were further supported by the fact that HS and all derivatives used in this study activated the auxin synthetic reporter DR5::GUS.

  4. Synthesis of ultra-long cadmium telluride nanotubes via combinational chemical transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kee-Ryung; Cho, Hong-Baek; Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of high-throughput cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanotubes with an ultra-long aspect ratio is presented via a combination process concept combined with electrospinning, electrodeposition, and cationic exchange reaction. Ultra-long sacrificial silver (Ag) nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning involving two-step calcination, and were then electrodeposited to create silver telluride nanotubes. These nanotubes underwent cationic exchange reaction in cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate solution with the aid of a ligand, tributylphosphine (TBP). Analysis showed that ultra-long pure zinc blende CdTe nanotubes were obtained with controlled dimension and uniform morphology. The thermodynamic driving force induced by the coordination of methanol solvent and TBP attributed to overcome the kinetic barrier between Ag{sub 2}Te and CdTe nanotubes, facilitating the synthesis of CdTe nanotubes. This synthetic process involving a topotactic reaction route paves a way for high-throughput extended synthesis of new chalcogenide hollow nanotubes for application in photodetectors and solar cells. - Highlights: • High throughput synthetic route of hollow CdTe nanotubes with ultra-long aspect ratio. • Chemical combination of electrospinning, electrodeposition & cation exchange reaction. • Pure zinc blende CdTe by controlled dimension & structural variation of Ag nanofibers. • Potential for the high throughput synthesis of new exotic chalcogenide nanotubes.

  5. Transformation of chemical constituents of lychee wine by simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dai; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    This work examined for the first time the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the chemical constituents of lychee wine. Oenococcus oeni Viniflora Oenos (MLF inducer) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm were co-inoculated into lychee juice to induce simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and MLF. MLF did not affect sugar utilisation and ethanol production statistically (8.54% v/v for MLF and 9.27% v/v for AF). However, MLF resulted in dramatic degradation of malic and citric acids with concomitant increases of lactic acid, ethyl lactate and pH. The final concentrations of acetic and succinic acids between AF and MLF wines had no significant difference. The MLF wine contained significantly higher amounts of amino acids than the AF wine. More importantly, MLF significantly elevated the levels of potent aroma-active compounds including isoamyl acetate, linalool, geraniol and cis-rose oxide (to levels above or near respective detection thresholds), suggesting that MLF is an effective way of retaining the original lychee flavour.

  6. Influence of temperature and chemical composition on phase transformations of selected oxide melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobrovská

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with structural changes of solid phase of selected oxide systems during their transition into liquid state. Analyses concerned poly-component systems forming basis of casting powders for CCM mould. Industrially used oxide system with prevailing contents of CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 components and with numerous accompanying admixtures was tested. Investigation was focused on temperatures, during which individual phases disappear and precipitate, as well as on influence of CaO content on phase composition at selected temperatures. The experiments were realised with use of original methodology consisting of shock cooling of the tested melt in liquid nitrogen. Thus obtained samples were further investigated by X-ray diffraction phase analyses at ambient temperatures. The obtained results provide additional data on physical-chemical properties of oxide systems, such as surface tension, viscosity, sintering intervals, etc., which can be used in technological practice for appropriate lubrication effect of casting powders in the mould.

  7. Epoxides, cyclic sulfites, and sulfate from natural pentacyclic triterpenoids: theoretical calculations and chemical transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Granados, Andrés; López, Pilar E; Melguizo, Enrique; Moliz, Juan N; Parra, Andrés; Simeó, Yolanda; Dobado, José A

    2003-06-13

    Several triterpenic derivatives, with the A-ring functionalized, were semisynthesized from oleanolic and maslinic acids. The reactivities of sulfites, sulfate, and epoxides in these triterpene compounds were investigated under different reaction conditions. Moreover, contracted A-ring triterpenes (five-membered rings) were obtained, by different treatments of the sulfate 7. From the epoxide 8, deoxygenated and halohydrin derivatives were semisynthesized with several nucleophiles. Ozonolysis and Beckmann reactions were used to yield 4-aza compounds, from five-membered ring olanediene triterpenes. The X-ray structure of sulfate 7 is given and compared with density functional theory geometries. Theoretical (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts (gauge-invariant atomic orbital method at the B3LYP/6-31G*//B3LYP/6-31G* level) and (3)J(H,H) coupling constants were calculated for compounds 5-9 and 34-36, identifying the (R)- or (S)-sulfur and alpha- or beta-epoxide configurations together with 4-aza or 3-aza structures.

  8. Developing superhydrophobic and oleophobic nanostructure by a facile chemical transformation of zirconium hydroxide surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Arundhati; Malik, Satya Narayan; Bahadur, D., E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophilic Zr(OH){sub 4}·nH{sub 2}O → hydro/superhydro/oleo-phobic nanostructured material. • Fluoroalkyl functionalization changes surface energy and asperities of Zr(OH){sub 4}·nH{sub 2}O. • Only 3.6 wt% fluoroalkyl-content is enough to get a good amphiphobic nanostructure. • 18.7 wt% fluoroalkyl-content leads to superhydrophobic and oleophobic behavior. • Optimal distance between surface-protrusions supports the amphiphobic behavior. - Abstract: Stable hydro/oleo-phobic and superhydrophobic nanopowders, useful for self-cleaning applications, are synthesized at room temperature by modifying Zr(OH){sub 4}·nH{sub 2}O with a very low surface-energy molecule—1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorododecyltrichlorosilane whose long chain {−(CH_2)_2(CF_2)_9CF_3 moiety (PFD)} serves as surface-protrusion. The PFD-content is varied over 3.6–18.7 wt% in optimizing a hydrophilic to hydro/oleo-phobic or even to superhydrophobic transformation. Two halos in the X-ray diffraction pattern of amorphous Zr(OH){sub 4}·nH{sub 2}O are accompanied by a peak at 2θ = 18.0° which grows in intensity progressively as the PFD-content increases from 5.2 to 18.7 wt%. The peak corresponds to −CF{sub 2}−CF{sub 2}− crystalline order (10–20 nm) at the PFD-functionalized surface. The microstructure shows Zr(OH){sub 4}·nH{sub 2}O as a cloud-like phase, bonded to plate-like sheaths (PFD moiety). The C−F stretching bands at 1150 and 1210 cm{sup −1} grow in intensity relative to that of O−H stretching at 3460 cm{sup −1} in proportion to the PFD-content. An 18.7 wt% PFD-functionalized sample exhibits a high contact angle CA = 153° for water (contact angle hysteresis = 4° and roll-off angle <4°), together with CA = 132° for glycerol, CA = 130° for diethylene glycol, and CA = 113° for n-hexadecane, supporting good superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Surface-energy reduction due to PFD moiety together with an optimal spacing between the

  9. Microbial metabolism fuels ecosystem-scale organic matter transformations: an integrated biological and chemical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Narrowe, A. B.; Angle, J.; Stefanik, K. S.; Daly, R. A.; Johnston, M.; Miller, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater saturated sediments and soils represent vital ecosystems due to their nutrient cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the diversity of microorganisms and metabolic pathways involved in carbon cycling, and the impacts of these processes on other biogeochemical cycles remain poorly understood. Major advances in DNA sequencing have helped forge linkages between the previously disconnected biological and chemical components of these systems. Here, we present data on the use of assembly-based metagenomics to generate hypotheses on microbial carbon degradation and biogeochemical cycling in waterlogged sediments and soils. DNA sequencing from a fresh water aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River in Rifle, CO yielded extensive genome recovery from multiple previously unknown bacterial lineages. Fermentative metabolisms encoded by these genomes drive nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur cycling in this subsurface system. We are also applying a similar approach to identify microbial processes in a freshwater wetland on Lake Erie, OH. Given the increased diversity (increased richness, decreased evenness, and strain variation) of wetland sediment microbial communities, we modified methods for specialized assembly of long taxonomic marker gene amplicons (EMIRGE) to create a biogeographical map of Fungi, Archaea, and Bacteria along depth and hydrological transects. This map reveals that the microbial community associated with the top two depths (>7 cm) is significantly different from bottom depths (7-40 cm). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecular weight and the presence of oxidized terminal electron acceptors best predict differences in microbial community structure. Laboratory mesocosms amended with pore-water DOM, in situ soil communities, and variable oxygen conditions link DOM composition and redox to microbial metabolic networks, biogeochemical cycles, and green house gas emission. Organism identities from

  10. Microbially-mediated fluorescent organic matter transformations in the deep ocean. Do the chemical precursors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran L. Aparicio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The refractory nature of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM increases while it travels from surface waters to the deep ocean. This resistant fraction is in part composed of fluorescent humic-like material, which is relatively difficult to metabolize by deep water prokaryotes, and it can also be generated by microbial activity. It has been recently argued that microbial production of new fluorescent DOM (FDOM requires the presence of humic precursors in the surrounding environment. In order to experimentally test how the chemical quality of the available organic compounds influences the production of new FDOM, three experiments were performed with bathypelagic Atlantic waters. Microbial communities were incubated in three treatments which differed in the quality of the organic compounds added: i glucose and acetate; ii glucose, acetate, essential amino acids and humic acids; and iii humic acids alone. The response of the prokaryotes and the production of FDOM were simultaneously monitored. Prokaryotic abundance was highest in treatments where labile compounds were added. The rate of humic-like fluorescence production scaled to prokaryotic abundance varied depending on the quality of the additions. The precursor compounds affected the generation of new humic-like FDOM, and the cell-specific production of this material was higher in the incubations amended with humic precursors. Furthermore, we observed that the protein-like fluorescence decreased only when fresh amino acids were added. These findings contribute to the understanding of FDOM variability in deep waters and provide valuable information for studies where fluorescent compounds are used in order to track water masses and/or microbial processes.

  11. Malignant transformation of CD4+ T lymphocytes mediated by oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK recapitulates IL-2-induced cell signaling and gene expression reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Michal; Halasa, Krzysztof; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hong Y; Cheng, Mangeng; Baldwin, Donald; Tobias, John W; Schuster, Stephen J; Woetmann, Anders; Zhang, Qian; Turner, Suzanne D; Ødum, Niels; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2013-12-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), physiologically expressed only by nervous system cells, displays a remarkable capacity to transform CD4(+) T lymphocytes and other types of nonneural cells. In this study, we report that activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK chimeric protein, the dominant form of ALK expressed in T cell lymphomas (TCLs), closely resembles cell activation induced by IL-2, the key cytokine supporting growth and survival of normal CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Direct comparison of gene expression by ALK(+) TCL cells treated with an ALK inhibitor and IL-2-dependent ALK(-) TCL cells stimulated with the cytokine revealed a very similar, albeit inverse, gene-regulation pattern. Depending on the analysis method, up to 67% of the affected genes were modulated in common by NPM/ALK and IL-2. Based on the gene expression patterns, Jak/STAT- and IL-2-signaling pathways topped the list of pathways identified as affected by both IL-2 and NPM/ALK. The expression dependence on NPM/ALK and IL-2 of the five selected genes-CD25 (IL-2Rα), Egr-1, Fosl-1, SOCS3, and Irf-4-was confirmed at the protein level. In both ALK(+) TCL and IL-2-stimulated ALK(-) TCL cells, CD25, SOCS3, and Irf-4 genes were activated predominantly by the STAT5 and STAT3 transcription factors, whereas transcription of Egr-1 and Fosl-1 was induced by the MEK-ERK pathway. Finally, we found that Egr-1, a protein not associated previously with either IL-2 or ALK, contributes to the cell proliferation. These findings indicate that NPM/ALK transforms the target CD4(+) T lymphocytes, at least in part, by using the pre-existing, IL-2-dependent signaling pathways.

  12. Crystalline Nickel Sulfide Induced Malignant Transformation of 16HBE Cells through Autophagic Pathway%结晶型硫化镍通过自噬途径诱导16HBE细胞恶性转化癌变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 杨磊; 吕嘉春

    2012-01-01

    Nickel compounds, which widely exist in the environment of human occupation, are the major risk factor for human lung cancer. Our previous studies had confirmed that exposure to toxic,metallic crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) was an important cause of lung cancer, but the concrete carcinogenic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we used the previouslyestablished human bronchial epithelial (16HBE-T) cells malignant transformation model, which was induced by crystalline NiS. For the first time, fluorescence intensity and position of the GFP-LC3 protein in malignant transformed (16HBE-T) cells and normal cell (16HBE-N), were real-time monitored with the technique of confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging without damaging the condition. Moreover, we used Western Blotting to detect the intracellular autophagic signal which is expressed by key effective molecule pathway. Confocal experimental results showed that: Compared with that of 16HBE-N-cells, the GFP-LC3 protein punctate aggregation of 16HBE-T cells significantly reduced to the merely 1/3 amount of 16HBE-N-cells, suggesting that autophagy levels declined. At the same time, it was found that the mTOR kinase activity increased, and that Beclin 1 expression decreased. The above research result demonstrated that the mechanism of crystalline NiS induced 16HBE cell malignant transformation was through multiple autophagic pathway and it will provide an important message in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.%镍化合物广泛存在于人类职业环境中,是人类发生肺癌的主要危险因素.我们前期研究已证实金属毒物结晶型硫化镍(NiS)的暴露是发生肺癌的重要病因,但具体的致癌机制仍未明了.本研究利用前期建立的结晶型NiS恶性转化人支气管上皮细胞的细胞模型,首次采用激光共聚焦扫描显微镜成像技术,在无损伤状态下,实时观测恶性转化细胞(16HBE-T)和正常细胞(16HBE-N)中自噬体标记蛋白GFP-LC3

  13. Transcription Factors Synergistically Activated at the Crossing of the Restriction Point between G1 and S Cell Cycle Phases. Pathologic Gate Opening during Multi-Hit Malignant Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Castagnino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs represent key regulators of gene-expression patterns controlling cell behavior. TFs are active at nuclear – chromatin levels. TFs do not act in isolation; small sets of TFs cooperate toward the transcription of sets of mRNAs and consequently the translation of new proteins (the molecular phenotypes of a cell. Most TFs are activated through a cascade of biochemical reactions mediated by receptors expressed on the target cell surface. Nuclear Receptors (NRs are transcription factors activated instead by small hydrophobic molecules capable of crossing the plasma membrane. The convergence of different pathways on TFs and their posttranslational modifications ensure that the external stimuli generate appropriate and integrated responses. The reconstruction of the molecular anatomy of these pathways through Molecular Interactions Maps (MIMs can depict these intricate interactions. A mathematical modeling approach simulates/mimics their mechanism of action in normal and pathological conditions. We can simulate the effect of virtual hits in neoplastic transformation as mutations/alterations in these pathways. We can also simulate the effect of targeted inhibitors on these deregulated pathways. This strategy can help to guide an appropriate combination of targeted drugs in the treatment of a cancer patient, a major innovative perspective of incoming years.

  14. Chemical and physical controls on the transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate into crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, C. R.; Giuffre, A.; Mergelsberg, S.; Han, N.; De Yoreo, J. J.; Dove, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcite and other crystalline polymorphs of CaCO3 can form by pathways involving amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). Apparent inconsistencies in the literature indicate the relationships between ACC composition, local conditions, and the subsequent crystalline polymorphs are not yet established. This experimental study quantifies the control of solution composition on the transformation of ACC into crystalline polymorphs in the presence of magnesium. Using a mixed flow reactor to control solution chemistry, ACC was synthesized with variable Mg contents by tuning input pH, Mg/Ca, and total carbonate concentration. ACC products were allowed to transform within the output suspension under stirred or quiescent conditions while characterizing the evolving solutions and solids. As the ACC transforms into a crystalline phase, the solutions record a polymorph-specific evolution of pH and Mg/Ca. The data provide a quantitative framework for predicting the initial polymorph that forms from ACC based upon the solution aMg2+/aCa2+ and aCO32-/aCa2+ and stirring versus quiescent conditions. This model reconciles discrepancies among previous studies that report on the nature of the polymorphs produced from ACC and supports the previous claim that monohydrocalcite may be an important, but overlooked, transient phase on the way to forming some aragonite and calcite deposits. By this construct, organic additives and extreme pH are not required to tune the composition and nature of the polymorph that forms. Our measurements show that the Mg content of ACC is recorded in the resulting calcite with a ≈1:1 dependence. By correlating composition of these calcite products with the Mgtot/Catot of the initial solutions, we find a ≈3:1 dependence that is approximately linear and general to whether calcite is formed via an ACC pathway or by the classical step-propagation process. Comparisons to calcite grown in synthetic seawater show a ≈1:1 dependence. The relationships suggest that the

  15. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells.

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    Avigail Dreazen Wittenberg

    Full Text Available Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-. rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation.

  16. Phosphorylated Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Required for Akt-Driven Hyperplasia and Malignant Transformation, but Not for Hypertrophy, Aneuploidy and Hyperfunction of Pancreatic β-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Avigail Dreazen; Azar, Shahar; Klochendler, Agnes; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Avraham, Shlomit; Birnbaum, Lea; Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Katz, Maximiliano; Dor, Yuval; Meyuhas, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive expression of active Akt (Akttg) drives hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pancreatic β-cells, concomitantly with increased insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, and at a later stage the development of insulinoma. To determine which functions of Akt are mediated by ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an Akt effector, we generated mice that express constitutive Akt in β-cells in the background of unphosphorylatable ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P-/-). rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency failed to block Akttg-induced hypertrophy and aneuploidy in β-cells, as well as the improved glucose homeostasis, indicating that Akt carries out these functions independently of rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency efficiently restrained the reduction in nuclear localization of the cell cycle inhibitor p27, as well as the development of Akttg-driven hyperplasia and tumor formation in β-cells. In vitro experiments with Akttg and rpS6P-/-;Akttg fibroblasts demonstrated that rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency leads to reduced translation fidelity, which might underlie its anti-tumorigenic effect in the pancreas. However, the role of translation infidelity in tumor suppression cannot simply be inferred from this heterologous experimental model, as rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency unexpectedly elevated the resistance of Akttg fibroblasts to proteotoxic, genotoxic as well as autophagic stresses. In contrast, rpS6P-/- fibroblasts exhibited a higher sensitivity to these stresses upon constitutive expression of oncogenic Kras. The latter result provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the ability of rpS6 phosphorylation deficiency to enhance DNA damage and protect mice from Kras-induced neoplastic transformation in the exocrine pancreas. We propose that Akt1 and Kras exert their oncogenic properties through distinct mechanisms, even though both show addiction to rpS6 phosphorylation.

  17. Increased expression of transforming growth factor-β and receptors in primary human airway fibroblasts from chemical inhalation patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Sadat Mirzamani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulfur mustard  (SM as a chemical warfare agent in the  past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. Despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Transforming growth  factor  (TGF-β,  a  cytokine  that  affects  many  different  cell processes,  has  an important role in the lungs of patients with some of chronic airway diseases, especially with respect to airway remodeling in mustard lung.Primary airway fibroblasts from epibronchial biopsies were cultured, and gene expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TbR-I and TbR-II in fibroblasts of SM injured patients and controls were investigated. Expression of TGF-βs and receptors was measured by RT-PCR. Protein level of TGF-β1was surveyed by western blot.Our  findings revealed that expression levels of TGF-β1,  TGF-β2,  TbR-I and TbR-II were upregulated in the  airway fibroblasts of  SM exposed patients  in comparison  with control samples. TGF-β1 expression was shown to be markedly increased in primary lung fibroblasts of chemically injured patients.Our  novel data, suggested that  over-expression of TGF-β  molecule and receptors  in primary airway fibroblasts of mustard gas injured patients may be involved in progression of airway remodeling of these patients.

  18. A transformation theory of stochastic evolution in Red Moon methodology to time evolution of chemical reaction process in the full atomistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2017-05-01

    Atomistic information of a whole chemical reaction system, e.g., instantaneous microscopic molecular structures and orientations, offers important and deeper insight into clearly understanding unknown chemical phenomena. In accordance with the progress of a number of simultaneous chemical reactions, the Red Moon method (a hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics reaction method) is capable of simulating atomistically the chemical reaction process from an initial state to the final one of complex chemical reaction systems. In the present study, we have proposed a transformation theory to interpret the chemical reaction process of the Red Moon methodology as the time evolution process in harmony with the chemical kinetics. For the demonstration of the theory, we have chosen the gas reaction system in which the reversible second-order reaction H2 + I2 ⇌ 2HI occurs. First, the chemical reaction process was simulated from the initial configurational arrangement containing a number of H2 and I2 molecules, each at 300 K, 500 K, and 700 K. To reproduce the chemical equilibrium for the system, the collision frequencies for the reactions were taken into consideration in the theoretical treatment. As a result, the calculated equilibrium concentrations [H2]eq and equilibrium constants Keq at all the temperatures were in good agreement with their corresponding experimental values. Further, we applied the theoretical treatment for the time transformation to the system and have shown that the calculated half-life τ's of [H2] reproduce very well the analytical ones at all the temperatures. It is, therefore, concluded that the application of the present theoretical treatment with the Red Moon method makes it possible to analyze reasonably the time evolution of complex chemical reaction systems to chemical equilibrium at the atomistic level.

  19. Chemically blockable transformation and ultraselective low-pressure gas adsorption in a non-porous metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Byrne, Peter J; Wheatley, Paul S; Wragg, David S; Zhao, Xuebo; Fletcher, Ashleigh J; Thomas, K Mark; Peters, Lars; Evans, John S O; Warren, John E; Zhou, Wuzong; Morris, Russell E

    2009-07-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are among the most exciting materials discovered recently, attracting particular attention for their gas-adsorption and -storage properties. Certain MOFs show considerable structural flexibility in response to various stimuli. Although there are several examples of 'breathing' MOFs, in which structural changes occur without any bond breaking, examples of transformations in which several bonds are broken and made are much rarer. In this paper we demonstrate how a flexible MOF, Cu2(OH)(C8H3O7S)(H2O)2H2O, can be synthesized by careful choice of the organic linker ligand. The flexibility can be controlled by addition of a supplementary coordinating molecule, which increases the thermal stability of the solid sufficiently for direct imaging with electron microscopy to be possible. We also demonstrate that the MOF shows unprecedented low-pressure selectivity towards nitric oxide through a coordination-driven gating mechanism. The chemical control over these behaviours offers new possibilities for the synthesis of MOFs with unusual and potentially exploitable properties.

  20. Separation of electron-transfer and coupled chemical reaction components of biocatalytic processes using Fourier transform ac voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Barry D; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2005-06-01

    The underlying electron-transfer and coupled chemical processes associated with biologically important catalytic reactions can be resolved using a combination of Fourier transform ac voltammetry with an analysis of the separated dc and ac components. This outcome can be achieved because the response associated with generation of the catalytic current is essentially confined to the steady-state dc component, whereas the electron-transfer step is dominant in the fundamental and higher harmonics. For the mediated oxidation of glucose with glucose oxidase, it was found that the underlying reversible redox chemistry of the mediator, ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid, as detected in the third and higher harmonics, was totally unaffected by introduction of the catalytic process. In contrast, for the catalytic reduction of molecular oxygen by cytochrome P450, slight changes in the P450 redox process were detected when the catalytic reaction was present. Simulations of a simple catalytic reaction scheme support the fidelity of this novel FT ac voltammetric approach for examining mechanistic nuances of catalytic forms of electrochemical reaction schemes.

  1. Synthesis and the Structural Transformation of fcc to hcp in Ni-Graphene Nanocomposite by Simple Chemical Route via Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Mahale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and structural transformation of fcc to hcp in Ni-graphene (Ni-Gr composite by simple chemical route via sonication. The syntheses of Ni-Gr composite by simultaneous reduction method, and the effect of different composition ratio on morphology and crystal structure were examined in our present study. The results indicated that the graphene ratio played an important role in crystal structure and d-spacing in nickel crystals. Different compositions have shown different behavior. The nanonickel clusters of various shapes with coated graphene and decorated as nickel on graphene sheets are observed. The synthesized composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The XRD patterns indicated crystal lattice modifications in some composites while composites with a higher graphene ratio produced very small crystals with uniform lattice parameter and d-spacing. FE-SEM images indicated the growth of Datura fruit like shapes of nickel clusters in higher composition of nickel while the composites with least concentration of nickel were composed of cubical nanoparticles grown on graphene sheets. TEM analysis revealed many Ni nanoparticles surrounding the smooth petals like surface of graphene, with average diameters of spiky nickel nanoparticles being about 50 nm and 124 nm, respectively, on 200 nm of scale.

  2. 颌骨牙本质生成性影细胞瘤的复发与恶变%Recurrence and malignant transformation of intraosseous dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌斌; 李铁军

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To describe the histologic and clinical findings of recurrent intraosseous dentinogenic ghost cell tumor ( DGCT) and its malignant transformation. Methods : The clinical features, treatment, pathology and prognosis of recurrent intraosseous DGCT patients from 53 cases of mixed odontogenic tumors with ghost cells and mesenchymal inductive components were retrospectively reviewed. Results :Ten recurrent cases from 14 DGCT were all male and the age at diagnosis ranged from 18 to 60 years with an average of 32. 4 years. The main manifestation was progressive bone bulging. Radiographically the tumor was characterized by ill-defined radiolucency. Most recurrent tumors had entrenched the surrounding tissues. Seven cases occurred in the maxilla among which 2 cases were transformed into ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and 2 showed features of increased cell proliferation. Three cases occurred in the mandible among which 1 case showed a high proliferative activity. The initial surgery of all recurrent cases was curettage. Conclusion: The microscopic findings and prognosis suggested that intraosseous DGCT was locally aggressive. Multiple recurrences increased the risk of malignant transformation. Curettage alone might not be adequate for the management of DGCT. Maxillary cases with ill-defined borders, especially those showing an increased proliferative activity in biopsy or frozen section examination , should be treated more radically.%目的:探讨颌骨牙本质生成性影细胞瘤(dentinogenic ghost cell tumor,DGCT)复发和恶变的临床病理特征,为外科临床治疗方案的选择和预后判断提供依据.方法:回顾我院25年来就诊的53例含有影细胞及间充质诱导成分的混合性牙源性肿瘤,总结DGCT复发患者的临床特征、手术方式及预后情况,并对其组织学形态进行观察.结果:53例牙源性肿瘤中,14例为DGCT,其中10例复发,均为男性,平均年龄32.4岁,症状均为骨性膨隆.影像学表现

  3. Effect of cyclodextrin and transformer oil amendments on the chemical extractability of aged [14C]polychlorinated biphenyl and [14C]polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Burauel, Peter; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-09-01

    Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soils limits chemical and biological availability. Concerns exist regarding the long-term stability of sequestered contaminants in the environment, and stability needs to be demonstrated if bioavailability considerations are to be adopted into the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land. The aim of the present study was to test the short-term influence of two organic amendments on the chemical extractability of HOC residues that had been present in soils for more than 12 years. The amendments investigated were cyclodextrin and transformer oil (a light, nonaqueous phase liquid [LNAPL]). The contaminants investigated were fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in one soil and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 28 and 52 in a second soil. The addition of cyclodextrin to the soils did not result in a significant increase in chemical extractability of the residues after a 36-d contact time. The addition of transformer oil resulted in an increase in chemical extractability of the PCBs after a 14-d soil-LNAPL contact time and a further increase after a 36-d contact time. The present study demonstrates that the chemical availability of aged HOCs in soil may be influenced by the presence of other chemicals and has implications for the long-term management of contaminated land.

  4. The influence of chemical disorder enhancement on the martensitic transformation of the Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 36}Sn{sub 14} Heusler-type alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamani, E.C., E-mail: edson@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29075-910 Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, V.P.; Larica, C.; Takeuchi, A.Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29075-910 Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Alves, A.L.; Proveti, J.R. [Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, 29932-540, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil); Pereira, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), 39803-371 Teofilo Otoni, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Fabris, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica, UFVJM, 39100-000 Diamantina, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-07-28

    Highlights: > Chemical disorder affects martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys. > Martensitic transition temperature depends on the L21-ferromagnetic fraction. > Grain boundaries induce drastic reduction of magnetization in milled Heusler alloys. > Magnetic properties of the milled Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloy get better after annealing. - Abstract: The effect of chemical disorder over the martensitic phase transformation of the Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 36}Sn{sub 14} Heusler-type alloy was systematically investigated by performing X-ray diffractometry (DRX), DC magnetization and {sup 57}Fe-doping and {sup 119}Sn-Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. DRX patterns are characteristics of a L2{sub 1}-type chemically disordered structure, where the presence of this disorder was first evaluated by analyzing the relative intensity of the (1 1 1) DRX reflection, which varies in the case of Fe-doped and practically disappears for the milled samples. In consequence, the magnetic properties of Fe-doped well-milled samples related to the martensitic phase transformation change substantially. 300 K {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy data suggest that the changes in the magnetic properties related to the martensitic transformation are intrinsically correlated to the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic fractions, which are respectively associated with Fe atoms replacing Mn- and Sn-sites. In the case of milled samples, the drastic reduction of alloy magnetization was explained by the increase of the number of Mn atoms in the shell regions, which have a reduced magnetic moment comparatively to those in the grain cores. The magnetization change and the temperature transition in the martensitic transformation are governed by the grain core. The initial magnetic properties and martensitic transformation can be recovered by a subsequent annealing on the milled sample.

  5. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  6. pH-sensitive transformation of the peptidic bolaamphiphile self-assembly: exploitation for the pH-triggered chemical reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jinyoung; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2014-03-01

    Control of the macroscopic self-assembled structure of the amphiphilic molecule has been a challenging issue in micro/nanotechnologies. In this study, the microtubular self-assembly of a novel peptidic bolaamphiphile, bis(N-α-amido-glycylglycine)-1,10-decene dicarboxylate, which undergoes reversible structural transformation between microtubes and precipitates as a function of pH, was exploited for pH-triggered chemical release. At neutral and basic conditions above a pH of 6, the peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecule self-assembled to form tubular structures several hundreds of micrometers in length. When the solution became acidic below a pH of 4, the tubular assembly disintegrated to form aggregated precipitates. The reversible transformation of precipitate to microtube was achieved by raising the pH above 6. From the Raman spectroscopy results, it was revealed that the hydrogen bonds of the amide group and carboxylate were enhanced under the acidic conditions. These variation of the hydrogen bonds resulted in precipitation of peptidic bolaamphiphilic molecules while rupturing the microtubular structure. The pH-sensitive microscopic structural transformation was exploited for release of a chemical in which the pH-triggered release of a model chemical, a fluorescence dye of ANS, was demonstrated. The ANS dye was released gradually with decreasing pH, which suggests gradual disintegration of the microtubular self-assembly. Furthermore, this pH-triggered release of a chemical was exploited for the chemical reaction of gold ion reduction to produce solid clusters. This study demonstrated the reversible transformation of peptidic bolaamphiphile and its application as a pH-sensitive host matrix.

  7. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra Senapati; Diptirani Samanta; Saumyaranjan Mishra; Chaitali Bose

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors ...

  8. Sequential alterations in the hepatic content and metabolism of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP induced by DL-ethionine: evidence for malignant transformation of liver with a sustained increase in cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRubertis, F R; Craven, P A

    1976-12-01

    activity, cAMP content, and protein kinase activity ratios of ethionine-induced hepatomas exceeded those of both the surrounding liver from tumor-bearing rats and that of control liver, but alterations in these parameters were qualitatively similar in both tissues from E. By contrast, while cGMP in quick-frozen surrounding liver from tumor-bearing rats (36 +/- 4 pmole/g wet weight) did not differ from that of control liver (30 +/- 3), cGMP in the hepatomas was increased. This change was evident in both frozen tumor (89 +/- 10) and in tumor slices incubated in vitro with MIX (C, 90 +/- 11; surrounding liver, 85 +/- 10; hepatoma 231 +/- 29). These results indicate that malignant conversion can occur in liver with a sustained elevation of both total and effective cAMP during the premalignant phase. The increase in cGMP detected in ethionine-induced hepatomas could also be a key determinant of malignant transformation in the model, although premalignant changes in cGMP were not apparent.

  9. Thermal transformation of bioactive caffeic acid on fumed silica seen by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry and quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Tetiana V; Lipkovska, Natalia O; Barvinchenko, Valentyna M; Palyanytsya, Borys B; Kazakova, Olga A; Dudik, Olesia O; Menyhárd, Alfréd; László, Krisztina

    2016-05-15

    Thermochemical studies of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and their surface complexes are important for the pharmaceutical industry, medicine and for the development of technologies of heterogeneous biomass pyrolysis. In this study, structural and thermal transformations of caffeic acid complexes on silica surfaces were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) and quantum chemical methods. Two types of caffeic acid surface complexes are found to form through phenolic or carboxyl groups. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions of caffeic acid on silica surface are calculated. The mechanisms of thermal transformations of the caffeic chemisorbed surface complexes are proposed. Thermal decomposition of caffeic acid complex chemisorbed through grafted ester group proceeds via three parallel reactions, producing ketene, vinyl and acetylene derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Immobilization of phenolic acids on the silica surface improves greatly their thermal stability.

  10. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  11. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of transformation-sensitive polypeptides during chemically, spontaneously, and oncogene-induced transformation of rat liver epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, P J; Luo, L D; Fujimoto, Y

    1992-01-01

    Recently, we described the establishment of a computerized database of rat liver epithelial (RLE) cellular polypeptides (Wirth et al., Electrophoresis, 1991, 12, 931-954). This database has now been expanded to include the analysis of cellular polypeptide alterations during chemically (aflatoxin B1...

  12. Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: the state of the art on transformation products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Akin

    2014-03-01

    Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as "textile chemicals" from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity?

  13. Investigating the role for adaptation of the microbial community to transform trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether adaptation by pre-exposure to trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was necessary for microbial transformation during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Two pairs of laboratory-scale soil columns, each receiving a different primary substrate, were utilized to simulate the dominant bulk organic carbon present in MAR systems receiving wastewater effluent of varying quality and having undergone different degrees of pre-treatment, as well as organic carbon prevalent at different stages of subsurface travel. Each pair of columns consisted of duplicate set-ups receiving the same feed solution with only one pre-exposed to a suite of eight TOrCs for approximately ten months. Following the pre-exposure period, a spiking experiment was conducted in which the non-exposed columns also received the same suite of TOrCs. TOrC attenuation was quantified for the pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair during the spiking experiment. The microbial community structure and function of these systems were characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and metagenomics, respectively. Biotransformation rather than sorption was identified as the dominant removal mechanism for almost all the TOrCs (except triclocarban). Similar removal efficiencies were observed between pre-exposed and non-exposed columns for most TOrCs. No obvious differences in microbial community structure were revealed between pre- and non-exposed columns. Using metagenomics, biotransformation capacity potentials of the microbial community present were also similar between pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair. Overall, the pre-exposure of MAR systems to TOrCs at ng/L levels did not affect their attenuation and had no obvious influence on the resulting microbial community structure and function. Thus, other factors such as bioavailability of the primary substrate play a greater role regarding biotransformation of TOrCs. These results indicate that MAR systems adapted to a

  14. Anisotropy of chemical transformation from In2Se3 to CuInSe2 nanowires through solid state reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, David T; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-06-17

    In(2)Se(3) nanowires synthesized by the VLS technique are transformed by solid-state reaction with copper into high-quality single-crystalline CuInSe(2) nanowires. The process is studied by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The transformation temperature exhibits a surprising anisotropy, with In(2)Se(3) nanowires grown along their [0001] direction transforming at a surprisingly low temperature of 225 degrees C, while nanowires in a [11(2)0] orientation require a much higher temperature of 585 degrees C. These results offer a route to the synthesis of CuInSe(2) nanowires at a relatively low temperature as well as insight into the details of a transformation commonly used in the fabrication of thin-film solar cells.

  15. [Malignant soft tissue tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, A; Altmannsberger, M

    1984-01-01

    This article is a survey of actual aspects. With regard to frequency, the malignant fibrous histocytoma comes first, followed by lipo- and fibrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant schwannoma, malignant tumours proceeding from arteries and veins and the unstriated musculature. Staging and grading of these tumours are difficult. Until now their overall TNM-classification was not possible due to insufficient hard criteria.

  16. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  17. Pathway of FeEDTA transformation and its impact on performance of NOx removal in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Jingkai; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Zhang, Shihan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, employing ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Fe(II)EDTA) as a solvent, is deemed as a potential option for NOx removal from the flue gas. Previous work showed that the Fe(II)EDTA concentration was critical for the NOx removal in the CABR process. In this work, the pathway of FeEDTA (Fe(III)/Fe(II)-EDTA) transformation was investigated to assess its impact on the NOx removal in a biofilter. Experimental results revealed that the FeEDTA transformation involved iron precipitation and EDTA degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the iron was precipitated in the form of Fe(OH)3. The iron mass balance analysis showed 44.2% of the added iron was precipitated. The EDTA degradation facilitated the iron precipitation. Besides chemical oxidation, EDTA biodegradation occurred in the biofilter. The addition of extra EDTA helped recover the iron from the precipitation. The transformation of FeEDTA did not retard the NO removal. In addition, EDTA rather than the iron concentration determined the NO removal efficiency.

  18. Direct observation of bulk and surface chemical morphologies of Ginkgo biloba leaves by Fourier transform mid- and near-infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun

    2013-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy is a powerful tool to obtain knowledge about the spatial and/or temporal distributions of the chemical compositions of plants for better understanding of their biological properties. However, the chemical morphologies of plant leaves in the plane of the blade are barely studied, because sections in this plane for mid-infrared transmission measurements are difficult to obtain. Besides, native compositions may be changed by chemical reagents used when plant samples are microtomed. To improve methods for direct infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant leaves in the plane of the blade, the bulk and surface chemical morphologies of nonmicrotomed Ginkgo biloba leaves were characterized by near-infrared transmission and mid-infrared attenuated total reflection microspectroscopic imaging. A new self-modeling curve resolution procedure was proposed to extract the spectral and concentration information of pure compounds. Primary and secondary metabolites of secretory cavities, veins, and mesophylls of Ginkgo biloba leaf blades were analyzed, and the distributions of cuticle, protein, calcium oxalate, cellulose, and ginkgolic acids on the adaxial surface were determined. By the integration of multiple infrared microspectroscopic imaging and chemometrics methods, it is possible to analyze nonmicrotomed leaves and other plant samples directly to understand their native chemical morphologies in detail.

  19. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose: biocatalytic and chemical synthetic methods for the preparation, transformation and derivatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundt, Inge; Yu, Shukun

    2010-01-01

    1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose (1,5AnFru) is a monoketosaccharide that can be prepared enzymatically from starch by a-1,4-glucan lyase or chemically from D-glucose or D-fructose in a few steps with high yields. The formed 1,5AnFru can be derivatized both enzymatically and chemically to interesting new...... carbohydrate derivatives, some with biological activities. For example dehydratases, isomerases and reductases can convert 1,5AnFru to enolones (as Ascopyrone P) and sugar alcohols with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, while chemical modifications can give similar compounds as well as natural products...

  20. DNA methylation analysis in malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Oishi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Here, we report two noteworthy genes, ACSBG1 and MAST1; the aberrant promoter methylation/demethylation of these genes might be involved in their silencing/expression in malignant PCC/PGL. Further investigations are necessary to determine the role of ACSBG1 and/or MAST1 expression in malignant transformation and to establish pathological markers that can evaluate the malignant potential of PCC/PGL.

  1. Structured Process Energy-Exergy-Flow Diagram and Ideality Index for Analysis of Energy Transformation in Chemical Processes (Part 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiroshi OAKI; Masaru ISHIDA; Tsuneo IKAWA

    1981-01-01

      A new diagram called structured process energy-exergy-flow diagram (SPEED) is proposed to systematically analyze the structure of energy flow in chemical processes and to design the process structures effectively...

  2. Malignant mesothelioma, clinical, diagnostic and cell biological investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Versnel (Marjan)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to improve the diagnosis of human malignant mesothelioma on the one hand and to investigate the growth regulation and transformation of normal and malignant mesothelial cells on the other hand. In this thesis improvement of diagnosis was approached by the se

  3. Availability of methods of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics for the analysis of chemical transformations on metal surfaces under pulsed laser action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiko, V. P.; Slobodov, A. A.; Odintsova, G. V.

    2013-06-01

    A computational thermodynamic approach to determining the phase-chemical composition of films formed on the surface of metals and alloys under laser oxidation in the normal atmosphere, depending on their bulk composition, laser exposure conditions, and composition of the atmosphere, is suggested. It is demonstrated for the example of a complex alloy (alloyed steel of Russian brand 12X18H10T) subjected to laser heating in air that, among the wide variety of different possible reactions of iron, nickel, or chromium with the components of air (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, its compounds, atmospheric moisture, etc), only strictly defined reactions can occur. First of all these are metal oxidation processes with the formation of an oxide film whose phase and chemical composition is determined by temperature and heating duration. Simulated results are confirmed by the experimental data provided by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy affecting the occipital squama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar T

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the occipital squama, which underwent malignant transformation in a nine-month-old infant is reported and pertinent literature reviewed.

  5. Characterization of chemical constituents in Rhodiola Crenulate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Xu, Rui; Yin, Ran

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an approach using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (HPLC-FT-ICR MS) for the identification and profiling of chemical constituents in Rhodiola crenulata was developed for the first time. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm,3 µm) using a gradient elution program, and the detection was performed on a Bruker Solarix 7.0 T mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 48 chemical compounds, including 26 alcohols and their glycosides, 12 flavonoids and their glycosides, 5 flavanols and gallic acid derivatives, 4 organic acids and 1 cyanogenic glycoside were identified or tentatively characterized. The results indicated that the developed HPLC-FT-ICR MS method with ultra-high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents in R. crenulata. And it provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on R. crenulata. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the

  7. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging, High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Detection of Single Cancer Cells and Single Viral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu,I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T

    2004-01-01

    Single Cancer Cells from Human tumors are being detected and imaged by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR)Hyperspectral Imaging and Fluorescence Correlation Microspectroscopy. The first FT-NIR chemical, microscopic images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are here reported. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are also presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos as well as 99% accurate calibrations are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such high-resolution, 400 MHz H-1 NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. >~20%) compared to the average levels in non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monito...

  8. Laboratory simulations of the transformation of peas as a result of heat treatment: changes of the physical and chemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, F.; Boon, J.J.; Veld, H.; David, P.; Bergen, P.F. van

    2004-01-01

    The residues of heated organic remains, usually called carbonized or charred remains, are ubiquitous in the archaeological record and are often used to interpret certain aspects of past ways of living. This study focuses on the physical and chemical alterations, both as a function of temperature and

  9. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  10. Malignant colorectal polyps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Bujanda; Angel; Cosme; Ines; Gil; Juan; I; Arenas-Mirave

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of cases in which malignant colorectal polyps are removed is increasing due to colorectal cancer screening programmes. Cancerous polyps are classified into non-invasive high grade neoplasia (NHGN), when the cancer has not reached the muscularis mucosa, and malignant polyps, classed as T1, when they have invaded the submucosa. NHGN is considered cured with polypectomy, while the prognosis for malignant polyps depends on various morphological and histological factors. The prognostic facto...

  11. Pedunculated malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Ramesha

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo, in the case presented, suggests, that the body′s immunological process may have arrested the spread of the melanoma.

  12. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature.

  13. Chemical and physical transformations of aluminosilicate clay minerals due to acid treatment and consequences for heterogeneous ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Sarah K; Schill, Gregory P; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Veghte, Daniel P; Tolbert, Margaret A; Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2014-09-25

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the largest contributors to global ice nuclei, but physical and chemical processing of dust during atmospheric transport can alter its ice nucleation activity. In particular, several recent studies have noted that sulfuric and nitric acids inhibit heterogeneous ice nucleation in the regime below liquid water saturation in aluminosilicate clay minerals. We have exposed kaolinite, KGa-1b and KGa-2, and montmorillonite, STx-1b and SWy-2, to aqueous sulfuric and nitric acid to determine the physical and chemical changes that are responsible for the observed deactivation. To characterize the changes to the samples upon acid treatment, we use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. We find that the reaction of kaolinite and montmorillonite with aqueous sulfuric acid results in the formation of hydrated aluminum sulfate. In addition, sulfuric and nitric acids induce large structural changes in montmorillonite. We additionally report the supersaturation with respect to ice required for the onset of ice nucleation for these acid-treated species. On the basis of lattice spacing arguments, we explain how the chemical and physical changes observed upon acid treatment could lead to the observed reduction in ice nucleation activity.

  14. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-01-18

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  15. MALIGNANT CHANGE IN A SOLITARY CYLINDROMA: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cylindroma is a rare tumour which originates from skin appendages. Cylindromas are of two types namely solitary and multiple. Malignant transformation of cylindroma is unusual and is extremely rare in solitary type. They show strong predilection for middle aged and elderly females. We report a case of a 70 year old male patient presented with nodular swelling along with surface ulceration in the right axillary region since six months, which on histopathological examination revealed a case of malignant transformation of benign solitary cylindroma. We report a rare case of malignant cylindroma arising in a patient with solitary cylindroma at an unusual site

  16. Site-Targeted Interfacial Solid-Phase Chemistry: Surface Functionalization of Organic Monolayers via Chemical Transformations Locally Induced at the Boundary between Two Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Rivka; Burshtain, Doron; Cohen, Hagai; Nelson, Peter; Berson, Jonathan; Yoffe, Alexander; Sagiv, Jacob

    2016-09-26

    Effective control of chemistry at interfaces is of fundamental importance for the advancement of methods of surface functionalization and patterning that are at the basis of many scientific and technological applications. A conceptually new type of interfacial chemical transformations has been discovered, confined to the contact surface between two solid materials, which may be induced by exposure to X-rays, electrons or UV light, or by the application of electrical bias. One of the reacting solids is a removable thin film coating that acts as a reagent/catalyst in the chemical modification of the solid surface on which it is applied. Given the diversity of thin film coatings that may be used as solid reagents/catalysts and the lateral confinement options provided by the use of irradiation masks, conductive AFM probes or stamps, and electron beams in such solid-phase reactions, this approach is suitable for precise targeting of different desired chemical modifications to predefined surface sites spanning the macro- to nanoscale.

  17. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  18. Malignant vagal paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Camilla S; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise S

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 20 cases of malignant vagal paragangliomas (MVP)have been reported in English literature. Malignancy is based on the presence of metastases. A careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to detect multicentricity and/or significant production of catecholamines. A new case of MVP tr...

  19. Numerical modeling of gas mixing and bio-chemical transformations during underground hydrogen storage within the project H2STORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, B.; Feldmann, F.; Panfilov, M.; Ganzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    The change from fossil to renewable energy sources is demanding an increasing amount of storage capacities for electrical energy. A promising technological solution is the storage of hydrogen in the subsurface. Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis using excessive electrical energy and subsequently converted back into electricity by fuel cells or engine generators. The development of this technology starts with adding small amounts of hydrogen to the high pressure natural gas grid and continues with the creation of pure underground hydrogen storages. The feasibility of hydrogen storage in depleted gas reservoirs is investigated in the lighthouse project H2STORE financed by the German Ministry for Education and Research. The joint research project has project members from the University of Jena, the Clausthal University of Technology, the GFZ Potsdam and the French National Center for Scientic Research in Nancy. The six sub projects are based on laboratory experiments, numerical simulations and analytical work which cover the investigation of mineralogical, geochemical, physio-chemical, sedimentological, microbiological and gas mixing processes in reservoir and cap rocks. The focus in this presentation is on the numerical modeling of underground hydrogen storage. A mathematical model was developed which describes the involved coupled hydrodynamic and microbiological effects. Thereby, the bio-chemical reaction rates depend on the kinetics of microbial growth which is induced by the injection of hydrogen. The model has been numerically implemented on the basis of the open source code DuMuX. A field case study based on a real German gas reservoir was performed to investigate the mixing of hydrogen with residual gases and to discover the consequences of bio-chemical reactions.

  20. Valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) evolution: a tool to investigate the transformations within a VSCC throughout a chemical reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Gómez, Rosa María; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Sánchez-Obregón, María Azucena; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel

    2011-11-17

    Theoretical studies about reaction mechanisms are usually limited to the determination of the energetic paths that connect reactants, transition states, and products. Recently, our group proposed the structural evolution, which has provided insights about the molecular structure changes occurring along a reaction path. Structural evolution may be defined as the development of a chemical reaction system across the partitioning of the nuclear configuration space into a finite number of structural regions defined on account of the topology of a scalar field, e.g., the electron density. In this paper, we present a tool to investigate within the framework of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules the evolvement of the Valence Shell Charge Concentration, the VSCC evolution, which is the description of the changes of electron density concentrations and depletions around the bonding area of an atom. The VSCC evolution provides supplementary information to the structural evolution because it allows the analysis of valence shells within a structural region, i.e., a subset of R(Q) with the same connectivity among the atoms forming a molecule. This new approach constitutes also a complement to the Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model because it gives an account of the adjustments of electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom across a chemical reaction. The insertion reaction in the hydroformylation reaction of ethylene, the reduction of cyclohexanone with lithium aluminum hydride, the oxidation of methanol with chlorochromate, and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution of CH(3)F with F(-) are used as representatives examples of the application of the VSCC evolution. Overall, this paper shows how the VSCC evolution through an analysis of the modifications of local charge concentrations and depletions in individual steps of a chemical reaction gives new insights about these processes.

  1. Familial malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

    1986-10-10

    Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

  2. Malignant tumor formation at the site of previously irradiated acanthomatous epulides in four dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, D.E.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.

    1981-01-15

    The radiation response of acanthomatous epulis in 32 dogs was good, with an estimated median survival time of 21 months. Of the 32 patients, 14 have died. In 4 of those 14, malignant tumors developed at the site of the acanthomatous epulis. The tumors were of epithelial origin in 3 patients and of mesenchymal origin in 1 patient. Possibilities explaining the appearance of the malignancies included spontaneous malignant transformation, radiation induction of neoplasms, and radiation induction of malignant transformation. This uncommon complication was not considered contradictory to radiotherapy of acanthomatous epulides, because of their excellent response to irradiation and the long latent period between irradiation and appearance of the malignant tumor.

  3. An analysis of clinical consultation activities in clinical chemistry: implications for transformation and resident training in chemical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert L; Garcia, Christopher A; Panlener, Jeanne; Ashwood, Edward R; Jackson, Brian R; Hussong, Jerry W

    2014-05-01

    Clinical consultation is a key role of pathologists. Many have advocated that pathologists expand their consulting activities to improve laboratory utilization. Although many have suggested that residency programs need to provide experience in clinical consultation, little has been written on the nature of consultation or on the methods of training. To characterize the content of consultations and to describe training in consultation in chemical pathology within the residency program at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Retrospective review of the consultation database for the period between July 2011 and July 2012. Residents performed an average of 159 consultations a month covering 276 topics during the course of a year. Each topic involved 1 or more specific tests. Eighty percent of the topics received fewer than 12 calls. The most common topics involved virus testing (eg, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). Consultations most often involved test interpretation (53%), selection (38%), and performance characteristics (21%). Twenty-seven percent of consultations involved 2 or more consultation categories (eg, interpretation and performance). Consultation calls in chemical pathology are widely distributed across topics. Consultations most often involve test interpretation and selection. Methods to assess the effectiveness of consultations and resident teaching should be devised.

  4. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: semisynthesis of salvinicins A and B and other chemical transformations of salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W; Schmidt, Matthew; Tidgewell, Kevin; Kannan, Pavitra; Holden, Kenneth G; Gilmour, Brian; Navarro, Hernan; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1) is a hallucinogenic neoclerodane diterpene isolated from the widely available psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum and is the first example of a non-nitrogenous opioid receptor ligand. At present, there is little information available as to why this compound is selective for kappa opioid receptors. One approach to better understanding the mode of binding of 1 at kappa receptors is to systematically alter the structure of 1 and examine the effects on opioid receptor affinity and activity. Currently, there is a paucity of methods described for the preparation of analogues derived from 1. Here, we report the investigation of several chemical transformations of 1 isolated from S. divinorum. In particular, this work provides a semisynthesis of salvinicins A (2) and B (3) and has identified 10a as the first neoclerodane diterpene with delta opioid antagonist activity.

  5. Evaluation of Chemical and Mineralogical Transformation of Iron in Different Soils in Saturated and Field Capacity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadatpour Mogaddam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Redox potential is one of the most important factors affecting on the solubility of iron minerals in soil. Decreasing redox potential in soil reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+, thereby affecting on solubility of Fe minerals. Application of organic matter to soil under waterlogging condition, decrease redox potential and as a consequence, accelerate the transformation of Fe minerals. The objectives of this study were: 1- The effect of waterlogging on the soluble total Fe concentration and transformation of Fe minerals in different soil pH values. 2- The indirect effects of organic matter on solubility of Fe minerals by changing the redox potential of the soils. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted to determine the effects of redox potential on solubility of Fe and transformation of Fe minerals during the time. Four agricultural soils were selected from different regions of Iran. The soil samples were treated with 0 (Cand 2% (O alfalfa powder and then incubated for 12 weeks under 60% Field capacity (F and waterlogged conditions (S. Subsamples were taken after 1and 12 weeks of incubation and the redox potential, pH value, electrical conductivity (EC, soluble cations (such as Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and anions (such as Cl-, SO42-, PO43- and NO3- and soluble Fe concentrations in the subsamples were measured. Concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ species in soil solution were also predicted using Visual MINTEQ speciation program. Mineralogical transformation of Fe minerals was also determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. Results and Discussion: The results in 60% Field capacity condition showed that pH value by organic matter (alfalfa powder application (OF increased significantly (p≤ 0.05 in acid and neutral soils and decreased in calcareous soils when compared to the control (CF. Organic matter is usually capable of lowering pH of alkaline soils by releasing hydrogen ions associated with organic anions or by nitrification in an open

  6. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  7. Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bilayer films induced by vacuum annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, W; Keim, E G; Kaszkur, Z; van den Berg, A H J; Smithers, M A

    2007-11-01

    Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD(y)) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi(2) bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD(y)/Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD(y), as a consequence of annealing the TiD(y)/Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD(y) film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi(2) phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film.

  8. Simultaneous chemical modification and structural transformation of Stöber silica spheres for integration of nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2012-01-10

    A synthetic approach has been devised to convert conventional Stöber silica (SiO 2) spheres into a new type of porous structural platform for supporting multicomponent catalysts. With this approach, we have first prepared zinc-doped SiO 2 (Zn-SiO 2) hollow spheres, on which zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have been deposited and assembled sequentially in solution phase. A series of complex Ru/ZnO/Zn-SiO 2 nanocatalysts has been thus been integrated onto the zinc-doped SiO 2 supports after additional thermal treatment and reduction. To test their workability under harsh reactive environments, we have further evaluated the above prepared catalysts using arene hydrogenation as model reactions. These integrated nanocatalysts have shown superior activity, high robustness, and easy recovery in the studied heterogeneous catalysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Transformation of oil palm fronds into pentose sugars using copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate with the assistance of chemical additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loow, Yu-Loong; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2017-05-22

    Among the chemical pretreatments available for pretreating biomass, the inorganic salt is considered to be a relatively new but simple reagent that offers comparable pentose (C5) sugar recoveries as the conventional dilute acid hydrolysis. This study investigated the effects of different concentrations (1.5-6.0% (v/v)) of H2O2 or Na2S2O8 in facilitating CuSO4·5H2O pretreatment for improving pentose sugar recovery from oil palm fronds. The best result was observed when 0.2 mol/L of CuSO4·5H2O was integrated with 4.5% (v/v) of Na2S2O8 to recover 8.2 and 0.9 g/L of monomeric xylose and arabinose, respectively in the liquid fraction. On the other hand, an addition of 1.5% (v/v) of H2O2 yielded approximately 74% lesser total pentose sugars as compared to using 4.5% (v/v) Na2S2O8. By using CuSO4·5H2O alone (control), only 0.8 and 1.0 g/L xylose and arabinose, respectively could be achieved. The results mirrored the importance of using chemical additives together with the inorganic salt pretreatment of oil palm fronds. Thus, an addition of 4.5% (v/v) of Na2S2O8 during CuSO4·5H2O pretreatment of oil palm fronds at 120 °C and 30 min was able to attain a total pentose sugar yield up to ∼40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastroprotective effects of new diterpenoid derivatives from Azorella cuatrecasasii Mathias & Constance obtained using a β-cyclodextrin complex with microbial and chemical transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Quispe, Cristina; Simirgiotis, Mario; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Areche, Carlos

    2016-07-15

    Mulinane diterpenoids isolated from Azorella species have displayed gastroprotective effects in animal models. In this study we have transformed the main constituent, mulin-11,13-dien-20 oic acid from this plant using the filamentous fungus Mucor plumbeus and a β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and we have obtained two main products with good yields (33% and 15% for compound 4 and 5, respectively) for further preparation of semisynthetic derivatives to evaluate their gastroprotective effects. In addition, one of the compounds isolated from Azorella cuatrecasasii was new (9-epi-13α-hydroxymulinene 1). Six new derivatives 4a-4c and 5a-5c were then prepared by simple chemical transformations. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means based on 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Some 8 diterpenes were evaluated for their gastroprotective effects in the ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model in mice at 20mg/kg. The highest gastroprotective activity was shown by 7α,16-dihydroxymulin-11,13-dien-20-oic acid 5, which was higher than the reference drug lansoprazole, while 16-hydroxymulin-11,13-dien-20-oic acid 4 was as active as lansoprazole.

  11. 食管鳞癌恶性表型相关蛋白的蛋白质组学研究%Proteomic identification of malignant transformation-related proteins in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛保华; 齐义军; 曹世华; 邱政夫; 马远方; 何庆瑜

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To identify differentially expressed proteins related with malignant transformation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using proteomic analysis. Methods:Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization timE-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in combination with protein database searching were used to determine and identify differentially expressed proteins in esophageal cancer cell lines (EC1, EC18, and EC109) and immortal cell line (NECA-E6E7-hTERT). Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to verify the differential expression of annexin 2 in esophageal cancer cell lines and immortal cell line (NECA-E6E7-hTERT). Real-time fluorogentic quantitative PCR(RFQ-PCR) was performed to analyze the expression level of annexin A2 mRNA.Results: A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins were identified with more than 5 folds difference. Among them three proteins were down-regulated and 12 proteins were up-regulated. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis verified the down-regulation of annexin A2 protein in ESCC cell lines. However, differential expression pattern of annexin A2 mRNA was not consistant with its protein expression in ESCC cell lines and immortal cell line (NECA-E6E7-hTERT). Conclusion:The findings provide important clues for identifying the candidate biomarkers for high-risk population screening and early diagnosis of ESCC. Post-translative regulation/modification contributes to the down-regulation of annexin A2 protein.%目的:利用蛋白质组学技术探讨与人食管鳞癌细胞(esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, ESCC)恶性表型转化相关的差异表达的蛋白质谱.方法:采用二维双向电泳(two-dimensional electrophoresis, 2-DE)和基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱(matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation timE-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF-MS)法鉴定人食管上皮永生化细胞株NECA-E6E7-hTERT和ESCC细胞株EC1

  12. The Structure and Molecular Parameters of Camphene Determined by Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Dréan, Pascal; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds, from plants has strong revelance for plant physiology, plant ecology and atmospheric chemistry. Camphene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene which is emitted in the atmosphere by biogenic sources. The structure of the unique stable conformer was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The rotational spectrum of camphene was recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. Signals from the parent species and from the ten 13C isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. A magnetic hyperfine structure associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled.The rotational constants coupled to the equilibrium structure calculations were used to determine the r_0 and the r_m(1) gas-phase geometries of the carbon skeleton. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of camphene in the gas phase and these results are also relevant for ozonolysis kinetics study through Criegee intermediates. R. Baraldi, F. Rapparini, O. Facini, D. Spano and P. Duce, Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol.6, No.1, (2005). A. Bracho-Nunez, N. M. Knothe, S. Welter, M. Staudt, W. R. Costa, M. A. R. Liberato, M. T. F. Piedade, and J. Kesselmeier Biogeosciences, 10, 5855-5873, (2013). Minna Kivimäenpää, Narantsetseg Magsarjav, Rajendra Ghimire, Juha-Matti Markkanen, Juha Heijari, Martti Vuorinen and Jarmo K. Holopainen, Atmospheric Environment, 60, 477-485, (2012). R.C. de M. Oliveira and G. F. Bauerfeldt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 119 2802-2812 (2015)

  13. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy: a tool to identify gross chemical changes from healthy to yellow band disease tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Mayamarú; López, Maria Antonieta; Estéves, Ivan; Zubillaga, Ainhoa L; Cróquer, Aldo

    2014-01-16

    Yellow band disease (YBD) is a common and wide-spread Caribbean syndrome that affects the genus Orbicella, a group of species that constitute the framework of Caribbean coral reefs. Previous studies have shown that the structure and function of bacterial assemblages vary between healthy tissues and YBD lesions; however, how the molecular composition of tissues varies as tissues transition from healthy to YBD has not been determined before. The present study provides the first survey of macromolecules found from healthy (H), apparently healthy (AH), transition (TR) and YBD tissues of Orbicella faveolata. For this, we used Fourier-transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to compare absorption profiles as a proxy for the gross molecular composition of decalcified H, AH and YBD tissues. We found a significantly higher level of infrared absorption for bands assigned to lipids in H tissues compared to YBD tissues, suggesting that lipid compounds are more abundant in compromised tissues in relation to other macromolecules. We also found a lower level of intensity of bands assigned to carbohydrates and proteins in YBD tissues, compared to H and AH tissues. A similar pattern was observed for phospholipidic compounds in relation to fatty acids. This study is the first to show that healthy and YBD-compromised tissues have different infrared absorption profiles, suggesting that alterations in the biochemical composition occur during pathogenesis. Future studies should focus on determining the actual concentration of these compounds in H, AH, TR and YBD tissues and on testing the role of translocation of photoassimilates from H tissues and/or from endolithic algae to YBD tissues.

  14. One-Step Synthesis and Magnetic Phase Transformation of Ln-TM-B Alloy by Chemical Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Kim, Young Hwan; Cha, Hyun Gil; Lee, Don Keun; Kang, Young Soo

    2007-04-11

    Binary and ternary intermetallic alloy systems are of interest for a variety of academic and technological applications. Despite recent advances in synthesizing binary alloy, there are very few reports of ternary alloy related to lanthanide series. The purpose of this work is to contribute to ternary alloy systems such as lanthanide-transition metal-boron with a simple chemical method and analysis of its magnetic behavior. Ternary Nd-Fe-B amorphous alloy was successfully synthesized with borohydride. The magnetic behavior in the process of formation of ternary Nd-Fe-B alloy and Nd2Fe14B from amorphous phase alloy is reported. Compared with the synthesis of a transition metal, the existence of a lanthanide ion makes aggregates-like particles with a diameter of 2 nm possible in the formation of a nanosphere, which is a significantly important result in terms of acceleration of the reduction-diffusion reaction for the formation of ternary alloy. In the process of reduction and diffusion, the Nd phase is diffused into the Fe-based phase, and then the ternary Nd2Fe14B intermetallic compound is fabricated.

  15. Hematologic malignancies during preg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam K. Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy is the second most common cause of mortality in the reproductive period and it complicates up to one out of every 1000 pregnancies. When cancer is diagnosed during pregnancy, the management approach must take into consideration both the mother and her fetus. Hematologic cancers diagnosed in pregnancy are not common, resulting in paucity of randomized controlled trials. Diagnosis of such malignancies may be missed or delayed, as their symptoms are similar to those encountered during normal pregnancy. Also, many imaging studies may be hazardous during pregnancy. Management of these malignancies during pregnancy induces many treatment-related risks for mother and baby and should consider patient’s preferences for pregnancy continuation. In this article, hematologic malignancies diagnosed in pregnant patients including acute leukemias, chronic myeloid leukemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myeloproliferative neoplasms, will be reviewed, including diagnostic and management strategies and their impact on the pregnant patient and the developing fetus.

  16. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  17. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-01-01

    Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM) is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional ...

  18. Malignant chondroid syringoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala P

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available An adult female presented with a painful recurrent swelling on the posterior aspect of the scalp of six months′ duration, which was clinically diagnosed as fibroma. An excision biopsy showed anaplastic epithelial cells arranged in irregular cords and trabeculae, mitosis, malignant chondroid areas, desmoplasia and perineural invasion, suggesting malignancy. Wide excision of the tumor was the only treatment given since there was no metastasis.

  19. Stents for malignant ureteral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant ureteral obstruction can result in renal dysfunction or urosepsis and can limit the physician's ability to treat the underlying cancer. There are multiple methods to deal with ureteral obstruction including regular polymeric double J stents (DJS, tandem DJS, nephrostomy tubes, and then more specialized products such as solid metal stents (e.g., Resonance Stent, Cook Medical and polyurethane stents reinforced with nickel-titanium (e.g., UVENTA stents, TaeWoong Medical. In patients who require long-term stenting, a nephrostomy tube could be transformed subcutaneously into an extra-anatomic stent that is then inserted into the bladder subcutaneously. We outline the most recent developments published since 2012 and report on identifiable risk factors that predict for failure of urinary drainage. These failures are typically a sign of cancer progression and the natural history of the disease rather than the individual type of drainage device. Factors that were identified to predict drainage failure included low serum albumin, bilateral hydronephrosis, elevated C-reactive protein, and the presence of pleural effusion. Head-to-head studies show that metal stents are superior to polymeric DJS in terms of maintaining patency. Discussions with the patient should take into consideration the frequency that exchanges will be needed, the need for externalized hardware (with nephrostomy tubes, or severe urinary symptoms in the case of internal DJS. This review will highlight the current state of diversions in the setting of malignant ureteral obstruction.

  20. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  1. New technology for the investigation of water vapor sorption-induced crystallographic form transformations of chemical compounds: a water vapor sorption gravimetry-dispersive Raman spectroscopy coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feth, Martin Philipp; Jurascheck, Jörg; Spitzenberg, Michael; Dillenz, Jürgen; Bertele, Günter; Stark, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    In this study, a new dynamic water vapor sorption gravimetry (DWVSG)-Raman spectroscopy coupled system is presented and described for the investigation of water (de)sorption-induced solid-phase transition of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The innovative characteristic of the system is the possibility to measure up to 23 samples gravimetrically and spectroscopically in one sorption/desorption experiment. The used dispersive RXN1 Raman system with a 6-mm laser spot P(h) AT probe head is ideal for this kind of coupled technology, as the energy density at the point of measurement of the sample is low, which grants that gravimetrical data and the state of the sample (phase transformations or even degradation) are not influenced by the laser beam. The capabilities of the system were tested by the investigation of a crystalline, nonstoichiometric hydrate form (form 1) and the corresponding X-ray amorphous form of an API (SAR474832). For the crystalline hydrate form, it was possible to correlate the weight loss at low humidities to a crystallographic phase transition (form 2). Furthermore, it was possible to show that the phase transition is reversible upon water uptake (sorption cycle); however, a further intermediate crystal form (form 3) is involved in the rehydration process. By multivariate curve resolution analysis of the Raman spectra, the form distribution diagrams of the desorption/sorption cycle could be constructed. For the amorphous material, the recrystallization process was monitored by the changes in the Raman spectra. The recrystallization point was detected at high humidities (>90% relative humidity), the crystal phase formed was identified (form 1), and the time needed for the conversion into the crystalline state was determined. The form transformation processes were visualized by contour plots (time/humidity vs. wavenumber vs. Raman intensity). In summary, it was concluded that the presented water sorption gravimetry-Raman spectroscopy

  2. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. T.; Sommerville, S. M. M.; Grimer, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1) patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%); (2) patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%); (3) patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%). The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality. PMID:18414590

  3. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Grimer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1 patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%; (2 patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%; (3 patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality.

  4. Assessment of silicone as support to investigate the transformation routes of organic chemicals under environmental conditions and UV exposure. Application to selected fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Cela, R

    2013-05-01

    The suitability of bulk silicone as support to follow the degradation of chemical compounds under environmental conditions and UV radiation is illustrated selecting three fungicides (fenhexamid, FEN; triadimenol, TRI and difenoconazole, DIF) as model compounds. These precursor species were first absorbed in silicone supports (10 mm length × 2 mm i.d. and 0.5 mm thickness) and then kept outdoors for several days (up to 2 months) or exposed to UV radiation (254 nm), from a low pressure mercury lamp, in the laboratory. Degradation of precursor fungicides and by-products formation was followed by liquid chromatography (LC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS), after desorption of silicone supports using 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. Half-lives (t(1/2)) measured under UV exposure varied from 5 to 100 min. As regards environmental conditions, the most stable fungicide was DIF, degraded by just 15 % after 2 months; whereas, t(1/2) values of 30 and 83 h were calculated for FEN during summer and autumn, respectively. Supports contained by-products arising from precursor species through de-chlorination, cleavage, hydroxylation, intra-molecular cyclation and oligomerization reactions. Most of them have been previously identified in soil surface, vegetable leaves and water after application of fungicides in agriculture fields. The low cost of silicone tubes (ca. 0.4 Euros), added to their excellent chemical stability and capability to retain precursor species and their by-products, make them ideal supports to follow the transformation routes of organic compounds under environmental and simulated conditions, even for relatively stable species with t(1/2) in the range of weeks or months.

  5. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mandy M.; Huang, Kevin M.; Yeung, Steven; Chang, Andy; Zhang, Suhui; Mei, Nan; Parsa, Cyrus; Orlando, Robert; Huang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR) mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. PMID:28335476

  6. Melanocyte Transformation Associated with Substrate Adhesion Impediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli M. Oba-Shinjo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Exclude experimental models of malignant transformation employ chemical and physical carcinogens or genetic manipulations to study tumor progression. In this work, different melanoma cell lines were established after submitting a nontumorigenic melanocyte lineage (melan-a to sequential cycles of forced anchorage impediment. The great majority of these cells underwent anoikis when maintained in suspension. After one deadhesion cycle, phenotypic alterations were noticeable in the few surviving cells, which became more numerous and showed progressive alterations after each adhesion impediment step. No significant differences in cell surface expression of integrins were detected, but a clear electrophoretic migration shift, compatible with an altered glycosylation pattern, was observed for β1 chain in transformed cell lines. In parallel, a progressive enrichment of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans was apparent, suggesting increased N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase V activity. Alterations both in proteoglycan glycosylation pattern and core protein expression were detected during the transformation process. In conclusion, this model corroborates the role of adhesion state as a promoting agent in transformation process and demonstrates that cell adhesion disturbances may act as carcinogenic stimuli, at least for a nontumorigenic immortalized melanocyte lineage. These findings have intriguing implications for in vivo carcinogenesis, suggesting that anchorage independence may precede, and contribute to, neoplastic conversion.

  7. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  8. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  9. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  10. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  11. Chemical cross-linking of the urease complex from Helicobacter pylori and analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsohn, Elisabet; Ångström, Jonas; Emmett, Mark R.; Marshall, Alan G.; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Chemical cross-linking of proteins is a well-established method for structural mapping of small protein complexes. When combined with mass spectrometry, cross-linking can reveal protein topology and identify contact sites between the peptide surfaces. When applied to surface-exposed proteins from pathogenic organisms, the method can reveal structural details that are useful in vaccine design. In order to investigate the possibilities of applying cross-linking on larger protein complexes, we selected the urease enzyme from Helicobacter pylori as a model. This membrane-associated protein complex consists of two subunits: [alpha] (26.5 kDa) and [beta] (61.7 kDa). Three ([alpha][beta]) heterodimers form a trimeric ([alpha][beta])3 assembly which further associates into a unique dodecameric 1.1 MDa complex composed of four ([alpha][beta])3 units. Cross-linked peptides from trypsin-digested urease complex were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and molecular modeling. Two potential cross-linked peptides (present in the cross-linked sample but undetectable in [alpha], [beta], and native complex) were assigned. Molecular modeling of urease [alpha][beta] complex and trimeric urease units ([alpha][beta])3 revealed a linkage site between the [alpha]-subunit and the [beta]-subunit, and an internal cross-linkage in the [beta]-subunit.

  12. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  13. In-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy gas phase studies of vanadium (IV) oxide coating by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition using vanadyl (IV) acetylacetonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardou, D. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Cockroft Building, Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Pemble, M.E. [Tyndall National institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)], E-mail: martyn.pemble@tyndall.ie; Sheel, D.W. [Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Cockroft Building, Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-30

    This paper describes the use of in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to monitor the gas phase reactions of the formation of VO{sub 2} thin films from VO(acac){sub 2} under atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition conditions. In the absence of O{sub 2}, it is found that anhydride species may form, while there is also some evidence of ester species. In the presence of O{sub 2}, the spectra obtained are almost identical to those in the absence of O{sub 2}. However in this case, there is also some indication for the enhanced production of CO and the suppression of the formation of C-H species. A possible mechanism for the formation of VO{sub 2} is proposed, which involves the release of two C{sub 3}H{sub 4} molecules and the decomposition of vanadyl (IV) acetylacetonate into VO(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, which then further decomposes to yield (CH{sub 3}CO){sub 2}O and VO{sub 2}. However, while spectroscopic evidence for the formation of these species is presented, the mechanism proposed cannot be confirmed on the basis of these data alone.

  14. Large scale modeling of the transport, chemical transformation and mass budget of the sulfur emitted during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tulet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In April 2007, the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion island entered into its biggest eruption recorded in the last century. Due to the absence of a sensors network in the vicinity of the volcano, an estimation of degassing during the paroxysmal phase of the event has not been performed. Nevertheless, the SO2 plume and aerosols have been observed by the OMI and CALIOP space sensors, respectively. The mesoscale chemical model MesoNH-C simulates the observed bulk mass of SO2 and the general shape of the SO2 plume spreading over the Indian Ocean. Moreover, an analysis of the SO2 plume budget estimates a total SO2 release of 230 kt, among of which 60 kt have been transformed into H2SO4. 27 kt of SO2 and 21 kt of H2SO4 have been deposited at the surface by dry deposition. With this top down approach, the temporal evolution of the SO2 emission has been estimated during the most active period of the eruption. The peak of degassing was estimated at 1800 kg s−1 in the morning of 6~April. The temporal evolution of SO2 emission presented here can also be used for local studies.

  15. 18F-FDG PET/CT qualitative and quantitative evaluation in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients for detection of malignant transformation: comparison of early to delayed imaging with and without liver activity normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirindel, Alin; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Wahl, Richard

    2015-03-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has shown increased accuracy, compared with morphologic imaging, in differentiating malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) from benign neurofibromas (BNFs) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Delayed (18)F-FDG PET imaging typically enhances malignant tumor to background. Our goal was to compare the effectiveness of early (1-h) and delayed (4-h) (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in differentiating MPNSTs from BNFs in patients with NF1, with and without liver activity normalization. NF1 patients presenting new symptoms or enlarging lesions were clinically evaluated with early and delayed (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging. SULmax (maximum standardized uptake value derived for lean body) and SULmax/liver (lesion uptake adjusted to mean liver activity) were obtained for all sites identified with abnormal metabolic activity. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations, including receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) comparison of early and delayed imaging sessions, were performed. Histopathology and clinical follow-up (1-9 y) were considered as a gold standard. Forty-one NF1 patients with early and delayed (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were identified, and 93 lesions were retrospectively analyzed, representing 24 MPNSTs (all histologically confirmed) and 69 BNFs (26 histologically confirmed). Qualitative evaluation on early imaging showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for separating MPNSTs from BNFs of 91%, 84%, 67%, and 96% versus 91%, 81%, 63%, and 96%, respectively, on 4-h delayed imaging. The mean SULmax was significantly higher for MPNSTs than BNFs on both early scans (6.5 vs. 2.0, P Qualitative interpretation of (18)F-FDG PET/CT discriminates MPNSTs from BNFs in NF1 patients with similar accuracy on both early and delayed imaging. Quantitative data showed better sensitivity on delayed acquisition and best test specificity with lesion SULmax normalization to liver activity, more so than with delayed

  16. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  17. Rare malignancies in Eastern India, socio-economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Senapati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development.

  18. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  19. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  20. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression in Immortalized BEP2D Cells and Malignant Transformed BEP2D Cells Induced by α-particle%SAGE方法分析永生化BEP2D细胞及α粒子诱发恶性转化BEP2D细胞的基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛世丽; 李刚; 陈伟; 楼铁柱; 吴德昌

    2001-01-01

    知基因的新功能。%Objective: The authors used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method to analyze transcripts present in the immortalized BEP2D cells and the malignant transformed BEP2D cells. Methods: As a step toward understanding the complex gene expression differences between the immortalized BEP2D cells and the malignant transformed BEP2D cells induced by α  particle,SAGE method was introduced into this experiment. Technological methods included total RNA extraction, mRNA isolation, full length of dscDNA synthesis, PCR, transformation and sequencing. SAGE SoftWare was used to analyze tag sequences and compare the abundance of tags between two SAGE libraries. Results: Two independent SAGE libraries were constructed from the immortalized BEP2D cells and the malignant transformed BEP2D cells induced by 1.5 Gy α  particles. A total of 2 331 SAGE tags were identified for the sequences, representing 252 unique transcripts. Though up to now the obtained information is limited, comparison of the two SAGE libraries indicated a remarkable similarity in the expression profiles. Of the 252 transcripts detected, 12 transcripts (4.8% ) matched no reliable known genes in UniGene library. Combination of Northern blot hybridization, the expression level of TGF β induced Smad7 gene in the malignant transformed cells was higher than that in the immortalized cells. Conversely, Chemokine receptor CCR11 gene was expressed at lower levels in the malignant transformation cells. Conclusion: (1) Out of results given by SAGE,the tendency of the abundance of gene expression and the gene expression differentiation between two cell lines were described. (2) The expression level of TGF β induced Smad7 gene in the malignant transformed BEP2D cells was higher than that in the immortalized cells and chemokine receptor CCR11 gene was expressed at lower levels in the malignant transformed BEP2D cells. (3)SAGE was a powerful method in a quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large

  1. Cell transformation and mutability of different genetic loci in mammalian cells by metabolically activated carcinogenic polycylic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.

    1977-01-01

    Treatment of experimental animals with chemical carcinogens, including some polycyclic hydrocarbons, can result in the formation of malignant tumors. The process whereby some chemicals induce malignancy is as yet unknown. However, in a model system using mammalian cells in culture, it was possible to show that the chemical carcinogens induce malignant transformation rather than select for pre-existing tumor cells. In the process of the in vitro cell transformation, the normal cells, which have an oriented pattern of cell growth, a limited life-span in vitro, and are not tumorigenic, are converted into cells that have a hereditary random pattern of cell growth, the ability to grow continuously in culture, and the ability to form tumors in vivo. This stable heritable phenotype of the transformed cells is similar to that of cells derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced tumors. Such stable heritable phenotype changes may arise from alteration in gene expression due to a somatic mutation after interaction of the carcinogen with cellular DNA. In the present experiments we have shown that metabolically activated carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons which have been shown to bind to cellular DNA induce somatic mutations at different genetic loci in mammalian cells and that there is a relationship between the degree of mutant induction and the degree of carcinogenicity of the different hydrocarbons tested.

  2. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  3. Immunotherapy for malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter M Suryadevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas (MG are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM, the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12-15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM.

  4. Early malignant syphilis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  5. Calvarial malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra R

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH of the central nervous system (CNS is uncommon. We report cases of two young patients of MFH arising from the cranial meninges and involving the adjacent skull and scalp. There was infiltration of the brain in one case. Both the lesions were excised and primary scalp repair was performed.

  6. 一步催化转化纤维素制备化学品的研究进展%Progress in One-Pot Catalytic Transformation of Cellulose into Valuable Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石宁; 刘琪英; 王铁军; 张琦; 廖玉河; 马隆龙; 蔡炽柳

    2014-01-01

    高效利用纤维素制备燃料及化学品对人类的可持续发展具有重要的意义。通过化学转化,可以将纤维素转化为一系列的小分子有机物,作为平台化合物制取生物质基液体燃料或材料。本文综述了利用化学方法直接转化纤维素制备小分子化学品(5-羟甲基糠醛、乳酸、乙二醇、山梨醇和异山梨醇)的研究进展,并对后续研究进行了展望。%Efficient transformation of cellulose into liquid fuels and chemicals is one key route for sustainable development of human society. With the chemical conversion, cellulose can be transformed to various small molecule organics, which are regarded as platform for production of liquid fuel or material. The progress in direct catalytic conversion of cellulose into valuable chemicals is reviewed in this paper, including preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), lactic acid, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and isosorbide. Finally, subsequent research topics on transformation of cellulose into valuable chemicals are prospected.

  7. Fourier transform-infrared studies on the effects of salt and drought stress on the chemical composition and pro-tein conformation changes in Arabidopsis leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We examined the changes of chemical composition and protein conformation in Arabidopsis leaves by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry Arabidopsis under 50 mmol/L NaCl salt and -0.5 mPa polyethylene glycols 8000 (PEG 8000) drought stress during the early stages of growth.We primarily analyzed the absorption band areas in the 1,745 cm-1 (ester),1,600-1,700 cm-1 (amide I),and 1,100 cm-1 (carbohydrate) changes under salt stress and drought stress within 24 hours.The results showed that ester content declined at the beginning and then increased steadily during 24 hours of drought stress.But under salt stress,it de-clined steadily,and it was about 40 percent of the control after 24 hours.The protein synthesis increased by 25 percent after one hour of salt stress and then reached about 85 percent of the control after 24 hours.Under drought stress,the protein synthesis de-creased and reached aminimal level at the 4-hr time point;it then recovered to the control level at the 24-hr point.The patterns of the accumulation of carbohydrates in the 1,100 cm-1 band areas resembled that of amide I band changes under drought stress and salt stress.Analyzing the ratio A1,627cm-1/A1,658cm-1 under drought stress revealed that the leaves’ entire protein structure maintained a higher-level ordered form than did those under salt stress.Thus our results indicate the existence of different strategies of the Arabidopsis adaptation to salt stress and drought stress.

  8. Optimized data analysis algorithm for on-site chemical identification using a hand-held attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Izhar; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kendler, Shai

    2013-12-01

    On-site identification of organic compounds in the presence of interfering materials using a field-portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectrometer is presented. Identification is based on an algorithm that compares the analyte's infrared absorption spectrum with the reference spectra. The comparison is performed at several predetermined frequencies, and a similarity value (distance) between the measured and the reference spectra is calculated either at each frequency individually, or, alternatively, the average distance for all frequencies is calculated. The examined frequencies are selected to give the best contrast between the target materials of interest. In this study, the algorithm was optimized to identify three common chemical warfare agents (CWAs): O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (VX), sarin (GB), and sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) (HD), in the presence of field-related interfering materials (fuels, water, and dust). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed in order to determine the probabilities for detection (PD) and for false alerts (PF). Challenging the algorithm with a set of data that contains mixtures of CWAs and interfering materials resulted in PD of 90% and PF of 0%, 0%, and 1% for VX, GB, and HD, respectively, using the average distance approach, which was found to be much more effective than analyzing each frequency individually. This finding was validated for all possible combinations of 2-7 peaks per material. It is suggested that this algorithm provides a reliable mean for the identification of a predetermined set of target analytes and interfering materials.

  9. Gas-Phase Molecular Structure of Nopinone and its Water Complexes Studied by Microwave Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Elias M.; Aviles Moreno, Juan-Ramon; Huet, T. R.

    2016-06-01

    Several monoterpenes and terpenoids are biogenic volatile organic compounds which are emitted in the atmosphere, where they react with OH, O_3 and NO_x etc. to give rise to several oxidation and degradation products. Their decomposition products are a major source of secondray organic aerosol (SOA). Spectroscopic information on these atmospheric species is still very scarce. The rotational spectrum of nopinone (C_9H14O) one of the major oxidation products of β-pinene, and of its water complexes were recorded in a supersonic jet expansion with a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer over the range 2-20 GHz. The structure of the unique stable conformer of the nopinone was optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. Signals from the parent species and from the 13C and 18O isotopomers were observed in natural abundance. A magnetic hyperfine structure associated with the pairs of hydrogen nuclei in the methylene groups was observed and modeled. The structures of several conformers of the nopinone-water complexes with up to three molecules of water were optimized using density functional theory and ab initio calculations. The energetically most stable of calculated conformers were observed and anlyzed. The rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters were fitted to a Watson's Hamiltonian in the A-reduction. The present work provides the first spectroscopic characterization of nopinone and its water complexes in the gas phase. A. Calogirou, B.R. Larsen, and D. Kotzias, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1423-1439, (1999) P. Paasonen et al., Nat. Geosci., 6, 438-442 (2013) D. Zhang and R. Zhang The Journal of Chemical Physics, 122, 114308, (2005) R. Winterhalter et al. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 35, 165-197, (2000)

  10. Malignant mesenchymoma of the scrotum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Brynitz, S

    1991-01-01

    Paratesticular sarcomas are rare, especially the malignant mesenchymoma. To our knowledge only four cases of paratesticular malignant mesenchymoma have been described previously. All were localized to the spermatic cord. We present a case of malignant mesenchymoma in the scrotum free of the sperm...

  11. Malignant mesenchymoma of the scrotum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Brynitz, S;

    1991-01-01

    Paratesticular sarcomas are rare, especially the malignant mesenchymoma. To our knowledge only four cases of paratesticular malignant mesenchymoma have been described previously. All were localized to the spermatic cord. We present a case of malignant mesenchymoma in the scrotum free of the sperm...

  12. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  13. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  14. Malignant histiocytosis. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ, OSCAR; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, UNMSM; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; QUIÑONES, WILLY; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; MISAD, OSCAR; Laboratorio de Anatomia Patológica “Oscar Misad; Delgado, Carlos; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ronceros, Sergio; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. médico patólogo.; MARANGONI, MANUELA; Departamento de Enfermería, Hospital Dos de Mayo; BARDALES, LUZ; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; REYES, RAFAEL; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; CASTILLO, ALFREDO; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo; URRUTIA, KATIA; Servicio Hematologia Clínica, Hospital Dos de Mayo

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen year-old male patient referred from Huancayo who presented one month gastric intolerance, jaundice, fever and a lymph proliferative syndrome. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia due to phagocytosis. Haematologic and anatomy-pathology diagnosis was human malignant histiocytosis. We present this case due to its low frequency and the emergency character of the disease. Paciente varón de 14 años, procedente de Huancayo, que presenta un mes antes de su hospitalización intoler...

  15. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Duverneuil, N.; Lafitte, F.; Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Batiment Babinski, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Mokhtari, K. [Service de Neuropathologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France); Behin, A.; Hoang-Xuan, K. [Departement de Neurologie, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 75013 Paris (France)

    2002-09-01

    Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis is a rare and probably often overlooked disease characterised by massive intravascular proliferation of lymphoid cells, usually with a poor prognosis. CT and MRI appearances are nonspecific; the most suggestive finding being both asymmetrical, bilateral, contrast enhancing high-signal areas on T2 weighting and infarct-like lesions of the cortex and basal ganglia. We report two patients with previously unreported dural and spinal cord involvement. (orig.)

  16. Malignant melanoma of choroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid are reported due to rarity of the condition in India. One of the cases presented with Naevus of Ota. All the cases had typical clinical and investigative features. All cases were enucleated. Histopathologically three of them were of mixed type and one was of the epithelioid type. Two of the cases were seen in patients below 40 years of age.

  17. The neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, S N

    1980-03-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an evidently underdiagnosed but potentially lethal consequence of treatment with potent neuroleptics. The author presents a detailed review of the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of the NMS as described in the world literature. Further studies of the incidence, etiology and pathogenesis of the NMS may enhance knowledge of neuroleptic pharmacology and produce more effective means of prevention and treatment.

  18. Palliation of malignant ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stefanie M

    2006-03-01

    The management of recurrent, symptomatic malignant ascites can be problematic for physicians and patients. The most common, low-risk method is large-volume paracentesis. Patient disease progression often leads to rapid reaccumulation of ascites, which requires frequent return visits to the hospital for symptom management. Other techniques have been developed to achieve palliation of symptoms, including tunneled external drainage catheters, peritoneal ports, and peritoneovenous

  19. Bilateral Malignant Brenner Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Choudhary, S.Manzoor Kadri, Ruby Reshi, S. Besina, Mansoor A. Laharwal, Reyaz tasleem, Qurrat A. Chowdhary

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral malignant Brenner tumour ofovary is extremely rate. A case ofmalignant Brenner tumourinvolving both the ovaries with mctastasis to mesentery in a 48 year femalc is presented. Grosslyo'arian masses were firm with soft areas, encapsulated and having bosselated external surfaces.Cut sections showed yellowish white surface with peripheral cysts (in both tumours. Microscopyrevealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamoid differentiation at places. Metastatic deposits werefound in the mesentery. Endometrium showed cystic glandular hyperplasia.

  20. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day, epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day, and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day. The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features.

  1. Gastrointestinal lipoma and malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A; Witz, M

    1991-07-01

    Twenty gastrointestinal lipomata in 18 patients are reviewed: 15 located in the colon, 3 in the distal ileum, one in the duodenum, and one in the stomach. They were found most frequently in European-born, elderly women and presented with variable abdominal symptomatology. Four lipomata were removed during endoscopy, the remainder at laparotomy, partial colectomy being performed in 10 cases. All, except 2 subserosal types, were located in the submucosa, and their average size was 2.7 cm diameter. Microscopically, none showed true encapsulation, and all were composed of mature fat cells without cellular atypia. In spite of nonspecific changes at endoscopy, one-half of the cases showed, on microscopic examination, atrophy of the overlying glands and a prominent eosinophilic and/or lymphoplasmocytic infiltration of the lamina propria. Two large subserosal lipomata were associated with Crohn's disease. In addition, in 39% of cases, malignant tumours, either single or double, were present in the gastrointestinal tract or elsewhere. Gastrointestinal "lipomata" are located in the sites of normal fatty infiltration in the elderly; these growths could be a local aging or reactive process of the intestinal wall rather than true neoplasms without any potential malignancy. However, coexistent malignancies should be carefully searched for in elderly patients with colonic lipoma.

  2. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  3. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  4. Evolutionary Position and Leaf Toughness Control Chemical Transformation of Litter, and Drought Reinforces This Control: Evidence from a Common Garden Experiment across 48 Species

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Pan; Yao-Bin Song; Can Jiang; Guo-Fang Liu; Xue-Hua Ye; Xiu-Fang Xie; Yu-Kun Hu; Wei-Wei Zhao; Lijuan Cui; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Ming Dong; Andreas Prinzing

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaf litter is an important source of soil chemicals that are essential for the ecosystem and changes in leaf litter chemical traits during decomposition will determine the availability of multiple chemical elements recycling in the ecosystem. However, it is unclear whether the changes in litter chemical traits during decomposition and their similarities across species can be predicted, respectively, using other leaf traits or using the phylogenetic relatedness of the litter species. He...

  5. [EUS results of malignant rectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Paul; Barrioz, Thierry; Lauroy, Johny; Babin, Philippe; Mordi, Abdel; Fort, Eric; Laurin, Christine; Sevestre, Christian; Silvain, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Giant condyloma acuminatum is a large, exophytic, cauliflower-like lesion that usually affects the anogenital region. Localisation in the rectum is uncommon and has a high rate of malignant transformation but does not lead to develop distant metastases. For the time, we report the endosonographic appearance of a malignant intrarectal giant condyloma acuminatum.

  6. Can alterations in integrin and laminin-5 expression be used as markers of malignancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, A K; Reibel, J; Schiødt, M

    1998-01-01

    for the transformation of a premalignant into a malignant lesion. The aim of this study was to examine if expression of specific cell adhesion molecules can be used as markers of malignant development. By immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression pattern of integrins alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, alpha6beta4...

  7. Correlation between histological grading and ploidy status in potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa: A flow cytometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Vijayavel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological grading of oral dysplastic lesions is the method of choice for evaluating malignant and potentially malignant disorders. Owing to inter- and intra-observer variability, determination of the DNA ploidy status of lesions may serve as an adjunct in the prediction of malignant transformation. Aim: To correlate histopathological grading and ploidy status in potentially malignant and malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. Settings and Design: A pilot study was done with 30 patients (10 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders predominantly leukoplakia, 10 patients with oral malignant lesions and 10 patients with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Incisional biopsy was done after isolating the biopsy site with 1% Toluidine blue staining. Two sections of the tissue were removed and sent for histopathological and Flow-cytometric analysis respectively. Histopathological diagnosis was obtained and compared with Flow-cytometric results which were graded as diploid and aneuploid. Further, the S - phase fraction, DNA index were also calculated to evaluate the severity of malignant transformation or malignancy. Statistical Analysis: The results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square Test. Results: There exists a significant correlation between histopathology and ploidy status in both potentially malignant and malignant group. (P = 0.002. Conclusion: The data from this study has shown that DNA Ploidy analysis can be used as a valuable tool in assessing the carcinomatous progression of potentially malignant and malignant lesions.

  8. Maligne adnekstumorer i huden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Hærskjold, Ann; Lei, Ulrikke

    2016-01-01

    Malignant adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare but associated with high propensity for local recurrence, and for some of the distinct subgroups they are known to metastasize regionally or distant. Biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis, as the lesions cannot be separated from other tumour...... types entirely on their clinical appearance. The histologic diagnosis is troublesome, and the lesions are often mistaken for their benign counterpart, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions are treated with surgery. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may play a role in treatment...

  9. Ceruloplasmin in human malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty,Prabir Kishore

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available The ceruloplasmin concentration was determined in 145 cancer patients prior to and after treatment with different radiotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic regimes. The ceruloplasmin concentration was observed to be higher in patients with malignancies than in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of the values with the clinical condition of the patients. The ceruloplasmin concentration was noted to stop increasing and subsequently fall in patients who responded to therapy, and, in contrast, to remain high or become higher in those who did not respond to therapy. The diagnostic and prognostic value of ceruloplasmin determination is discussed.

  10. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bino Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a life-threatening emergency that is often seen as a complication of antipsychotic agents. It is characterized by a tetrad of motor, behavioral, autonomic, and laboratory abnormalities. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a history of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and behavioral abnormalities who developed NMS after starting on antipsychotic agents. He presented with high temperature, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, and elevated blood pressure. After a week of hospital treatment in the general ward of a secondary care unit, he was discharged in a hemodynamically and mentally stable state.

  11. Malignant Clear Cell Hidradenoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Reddy, Pavan S; Kallail, K. James

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old female had a mass in the right breast palpable beneath the areola. A mammogram revealed a 1.5-centimeter soft tissue density that was confirmed with a subsequent ultrasound. The patient underwent a core needle biopsy which was initially reported as a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed negative staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). A wide local excision of the mass was performed. The pathology report stated the tumor had an infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal response with enhanced epithelial atypia consistent with malignant transformation of a nodular clear cell hidradenoma. Clear cell hidradenoma is a very rare tumor originating from the sweat gland and has a propensity for the face and extremities. The malignant variant of this tumor is extremely rare and has been reported to originate from the breast in few cases. This case represents the difficulty in diagnosing this tumor along with the radiographic and histologic features that can distinguish this malignancy from other entities.

  12. 单核巨噬细胞在煤焦沥青烟提取物诱导永生化人支气管上皮细胞恶变中的作用%The Effects of monocyte-macrophages on malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by extracts from coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凡静; 张少峰; 冯斐斐; 燕贞; 王威; 吴逸明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨单核巨噬细胞(THP-1)在煤焦沥青烟提取物(coal tar pitch,CTP)致永生化人支气管上皮细胞(human bronchial epithelial cells,BEAS-2B)恶变过程中的作用及肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor alpha,TNF-α)在该过程中的表达.方法 以THP-1和BEAS-2B为研究对象,设立CTP组、苯并(a)芘[B(a)P]组(阳性对照组)、二甲亚砜对照组(溶剂对照组)、BEAS-2B与THP-1共培养组,建立细胞恶性变模型.应用软琼脂集落形成实验、染色体数目畸变分析、流式细胞仪测定细胞周期中不同培养时期(10、20、30代)细胞的恶变情况,利用ELISA方法测定CTP组及共培养组细胞培养上清中TNF-α的含量.结果 染色体数目异常在实验的早期(10代)已经显现,表现为非整倍体和多倍体比例增加,二倍体数目减少.在第20代:共培养组克隆形成率(17.63‰±0.97‰)明显高于CTP组(13.94‰±0.84‰)和阳性对照组组(12.96‰± 1.62‰),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);共培养组S期细胞比例(44.49%±0.68%)明显高于CTP组(38.19%±1.26%)和阳性对照组(36.41%±1.19%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).共培养组细胞培养上清中TNF-α含量明显高于CTP组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 THP-1能够加速CTP诱导的BEAS-2B恶变,增加TNF-α的表达水平.%Objective To study the effects of monocyte-macrophages (THP-1) in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) cells induced by coal tar pitch (CTP) and the expression of TNF-α in the process of the cell malignant transformation.Methods BEAS-2B cells and THP-1 Cells were divided into four groups:coal tar pitch (CTP) group,benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] group,dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group,BEAS-2B and THP-1 co-culture (co-culture group) group.Carcinogenesis model was established.The soft agar colony formation,chromosome aberrations and cell cycle tests were used to detect the cellular malignant transformation.The ELISA

  13. Temozolomide in malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dresemann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gregor DresemannCenter for Neurooncology at Aerztehaus Velen, Velen, GermanyAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme WHO grade IV (GBM is the most aggressive ­malignant glioma and the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. The median ­survival of newly diagnosed GBM patients was between 9 to 12 months prior to treatment with ­temozolomide being introduced. Primary resection that is as complete as possible is recommended for malignant glioma. Conventional fractionated irradiation 55 to 60 gy with concomitant temozolomide followed by standard temozolomide 6 cycles (5/28 (EORTC/NCIC-regime published by R Stupp in 2005 is the standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM after surgery, independent of the methylation status of the MGM-T gene promoter. Age is no ­contraindication for treatment with temozolomide, although comorbidity and performance status have to be ­considered. For temozolomide naive GBM and astrocytoma grade III patients with disease progression, temozolomide is still the treatment of choice outside of clinical studies. A ­general consensus regarding the schedule of choice has not yet been achieved; so far the 5 out of 28 days regimen (5/28 is the standard of care in most countries. Patients with disease progression after standard temozolomide (5/28 are candidates for clinical studies. Outside of clinical ­studies, dose-dense (7/7, prolonged (21/28, or metronomic (28/28 temozolomide, or alternatively a nitrosourea-based regimen can be an option. The excellent toxicity profile of ­temozolomide allows for various combinations with antitumor agents. None of these ­combinations, however, have been demonstrated to be statistically significantly superior compared to temozolomide alone. The role of lower dosed, dose-dense, or continuous regimen with or without drug combination and the role of temozolomide for newly diagnosed astrocytoma grade III and low grade glioma still has to be determined.Keywords: glioblastoma

  14. Genetic analysis of the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of bovine milk with emphasis on individual wavelengths related to specific chemical bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2013-09-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra are used to predict the fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents of milk. These estimates are currently used to predict the individual estimated breeding values of animals. The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic variation and heritabilities of the milk transmittance spectrum at each individual FTIR wave. Milk was sampled once per cow from a total of 1,064 Italian Brown Swiss cows from 30 herds, sired by 50 artificial insemination sires. The FTIR spectra of all samples were collected within 3 h of sampling from 25 mL of milk. The obtained spectral range comprised wavenumbers 5,000 to 930×cm(-1), corresponding to wavelengths 2.00 to 10.76 μm and frequencies from 149.9 to 27.9 THz, for a total of 1,056 waves. These were acquired using a MilkoScan FT120 FTIR interferometer (Foss Electric A/S, Hillerød, Denmark). Each spectral data point was treated as a single trait and analyzed using an animal model REML method. The results indicated that the transmittance of the bovine milk FTIR spectrum was heritable for most individual waves in the wavenumber interval from 5,000 to 930×cm(-1). Moreover, the transmittance of contiguous FTIR waves was much more highly correlated in terms of the average value and phenotypic variation, compared with genetic variation. In the present study, we characterized 5 regions of the FTIR spectrum that were relevant to the analysis of milk; 2 regions, one in the transition area between the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) divisions of the electromagnetic spectrum (SWIR-MWIR region) and another very short region in the MWIR division (MWIR-2 region), were characterized by very high phenotypic variability in the transmittance of individual milk samples within each wave. This was caused by the absorption peaks of water, which can mask the effects of other important milk components. These regions also showed high genetic variability in

  15. Identification of Candida albicans by using different culture medias and its association in potentially malignant and malignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Saigal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present study evaluates the association of Candida albicans with normal control group, potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity by using two different liquid culture media. Materials and Methods: Saliva was collected and biopsy was taken only from those clinically suspected potentially malignant and malignant lesions for histopathological diagnosis. Saliva samples were inoculated for fungal growth in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar and culture-positive samples had undergone for Germ tube test. Germ tube-positive samples were further taken for quantification of chlamydospore production in liquid media at 8 and 16 hours. Results: In normal control groups no fungus growth was found; however, potentially malignant and malignant cases showed fungus growth, positive germ tube test and chlamydospore formation. The result also showed rapid and quantitatively more chlamydospore formation in corn meal broth + 5% milk in comparison to serum milk culture media. Conclusion: The oral mucosa is compromised in potentially malignant lesions, it can be argued that this species may be involved in carcinogenesis by elaborating the nitrosamine compounds which either act directly on oral mucosa or interact with other chemical carcinogens to activate specific proto-oncogenes and thereby initiate oral neoplasia.

  16. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Moscovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a potentially fatal adverse event associated with the use of antipsychotics (AP. The objective of this study was to investigate the profile of cases of NMS and to compare our findings with those published in similar settings. A series of 18 consecutive patients with an established diagnosis of NMS was analyzed, gathering data on demography, symptoms and signs. Two thirds of all cases involved woman with a past medical history of psychiatric disorder receiving relatively high doses of AP. The signs and symptoms of NMS episodes were similar to those reported in other series and only one case had a fatal outcome, the remaining presenting complete recovery. As expected, more than two thirds of our cases were using classic AP (68%, however the clinical profile of these in comparison with those taking newer agent was similar. Newer AP also carry the potential for NMS.

  17. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yi Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM is rare. It is difficult to diagnose early and responds poorly to treatment. There is no optimal and effective treating consensus so far. We report three patients of MPM treated at Mackay Memorial Hospital in recent 3 years. They were two men and one woman without asbestos exposure related to their occupations. Due to failure in early diagnosis of MPM, none of them survived for more than 5 months. We make a brief review from the previous literature. These three cases were compared with the reviewing data in many aspects including the risk factor, clinical presentation, diagnostic options, and management. Besides, some latest clinical trials are introduced in this report.

  18. Fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.K. Faheem,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old lady presented with complaints of chest pain and cough for the past one month. Right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion were present. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lymph node showed brownish-black pigment laden tumour cells. Review of history subsequently revealed that she had undergone a surgical procedure over the sole of her left foot three years ago of which no records were available. Reexamination of sole of left foot showed a pigmented infiltraling lesion. Pleural biopsy revealed pigmented tumour deposits. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of left foot with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and pleura. This case report re-emphasizes the importance of combined approach to ascertain diagnosis early.

  19. Evolutionary Position and Leaf Toughness Control Chemical Transformation of Litter, and Drought Reinforces This Control: Evidence from a Common Garden Experiment across 48 Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Jiang, Can; Liu, Guo-Fang; Ye, Xue-Hua; Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Cui, Lijuan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Dong, Ming; Prinzing, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaf litter is an important source of soil chemicals that are essential for the ecosystem and changes in leaf litter chemical traits during decomposition will determine the availability of multiple chemical elements recycling in the ecosystem. However, it is unclear whether the changes in litter chemical traits during decomposition and their similarities across species can be predicted, respectively, using other leaf traits or using the phylogenetic relatedness of the litter species. Here we examined the fragmentation levels, mass losses, and the changes of 10 litter chemical traits during 1-yr decomposition under different environmental conditions (within/above surrounding litter layer) for 48 temperate tree species and related them to an important leaf functional trait, i.e. leaf toughness. Leaf toughness could predict the changes well in terms of amounts, but poorly in terms of concentrations. Changes of 7 out of 10 litter chemical traits during decomposition showed a significant phylogenetic signal notably when litter was exposed above surrounding litter. These phylogenetic signals in element dynamics were stronger than those of initial elementary composition. Overall, relatively hard-to-measure ecosystem processes like element dynamics during decomposition could be partly predicted simply from phylogenies and leaf toughness measures. We suggest that the strong phylogenetic signals in chemical ecosystem functioning of species may reflect the concerted control by multiple moderately conserved traits, notably if interacting biota suffer microclimatic stress and spatial isolation from ambient litter.

  20. Evolutionary Position and Leaf Toughness Control Chemical Transformation of Litter, and Drought Reinforces This Control: Evidence from a Common Garden Experiment across 48 Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Pan

    Full Text Available Plant leaf litter is an important source of soil chemicals that are essential for the ecosystem and changes in leaf litter chemical traits during decomposition will determine the availability of multiple chemical elements recycling in the ecosystem. However, it is unclear whether the changes in litter chemical traits during decomposition and their similarities across species can be predicted, respectively, using other leaf traits or using the phylogenetic relatedness of the litter species. Here we examined the fragmentation levels, mass losses, and the changes of 10 litter chemical traits during 1-yr decomposition under different environmental conditions (within/above surrounding litter layer for 48 temperate tree species and related them to an important leaf functional trait, i.e. leaf toughness. Leaf toughness could predict the changes well in terms of amounts, but poorly in terms of concentrations. Changes of 7 out of 10 litter chemical traits during decomposition showed a significant phylogenetic signal notably when litter was exposed above surrounding litter. These phylogenetic signals in element dynamics were stronger than those of initial elementary composition. Overall, relatively hard-to-measure ecosystem processes like element dynamics during decomposition could be partly predicted simply from phylogenies and leaf toughness measures. We suggest that the strong phylogenetic signals in chemical ecosystem functioning of species may reflect the concerted control by multiple moderately conserved traits, notably if interacting biota suffer microclimatic stress and spatial isolation from ambient litter.

  1. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-12-01

    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  2. Malignant ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.; Müller, H.

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines malignant ameloblastoma as a lesion exhibiting features of an ameloblastoma in primary and metastatic growths. To cases collected from the literature we have added two of our own cases in which features of an ameloblastoma were coupled with malignant behavior.

  3. Håndens maligne tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Rasmussen, Per Joen Svabo; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz;

    2011-01-01

    Malignant tumours of the hand are rare and are often misdiagnosed. A painful swelling of the hand or digits are often diagnosed with an infection, benign tumours such as ganglion cysts, or arthritis. Wounds that do not heal despite adequate treatment should be biopsied to rule out malignancy. A c...

  4. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  5. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Perysinakis

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy.

  6. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ... people of all age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the ...

  7. Malignant ameloblastoma or ameloblastic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.; Müller, H.

    1984-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines malignant ameloblastoma as a lesion exhibiting features of an ameloblastoma in primary and metastatic growths. To cases collected from the literature we have added two of our own cases in which features of an ameloblastoma were coupled with malignant behavior. I

  8. Malign katatoni, et neuropsykiatrisk syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Lublin, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes a 36-year-old schizophrenic man who developed malignant catatonia during a hospital stay. He was treated with benzodiazepines (BZD) and 26 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After the therapy his condition normalised. Malignant catatonia is a rare condition...

  9. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  10. The local cytokine and chemokine milieu within malignant effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanackovic, Djordje; Cao, Yanran; Kim, Ji-Won; Brandl, Stephan; Thom, Ina; Faltz, Christiane; Hildebrandt, York; Bartels, Katrin; de Weerth, Andreas; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Hossfeld, Dieter Kurt; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Malignant effusions offer a unique opportunity for the study of interactions between the human immune system and cancer. We have recently demonstrated that malignant effusions are characterized by an accumulation of T cells expressing chemokine receptors such as CCR4, which is commonly found on Th2 cells. In contrast, effector T cells expressing chemokine receptors typical for Th1 cells, such as CCR5, showed a diminished homing into malignant effusions. We analyzed concentrations of 12 different cytokines and 9 chemokines within malignant and nonmalignant effusions and investigated cytokine expression by effusion-infiltrating leukocytes. We observed that concentrations of the immunoregulatory cytokine TGF-beta(1) and of angiogenic factors VEGF and IL-8 were markedly increased within effusions caused by malignancies. However, we did not observe signs of a typical Th1 or Th2 milieu. Analyzing concentrations of 9 different chemokines, we found elevated concentrations of the chemokines MDC, eotaxin, I-TAC, and MCP-1 in malignant effusions. Interestingly, tumor-infiltrating leukocytes themselves seemed to contribute strongly to the creation of a distinct cytokine/chemokine pattern within cancer-related effusions. Additional analyses suggested that this cytokine/chemokine milieu might support an enrichment of immunosuppressive leukocytes. The local cytokine and chemokine milieu within malignant effusions seems to promote angiogenesis and to block an efficient immune-mediated antitumor response. An elimination of such tumor-promoting influences will be necessary in order to transform local immunotolerance into clinically relevant immune recognition of tumors causing malignant effusions. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations Transformation du sorbitol en biocarburants par catalyse hétérogène : considérations chimiques et industrielles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilcocq L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and biodiesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels. Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T La raréfaction du pétrole et l’augmentation conjointe de la demande en carburants ont conduit à la recherche de carburants alternatifs. Dans un premier temps, la valorisation de ressources agricoles alimentaires pour la production d’éthanol et de biodiesel a permis de développer les biocarburants de première génération. Aujourd’hui les travaux de recherche s’orientent vers l’utilisation de biomasse lignocellulosique comme source de carbone renouvelable (biocarburants de deuxième génération. Alors que la filière de l’éthanol cellulosique est en plein développement, une nouvelle voie consistant à transformer des sucres et polyols d’origine lignocellulosique en alcanes légers par catalyse hétérogène bifonctionnelle en phase aqueuse a été récemment décrite. Ce procédé s’effectue à basse température et pression modérée (T < 300 °C et P < 50 bar. Il nécessite, d’une part, la formation d’hydrogène par reformage catalytique de carbohydrates en phase aqueuse et, d’autre part, la déshydratation/hydrogénation de polyols conduisant à un alcane par ruptures sélectives des liaisons C-O. Un défi lié à cette thématique réside dans le développement de systèmes catalytiques multifonctionnels stables, actifs et sélectifs dans les conditions de la réaction de transformation. L’objectif de

  12. Thermoradiotherapy of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Itami, Jun; Arimizu, Noboru (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Uno, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shiina, Takeki; Mikuriya, Shuuichi; Yamada, Tsunehisa

    1991-06-01

    From October 1986 to June 1989, 79 patients with malignant tumors were treated by radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia at National Medical Center Hospital. Seventy two patients (male: 48, female: 23) were evaluable. Average age was 62.4 years old (ranged 20-81 years old). Irradiation was delivered twice to fifth weekly in tumor doses of 50 to 60 Gy (TDF 82-122). We used 3 types of hyperthermic equipment, Thermotron RF8, BSD 1000 System and Endoradiotherm 100A. Hyperthermia was initiated within 30 minutes following irradiation, most of the patients being treated with adequate equipment, 41-44degC, for 60-70 minutes every 72 hours. Fifteen of 71 patients (20.8%) showed a complete response and 36 patients (50%) showed a partial response, so effective rate was 70.8% of all. In superficial tumors, 4 of 21 patients (21.5%) showed a complete response and 8 of 21 patients showed a partial response, effective rate was 63.2% of all. In deep seated tumor, 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) showed a complete response and 25 of all patients showed a partial response, so effective rate was 76.1% of all. Five patients were heated following only intra-tumor injection of OK-432 and its effective rate was 75%. We think that this modality of therapy will be effective in cases which heating area had been irradiated over tolerable doses. CR rate of superficial tumors according to intra-tumor center temperature tends to higher in the cases of higher tumor temperature. In deep seated tumor, 11 patients (23.9%) had reached over 43degC, 29 patients (63.0%) heated 41-43degC, 6 patients (13.0%) heated under 41degC and CR rate of each group were 36.4%, 17.2%, 16.7%, respectively. We think that thermotherapy with irradiation is an effective therapy in the treatment of malignancies but the improvement of heating equipment will be expected. (author).

  13. Effects of miR-200 family overexpression on migration of malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells induced by α-particles%过表达miR-200家族对α粒子诱发恶性转化人支气管上皮细胞迁移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高刚; 杨英杰; 刘建香; 田梅; 苏旭

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of miR-200 family overexpression on migration of malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (RHT35) induced by α-particles. METHODS:The mRNA and protein levels of ZEB family (ZEB1 and ZEB2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker in RHT35 was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot 72 h after transfection of 100 nmol/L miR-200b mimic, miR-141 mimic or mimic control into RHT35 cells with SiPORT reagent. In vitro wound healing assay was used to investigate whether overexpression of miR- 200b and miR-141 could block migration of malignantly transformed cells induced by α-particles. RESULTS:The protein levels of ZEB1 and ZEB2 in RHT35 cells were upregulated compared with R15H20 and BEP2D cells. Overexpression of miR-200b and miR-141 led to reduced expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2 in RHT35 cells compared with mimic control (P<0.01). Overexpressions of miR-200b and miR-141 upregulated E-cad expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and downregulated N-cad expression in RHT35 cells (P<0.01). Overexpressions of miR-200b and miR-141 markedly blocked migration of RHT35 cells compared with mimic control. CONCLUSION:Overexpressions of miR-200b and miR-141 strongly block migration of RHT35 cells.%目的:探讨过表达miR-200家族对α粒子诱发恶性转化人支气管上皮细胞 (RHT35细胞)迁移能力的影响.方法:用SiPORT转染试剂转染100 nmol/L miR-200b mimic和miR-141 mimic或阴性对照 (mimic control)于RHT35细胞中72 h后,分别采用免疫印迹、实时荧光定量PCR技术检测过表达miR-200b和miR-141对 RHT35细胞ZEB家族 (ZEB1和ZEB2)及上皮间质转变相关标志分子表达的影响;并用伤口愈合实验研究过表达miR-200b和miR-141对RHT35细胞迁移能力的影响.结果:ZEB1和ZEB2蛋白在RHT35细胞中高表达.与阴性对照转染组相比,miR-200b mimic和miR-141 mimic转染组中miR-200靶基因ZEB家族表达显著下调(P<0.01);而上皮间质

  14. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  15. Skin changes in internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Ravi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal malignancies are accompanied by various skin changes which may be specific infiltrates or non-specific changes. This study is aimed at determining the frequency of such changes in malignant disease treatment center attendees in India. METHODS: A study of 300 confirmed cases of internal malignancy at a malignant disease treatment center was undertaken to evaluate these skin changes. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology. Statistical methods were employed to calculate significance in non-specific lesions by comparing with 300 controls not suffering from internal malignancy. RESULTS: Skin changes were present in 82 (27.3%. Cutaneous metastases were found in 19 (6.3%; non-contiguous in 5 (1.6%; contiguous in 14 (4.3%. Non-specific skin lesions numbered 74 (11.6% in 52 patients. Statistically significant non-specific skin changes were acquired ichthyosis, herpes zoster and generalized pruritus. CONCLUSION: Metastases usually occurred late in internal malignancy (17, 5.6% except in a case each of histiocytic lymphoma and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (2, 0.7% where the lesions preceded malignancy by 3 months and 1 month respectively. Contiguous nodules were a marker of relapse after surgery in 3 (1%.

  16. Gastrointestinal neurofibromatosis with malignant transformation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariba Binesh; Ali Akhavan; Saeed Arefanian; Manuchehr Haidari

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen's disease with approximate occurrence of 1/3000 births, can be considered as a common autosomal dominant condition. Abdominal organs can be involved as neurofibroma and tumor growth in the liver, mesentery, retroperitoneum, stomach and bowel. Association of NF and gastrointestinal peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), usually arising within a pre-existing plexiform neurofibroma which metastasizes widely heraldinga poor outcome. We report a 55 year old man with gastrointestinal NF which ultimately developed MPNST and deceased.

  17. Malignant transformation and treatment of cystic mixed germ cell tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yapeng Zhao; Hongyu Duan; Qinghui Zhang; Bingxin Shi; Hui Liang; Yuqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors report an extremely unusual presentation and management of a children pineal mixed germ cell tumor mainly composed of immature teratoma, aiming to summarize main theraptic points by literature review. Methods: A cystic lesion located in the rear of third ventricle in a child was detected 3 years ago with no other therapy performed except for a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. During the following 3 years, intermitted regular brain MRI demonstrated no evidence of lesion aggrandizement. However from 20 days before admission to our institute the patient began to present acutely with exacerbating clinical symptoms meanwhile brain MRI showed signs of abrupt revulsions of initial lesion without any incentive cause. Neurological examination revealed a significant rising of serum tumor marker level. Then surgical resection was performed immediately after admission which was followed by correlative two-course chemotherapy. Results: Postoperative brain MRI demonstrated totally removing of the lesion in rear of third ventricle. Serum tumor marker level decreased remarkably after surgery and declined to normal level after two-course chemotherapy. No obvious neurological deficit occurred except for short-term memory difficulty which gradually recovered within two weeks. Soon after the second course chemotherapy the patient was currently asymptomatic and returned to school. Conclusions: (1) To ensure definitive diagnosis and proper therapecutic protocols benefit from grasping clinical features of mixed germ cell tumor. (2) Overall preoperative investigation including serum tumor marker level is as critical as neurological imaging examination. (3) Surgical excision is confirmed to be the key modality of treatment. With the regarding of mixed germ cell tumor, never highlight total resection too much. (4) Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended as further intensive treatment to improve the prognosis of mix germ cell tumor.

  18. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Navya Sri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  19. Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Agudelo, Carlos A; Hidron, Alicia; Eberhard, Mark L; Mathison, Blaine A; Frace, Michael A; Ito, Akira; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Rollin, Dominique C; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Pham, Cau D; Jones, Tara L; Greer, Patricia W; Vélez Hoyos, Alejandro; Olson, Peter D; Diazgranados, Lucy R; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-11-05

    Neoplasms occur naturally in invertebrates but are not known to develop in tapeworms. We observed nests of monomorphic, undifferentiated cells in samples from lymph-node and lung biopsies in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morphologic features and invasive behavior of the cells were characteristic of cancer, but their small size suggested a nonhuman origin. A polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay targeting eukaryotes identified Hymenolepis nana DNA. Although the cells were unrecognizable as tapeworm tissue, immunohistochemical staining and probe hybridization labeled the cells in situ. Comparative deep sequencing identified H. nana structural genomic variants that are compatible with mutations described in cancer. Invasion of human tissue by abnormal, proliferating, genetically altered tapeworm cells is a novel disease mechanism that links infection and cancer.

  20. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  1. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years. Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases, maritime trades (56 cases, and port activities (39 cases. The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2. Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%. Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  2. Chemical transformations of organic matter during the composting of wood industry wastes (residues); Transformacoes quimicas da materia organica durante a compostagem de residuos da industria madeireira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budziak, Cristiane R.; Maia, Claudia M.B.F.; Mangrich, Antonio S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mangrich@quimica.ufpr.br

    2004-06-01

    Composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge, using a 'Kneer' process reactor, was studied in an attempt to elaborate upon organic matter transformation during the process and to define parameters to measure the compost maturity level. Temperature, electron paramagnetic resonance data, ash and C, H, N and S contents, and a spectroscopic method using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) for alkaline (pH = 8.5) and solid samples was used to study the maturity of the compost samples. These parameters were measured in 6 humic acids extracted from the compost samples during 29 days. The results of this work show that the 'Kneer' process is efficient in transforming ligno-celulitic residues in a short time (29 days), into an organic fertilizer material with application perspectives (author)

  3. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  4. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  5. Integrated automation for continuous high-throughput synthetic chromosome assembly and transformation to identify improved yeast strains for industrial production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exponential increase in our understanding of genomes, proteomes, and metabolomes provides greater impetus to address critical biotechnological issues such as sustainable production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals and, in particular, the development of improved microbial biocatalysts for use i...

  6. Malignant neurocristic hamartoma: a tumor distinct from conventional melanoma and malignant blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linskey, Katy R; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Nazarian, Rosalynn M; Le, Long P; Lam, Quynh; Bellucci, Kirsten S W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Mihm, Martin C; Hoang, Mai P

    2011-10-01

    Neurocristic hamartomas are rare pigmented lesions comprised of melanocytes, Schwann cells, and pigmented dendritic spindle cells that involve the skin and soft tissue. Malignant transformation can rarely arise within neurocristic hamartomas. Up to date, there has been only 1 series of 7 cases of malignant neurocristic hamartomas (MNHs), with 3 cases that developed metastases. We present the histology and clinical course of 3 additional cases of MNH, 2 of which were metastatic. CD117 was strongly positive in all cases with available archival materials--the tumors and background neurocristic hamartoma of 3 cases, and 1 lymph node metastasis; however, KIT sequencing for exons 11, 13, 17, and 18 was negative. Mutational analyses of recurrent mutations of 17 cancer genes, including BRAF and KIT, were also negative. Although our series is small, KIT overexpression in MNH does not seem to correlate with gene mutation. The lack of BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ, and KIT mutations seems to support the notion that MNH may be distinct from conventional melanoma and from other dermal melanomas, such as malignant blue nevi and melanoma arising in congenital nevi.

  7. [Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, P; Grodner, F; Ruf, R; Texier, J; Cottencin, R; Cousteau, C; Deslandre, A; Gounant, C; Szpirglas, H; Laufer, J

    1983-01-01

    Rapid regression of all symptoms was obtained after moderate chemotherapy in two women aged 69 and 77 years respectively with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Cervico-facial locations of these tumors are discussed in relation to definition, etiology, geographic factors, genetic markers, and associated immunologic disorders. Diagnosis requires a series of explorations including, obviously as a last resort, exploratory cervicotomy. Other regions may be involved and must be investigated, but lesions not affecting lymph nodes occur in only approximately 2 p. cent of patients with cervico-facial malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (approximately 10 p. cent of all malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas). Other localizations include the hard palate, gums, sinuses, and salivary glands. Burkitt's lymphoma represents, on the contrary, 30 p. cent of malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in European children. The different therapeutic modalities available are discussed.

  8. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  9. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ropio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies.

  10. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica

    2013-08-16

    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.

  11. Predictive Characteristics of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Junsoo; Song, Cheryn; Park, Myungchan; Yoo, Sangjun; Park, Se Jun; Hong, SeokJun; Hong, Bumsik; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The prognosis of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma is poor, but the predictive factors are not well understood. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics predictive of malignancy after initial surgical removal in patients with pheochromocytoma. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 152 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, including 5 (3.3%) with metastasis at the time of the initial surgical excision and 12 (7.9%) who developed metastasis...

  12. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails: mariana.portella@lactec.org.br, portella@laclec.org.br; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mandreoli@cteep.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  13. Step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for investigating chemical reactions of energy-related materials. Final report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyring, E.M.

    1997-11-04

    Two step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were purchased with URI-DOE funds by the University of Utah. These infrared spectrometers have been used to carry out the following investigations: the determination of strength of adsorption of organic molecules at the liquid-solid interface of coated attenuated total reflectance (ATR) elements, the kinetic study of the photoinitiated polymerization of a dental resin, the exploration of the kinetics of photochemical reactions of organic molecules in solution, and the development of a stopped-flow FTIR interface for measuring rates and mechanisms of reactions in solution that are not photoinitiated and do not have convenient ultraviolet-visible spectral features.

  14. Antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle irradiation%α粒子诱发BEP2D细胞恶性转化中抗氧化能力和辐射敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟巧; 张伟; 王春燕; 苏旭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in the malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle exposure.Methods Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX),Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH) assay kits were employed to detect GPX and CAT enzyme abilities and the levels of GSH in BEP2D,RH21 ( passage 21 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells),and BERP35T-1 cells (derived from nude mice bearing malignant transformed cells generated from cells of passage 35 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells).MTT assay were used to test the growth rate of BEP2D,RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells treated with 0,30,60,90,120,and 150 μmoL/L H2O2.Colony-forming test and MTT assay were used to examine the cell survival fraction and the growth rate of BEP2D,RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells exposed to 0,2,4,and 8 Gy of γ-rays,respectively.Results GPX and CAT enzyme activities in RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells were obviously lower than in BEP2D( t = 5.75-67.92 ,P < 0.05 ).CAT enzyme activity in BERP35T-1 was lower than that in RH21 cells (t =22.25 ,P <0.01 ).Compared to BEP2D cells,decreased level of GSH was detected in BERP35T-1 cells(t = 7.76,P < 0.05 ),but there was no change in RH21.After treatment with 30,60,90,120,and 150 μmol/L H2O2,the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of BERP35T-1 cells(t = 10.37-58.36,P <0.01 ).Meanwhile,the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of RH21 cells after treatment with 60,90,120,and 150 μ mol/L H2O2 (t = 29.90-84.68,P < 0.01 ).In addition,compared to BEP2D cells,decreased cell survival fraction and growth rate of BERP35T-1 cells were observed after irradiation with 2,4,and 8 Gy of y-rays ( t = 5.87-34.17,P < 0.05 ).The cell survival fraction and growth rate of RH21 were all lower than those of BEP2D cells at 4 and 8 Gy post-irradition( t =6.33- 45.00,P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The function of antioxidant system decreased in the α-particleinduced transformed cells,which could

  15. Benign and malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin on FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, M. J.; Go, D. H.; Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, K. H.; Lee, J. D [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The differentiation between benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors is difficult based on conventional radiological imaging. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of FDG PET in distinguishing benign from malignant neurogenic tumors of nerve sheath origin. We performed a retrospective review of the medical record to select patients with nerve sheath tumors who had underdone FDG PET imaging. Fifteen patients (7F: 8M) with benign or malignant nerve sheath tumors were included in this study. Of the 15 patients, 9 were diagnosed with the known neurofibromatosis type I. A total of 19 nerve sheath tumors were included from the 15 patients. All patients had undergone FDG PET to evaluate for malignant potential of the known lesions. Images of FDG PET were semi-quantitatively analyzed and a region of interest (ROI) was placed over the area of the maximum FDG uptake and an average standardized uptake value was taken for final analysis. There were 5 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 5 schwannomas, and 9 neurofibromas. The mean SUV was 2 (ranged from 1.6 to 3.3) for schwannomas, 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for neurofibromas, and 8.4 (4.6 to 12.2) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Of 14 benign tumors, all except one schwannoma showed a SUV less than 3. When a cutoff SUV of 4 was used to differentiate the nerve sheath tumors, all tumors were correctly classified as benign or malignant, respectively. Among the 9 patients diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type I. 4 had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and FDG PET accurately detected all the 4 lesions with malignant transformation. According to our results, FDG PET seems to have a great potential for accurately characterizing benign versus malignant nerve sheath tumors. It appears to be extremely useful for patients with neurofibromatosis to localize the lesion with malignant transformation.

  16. Raman spectroscopic identification of normal and malignant human stomach cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jipeng Yang; Jianyu Guo; Liangping Wu; Zhenrong Sun; Weiying Cai; Zugeng Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to identify the normal and malignant human stomach cells. For the cancer cell, the reduced intensity of the Raman peak at 1250 cm-1 indicates that the protein secondary structure transforms from β-sheet or disordered structures to α-helical, while the increased intensity of the symmetric PO2 stretching vibration mode at 1094 cm-1 shows the increased DNA content.

  17. Macroscopic Fourier transform infrared scanning in reflection mode (MA-rFTIR), a new tool for chemical imaging of cultural heritage artefacts in the mid-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Stijn; Alfeld, Matthias; Vanmeert, Frederik; De Nolf, Wout; Janssens, Koen

    2014-05-21

    In this paper we demonstrate that by means of scanning reflection FTIR spectroscopy, it is possible to record highly specific distribution maps of organic and inorganic compounds from flat, macroscopic objects with cultural heritage value in a non-invasive manner. Our previous work involved the recording of macroscopic distributions of chemical elements or crystal phases from painted works of art based on respectively macroscopic X-ray fluorescence or X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The use of infrared radiation instead of X-rays has the advantage that more specific information about the nature and distribution of the chemical compounds present can be gathered. This higher imaging specificity represents a clear advantage for the characterization of painting and artist materials. It allows the distribution of metallo-organic compounds to be visualized and permits distinguishing between pigmented materials containing the same key metal. The prototype instrument allows the recording of hyperspectral datacubes by scanning the surface of the artefact in a contactless and sequential single-point measuring mode, while recording the spectrum of reflected infrared radiation. After the acquisition, spectral line intensities of individual bands and chemical distribution maps can be extracted from the datacube to identify the compounds present and/or to highlight their spatial distribution. Not only is information gained on the surface of the investigated artefacts, but also images of overpainted paint layers and, if present, the underdrawing may be revealed in this manner. A current major limitation is the long scanning times required to record these maps.

  18. The anticancer agent PB-100, selectively active on malignant cells, inhibits multiplication of sixteen malignant cell lines, even multidrug resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljanski Mirko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-derived anticancer agent PB-100 selectively destroys cancer cells, even when multidrug resistant; yet, it does not inhibit normal (non-malignant cell multiplication. Testing of PB-100 on sixteen malignant cell lines, several multidrug resistant, as well as on five normal cell lines, confirmed our previous results. Flavopereirine and dihydroflavopereirine, the active principles of PB-100, were chemically synthesized and displayed the same selectivity for tumor cells as the purified plant extract, being active at even lower concentrations.

  19. [Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemona, A; Dziecioł, J; Sulik, M; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and histopathologic picture of gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow were analysed in non-selected autopsy material. It was found that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow occurred in terminal stages of various diseases (malignant neoplasms, chronic inflammation). Histological studies showed that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow led to atrophy of the hematopoietic and adipose tissues of the bone marrow and accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. The patients with gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow exhibit hematologic disorders, most frequently anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  20. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathanson, L. (Health Sciences Center, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  1. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  2. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  3. Plexiform Neurofibroma of the Wrist: Imaging Features and When to Suspect Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gosein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibromas are essentially pathognomonic for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, occurring when there is diffuse involvement along a nerve segment and its branches. Transformation into a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. These tumours are highly aggressive and particularly difficult to diagnose in NF1 patients due to the clinical overlap between benign and malignant lesions. We present a case of a plexiform neurofibroma and discuss the typical imaging characteristics on ultrasound, CT, and MRI, including the target sign and continuity with the parent nerve. Certain imaging features should raise suspicion for malignancy however, these modalities may not always reliably differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. Recent studies show a very high negative predictive value for FDG-PET making it quite useful in excluding malignancy. In positive scans, PET/CT aids in guiding biopsy to the most metabolically active area of the tumour.

  4. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yingbin [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Cai, Shaoxi, E-mail: sxcai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yu, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Library of Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, Haoxing [School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liu, Lan [Department of Laboratory of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Chongqin Medical University, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Qun [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Du, Jun [Center of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Cai, Shaohui [College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Sung, K.L. Paul [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Bioengineering, University of California, SD 0412 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  5. Cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal malignancies--development of standards of care for the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Jesus

    2007-07-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) continue to play an increasing role in the management of peritoneal surface malignancies of gastrointestinal origin. The prognosis of patients and the responses to cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC depend on the histology, the degree of malignant transformation, the adequacy of the cytoreductive surgery, and the response to systemic therapy. Continuous interaction between medical and surgical oncologists is needed to identify the most appropriate patients for and the most efficient sequence of the available therapeutic modalities.

  6. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  7. Evaluation of the short-term fate and transport of chemicals of emerging concern during soil-aquifer treatment using select transformation products as intrinsic redox-sensitive tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntau, Meriam; Schulz, Manoj; Jewell, Kevin S; Hermes, Nina; Hübner, Uwe; Ternes, Thomas; Drewes, Jörg E

    2017-04-01

    In this study, known products from oxic transformation of the X-ray contrast medium iopromide were introduced for the first time as intrinsic tracer for in situ characterization of the transition zone between oxic and suboxic conditions during the initial phase of soil-aquifer treatment (SAT). Two wet-dry cycles of a full-scale infiltration basin were monitored to characterize hydraulic retention times, redox conditions, removal of bulk organic parameters and the fate of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). Tracer tests at the site showed an average hydraulic retention time of 80%). These results highlight that the analysis of iopromide along with its intermediates and persistent TPs can serve as a promising probing tool to determine overall efficiency of CEC biodegradation and to identify potential in situ oxygen limitations.

  8. Amaranth lunasin-like peptide internalizes into the cell nucleus and inhibits chemical carcinogen-induced transformation of NIH-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cervantes, Enrique; Jeong, Hyung Jin; León-Galván, Fabiola; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González de Mejia, Elvira; de Lumen, Ben O; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2010-09-01

    Because an unbalanced diet is an important risk factor for several illnesses, interest has increased in finding novel health-promoting foods. Amaranth produces seeds that not only have substantial nutritional properties but that also contain phytochemical compounds as rutin and nicotiflorin and peptides with antihypertensive and anticarcinogenic activities. We report that a cancer-preventive peptide in amaranth has activities similar to those of soybean lunasin. The amaranth lunasin-like peptide, however, requires less time than the soybean lunasin to internalize into the nucleus of NIH-3T3 cells, and inhibits histone acetylation (H(3) and H(4) in a 70 and 77%, respectively). The amaranth lunasin-like peptide inhibited the transformation of NIH-3T3 cells to cancerous foci. The open reading frame (ORF) of amaranth lunasin corresponds to a bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein (LTP). LTPs are a family of proteins that in plants are implicated in different functions, albeit all linked to developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Our results open new intriguing questions about the function of lunasin in plants and support that amaranth is a food alternative containing natural peptides with health-promoting benefits.

  9. Removal and transformation of organic matters in domestic wastewater during lab-scale chemically enhanced primary treatment and a trickling filter treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingliang Zhao; Huiyuan Zhong; Kun Wang; Liangliang Wei; Jinli Liu; Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    To find a simple and economical way for treating the domestic wastewater in small counties and towns,a process combining chemically enhanced primary treatment and a trickling filter (CEPT-TF,representing the physical and biological effects) was constructed and operated in laboratory conditions.The characteristic behaviors of dissolved organic matter in raw wastewater and effluents were examined during steady-state operation.Experimental results showed that the process of CEPT and TF in series was beneficial for the removal of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics.Specially,the hydrophobic and aromatic materials could be preferentially removed in the CEPT unit,and the hydrophilic fraction in the TF.Structural changes of the organic fractions during the operation of the different units were also characterized via spectrum analysis.

  10. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains...

  11. Vascular Reconstruction in Hepatic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan

    2016-04-01

    With surgery for hepatic malignancy, there are poor options for chemotherapy; many patients are deemed unresectable because of vascular involvement or location of tumors. Over the past few decades, advances in surgical technique have allowed resection of these tumors with vascular reconstruction to achieve negative margins and improve chances for survival. This article reviews those reconstruction techniques and outcomes in detail, including in situ perfusion and ex vivo liver surgery, and provides a discussion of implications and operative planning for patients with hepatic malignancy in order to provide surgeons with better understanding of these complicated operations.

  12. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Sarah; Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be in......A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains..