Sample records for chemically reacting tracers

  1. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7 (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.


    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  2. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows (United States)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.


    Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

  3. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows (United States)

    Kollmann, W.


    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  4. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows (United States)

    Kollmann, W.


    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  5. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model (United States)

    Farshchi, M.


    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows (United States)

    Doom, Jeffrey Joseph

    This dissertation: (i) develops a novel numerical method for DNS/LES of compressible, turbulent reacting flows, (ii) performs several validation simulations, (iii) studies auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring in air and (iv) studies a hydrogen/air turbulent diffusion flame. The numerical method is spatially non-dissipative, implicit and applicable over a range of Mach numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co--located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non--reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily applicable to complex chemical mechanisms. Good results are obtained for validation simulations. The algorithm is used to study auto-ignition in laminar vortex rings. A nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [37] is used. Diluted H 2 at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratio, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto--ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, zeta MR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by zetaMR; a most reactive temperature TMR is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke

  7. Numerical Simulations of High-Speed Chemically Reacting Flow (United States)

    Ton, V. T.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Osher, S. J.; Engquist, B. E.


    The essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) shock-capturing scheme for the solution of hyperbolic equations is extended to solve a system of coupled conservation equations governing two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible chemically reacting flow with full chemistry. The thermodynamic properties of the mixture are modeled accurately, and stiff kinetic terms are separated from the fluid motion by a fractional step algorithm. The methodology is used to study the concept of shock-induced mixing and combustion, a process by which the interaction of a shock wave with a jet of low-density hydrogen fuel enhances mixing through streamwise vorticity generation. Test cases with and without chemical reaction are explored here. Our results indicate that, in the temperature range examined, vorticity generation as well as the distribution of atomic species do not change significantly with the introduction of a chemical reaction and subsequent heat release. The actual diffusion of hydrogen is also relatively unaffected by the reaction process. This suggests that the fluid mechanics of this problem may be successfully decoupled from the combustion processes, and that computation of the mixing problem (without combustion chemistry) can elucidate much of the important physical features of the flow.

  8. Chlorine isotopes potential as geo-chemical tracers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Pradhan, U.K.; Banerjee, R.

    The potential of chlorine isotopes as tracers of geo-chemical processes of earth and the oceans is highlighted based on systematic studies carried out in understanding the chlorine isotope fractionation mechanism, its constancy in seawater and its...

  9. Using the REACT Strategy to Understand Physical and Chemical Changes (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Güngören, Seda Çavus; Ültay, Eser


    Students often struggle to determine whether changes in matter are physical or chemical; for example, they may have difficulty labelling a candle melting as a physical change but a candle burning as chemical change. Here we describe a lesson that we used to integrate conceptual learning about physical and chemical changes using the…

  10. Assessing preferential flow by simultaneously injecting nanoparticle and chemical tracers

    KAUST Repository

    Subramanian, S. K.


    The exact manner in which preferential (e.g., much faster than average) flow occurs in the subsurface through small fractures or permeable connected pathways of other kinds is important to many processes but is difficult to determine, because most chemical tracers diffuse quickly enough from small flow channels that they appear to move more uniformly through the rock than they actually do. We show how preferential flow can be assessed by injecting 2 to 5 nm carbon particles (C-Dots) and an inert KBr chemical tracer at different flow rates into a permeable core channel that is surrounded by a less permeable matrix in laboratory apparatus of three different designs. When the KBr tracer has a long enough transit through the system to diffuse into the matrix, but the C-Dot tracer does not, the C-Dot tracer arrives first and the KBr tracer later, and the separation measures the degree of preferential flow. Tracer sequestration in the matrix can be estimated with a Peclet number, and this is useful for experiment design. A model is used to determine the best fitting core and matrix dispersion parameters and refine estimates of the core and matrix porosities. Almost the same parameter values explain all experiments. The methods demonstrated in the laboratory can be applied to field tests. If nanoparticles can be designed that do not stick while flowing through the subsurface, the methods presented here could be used to determine the degree of fracture control in natural environments, and this capability would have very wide ranging value and applicability.

  11. Sensitivity of chemical tracers to meteorological parameters in the MOZART-3 chemical transport model (United States)

    Kinnison, D. E.; Brasseur, G. P.; Walters, S.; Garcia, R. R.; Marsh, D. R.; Sassi, F.; Harvey, V. L.; Randall, C. E.; Emmons, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Hess, P.; Orlando, J. J.; Tie, X. X.; Randel, W.; Pan, L. L.; Gettelman, A.; Granier, C.; Diehl, T.; Niemeier, U.; Simmons, A. J.


    The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 3 (MOZART-3), which represents the chemical and physical processes from the troposphere through the lower mesosphere, was used to evaluate the representation of long-lived tracers and ozone using three different meteorological fields. The meteorological fields are based on (1) the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, version 1b (WACCM1b), (2) the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis, and (3) a new reanalysis for year 2000 from ECMWF called EXP471. Model-derived tracers (methane, water vapor, and total inorganic nitrogen) and ozone are compared to data climatologies from satellites. Model mean age of air was also derived and compared to in situ CO2 and SF6 data. A detailed analysis of the chemical fields simulated by MOZART-3 shows that even though the general features characterizing the three dynamical sets are rather similar, slight differences in winds and temperature can produce substantial differences in the calculated distributions of chemical tracers. The MOZART-3 simulations that use meteorological fields from WACCM1b and ECMWF EXP471 represented best the distribution of long-lived tracers and mean age of air in the stratosphere. There was a significant improvement using the ECMWF EXP471 reanalysis data product over the ECMWF operational data product. The effect of the quasi-biennial oscillation circulation on long-lived tracers and ozone is examined.

  12. Non-equilibrium radiation from viscous chemically reacting two-phase exhaust plumes (United States)

    Penny, M. M.; Smith, S. D.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Ring, L. R.; Anderson, P. G.


    A knowledge of the structure of the rocket exhaust plumes is necessary to solve problems involving plume signatures, base heating, plume/surface interactions, etc. An algorithm is presented which treats the viscous flow of multiphase chemically reacting fluids in a two-dimensional or axisymmetric supersonic flow field. The gas-particle flow solution is fully coupled with the chemical kinetics calculated using an implicit scheme to calculate chemical production rates. Viscous effects include chemical species diffusion with the viscosity coefficient calculated using a two-equation turbulent kinetic energy model.

  13. Convergence of the flow of a chemically reacting gaseous mixture to incompressible Euler equations in a unbounded domain (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Sam


    The flow of chemically reacting gaseous mixture is associated with a variety of phenomena and processes. We study the combined quasineutral and inviscid limit from the flow of chemically reacting gaseous mixture governed by Poisson equation to incompressible Euler equations with the ill-prepared initial data in the unbounded domain R^2× T. Furthermore, the convergence rates are obtained.

  14. Recent progress of laser metrology in chemically reacting flows at onera (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Dorval, N.; Vilmart, G.; Orain, M.; George, R.; Scherman, M.; Nafa, M.; Bresson, A.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Lefebvre, M.


    This paper presents some of the development actions performed these last years at ONERA using laser spectroscopic techniques to probe chemically reacting flows. Techniques like laser absorption, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), and Raman scattering will be described with focus on present drawbacks as well as expectations from new laser technologies (Interband Cascade Lasers (ICL) diodes, Optical Parametrical Oscillators (OPO), frequency comb, and femto/picosecond lasers) before showing some results of recent applications in ground facilities.

  15. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.


    , 30 m3/h) at a rate of 2 samples per week for each size fraction. This resulted in 78 and 77 valid PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. All samples were weighed and analysed for major and trace elements following the methodology described by Querol et al. (2004). The data collected over the annual period was analysed as a function of the wind sectors defining the main PM sources: 0-45° (open sea), 45-135° (harbour) and 135-360° (land). PM levels and chemical composition were evaluated for each of these sectors, and initial results on hourly PM levels (24000 data points) showed striking similarities between the results from the open sea (46 µgPM10/m3, 22 µgPM2.5/m3, 14 µgPM1/m3) and the harbour (44 µgPM10/m3, 21 µgPM2.5/m3, 13 µgPM1/m3) sectors, which were markedly different from those recorded from the land (37 µgPM10/m3, 16 µgPM2.5/m3, 11 µgPM1/m3). This indicated that the impact of shipping emissions on urban background PM levels do not represent only harbour emissions, but also emissions produced during vessel traffic into and out of the harbour, and also across from Melilla and through the Gibraltar Strait. The same kind of analysis was carried out for the levels of tracers species and tracer ratios, in search for a marker of shipping emissions. Results showed that the V/Ni ratio followed a similar pattern to that detected for PM levels, with similar values for the open sea and harbour sectors (4.1 and 4.0, respectively), which differed widely from the ratio obtained from land (12.4). These results evidence the value of the V/Ni ratio as a marker for shipping emissions in Melilla. Further research is ongoing in search of other tracer species and/or tracer ratios. Furthermore, a source apportionment analysis will be carried our by means of PMF, which will be followed by a Multi-linear Engine (ME) analysis with pulling towards the marker V/Ni ratio and aimed at quantifying the impact on urban PM levels of shipping emissions in Melilla. Acknowledgements

  16. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative? (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.


    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  17. Combined LAURA-UPS solution procedure for chemically-reacting flows. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Wood, William A.


    A new procedure seeks to combine the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver LAURA with the parabolized Navier-Stokes solver UPS for the aerothermodynamic solution of chemically-reacting air flowfields. The interface protocol is presented and the method is applied to two slender, blunted shapes. Both axisymmetric and three dimensional solutions are included with surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons between the present method and previously published results. The case of Mach 25 flow over an axisymmetric six degree sphere-cone with a noncatalytic wall is considered to 100 nose radii. A stability bound on the marching step size was observed with this case and is attributed to chemistry effects resulting from the noncatalytic wall boundary condition. A second case with Mach 28 flow over a sphere-cone-cylinder-flare configuration is computed at both two and five degree angles of attack with a fully-catalytic wall. Surface pressures are seen to be within five percent with the present method compared to the baseline LAURA solution and heat transfers are within 10 percent. The effect of grid resolution is investigated and the nonequilibrium results are compared with a perfect gas solution, showing that while the surface pressure is relatively unchanged by the inclusion of reacting chemistry the nonequilibrium heating is 25 percent higher. The procedure demonstrates significant, order of magnitude reductions in solution time and required memory for the three dimensional case over an all thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution.

  18. Chemical tracers of particulate emissions from commercial shipping. (United States)

    Viana, Mar; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Moreno, Teresa; Dos Santos, Saúl García; Herce, María Dolores; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía


    Despite the increase of commercial shipping around the world, data are yet relatively scarce on the contribution of these emissions to ambient air particulates. One of the reasons is the complexity in the detection and estimation of shipping contributions to ambient particulates in harbor and urban environments, given the similarity with tracers of other combustion sources. This study aimed to identify specific tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean city with an important harbor (Melilla, Spain). Results showed that for 24 h PM10 and PM2.5 samples, valid tracers of commercial shipping emissions were ratios of V/Ni = 4-5 and V/EC 8 excluded the influence of shipping emissions. Other ratios (V/ S, La/Ce, Zn/Ni, Pb/Zn, OC/EC) and tracers (Pb, Zn) were also tested but did not correlate with this source. Due to the changing composition of diesel fuels, tracers in the Mediterranean Sea may not be representative in other regions of the world and vice versa. The contribution of shipping emissions to ambient particulate matter (PM) urban background levels was quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), resulting in 2% and 4% of mean annual PM10 levels (0.8 microg/m3 primary particles and 1.7 microg/m3 secondary particles, with 20% uncertainty) and 14% of mean annual PM2.5 levels (2.6 microg/m3).

  19. Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER (United States)

    Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz-Dietsch, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.


    The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, hereinafter referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques. Tagging means the artificial decomposition of one or more species into parts, which are additionally labelled (e.g., by the region of their primary emission) and then processed as the species itself. The type-2 family concept is designed to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (e.g., rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC, which allows the definition of tracers via a Fortran95 namelist, as a complement to

  20. New quasi-steady-state and partial-equilibrium methods for integrating chemically reacting systems (United States)

    Mott, David Ray


    We present new quasi-steady-state (QSS) and partial- equilibrium (PE) methods for integrating systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that arise from chemical reactions. These methods were developed for use in process-split reacting-flow simulations. The new QSS integrator is a second-order predictor- corrector method that is A-stable for linear equations. The method is accurate regardless of the timescales of the individual ODEs in the system and works well for problems typical of hydrocarbon combustion. The method has very low start-up costs, making it ideal for process- split reacting-flow simulations which require the solution of an initial-value problem in each computational cell in the flowfield for every global timestep. For problems of extreme stiffness, PE tools can be used in combination with the QSS integrator. PE methods remove the fastest reactions in the mechanism from the kinetic integration when their effects can be calculated using algebraic equilibrium constraints. Conservation constraints are used to write an ODE for the reaction's progress variable. The solution of this equation provides a new method for identifying reactions in equilibrium. A systematic method for finding a set of conserved scalars for an arbitrary group of reactions is presented, and this method is used to eliminate reactions that produce redundant equilibrium constraints. Since the equilibrium reactions must compensate for changes in the system that disturb their equilibrium, the equilibrium source terms are not forced identically to zero. Equilibrium is imposed by driving these source terms to the average value required to compensate for the perturbations caused by the other processes. Integration results for a cesium-air mechanism, a hydrogen-air mechanism, and a thermonuclear mechanism used in astrophysics are presented. One-dimensional flame and detonation results are presented for a single-step hydrogen mechanism and the thermonuclear mechanism, respectively

  1. A numerical code for the simulation of non-equilibrium chemically reacting flows on hybrid CPU-GPU clusters (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey N.; Kashkovsky, Alexander V.; Borisov, Semyon P.; Shershnev, Anton A.


    In the present work a computer code RCFS for numerical simulation of chemically reacting compressible flows on hybrid CPU/GPU supercomputers is developed. It solves 3D unsteady Euler equations for multispecies chemically reacting flows in general curvilinear coordinates using shock-capturing TVD schemes. Time advancement is carried out using the explicit Runge-Kutta TVD schemes. Program implementation uses CUDA application programming interface to perform GPU computations. Data between GPUs is distributed via domain decomposition technique. The developed code is verified on the number of test cases including supersonic flow over a cylinder.

  2. Impact of fluid-rock chemical interactions on tracer transport in fractured rocks. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Liu, H-H; Spycher, N; Kennedy, B M


    In this paper, we investigate the impact of chemical interactions, in the form of mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, on tracer transport in fractured rocks. When a tracer is introduced in fractured rocks, it moves through the fracture primarily by advection and it also enters the stagnant water of the surrounding rock matrix through diffusion. Inside the porous rock matrix, the tracer chemically interacts with the solid materials of the rock, where it can precipitate depending on the local equilibrium conditions. Alternatively, it can be dissolved from the solid phase of the rock matrix into the matrix pore water, diffuse into the flowing fluids of the fracture and is advected out of it. We show that such chemical interactions between the fluid and solid phases have significant impact on tracer transport in fractured rocks. We invoke the dual-porosity conceptualization to represent the fractured rocks and develop a semi-analytical solution to describe the transient transport of tracers in interacting fluid-rock systems. To test the accuracy and stability of the semi-analytical solution, we compare it with simulation results obtained with the TOUGHREACT simulator. We observe that, in a chemically interacting system, the tracer breakthrough curve exhibits a pseudo-steady state, where the tracer concentration remains more or less constant over a finite period of time. Such a pseudo-steady condition is not observed in a non-reactive fluid-rock system. We show that the duration of the pseudo-state depends on the physical and chemical parameters of the system, and can be exploited to extract information about the fractured rock system, such as the fracture spacing and fracture-matrix interface area. © 2013.

  3. Antibodies against the chemically synthesized genome-linked protein of poliovirus react with native virus-specific proteins. (United States)

    Baron, M H; Baltimore, D


    The genome-linked protein (VPg) of poliovirus has been chemically synthesized, coupled to bovine serum albumin carrier and injected into rabbits. An antibody response was elicited not only by the full-length synthetic VPg peptide, but also by a synthetic 14-amino acid carboxy-terminal peptide. All antisera reacted with virus-specific proteins from HeLa cells infected with poliovirus. Three of these proteins have previously been implicated by others as precursors of VPg. No free cytoplasmic VPg could be detected, and the antibodies did not react with radiolabeled proteins from uninfected cells.

  4. A constrained approach to multiscale stochastic simulation of chemically reacting systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, Simon L.


    Stochastic simulation of coupled chemical reactions is often computationally intensive, especially if a chemical system contains reactions occurring on different time scales. In this paper, we introduce a multiscale methodology suitable to address this problem, assuming that the evolution of the slow species in the system is well approximated by a Langevin process. It is based on the conditional stochastic simulation algorithm (CSSA) which samples from the conditional distribution of the suitably defined fast variables, given values for the slow variables. In the constrained multiscale algorithm (CMA) a single realization of the CSSA is then used for each value of the slow variable to approximate the effective drift and diffusion terms, in a similar manner to the constrained mean-force computations in other applications such as molecular dynamics. We then show how using the ensuing Fokker-Planck equation approximation, we can in turn approximate average switching times in stochastic chemical systems. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  5. A spectral multi-domain technique for analysis of chemically reacting flows (United States)

    Macaraeg, Michele G.; Streett, Craig L.


    A technique is presented which models the chemical kinetics and flow kinematics of a nonionized air mixture passing through a fully resolved shock wave, thus alleviating the need for artificial viscosity. The quasi-one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the species conversation equation are the governing equations. The validity of the multidomain Navier-Stokes algorithm is demonstrated via comparison with experiment.

  6. Multiphase chemical kinetics of NO3 radicals reacting with organic aerosol components from biomass burning. (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Pöschl, Ulrich; Knopf, Daniel A


    Multiphase reactions with nitrate radicals are among the most important chemical aging processes of organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere especially at nighttime. Reactive uptake of NO(3) by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the pathways of mass transport and chemical reaction remained unclear. Here we apply kinetic flux models to experimental NO(3) exposure studies. The model accounts for gas phase diffusion within a cylindrical flow tube, reversible adsorption of NO(3), surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions from the gas-condensed phase interface to the bulk. We resolve the relative contributions of surface and bulk reactions to the uptake of NO(3) by levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). Applying the kinetic flux model, we provide the first estimate of the diffusion coefficient of NO(3) in amorphous solid organic matrices (10(-8)-10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) and show that molecular markers are well-conserved in the bulk of solid BBA particles but undergo rapid degradation upon deliquescence/liquefaction at high relative humidity, indicating that the observed concentrations and subsequent apportionment of the biomass burning source could be significantly underestimated.

  7. Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons


    Full Text Available The Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 is an offline global chemical transport model particularly suited for studies of the troposphere. The updates of the model from its previous version MOZART-2 are described, including an expansion of the chemical mechanism to include more detailed hydrocarbon chemistry and bulk aerosols. Online calculations of a number of processes, such as dry deposition, emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and photolysis frequencies, are now included. Results from an eight-year simulation (2000–2007 are presented and evaluated. The MOZART-4 source code and standard input files are available for download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (

  8. Chemically reacting dusty viscoelastic fluid flow in an irregular channel with convective boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivaraj


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the combined effects of free convective heat and mass transfer on an unsteady MHD dusty viscoelastic (Walters liquid model-B fluid flow between a vertical long wavy wall and a parallel flat wall saturated with porous medium subject to the convective boundary condition. The coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically using perturbation technique. The velocity, temperature and concentration fields have been studied for various combinations of physical parameters such as magnetic field, heat absorption, thermal radiation, radiation absorption, Biot number and chemical reaction parameters. The skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also presented and displayed graphically. Further, it is observed that the velocity profiles of dusty fluid are higher than the dust particles.

  9. From Detailed Description of Chemical Reacting Carbon Particles to Subgrid Models for CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze S.


    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development and validation of a sub-model for the partial oxidation of a spherical char particle moving in an air/steam atmosphere. The particle diameter is 2 mm. The coal particle is represented by moisture- and ash-free nonporous carbon while the coal rank is implemented using semi-global reaction rate expressions taken from the literature. The submodel includes six gaseous chemical species (O2, CO2, CO, H2O, H2, N2. Three heterogeneous reactions are employed, along with two homogeneous semi-global reactions, namely carbon monoxide oxidation and the water-gas-shift reaction. The distinguishing feature of the subgrid model is that it takes into account the influence of homogeneous reactions on integral characteristics such as carbon combustion rates and particle temperature. The sub-model was validated by comparing its results with a comprehensive CFD-based model resolving the issues of bulk flow and boundary layer around the particle. In this model, the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the energy and species conservation equations were used to solve the problem by means of the pseudo-steady state approach. At the surface of the particle, the balance of mass, energy and species concentration was applied including the effect of the Stefan flow and heat loss due to radiation at the surface of the particle. Good agreement was achieved between the sub-model and the CFD-based model. Additionally, the CFD-based model was verified against experimental data published in the literature (Makino et al. (2003 Combust. Flame 132, 743-753. Good agreement was achieved between numerically predicted and experimentally obtained data for input conditions corresponding to the kinetically controlled regime. The maximal discrepancy (10% between the experiments and the numerical results was observed in the diffusion-controlled regime. Finally, we discuss the influence of the Reynolds number, the ambient O2 mass fraction and the ambient

  10. Occurrence and distribution of bacteria indicators, chemical tracers and pathogenic vibrios in Singapore coastal waters. (United States)

    Goh, Shin Giek; Bayen, Stéphane; Burger, David; Kelly, Barry C; Han, Ping; Babovic, Vladan; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong


    Water quality in Singapore's coastal area was evaluated with microbial indicators, pathogenic vibrios, chemical tracers and physico-chemical parameters. Sampling sites were grouped into two clusters (coastal sites at (i) northern and (ii) southern part of Singapore). The coastal sites located at northern part of Singapore along the Johor Straits exhibited greater pollution. Principal component analysis revealed that sampling sites at Johor Straits have greater loading on carbamazepine, while turbidity poses greater influence on sampling sites at Singapore Straits. Detection of pathogenic vibrios was also more prominent at Johor Straits than the Singapore Straits. This study examined the spatial variations in Singapore's coastal water quality and provided the baseline information for health risk assessment and future pollution management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi


    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  12. Evaluating Chemical Tracers in Suburban Groundwater as Indicators of Nitrate-Nitrogen Sources (United States)

    Nitka, A.; DeVita, W. M.; McGinley, P.


    The CDC reports that over 15 million US households use private wells. These wells are vulnerable to contamination. One of the most common contaminants in private wells is nitrate. Nitrate has a health standard of 10 mg/L. This standard is set to prevent methemaglobinemia, or "blue baby" syndrome, in infants. In extreme cases it can affect breathing and heart function, and even lead to death. Elevated nitrate concentrations have also been associated with increased risk of thyroid disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Unlike municipal wells, there is no mandatory testing of private wells. It is the responsibility of users to have their well water tested. The objective of this research was to identify the most useful chemical tracers for determining sources of nitrate in private water supplies. Chemical characteristics, such as mobility in groundwater and water solubility, as well as frequency of use, were considered when choosing source indicators. Fourteen pharmaceuticals and personal care products unique to human use were chosen to identify wells impacted by septic waste. A bovine antibiotic and five pesticide metabolites were used to identify contamination from agricultural sources. Eighteen private wells were selected in a suburban area with septic systems and adjacent agricultural land. The wells were sampled five times and analyzed to provide a temporal profile of nitrate and the tracers. The artificial sweetener sucralose was found in >70% of private wells. Wells with sucralose detected had nitrate concentrations between 5-15 mg/L. The herbicide metabolite metolachlor ESA was detected in 50% of the wells. These wells typically had the highest nitrate concentrations, often >10 mg/L. The common use and frequent detection of these two compounds made them the most reliable indicators of nitrate sources evaluated in this study. This information will help well owners determine appropriate treatment and remediation options and could direct future

  13. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers. (United States)

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A


    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  14. A computer program for two-dimensional and axisymmetric nonreacting perfect gas and equilibrium chemically reacting laminar, transitional and-or turbulent boundary layer flows (United States)

    Miner, E. W.; Anderson, E. C.; Lewis, C. H.


    A computer program is described in detail for laminar, transitional, and/or turbulent boundary-layer flows of non-reacting (perfect gas) and reacting gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium. An implicit finite difference scheme was developed for both two dimensional and axisymmetric flows over bodies, and in rocket nozzles and hypervelocity wind tunnel nozzles. The program, program subroutines, variables, and input and output data are described. Also included is the output from a sample calculation of fully developed turbulent, perfect gas flow over a flat plate. Input data coding forms and a FORTRAN source listing of the program are included. A method is discussed for obtaining thermodynamic and transport property data which are required to perform boundary-layer calculations for reacting gases in chemical equilibrium.

  15. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.


    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  16. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes. (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L


    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. MOZART, a global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 1. Model description (United States)

    Brasseur, G. P.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Walters, S.; Rasch, P. J.; Müller, J.-F.; Granier, C.; Tie, X. X.


    We present a new global three-dimensional chemical-transport model (called MOZART) developed in the framework of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) and aimed at studying the distribution and budget of tropospheric ozone and its precursors. The model, developed with a horizontal resolution of 2.8° in longitude and latitude, includes 25 levels in the vertical between the Earth's surface and an upper boundary located at approximately 35 km altitude. In its present configuration the model calculates the global distribution of 56 chemical constituents with a timestep of 20 min, and accounts for surface emission and deposition, large-scale advective transport, subscale convective and boundary layer exchanges, chemical and photochemical transformations, as well as wet scavenging. Transport is simulated "off line" from CCM with dynamical variables provided every 3 hours from preestablished history tapes. Advection is calculated using the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme [Rasch and Williamson, 1990] developed for the MATCH model of Rasch et al. [1997]. Convective and boundary layer transports are expressed according to Hack [1994] and Holtslag and Boville [1993], respectively. A detailed evaluation of the model results is provided in a companion paper [Hauglustaine et al., this issue]. An analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in the chemical fields predicted by the model suggests that regional events such as summertime ozone episodes in polluted areas can be simulated by MOZART.

  18. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng


    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.

    The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.

    The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.

    We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a

  19. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  20. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))


    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  1. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs. (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E


    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. δ(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ∼ 1‰ during metamorphosis, while δ(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ∼ 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ∼ 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

  2. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.; Wesner, Jeff S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Zuellig, Robert E.


    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. δ15N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by 1‰ during metamorphosis, while δ13C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

  3. Improving Chemical EOR Simulations and Reducing the Subsurface Uncertainty Using Downscaling Conditioned to Tracer Data

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, Victor A.


    Recovery mechanisms are more likely to be influenced by grid-block size and reservoir heterogeneity in Chemical EOR (CEOR) than in conventional Water Flood (WF) simulations. Grid upscaling based on single-phase flow is a common practice in WF simulation models, where simulation grids are coarsened to perform history matching and sensitivity analyses within affordable computational times. This coarse grid resolution (typically about 100 ft.) could be sufficient in WF, however, it usually fails to capture key physical mechanisms in CEOR. In addition to increased numerical dispersion in coarse models, these models tend to artificially increase the level of mixing between the fluids and may not have enough resolution to capture different length scales of geological features to which EOR processes can be highly sensitive. As a result of which, coarse models usually overestimate the sweep efficiency, and underestimate the displacement efficiency. Grid refinement (simple downscaling) can resolve artificial mixing but appropriately re-creating the fine-scale heterogeneity, without degrading the history-match conducted on the coarse-scale, remains a challenge. Because of the difference in recovery mechanisms involved in CEOR, such as miscibility and thermodynamic phase split, the impact of grid downscaling on CEOR simulations is not well understood. In this work, we introduce a geostatistical downscaling method conditioned to tracer data to refine a coarse history-matched WF model. This downscaling process is necessary for CEOR simulations when the original (fine) earth model is not available or when major disconnects occur between the original earth model and the history-matched coarse WF model. The proposed downscaling method is a process of refining the coarse grid, and populating the relevant properties in the newly created finer grid cells. The method considers the values of rock properties in the coarse grid as hard data, and the corresponding variograms and property

  4. New chemical tracers for diesel source emission apportionment in ambient fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charland, J.P.; Caravaggio, G.; MacDonald, P.; MacPhee, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Graham, L.A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Hopanes and steranes are petroleum biomarkers that are commonly used in chemical mass balance (CMB)studies to determine the source of organic carbon from motor vehicle exhaust. Hopanes and steranes are found in engine lubricating oil and trace amounts are released during engine combustion. Since lubricating oils are used in both gasoline and diesel engines, the distribution and abundance of these biomarkers relative to organic carbon (OC) in exhaust particulate matter (PM) cannot be used to distinguish between these sources. The purpose of this study was to find molecular markers specific to diesel fuel that can be used to assess the contribution of diesel vehicles exhaust to ambient PM. PM filter samples were collected from gasoline and diesel vehicles. At the same time, samples of fresh and used engine specific lubricating oils were also collected along with gasoline and diesel fuel for organic speciation. Thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze all samples. Ambient air PM samples were also collected and analyzed for the presence of these newly proposed tracers. It was concluded that the detection of bicycloparaffins in PM can provide new insight into diesel emissions and help determine pollution sources.

  5. Metals as chemical tracers to discriminate ecological populations of threatened Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Argentina. (United States)

    Romero, M B; Polizzi, P; Chiodi, L; Robles, A; Das, K; Gerpe, M


    Franciscana dolphins are the most impacted small cetacean in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, classified as Vulnerable A3d by IUCN. Essential (Fe, Mo, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co) and non-essential (Ag, Pb, Sn) trace elements (TEs) were measured in liver, kidney, and brain samples of by-catch Franciscana dolphins that were living in estuarine (n = 21) and marine (n = 21) habitats (1) to assess whether TEs posed a threat and (2) to evaluate the suitability of TEs for discriminating ecological populations of this species in Argentinean waters. Essential TEs showed little variation in tissues from both groups in agreement with levels reported for other cetaceans and suggesting that these concentrations correspond to normal physiological levels. Non-essential TEs were higher in estuarine juveniles and adults dolphins than in marine specimens. These results suggest anthropogenic sources associated with estuarine area and that Franciscana dolphins are good sentinels of the impact of the environment. The difference in the concentrations of TEs beetwen ecological populations appeared to be related to distinct exposures in both geographical areas, and it is suggested that Ag and Sn concentrations in adults are good chemical tracers of anthropogenic input of TEs. These results provide additional information for improved management and regulatory policy.

  6. A Computational Framework for Efficient Simulation of Chemical and Biological Tracers in the Ocean with Applications to Biogeochemistry and Paleoceanography (United States)

    Khatiwala, S.


    Numerical simulation of chemical and biological tracers has long played an important role in improving our understanding of ocean circulation and climate. However, the complexity of modern ocean general circulation models (GCMs) has prevented their more widespread use by the biogeochemical and paleoceanographic community. To address this, we have recently developed the "transport matrix method", a computational framework for tracer simulation that is significantly simpler and more efficient than full GCMs, yet retain the latter's accuracy. The essential idea is that the discrete tracer transport operator of a GCM can be written as a sparse matrix, which may be efficiently constructed by "probing" the GCM with a passive tracer. This empirical approach ensures that the circulation embedded in the transport matrix, by construction, satisfies the equations of motion, automatically incorporates transport due to all parameterized sub-grid scale processes (eddy-induced mixing, convective adjustment, etc.) represented in the GCM, and is entirely consistent with the geometry and numerics of the underlying GCM. Once the matrix has been derived, the GCM can be dispensed with: simulating a tracer simply involves a sequence of matrix-vector products (which can be performed, for instance, in MATLAB). The matrix method has two key advantages over GCMs or "off-line" tracer models. First, it is many orders of magnitude more efficient. Second, it can directly compute steady state solutions of the tracer equations, thus circumventing expensive, transient integrations. This is especially useful for tracers such as 14C, carbon, and nutrients. The method is illustrated by several realistic examples, including, (1) computation of steady state solutions of the OCMIP biotic carbon model and their sensitivity to various biogeochemical model parameters, (2) simulation of Ar-39, CFC-12, and SF6 in the ocean, (3) adjoint sensitivity analysis of anthropogenic carbon uptake with respect to the

  7. Chemical and biological tracers to determine groundwater flow in karstic aquifer, Yucatan Peninsula (United States)

    Lenczewski, M.; Leal-Bautista, R. M.; McLain, J. E.


    Little is known about the extent of pollution in groundwater in the Yucatan Peninsula; however current population growth, both from international tourism and Mexican nationals increases the potential for wastewater release of a vast array of contaminants including personal care products, pharmaceuticals (Rx), and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens and Rx in groundwater can persist and can be particularly acute in this region where high permeability of the karst bedrock and the lack of top soil permit the rapid transport of contaminants into groundwater aquifers. The objective of this research is to develop and utilize novel biological and chemical source tracking methods to distinguish between different sources of anthropogenic pollution in degraded groundwater. Although several methods have been used successfully to track fecal contamination sources in small scale studies, little is known about their spatial limitations, as source tracking studies rarely include sample collection over a wide geographical area and with different sources of water. In addition, although source tracking methods to distinguish human from animal fecal contamination are widely available, this work has developed source tracking distinguish between separate human populations is highly unique. To achieve this objective, we collected water samples from a series of drinking wells, cenotes (sinkholes), wastewater treatment plants, and injection wells across the Yucatan Peninsula and examine potential source tracers within the collected water samples. The result suggests that groundwater sources impacted by tourist vs. local populations contain different chemical stressors. This work has developed a more detailed understanding of the presence and persistence of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and fecal indicators in a karstic system; such understanding will be a vital component for the protection Mexican groundwater and human health. Quantification of different pollution sources

  8. REACT-Mod: a mathematical model for transient calculation of chemical reactions with U-Pu-Np-Tc in the aqueous nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachimori, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Tatsuaki


    A computer code REACT-Mod which simulates various chemical reactions in an aqueous nitric acid solution involving uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium etc. e.g., redox, radiolytic and disproportionation reactions of 68, was developed based on the kinetics model. The numerical solution method adopted in the code are two, a kinetics model totally based on the rate law of which differential equations are solved by the modified Porsing method, and a two-step model based on both the rate law and equilibrium law. Only the former treats 27 radiolytic reactions. The latter is beneficially used to have a quick and approximate result by economical computation. The present report aims not only to explain the concept, chemical reactions treated and characteristics of the model but also to provide details of the program for users of the REACT-Mod code. (author)

  9. Filamentary structure in chemical tracer distributions near the subtropical jet following a wave breaking event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann


    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of observations and analyses of trace gas cross sections in the extratropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS. The spatially highly resolved (≈0.5 km vertically and 12.5 km horizontally cross sections of ozone (O3, nitric acid (HNO3, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, retrieved from the measurements of the CRISTA-NF infrared limb sounder flown on the Russian M55-Geophysica, revealed intricate layer structures in the region of the subtropical tropopause break. The chemical structure in this region shows an intertwined stratosphere and troposphere. The observed filaments in all discussed trace gases are of a spatial scale of less than 0.8 km vertically and about 200 km horizontally across the jet stream. Backward trajectory calculations confirm that the observed filaments are the result of a breaking Rossby wave in the preceding days. An analysis of the trace gas relationships between PAN and O3 identifies four distinct groups of air mass: polluted subtropical tropospheric air, clean tropical upper-tropospheric air, the lowermost stratospheric air, and air from the deep stratosphere. The tracer relationships further allow the identification of tropospheric, stratospheric, and the transitional air mass made of a mixture of UT and LS air. Mapping of these air mass types onto the geo-spatial location in the cross sections reveals a highly structured extratropical transition layer (ExTL. Finally, the ratio between the measured reactive nitrogen species (HNO3 + PAN + ClONO2 and O3 is analysed to estimate the influence of tropospheric pollution on the extratropical UTLS. In combination, these diagnostics provide the first example of a multi-species two-dimensional picture of the inhomogeneous distribution of chemical species within the UTLS region. Since Rossby wave breaking occurs frequently in the region of the tropopause break, these observed fine-scale filaments are likely ubiquitous in the region. The

  10. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.W. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO{sub 2} in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO{sub 2} released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  11. Constraints on primary and secondary particulate carbon sources using chemical tracer and 14C methods during CalNex-Bakersfield (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Nallathamby, Punith Dev; Surratt, Jason D.; Lee, Anita; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H.; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E.


    The present study investigates primary and secondary sources of organic carbon for Bakersfield, CA, USA as part of the 2010 CalNex study. The method used here involves integrated sampling that is designed to allow for detailed and specific chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) in the Bakersfield airshed. To achieve this objective, filter samples were taken during thirty-four 23-hr periods between 19 May and 26 June 2010 and analyzed for organic tracers by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Contributions to organic carbon (OC) were determined by two organic tracer-based techniques: primary OC by chemical mass balance and secondary OC by a mass fraction method. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements of the total organic carbon were also made to determine the split between the modern and fossil carbon and thereby constrain unknown sources of OC not accounted for by either tracer-based attribution technique. From the analysis, OC contributions from four primary sources and four secondary sources were determined, which comprised three sources of modern carbon and five sources of fossil carbon. The major primary sources of OC were from vegetative detritus (9.8%), diesel (2.3%), gasoline (burning, vegetative detritus and secondary biogenic carbon. The results of the current study contributes source-based evaluation of the carbonaceous aerosol at CalNex Bakersfield.

  12. The global distribution of tropospheric NO{sub x} estimated by a 3-D chemical tracer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, A.B.; Rohrer, F.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie


    The global distribution of NO{sub x} in the troposphere is calculated using a three-dimensional chemical tracer model with a simplified chemistry scheme for the tracers NO{sub x} {identical_to} NO + NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3}. At northern mid- and high latitudes, the calculated tropospheric NO{sub x} content is dominated by the surface source fossil fuel combustion. In the tropical free troposphere lightning discharges provide about 80% of the total NO{sub x} throughout the year. The zonally averaged fractional contribution of aircraft emissions strongly depends on season. The NO mixing ratios determined by the model show good overall agreement with corresponding zonal mean values observed during the STRATOZ III aircraft campaign in June. Over Canada, mixing ratios as high as 0.5-1.0 ppbv NO were measured during TROPOZ II, the origin of which is not yet understood. (author) 8 refs.

  13. Cross-reactivity virtual profiling of the human kinome by X-react(KIN): a chemical systems biology approach. (United States)

    Brylinski, Michal; Skolnick, Jeffrey


    Many drug candidates fail in clinical development due to their insufficient selectivity that may cause undesired side effects. Therefore, modern drug discovery is routinely supported by computational techniques, which can identify alternate molecular targets with a significant potential for cross-reactivity. In particular, the development of highly selective kinase inhibitors is complicated by the strong conservation of the ATP-binding site across the kinase family. In this paper, we describe X-React(KIN), a new machine learning approach that extends the modeling and virtual screening of individual protein kinases to a system level in order to construct a cross-reactivity virtual profile for the human kinome. To maximize the coverage of the kinome, X-React(KIN) relies solely on the predicted target structures and employs state-of-the-art modeling techniques. Benchmark tests carried out against available selectivity data from high-throughput kinase profiling experiments demonstrate that, for almost 70% of the inhibitors, their alternate molecular targets can be effectively identified in the human kinome with a high (>0.5) sensitivity at the expense of a relatively low false positive rate (human kinome are freely available to the academic community at .

  14. Approach to the numerical modeling of the dynamics of reacting gases in nozzles. [Gasdynamic and chemical lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashutskaia, T.V.; Grishchenko, A.E.; Sklepovoi, V.N.


    An approach is proposed for the computer simulation of gasdynamic processes involving chemical nonequilibrium flows in supersonic nozzles. Algorithms for calculating gasdynamic parameters are proposed. The convergence of iteration processes and the stability of the linearized problem are investigated. The results of the study are relevant to gasdynamic and chemical lasers. 9 references.

  15. Computational reacting gas dynamics (United States)

    Lam, S. H.


    In the study of high speed flows at high altitudes, such as that encountered by re-entry spacecrafts, the interaction of chemical reactions and other non-equilibrium processes in the flow field with the gas dynamics is crucial. Generally speaking, problems of this level of complexity must resort to numerical methods for solutions, using sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The difficulties introduced by reacting gas dynamics can be classified into three distinct headings: (1) the usually inadequate knowledge of the reaction rate coefficients in the non-equilibrium reaction system; (2) the vastly larger number of unknowns involved in the computation and the expected stiffness of the equations; and (3) the interpretation of the detailed reacting CFD numerical results. The research performed accepts the premise that reacting flows of practical interest in the future will in general be too complex or 'untractable' for traditional analytical developments. The power of modern computers must be exploited. However, instead of focusing solely on the construction of numerical solutions of full-model equations, attention is also directed to the 'derivation' of the simplified model from the given full-model. In other words, the present research aims to utilize computations to do tasks which have traditionally been done by skilled theoreticians: to reduce an originally complex full-model system into an approximate but otherwise equivalent simplified model system. The tacit assumption is that once the appropriate simplified model is derived, the interpretation of the detailed numerical reacting CFD numerical results will become much easier. The approach of the research is called computational singular perturbation (CSP).

  16. A second-order coupled immersed boundary-SAMR construction for chemically reacting flow over a heat-conducting Cartesian grid-conforming solid

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    In this paper, we present a second-order numerical method for simulations of reacting flow around heat-conducting immersed solid objects. The method is coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) framework and a low-Mach number operator-split projection algorithm. A "buffer zone" methodology is introduced to impose the solid-fluid boundary conditions such that the solver uses symmetric derivatives and interpolation stencils throughout the interior of the numerical domain; irrespective of whether it describes fluid or solid cells. Solid cells are tracked using a binary marker function. The no-slip velocity boundary condition at the immersed wall is imposed using the staggered mesh. Near the immersed solid boundary, single-sided buffer zones (inside the solid) are created to resolve the species discontinuities, and dual buffer zones (inside and outside the solid) are created to capture the temperature gradient discontinuities. The development discussed in this paper is limited to a two-dimensional Cartesian grid-conforming solid. We validate the code using benchmark simulations documented in the literature. We also demonstrate the overall second-order convergence of our numerical method. To demonstrate its capability, a reacting flow simulation of a methane/air premixed flame stabilized on a channel-confined bluff-body using a detailed chemical kinetics model is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Selection of Actinide Chemical Analogues for WIPP Tests: Potential Nonradioactive Sorbing and Nonsorbing Tracers for Study of Ion Transport in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Spall; Robert Villarreal


    Chemical characteristics of the actinides (Th, U, Np, Pu, Am) have been studied relative to nonradioactive chemical elements that have similar characteristics in an attempt to identify a group of actinide chemical analogues that are nonradioactive. In general, the chemistries of the actinides, especially U, Np, Pu, and Am, are very complex and attempts to identify a single chemical analogue for each oxidation state were not successful. However, the rationale for selecting a group of chemical analogues that would mimic the actinides as a group is provided. The categorization of possible chemical analogues (tracers) with similar chemical properties was based on the following criteria. Categorization was studied according.

  18. Chemically reacting micropolar fluid flow and heat transfer between expanding or contracting walls with ion slip, Soret and Dufour effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelu Ojjela


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the Hall and ion slip currents on an incompressible free convective flow, heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid in a porous medium between expanding or contracting walls with chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour effects. Assume that the walls are moving with a time dependent rate of the distance and the fluid is injecting or sucking with an absolute velocity. The walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and concentrations. The governing partial differential equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and then the resultant equations are solved numerically by quasilinearization technique. The results are analyzed for velocity components, microrotation, temperature and concentration with respect to different fluid and geometric parameters and presented in the form of graphs. It is noticed that with the increase in chemical reaction, Hall and ion slip parameters the temperature of the fluid is enhanced whereas the concentration is decreased. Also for the Newtonian fluid, the numerical values of axial velocity are compared with the existing literature and are found to be in good agreement.

  19. MHD boundary layer radiative, heat generating and chemical reacting flow past a wedge moving in a nanofluid. (United States)

    Khan, Md Shakhaoath; Karim, Ifsana; Islam, Md Sirajul; Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad


    The present study analyzed numerically magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) laminar boundary layer flow past a wedge with the influence of thermal radiation, heat generation and chemical reaction. This model used for the momentum, temperature and concentration fields. The principal governing equations is based on the velocity u w (x) in a nanofluid and with a parallel free stream velocity u e (x) and surface temperature and concentration. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear boundary layer equations for momentum, thermal energy and concentration to a system of nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations with fitting boundary conditions. The transmuted model is shown to be controlled by a number of thermo-physical parameters, viz. the magnetic parameter, thermal convective parameter, mass convective parameter, radiation-conduction parameter, heat generation parameter, Prandtl number, Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, chemical reaction parameter and pressure gradient parameter. Numerical elucidations are obtained with the legendary Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six order iteration schemes. Comparisons with previously published work are accomplished and proven an excellent agreement.

  20. Effects of heat and mass transfer on unsteady boundary layer flow of a chemical reacting Casson fluid (United States)

    Khan, Kashif Ali; Butt, Asma Rashid; Raza, Nauman


    In this study, an endeavor is to observe the unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow with heat and mass transfer behavior of Casson fluid past a stretching sheet in presence of wall mass transfer by ignoring the effects of viscous dissipation. Chemical reaction of linear order is also invoked here. Similarity transformation have been applied to reduce the governing equations of momentum, energy and mass into non-linear ordinary differential equations; then Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is applied to solve these equations. Numerical work is done carefully with a well-known software MATHEMATICA for the examination of non-dimensional velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles, and then results are presented graphically. The skin friction (viscous drag), local Nusselt number (rate of heat transfer) and Sherwood number (rate of mass transfer) are discussed and presented in tabular form for several factors which are monitoring the flow model.

  1. Effect of Hall current and thermal radiation on heat and mass transfer of a chemically reacting MHD flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Oahimire


    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer effects on an unsteady flow of a chemically reacting micropolar fluid over an infinite vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with Hall effect and thermal radiation are studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using the perturbation technique to obtain the expressions for velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration. With the help of graphs, the effects of the various important parameters entering into the problem on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields within the boundary layer are discussed. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin friction coefficient and rates of heat and mass transfer in terms of the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented numerically in a tabular form. The results show that the observed parameters have a significant influence on the flow, heat and mass transfer.

  2. Data-based modelling of runoff and chemical tracer concentrations in the Haute-Mentue research catchment (Switzerland) (United States)

    Iorgulescu, I.; Beven, K. J.; Musy, A.


    This paper presents a model for simulating discharge as well as chemical tracer concentration (silica and calcium) in stream flow for the Haute-Mentue research basin (Switzerland). The model structure is based on a parameterization of the three components (acid soil, AS; direct precipitation, DP; deep groundwater, GW) of a hydrochemical mixing model. Each component is modelled through an identical structure consisting of a non-linear gain, expressed by a three-parameter logistic function, and a linear transfer function with two reservoirs (fast/slow) in parallel having a constant partition between them. The model is applied on an information-rich 5-week data set. Extensive Monte Carlo realizations (more than two billion models) have identified a representative sample of behavioural models able to satisfy quite stringent fit criteria on both discharges and tracers. A descriptive statistical analysis of the behavioural parameter sets reveals significant differences between the components. In particular, the AS contribution is activated for higher catchment storages and shows a steep, almost threshold-like, increase. The partition coefficient (fast/total) for the three components is ordered as DP>AS>GW. The fast constants of the three components have a similar order of magnitude, but also show DP>AS> GW. The slow time constant of the GW component is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of DP and AS. The latter are of similar magnitude and generate a highly non-linear interflow component.

  3. Structure function analysis of chemical tracer trails in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (United States)

    Roberts, B. C.; Larsen, M. F.


    Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) trails released from sounding rockets have been used extensively as a tracer of the neutral atmospheric motions in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region and serve as a tracer of the atmospheric structure in the altitude range where the trails are released. In addition to the bulk motion corresponding to the winds, smaller-scale structure is also evident in the trail images, which can be an indication of turbulence or small-scale wave behavior. In the 90 to 100 km altitude range, the trails are often visible for periods of 20 to 30 min or even longer, so that the horizontal scale sizes spanned by the trails increase significantly as the trails expand due to the combined effects of turbulent diffusion and horizontal displacements due to vertical shears in the winds. We describe a study involving data from high-, middle-, and low-latitude TMA releases. In each case the structure function for the fluctuation structure within the trails was calculated for a sequence of trail images. Each image in the sequence corresponds to an outer horizontal spatial scale that increases with time. By analyzing the time evolution of the structure function, changes in the dynamical processes associated with the form of the structure function have been identified as a function of time and thus also of the increasing horizontal spatial scale size. A consistent pattern is found for all locations, namely a transition in fitted exponent for the structure function that suggests a change from more isotropic turbulence immediately after the trail is released to stratified turbulence at the later times when the horizontal scale size has increased to several hundred kilometers. The transition is found to occur near a horizontal spatial scale in the range between 100 and 200 km.

  4. Chemical parameters as natural tracers in hydrogeology: a case study of Louros karst system, Greece (United States)

    Katsanou, K.; Lambrakis, N.; D'Alessandro, W.; Siavalas, G.


    The Louros Basin hosts one of the most important karst systems of Epirus Prefecture (Greece) and plays a key role in supplying three counties with drinking water. Aiming to investigate the origin of groundwater and its flow patterns, a multi-tracer approach was used to describe and evaluate the hydrogeology of the system. Therefore, 271 surface water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, major ions, and trace and rare earth elements, as well as stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). These data provided meaningful tracing of the water origin, water-rock interaction processes, and relationships among the aquifers. In particular, the elaboration of the major ions supported by the distribution of rare earth elements indicated that there are three aquifers located at different levels hosted in the Senonian and Pantokrator limestone formations. These aquifers are hydraulically interconnected by a cascade and constitute the Louros karst system which is drained by the homonymous river. Hydrochemical and isotopic data revealed that the Louros karst system is isolated from the adjacent northern Ioannina Basin and it is being recharged by precipitation. Higher groundwater salinity, where present, is mainly associated with increased water-rock interaction due to longer and deeper hydrologic flow, favoring the dissolution of evaporitic, carbonate and phosphate minerals.

  5. Chemical tracers in archaeological and natural gold: Aliseda Tartessos treasure and new discovered nuggets (SW Spain)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Guinea, J; Correcher, V; Rojas, R M; Fierro, J L. G; Fernandez-Martin, C; López-Arce, P; Rovira-Llorens, S


    ...), thermoluminescence (TL), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and electron microprobe analyses (EMPA). Pieces of Aliseda treasure and the picked gold nuggets show a highly homogeneous chemical composition of trace elements namely...

  6. Chemical tracers illustrate pathways of solute discharge from artificially drained agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Kennedy, C. D.; Bataille, C. P.; Liu, Z.; Ale, S.; VanDeVelde, J. H.; Roswell, C.; Bowling, L. C.


    Drainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of nitrate-laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. To address this gap, we coupled hydrological pathway data from stable isotopes and conservative solute tracers with measurements of the flux of agricultural nitrate and road-salt chloride from two catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of nitrate to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both nitrate and chloride) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of chloride-laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in nitrate occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of chloride and nitrate differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  7. Deposition of carbon nanotubes by a marine suspension feeder revealed by chemical and isotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Shannon K., E-mail: [Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Miller, Robert J. [Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Lenihan, Hunter S. [Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    Highlights: • CNTs decrease the filtration rate of mussels by as much as 24%. • Metals in CNTs and their δ{sup 13}C can be used to quantify CNTs in biological samples. • Mussels exposed to CNTs deposit high concentrations of them in biodeposits. • CNTs accumulate mainly in gut tissue of mussels during exposure. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the few truly novel nanomaterials and are being incorporated into a wide range of products, which will lead to environmental release and potential ecological impacts. We examined the toxicity of CNTs to marine mussels and the effect of mussels on CNT fate and transport by exposing mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg CNTs l{sup −1} for four weeks and measuring mussel clearance rate, shell growth, and CNT accumulation in tissues and deposition in biodeposits. We used metal impurities and carbon stable isotope ratios of the CNTs as tracers of CNT accumulation. Mussels decreased clearance rate of phytoplankton by 24% compared with control animals when exposed to CNTs. However, mussel growth rate was unaffected by CNT concentrations up to 3 mg l{sup −1}. Based on metal concentrations and carbon stable isotope values, mussels deposited most CNTs in biodeposits, which contained >110 mg CNTs g{sup −1} dry weight, and accumulated about 1 mg CNTs g{sup −1} dry weight of tissue. We conclude that extremely high concentrations of CNTs are needed to illicit a toxic response in mussels but the ability of mussels to concentrate and deposit CNTs in feces and pseudofeces may impact infaunal organisms living in and around mussel beds.

  8. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.


    This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

  9. Use of chemical tracers in assessing the diet and foraging regions of eastern North Pacific killer whales. (United States)

    Krahn, Margaret M; Herman, David P; Matkin, Craig O; Durban, John W; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Burrows, Douglas G; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Black, Nancy; LeDuc, Richard G; Wade, Paul R


    Top predators in the marine environment integrate chemical signals acquired from their prey that reflect both the species consumed and the regions from which the prey were taken. These chemical tracers-stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen; persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, patterns and ratios; and fatty acid profiles-were measured in blubber biopsy samples from North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca) (n=84) and were used to provide further insight into their diet, particularly for the offshore group, about which little dietary information is available. The offshore killer whales were shown to consume prey species that were distinctly different from those of sympatric resident and transient killer whales. In addition, it was confirmed that the offshores forage as far south as California. Thus, these results provide evidence that the offshores belong to a third killer whale ecotype. Resident killer whale populations showed a gradient in stable isotope profiles from west (central Aleutians) to east (Gulf of Alaska) that, in part, can be attributed to a shift from off-shelf to continental shelf-based prey. Finally, stable isotope ratio results, supported by field observations, showed that the diet in spring and summer of eastern Aleutian Island transient killer whales is apparently not composed exclusively of Steller sea lions.

  10. Probing the early chemical evolution of the Sculptor dSph with purely old stellar tracers (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Monelli, M.; Gallart, C.; Bono, G.; Bernard, E. J.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Walker, A. R.; Dall'Ora, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Iannicola, G.


    We present the metallicity distribution of a sample of 471 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Sculptor dSph, obtained from the I-band period-luminosity relation. It is the first time that the early chemical evolution of a dwarf galaxy is characterized in such a detailed and quantitative way, using photometric data alone. We find a broad metallicity distribution (full width at half-maximum equals to 0.8 dex) that is peaked at [Fe/H] ≃ -1.90 dex, in excellent agreement with literature values obtained from spectroscopic data. Moreover, we are able to directly trace the metallicity gradient out to a radius of ˜55 arcmin. We find that in the outer regions (r > ˜32 arcmin) the slope of the metallicity gradient from the RRLs (-0.025 dex arcmin-1) is comparable to the literature values based on red giant (RG) stars. However, in the central part of Sculptor, we do not observe the latter gradients. This suggests that there is a more metal-rich and/or younger population in Sculptor that does not produce RRLs. This scenario is strengthened by the observation of a metal-rich peak in the metallicity distribution of RG stars by other authors, which is not present in the metallicity distribution of the RRLs within the same central area.

  11. Sovelluskehitys React Nativella


    Fjäder, Tomi


    Insinöörityössä tutustuttiin mobiilisovelluskehityksen toteutustapoihin, hybridisovellusten ohjelmistokehyksiin sekä React Native -ohjelmistokehykseen. Työn tavoitteena oli oppia React Nativen käyttöä ja kehittää sovellus, jolla on täysin yhteinen koodikanta Android- ja iOS-alustoille. React Native on ohjelmistokehys, jonka avulla voi kehittää hybridisovelluksia Android-, iOS- ja Windows Phone-alustoille. Sen toiminta pohjautuu alustakohtaisten natiivikomponenttien käsittel...

  12. A computer model for one-dimensional mass and energy transport in and around chemically reacting particles, including complex gas-phase chemistry, multicomponent molecular diffusion, surface evaporation, and heterogeneous reaction (United States)

    Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.


    Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.

  13. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot


    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  14. Tracer-tracer relations as a tool for research on polar ozone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Rolf


    The report includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction: ozone in the atmosphere, anthropogenic influence on the ozone layer, polar stratospheric ozone loss; (2) Tracer-tracer relations in the stratosphere: tracer-tracer relations as a tool in atmospheric research; impact of cosmic-ray-induced heterogeneous chemistry on polar ozone; (3) quantifying polar ozone loss from ozone-tracer relations: principles of tracer-tracer correlation techniques; reference ozone-tracer relations in the early polar vortex; impact of mixing on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex; impact of mesospheric intrusions on ozone-tracer relations in the stratospheric polar vortex calculation of chemical ozone loss in the arctic in March 2003 based on ILAS-II measurements; (4) epilogue.

  15. Marine Phages As Tracers: Effects of Size, Morphology, and Physico-Chemical Surface Properties on Transport in a Porous Medium. (United States)

    Ghanem, Nawras; Kiesel, Bärbel; Kallies, René; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Wick, Lukas Y


    Although several studies examined the transport of viruses in terrestrial systems only few studies exist on the use of marine phages (i.e., nonterrestrial viruses infecting marine host bacteria) as sensitively detectable microbial tracers for subsurface colloid transport and water flow. Here, we systematically quantified and compared for the first time the effects of size, morphology and physicochemical surface properties of six marine phages and two coliphages (MS2, T4) on transport in sand-filled percolated columns. Phage-sand interactions were described by colloidal filtration theory and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approach (XDLVO), respectively. The phages belonged to different families and comprised four phages never used in transport studies (i.e., PSA-HM1, PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2, and H3/49). Phage transport was influenced by size, morphology and hydrophobicity in an approximate order of size > hydrophobicity ≥ morphology. Two phages PSA-HP1, PSA-HS2 (Podoviridae and Siphoviridae) exhibited similar mass recovery as commonly used coliphage MS2 and were 7-fold better transported than known marine phage vB_PSPS-H40/1. Differing properties of the marine phages may be used to trace transport of indigenous viruses, natural colloids or anthropogenic nanomaterials and, hence, contribute to better risk analysis. Our results underpin the potential role of marine phages as microbial tracer for transport of colloidal particles and water flow.

  16. Measurement in multiphase reacting flows (United States)

    Chigier, N. A.


    A survey is presented of diagnostic techniques and measurements made in multiphase reacting flows. The special problems encountered by the presence of liquid droplets, soot and solid particles in high temperature chemically reacting turbulent environments are outlined. The principal measurement techniques that have been tested in spray flames are spark photography, laser anemometry, thermocouples and suction probes. Spark photography provides measurement of drop size, drop size distribution, drop velocity, and angle of flight. Photographs are analysed automatically by image analysers. Photographic techniques are reliable, inexpensive and proved. Laser anemometers have been developed for simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of individual particles in sprays under conditions of vaporization and combustion. Particle/gas velocity differentials, particle Reynolds numbers, local drag coefficients and direct measurement of vaporization rates can be made by laser anemometry. Gas temperature in sprays is determined by direct in situ measurement of time constants immediately prior to measurement with compensation and signal analysis by micro-processors. Gas concentration is measured by suction probes and gas phase chromatography. Measurements of particle size, particle velocity, gas temperature, and gas concentration made in airblast and pressure atomised liquid spray flames are presented.

  17. The REACT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens

    has mainly been based on the burden of disease approach, cost effectiveness and other evidence-based measures. However, these approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of values - such as compassion, equity, accountability and transparency - that are of concern to other......The objectives of this study are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by an explicit ethical framework Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators within...... decisions; and the provision of leadership and the enforcement of conditions. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study, which started in 2006 testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each...

  18. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004–2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi


    Full Text Available In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background, located in the northeast (NE of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004–2014 were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann–Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10 showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN and Montseny (MSY during 2004–2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V–Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic and from the industrial (metallurgy

  19. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004-2014: a multi-exponential approach (United States)

    Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Castro, Iria; Shatalov, Victor; Querol, Xavier


    In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background), located in the northeast (NE) of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004-2014) were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann-Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10) showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN) and Montseny (MSY) during 2004-2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V-Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic) and from the industrial (metallurgy mainly) source at BCN

  20. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, John P


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  1. Heat and mass transfer effects on the mixed convective flow of chemically reacting nanofluid past a moving/stationary vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahanthesh


    Full Text Available The problem of conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer over a moving/stationary vertical plate has been studied under the influence of applied magnetic field, thermal radiation, internal heat generation/absorption and first order chemical reaction. The fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting water based Cu-nanofluid. The Tiwari and Das model is used to model the nanofluid, whereas Rosseland approximation is used for thermal radiation effect. Unified closed form solutions are obtained for the governing equations using Laplace transform method. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are expressed graphically for different flow pertinent parameters. The physical quantities of engineering interest such as skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also computed. The obtained analytical solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and they can be reduced to known previous results in some limiting cases. It is found that, by varying nanoparticle volume fraction, the flow and heat transfer characteristics could be controlled.

  2. An exact solution on unsteady MHD free convection chemically reacting silver nanofluid flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate through porous medium (United States)

    Kumaresan, E.; Vijaya Kumar, A. G.; Rushi Kumar, B.


    This article studies, an exact solution of unsteady MHD free convection boundary-layer flow of a silver nanofluid past an exponentially accelerated moving vertical plate through aporous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, transverse applied amagnetic field, radiation absorption and Heat generation or absorption with chemical reaction are investigated theoretically. We consider nanofluids contain spherical shaped nanoparticle of silverwith a nanoparticle volume concentration range smaller than or equal to 0.04. This phenomenon is modeled in the form of partial differential equations with initial boundary conditions. Some suitable dimensional variables are introduced. The corresponding dimensionless equations with boundary conditions are solved by using Laplace transform technique. The exact solutions for velocity, energy, and species are obtained, also the corresponding numerical values of nanofluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are represented graphically. The expressions for skin friction coefficient, the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer are derived. The present study finds applications involving heat transfer, enhancement of thermal conductivity and other applications like transportation, industrial cooling applications, heating buildings and reducing pollution, energy applications and solar absorption. The effect of heat transfer is found to be more pronounced in a silver–water nanofluid than in the other nanofluids.

  3. Numerical analysis for magnetohydrodynamic chemically reacting and radiating fluid past a non-isothermal uniformly moving vertical surface adjacent to a porous regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Ahmed


    Full Text Available A mathematical model is conducted for the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic viscous, incompressible free convective flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid over an impulsively-started semi-infinite vertical plate adjacent to saturated porous medium in the presence of appreciable thermal radiation heat transfer and chemical reaction of first order taking transverse magnetic field into account. The fluid is assumed optically thin gray gas, absorbing-emitting radiation, but a non-scattering medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and are solved by an implicit finite difference scheme of Crank–Nicholson type. It is found that, increasing magnetic parameter serves to decelerate the flow, but increased temperatures and concentration values. An increase in the porosity parameter (K is found to escalate the local skin friction (τx, Nusselt number (Nux and the Sherwood number (Shx. Applications of the model include fundamental magneto-fluid dynamics, MHD energy systems and magneto-metallurgical processing for aircraft materials.

  4. Constraints on primary and secondary particulate carbon sources using chemical tracer and 14C methods during CalNex-Bakersfield (United States)

    The present study investigates primary and secondary sources of organic carbon for Bakersfield, CA, USA as part of the 2010 CalNex study. The method used here involves integrated sampling that is designed to allow for detailed and specific chemical analysis of particulate matter ...

  5. A Framework for the Modelling of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sin, Gürkan; O’Connell, John P.


    Biphasic reacting systems have a broad application range from organic reactions in pharmaceutical and agro-bio industries to CO 2 capture. However, mathematical modelling of biphasic reacting systems is a formidable challenge due to many phenomena underlying the process such as chemical equilibri...... systems: a PTC-based reaction system and pseudo-PTC system....

  6. Numerical Simulation of Chemically Reacting Flows (United States)


    separated by commas , e.g. Smith, Richard, J, Jr. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Self-explanatory. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Scientific Computation. Oxford University Press, Oxford , 2005. 20. H. Elman, D. Loghin, and A. Wathen, “Preconditioning techniques for Newton’s

  7. Sensitive Diagnostics for Chemically Reacting Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir


    This talk will feature latest diagnostic developments for sensitive detection of gas temperature and important combustion species. Advanced optical strategies, such as intrapulse chirping, wavelength modulation, and cavity ringdown are employed.

  8. Mathematical aspects of reacting and diffusing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fife, Paul C


    Modeling and analyzing the dynamics of chemical mixtures by means of differ- tial equations is one of the prime concerns of chemical engineering theorists. These equations often take the form of systems of nonlinear parabolic partial d- ferential equations, or reaction-diffusion equations, when there is diffusion of chemical substances involved. A good overview of this endeavor can be had by re- ing the two volumes by R. Aris (1975), who himself was one of the main contributors to the theory. Enthusiasm for the models developed has been shared by parts of the mathematical community, and these models have, in fact, provided motivation for some beautiful mathematical results. There are analogies between chemical reactors and certain biological systems. One such analogy is rather obvious: a single living organism is a dynamic structure built of molecules and ions, many of which react and diffuse. Other analogies are less obvious; for example, the electric potential of a membrane can diffuse like a chemical, and ...

  9. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management (United States)

    Axelsson, G.


    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  10. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson G.


    Full Text Available Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  11. Traçadores: o uso de agentes químicos para estudos hidrológicos, ambientais, petroquímicos e biológicos Tracers: the use of chemical agents for hydrological, environmental, petrochemical and biological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láuris Lucia da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the history, definitions, and classification of tracers (natural and artificial, internal and external. The fundamental ideas concerning tracers are described, followed by their application illustrated by typical examples. The advantages and disadvantages of five classes among the most frequently used external tracers (fluorescent, microbial, chemical, radioactive and activable isotopes are also described in detail. This review also presents some interesting and modern applications of tracers in the areas of diagnostics in medical practice, environmental pollution, hydrology and petroleum chemistry.

  12. Large eddy simulations of turbulent reacting jets (United States)

    Garrick, Sean Clifford

    The "filtered density function" methodology is implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of three-dimensional planar and round jet flows, under both non-reaction and chemically reacting conditions. In this methodology, the effects of the unresolved scalar fluctuations are taken into account by considering the probability density function (PDF) of the sub-grid scale (SGS) scalar quantities in a stochastic manner. The influences of scalar mixing and convention within the sub-grid are taken into account via conventional methods. The FDF transport equation is solved numerically via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme in which the solutions of equivalent stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are obtained. The consistency of the approach, the convergence of the FDF solution, and the performance of the closures employed in the FDF transport equation are assessed by comparisons with results obtained by conventional LES via a finite difference method (LES-FD). In non-reacting flows, the FDF solution yields results similar to those via LES-FD for the first two SGS moments. The advantage of the FDF methodology is demonstrated by its use in LES of reacting flows. In the absence of a closure for the SGS scalar fluctuations, the LES-FD results are significantly different from those obtained by the FDF. The FDF is also appraised by comparative assessments against experimental data for a non-heat releasing turbulent round jet involving the ozone-nitric oxide chemical reaction.

  13. Simulation and interpretation of inter-well tracer tests


    Dugstad Øyvind; Viig Sissel; Sagen Jan; Huseby Olaf


    In inter-well tracer tests (IWTT), chemical compounds or radioactive isotopes are used to label injection water and gas to establish well connections and fluid patterns in petroleum reservoirs. Tracer simulation is an invaluable tool to ease the interpretation of IWTT results and is also required for assisted history matching application of tracer data. In this paper we present a new simulation technique to analyse and interpret tracer results. Laboratory results are used to establish and tes...

  14. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.


    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  15. Biological tracer method (United States)

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.


    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  16. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A


    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  17. Wanted: Scalable Tracers for Diffusion Measurements (United States)


    Scalable tracers are potentially a useful tool to examine diffusion mechanisms and to predict diffusion coefficients, particularly for hindered diffusion in complex, heterogeneous, or crowded systems. Scalable tracers are defined as a series of tracers varying in size but with the same shape, structure, surface chemistry, deformability, and diffusion mechanism. Both chemical homology and constant dynamics are required. In particular, branching must not vary with size, and there must be no transition between ordinary diffusion and reptation. Measurements using scalable tracers yield the mean diffusion coefficient as a function of size alone; measurements using nonscalable tracers yield the variation due to differences in the other properties. Candidate scalable tracers are discussed for two-dimensional (2D) diffusion in membranes and three-dimensional diffusion in aqueous solutions. Correlations to predict the mean diffusion coefficient of globular biomolecules from molecular mass are reviewed briefly. Specific suggestions for the 3D case include the use of synthetic dendrimers or random hyperbranched polymers instead of dextran and the use of core–shell quantum dots. Another useful tool would be a series of scalable tracers varying in deformability alone, prepared by varying the density of crosslinking in a polymer to make say “reinforced Ficoll” or “reinforced hyperbranched polyglycerol.” PMID:25319586

  18. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle


    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  19. Jet Mixing in a Reacting Cylindrical Crossflow (United States)

    Leong, M. Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.


    This paper addresses the mixing of air jets into the hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone. The mixing, as a result, occurs in a reacting environment with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from round orifices. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture without swirl to mixing modules consisting of 8, 9, 10, and 12 holes at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 2.5. Concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, and HC are obtained upstream, downstream, and within the orifice plane. O2 profiles indicate jet penetration while CO2, CO, and HC profiles depict the extent of reaction. Jet penetration is observed to be a function of the number of orifices and is found to affect the mixing in the reacting system. The results demonstrate that one module (the 12-hole) produces near-optimal penetration defined here as a jet penetration closest to the module half-radius, and hence the best uniform mixture at a plane one duct radius from the orifice leading edge.

  20. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies. (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J


    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  1. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisio, Daniele L


    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  2. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  3. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  4. Chemical composition of modern and fossil hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation - Part 2: Alkaline earth elements as tracers of watershed hydrochemistry and provenance (United States)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Kullmer, O.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.


    This study demonstrates that alkaline earth elements in enamel of hippopotamids, in particular Ba and Sr, are tracers for water provenance and hydrochemistry in terrestrial settings. The studied specimens are permanent premolar and molar teeth found in modern and fossil lacustrine sediments of the Western Branch of the East African Rift system (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and from modern fluvial environments of the Nile River. Concentrations in enamel vary by two orders of magnitude for Ba (120-9336 μg g-1) as well as for Sr (9-2150 μg g-1). The variations are partially induced during post-mortem alteration and during amelogenesis, but the major contribution originates ultimately from the variable water chemistry in the habitats of the hippopotamids which is controlled by the lithologies and weathering processes in the watershed areas. Amelogenesis causes a distinct distribution of MgO, Ba and Sr in modern and fossil enamel, in that element concentrations increase along profiles from the outer rim towards the enamel-dentin junction by a factor of 1.3-1.9. These elements are well correlated in single specimens, thus suggesting that their distribution is determined by a common, single process, which can be described by closed system Rayleigh crystallization of bioapatite in vivo. Enamel from most hippopotamid specimens has Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca which are typical for herbivores. However, Ba/Sr ranges from 0.1 to 3 and varies on spatial and temporal scales. Thus, Sr concentrations and Ba/Sr in enamel differentiate between habitats having basaltic mantle rocks or Archean crustal rocks as the ultimate sources of Sr and Ba. This provenance signal is modulated by climate change. In Miocene to Pleistocene enamel from the Lake Albert region, Ba/Sr decreases systematically with time from 2 to 0.5. This trend can be correlated with changes in climate from humid to arid, in vegetation from C3 to C4 biomass as well as with increasing evaporation of the lake water

  5. Fate of injected CO2 in the Wilcox Group, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial–brine–rock–CO2 interactions (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia


    The “2800’ sandstone” of the Olla oil field is an oil and gas-producing reservoir in a coal-bearing interval of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana, USA. In the 1980s, this producing unit was flooded with CO2 in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, leaving ∼30% of the injected CO2 in the 2800’ sandstone post-injection. This study utilizes isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine to determine the fate of the injected CO2, including the possibility of enhanced microbial conversion of CO2 to CH4 via methanogenesis. Stable carbon isotopes of CO2, CH4 and DIC, together with mol% CO2 show that 4 out of 17 wells sampled in the 2800’ sandstone are still producing injected CO2. The dominant fate of the injected CO2appears to be dissolution in formation fluids and gas-phase trapping. There is some isotopic and geochemical evidence for enhanced microbial methanogenesis in 2 samples; however, the CO2 spread unevenly throughout the reservoir, and thus cannot explain the elevated indicators for methanogenesis observed across the entire field. Vertical migration out of the target 2800’ sandstone reservoir is also apparent in 3 samples located stratigraphically above the target sand. Reservoirs comparable to the 2800’ sandstone, located along a 90-km transect, were also sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. Microbial methane, likely sourced from biodegradation of organic substrates within the formation, was found in all oil fields sampled, while indicators of methanogenesis (e.g. high alkalinity, δ13C-CO2 and δ13C-DIC values) and oxidation of propane were greatest in the Olla Field, likely due to its more ideal environmental conditions (i.e. suitable range of pH, temperature, salinity, sulfate and iron concentrations).

  6. The formation of SOA and chemical tracer compounds from the photooxidation of naphthalene and its methyl analogs in the presence and absence of nitrogen oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Kleindienst


    Full Text Available Laboratory smog chamber experiments have been carried out to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from the photooxidation of naphthalene and its methyl analogs, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene (1-MN and 2-MN, respectively. Laboratory smog chamber irradiations were conducted in a flow mode to ensure adequate collection of the aerosol at reasonably low reactant concentrations and in the presence and absence of nitrogen oxides. Phthalic acid and methyl analogs were identified following BSTFA derivatization of the aerosol extract. These compounds were examined to determine whether they could serve as reasonable molecular tracers to estimate the contributions of these precursors to ambient PM2.5. Measurements were also made to determine aerosol parameters from secondary organic aerosol from naphthalene, 1-MN, and 2-MN.

    A mass fraction approach was used to establish factors which could be applied to phthalic acid concentrations in ambient aerosols, assuming a negligible contribution from primary sources. Phthalic anhydride uptake (and hydrolysis was tested and found to represent a moderate filter artifact in filter measurements with and without in-line denuders. This study provided the opportunity to examine differences using authentic standards for phthalic acid compared to surrogate standards. While the mass fraction based on a surrogate compounds was somewhat lower, the differences are largely unimportant. For naphthalene, mass fractions of 0.0199 (recommended for ambient samples and 0.0206 were determined in the presence and absence of nitrogen oxides, respectively, based on phthalic acid standards.

    The mass fractions determined from the laboratory data were applied to ambient samples where phthalic acid was found and expressed "as naphthalene" since phthalic acid was found to be produced in the particle phase from other methylnaphthalenes. The mass fraction values were applied to samples taken during the

  7. Tracer Simulation Study. (United States)


    the output of a photo-diode used to detect the radiant emmission from the tracer. A storage oscilloscope, retains, until erased, the information display...head contains a photoptic filter to provide the standard luminosity curve of the human eye for footcandle measurements. With this head the sensitivity

  8. Fluorine-18 labelled building blocks for PET tracer synthesis. (United States)

    van der Born, Dion; Pees, Anna; Poot, Alex J; Orru, Romano V A; Windhorst, Albert D; Vugts, Danielle J


    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important driver for present day healthcare. Fluorine-18 is the most widely used radioisotope for PET imaging and a thorough overview of the available radiochemistry methodology is a prerequisite for selection of a synthetic approach for new fluorine-18 labelled PET tracers. These PET tracers can be synthesised either by late-stage radiofluorination, introducing fluorine-18 in the last step of the synthesis, or by a building block approach (also called modular build-up approach), introducing fluorine-18 in a fast and efficient manner in a building block, which is reacted further in one or multiple reaction steps to form the PET tracer. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and application of fluorine-18 labelled building blocks since 2010.

  9. Chemically reacting on MHD boundary layer flow of CuO-water and MgO-water nanofluids past a stretching sheet in porous media with radiation absorption and heat generation/absorption (United States)

    Kumaresan, E.; Vijaya Kumar, A. G.; Rushi Kumar, B.


    In the present investigation, a numerical analysis has been carried out for steady two dimensional MHD free convective boundary layer flows of electrically conducting nanofluids past a uniformly stretching sheet through porous media with radiation absorption, heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation, chemical reaction, thermo-diffusion and diffusion – thermo effects. We considered two types of nanofluids namely MgO-water and CuO-water. The mathematical model was governed by a system of linear and non-linear partial differential equations with prescribed boundary conditions. The governing boundary-layer equations are first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables. The transformed equations were solved numerically by the shooting method with Runge-Kutta scheme. Finally the effects of various dimensionless governing parameters like magnetic field parameter, chemical reaction parameter, thermal radiation parameter, radiation absorption parameter, heat generation parameter, Dufour number, Soret number, volume fraction of the nanoparticles and shape of the nanoparticles on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles along with the friction factor, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are thoroughly studied and explicitly explained in tabular form.

  10. Assessment of chemistry models for compressible reacting flows (United States)

    Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume


    Recent technological advances in propulsion and power devices and renewed interest in the development of next generation supersonic and hypersonic vehicles have increased the need for detailed understanding of turbulence-combustion interactions in compressible reacting flows. In numerical simulations of such flows, accurate modeling of the fuel chemistry is a critical component of capturing the relevant physics. Various chemical models are currently being used in reacting flow simulations. However, the differences between these models and their impacts on the fluid dynamics in the context of compressible flows are not well understood. In the present work, a numerical code is developed to solve the fully coupled compressible conservation equations for reacting flows. The finite volume code is based on the theoretical and numerical framework developed by Oefelein (Prog. Aero. Sci. 42 (2006) 2-37) and employs an all-Mach-number formulation with dual time-stepping and preconditioning. The numerical approach is tested on turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz numbers. Different chemical models of varying complexity and computational cost are used and their effects are compared.

  11. Environmental tracers as a tool in groundwater vulnerability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wachniew


    Full Text Available Environmental tracers are physical properties and chemical components of water whose spatial and temporal differentiation is used to infer information on the pathways and dynamics of water and solutes movement through the environment. The quantitative and qualitative insights into the functioning of groundwater systems derived from tracer observations is useful for the physically based and operational assessments of vulnerability of groundwater quality to human pressures. This tracer-based information concerns identification of the hydraulic connections between the source areas of pollution and groundwater receptors and evaluation of the ability of the unsaturated and saturated zones to delay and attenuate spreading of pollutants. Particularly important are distributions of water transit times which can be inferred from tracer observations by use of the lumped parameter models. The transit time distributions contain information on the lag-times, attenuation and persistence of pollutants in groundwater systems and are a basis for designing various indexes of vulnerability. Despite the advantages of environmental tracers in vulnerability assessment and despite the advances in analytical techniques application of tracers in this field is limited. This work presents the understanding of groundwater vulnerability in the context of risk assessments, explains the basic concepts of the application of the environmental tracers, discusses potential applications of tracers in assessing the intrinsic groundwater vulnerability and briefly presents examples of such applications.

  12. A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.


    To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.

  13. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer ... (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed to facilitate the design of tracer tests by root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using a preset average tracer concentration which provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass. The method uses basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) that are combined in functional relatipnships that descrive solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. These initial estimates for time of travel and velocity are then applied to a hypothetical continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as an analog for the hydrological-flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration, tracer mass, and axial dispersion. Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be necessary for descri

  14. Nanoparticle tracers in calcium carbonate porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan Vivian


    Tracers are perhaps the most direct way of diagnosing subsurface fluid flow pathways for ground water decontamination and for natural gas and oil production. Nanoparticle tracers could be particularly effective because they do not diffuse away from the fractures or channels where flow occurs and thus take much less time to travel between two points. In combination with a chemical tracer they can measure the degree of flow concentration. A prerequisite for tracer applications is that the particles are not retained in the porous media as the result of aggregation or sticking to mineral surfaces. By screening eight nanoparticles (3-100 nm in diameter) for retention when passed through calcium carbonate packed laboratory columns in artificial oil field brine solutions of variable ionic strength we show that the nanoparticles with the least retention are 3 nm in diameter, nearly uncharged, and decorated with highly hydrophilic polymeric ligands. The details of these column experiments and the tri-modal distribution of zeta potential of the calcite sand particles in the brine used in our tests suggests that parts of the calcite surface have positive zeta potential and the retention of negatively charged nanoparticles occurs at these sites. Only neutral nanoparticles are immune to at least some retention. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

  15. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan


    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  16. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer ... (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to be

  17. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation of groundwater using environmental isotopes (18O, 2H, 3H, 14C) and chemical tracers: a case study of the intermediate aquifer, Sfax, southeastern Tunisia (United States)

    Ayadi, Rahma; Trabelsi, Rim; Zouari, Kamel; Saibi, Hakim; Itoi, Ryuichi; Khanfir, Hafedh


    Major element concentrations and stable (δ18O and δ2H) and radiogenic (3H and 14C) isotopes in groundwater have proved useful tracers for understanding the geochemical processes that control groundwater mineralization and for identifying recharge sources in the semi-arid region of Sfax (southeastern Tunisia). Major-ion chemical data indicate that the origins of the salinity in the groundwater are the water-rock interactions, mainly the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, as well as the cation exchange with clay minerals. The δ18O and δ2H relationships suggest variations in groundwater recharge mechanisms. Strong evaporation during recharge with limited rapid water infiltration is evident in the groundwater of the intermediate aquifer. The mixing with old groundwater in some areas explains the low stable isotope values of some groundwater samples. Groundwaters from the intermediate aquifer are classified into two main water types: Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Na-Cl-SO4. The high nitrate concentrations suggest an anthropogenic source of nitrogen contamination caused by intensive agricultural activities in the area. The stable isotopic signatures reveal three water groups: non-evaporated waters that indicate recharge by recent infiltrated water; evaporated waters that are characterized by relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents; and mixed groundwater (old/recent) or ancient groundwater, characterized by their depleted isotopic composition. Tritium data support the existence of recent limited recharge; however, other low tritium values are indicative of pre-nuclear recharge and/or mixing between pre-nuclear and contemporaneous recharge. The carbon-14 activities indicate that the groundwaters were mostly recharged under different climatic conditions during the cooler periods of the late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  18. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.


    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  19. Laplace transform in tracer kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete B., E-mail: [Instituto do Cerebro (InsCer/FAMAT/PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS, (Brazil). Faculdade de Matematica


    The main objective this paper is to quantify the pharmacokinetic processes: absorption, distribution and elimination of radiopharmaceutical(tracer), using Laplace transform method. When the drug is administered intravenously absorption is complete and is available in the bloodstream to be distributed throughout the whole body in all tissues and fluids, and to be eliminated. Mathematical modeling seeks to describe the processes of distribution and elimination through compartments, where distinct pools of tracer (spatial location or chemical state) are assigned to different compartments. A compartment model is described by a system of differential equations, where each equation represents the sum of all the transfer rates to and from a specific compartment. In this work a two-tissue irreversible compartment model is used for description of tracer, [{sup 18}F]2-fluor-2deoxy-D-glucose. In order to determine the parameters of the model, it is necessary to have information about the tracer delivery in the form of an input function representing the time-course of tracer concentration in arterial blood or plasma. We estimate the arterial input function in two stages and apply the Levenberg-Marquardt Method to solve nonlinear regressions. The transport of FDG across de arterial blood is very fast in the first ten minutes and then decreases slowly. We use de Heaviside function to represent this situation and this is the main contribution of this study. We apply the Laplace transform and the analytical solution for two-tissue irreversible compartment model is obtained. The only approach is to determinate de arterial input function. (author)

  20. Ash tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, P.


    This report describes the ash tracer technique which has been developed, used and evaluated for description of the extent of burnout for Cerrejon coal and wheat straw converted in a pressurized entrained-flow reactor. The uncertainty in the calculated extent of burnout depends on the uncertainty in the ash percentages determined for fuel and fuel sample. The uncertainty increases with decreasing amounts of material used for the ash percent determinations, as the natural variation within the fuel and fuel sample becomes obvious. Ash percentages for the original fuels have an absolute deviation within 0.2% with a remaining ash amount of minimum 100 mg and of 2% when using thermogravimetric analysis equipment where 0.4 - 4 mg was remaining. Repeated ash percent determinations by thermogravimetric analysis equipment of 40 samples showed an average absolute deviation of 3%. A temperature of 1000 deg. C is shown to be the best choice for the ash percent determinations in order to reduce the uncertainties. collection of representative straw samples is shown to make higher demands to the sampling procedure than collection of those for coal. A representative sample collection is shown to be easier from combustion experiments that form gasification and pyrolysis experiments. The ash tracer technique is verified by elemental ash analyses. (au) 14 tabs., 6 refs.

  1. Tracer technology modeling the flow of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Levenspiel, Octave


    A vessel’s behavior as a heat exchanger, absorber, reactor, or other process unit is dependent upon how fluid flows through the vessel.  In early engineering, the designer would assume either plug flow or mixed flow of the fluid through the vessel.  However, these assumptions were oftentimes inaccurate, sometimes being off by a volume factor of 100 or more.  The result of this unreliable figure produced ineffective products in multiple reaction systems.   Written by a pioneering researcher in the field of chemical engineering, the tracer method was introduced to provide more accurate flow data.  First, the tracer method measured the actual flow of fluid through a vessel.  Second, it developed a suitable model to represent the flow in question.  Such models are used to follow the flow of fluid in chemical reactors and other process units, like in rivers and streams, or solid and porous structures.  In medicine, the tracer method is used to study the flow of chemicals—harmful  and harmless—in the...

  2. Chemical tracers in Northwest Atlantic dogfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each year, a number of seafood samples are exported from the US to Europe, including edible tissues collected from high trophic level marine fish species such as...

  3. Radium and radon tracers in aquatic systems (United States)

    Moran, S. B.


    Fourth International Ra-Rn Workshop;Narragansett, Rhode Island, 3-8 June 2012 Radium (Ra) and radon (Rn) are widely recognized as important geochemical tracers in the estimation of dispersion in aquatic environments, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean, water mass residence times, and air-sea and water- sediment exchange. More than 50 scientists, including graduate students and early- career scientists from 10 countries, recently participated in a workshop on Ra and Rn in Narragansett, R. I. The workshop was hosted by the University of Rhode Island and sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation Chemical Oceanography Program, ORTEC, Eichrom, and Durridge Company. The workshop provided a forum for presentations and open discussions regarding the latest developments and new directions in the application and measurement of isotopes 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 222Rn, as well as models used in the application of these tracers to a range of environmental problems.

  4. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  5. Do Central Banks React to House Prices?


    Finocchiaro, Daria; Queijo von Heideken, Virginia


    The substantial fluctuations in house prices recently experienced by many industrialized economies have stimulated a vivid debate on the possible implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we ask whether the U.S. Fed, the Bank of Japan and the Bank of England have reacted to house prices. We study the responses of these central banks by estimating a structural model for each country where credit constrained agents borrow against real estate. The main result is that house price movements...

  6. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto


    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  7. Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles. (United States)

    Ghosh, Surya K; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf


    We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids.

  8. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS) (United States)

    Wang, Duo


    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  9. Proceedings of the atmospheric tracers and tracer application workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.; Gedayloo, T. (comps.)


    In addition to presentations by participating members a general discussion was held in order to summarize and outline the goals and objectives of the workshop. A number of new low level background tracers such as heavy methanes, perfluorocarbons, multiply labeled isotopes such as /sup 13/C/sup 18/O/sub 2/, helium 3, in addition to sample collection techniques and analytical methods for various tracers were discussed. This report is a summary of discussions and papers presented at this workshop.

  10. Gaining insights into reactive fluid-fractured rock systems using the temporal moments of a tracer breakthrough curve. (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Liu, H-H; Spycher, N; Kennedy, B M


    In this paper, we show that the tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), when the tracer chemically interacts with the solid matrix of a fractured rock, are considerably different than when it does not. Of particular interest, is the presence of a long pseudo steady state zone in the BTCs, where the tracer concentration is more or less constant over a long period of time. However, such a zone of constant concentration is not visible when either the tracer does not interact with the solid, or does so at an extremely fast rate. We show that these characteristics of the BTCs could be correlated to the parameters of the system. We develop expressions for the mean residence time and its variance for a chemically active and inactive tracer. We show that chemical interaction between the tracer and the solid increases the mean residence time and the increase depends on the distribution coefficient. We also show that the variance of residence time for a chemically active tracer is much larger than that for an inactive tracer, and it depends on both the distribution coefficient and the rate of chemical reaction. We verify these calculations against synthetic tracer BTCs, where the temporal moments are calculated by numerically integrating the tracer evolution curves. Even though we developed the mathematical expressions assuming an idealized fracture-matrix system, we believe that the mathematical expressions developed in this paper can be useful in gaining insights into reactive transport in a real fractured rock system. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON. (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L


    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. The use of synthetic colloids in tracer transport experiments in saturated rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Studies of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in saturated, fractured geologic media are of great interest to researchers studying the potential long-term storage of hazardous wastes in or near such media. A popular technique for conducting such studies is to introduce tracers having different chemical and physical properties into a system and then observe the tracers at one or more downstream locations, inferring flow and transport mechanisms from the breakthrough characteristics of the different tracers. Many tracer studies have been conducted in saturated, fractured media to help develop and/or refine models capable of predicting contaminant transport over large scales in such media.

  13. Facilities GIS Modeling for the REACT System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Real-Time Emergency Action Coordination Tool (REACT) was developed under contract to NASA and deployed for use by the entire agency.  NASA REACT is a...

  14. Tracer Migration in a Radially Divergent Flow Field: Longitudinal Dispersivity and Anionic Tracer Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, J.C., P.M. Bertsch, M. Wilson, J. Singer, F. Majs and S.A. Aburime


    Hydrodynamic dispersion, the combined effects of chemical diffusion and differences in solute path length and flow velocity, is an important factor controlling contaminant migration in the subsurface environment. However, few comprehensive three-dimensional datasets exist for critically evaluating the impact of travel distance and site heterogeneity on solute dispersion, and the conservative nature of several commonly used groundwater tracers is still in question. Therefore, we conducted a series of field-scale experiments using tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sup 1}HO), bromide (Br{sup -}), and two fluorobenzoates (2,4 Di-FBA, 2,6 Di-FBA) as tracers in the water-table aquifer on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS), located on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. For each experiment, tracer-free groundwater was injected for approximately 24 h (56.7 L min{sup -1}) to establish a steady-state forced radial gradient before the introduction of a tracer pulse. After the tracer pulse, which lasted from 256 to 560 min, the forced gradient was maintained throughout the experiment using nonlabeled groundwater. Tracer migration was monitored using six multilevel monitoring wells, radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from the central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously ({approx}0.1 L min{sup -1}) throughout the course of the experiments. Longitudinal dispersivity ({alpha}{sub L}) and travel times for {sup 3}H{sup 1}HO breakthrough were estimated by fitting the field data to analytical approximations of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) for uniform and radial flow conditions. Dispersivity varied greatly between wells located at similar transport distances and even between zones within a given well, which we attributed to variability in the hydraulic conductivity at the study site. The radial flow equation generally described tritium breakthrough better than the

  15. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.


    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  16. AMR for low Mach number reacting flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.


    We present a summary of recent progress on the development and application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for low Mach number reacting flows. Our approach uses a form of the low Mach number equations based on a general equation of state that discretely conserves both mass and energy. The discretization methodology is based on a robust projection formulation that accommodates large density contrasts. The algorithm supports modeling of multicomponent systems and incorporates an operator-split treatment of stiff reaction terms. The basic computational approach is embedded in an adaptive projection framework that uses structured hierarchical grids with subcycling in time that preserves the discrete conservation properties of the underlying single-grid algorithm. We present numerical examples illustrating the application of the methodology to turbulent premixed combustion and nuclear flames in type Ia supernovae.

  17. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  18. Principal component proxy tracer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter


    We introduce a powerful method for dynamical reconstruction of long-lived tracers such as ozone. It works by correlating the principal components of a matrix representation of the tracer dynamics with a series of sparse measurements. The method is tested on the 500 K isentropic surface using a simulated tracer and with ozone measurements from the Polar Aerosol and Ozone Measurement (POAM) III satellite instrument. The Lyapunov spectrum is measured and used to quantify the lifetime of each principal component. Using a 60 day lead time and five (5) principal components, cross validation of the reconstructed ozone and comparison with ozone sondes return root-mean-square errors of 0.20 ppmv and 0.47 ppmv, respectively.

  19. Preparation of intravenous cholesterol tracer using current good manufacturing practices. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B; Swaney, William P; Ostlund, Richard E


    Studies of human reverse cholesterol transport require intravenous infusion of cholesterol tracers. Because insoluble lipids may pose risk and because it is desirable to have consistent doses of defined composition available over many months, we investigated the manufacture of cholesterol tracer under current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) conditions appropriate for phase 1 investigation. Cholesterol tracer was prepared by sterile admixture of unlabeled cholesterol or cholesterol-d7 in ethanol with 20% Intralipid(®). The resulting material was filtered through a 1.2 micron particulate filter, stored at 4°C, and tested at time 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 9 months for sterility, pyrogenicity, autoxidation, and particle size and aggregation. The limiting factor for stability was a rise in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances of 9.6-fold over 9 months (P manufacturing methods can be achieved in the academic setting and need to be considered for critical components of future metabolic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Chemical Tool Peer Review Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cieslewski, Grzegorz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize fracture networks and to determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures conducting the tracer between wellbores. The goal of this project is to develop chemical sensors and design a prototype tool to help understand the fracture properties of a geothermal reservoir by monitoring tracer concentrations along the depth of the well. The sensors will be able to detect certain species of the ionic tracers (mainly iodide) and pH in-situ during the tracer experiment. The proposed high-temperature (HT) tool will house the chemical sensors as well as a standard logging sensor package of pressure, temperature, and flow sensors in order to provide additional information on the state of the geothermal reservoir. The sensors and the tool will be able to survive extended deployments at temperatures up to 225 °C and high pressures to provide real-time temporal and spatial feedback of tracer concentration. Data collected from this tool will allow for the real-time identification of the fractures conducting chemical tracers between wellbores along with the pH of the reservoir fluid at various depths.

  1. Neuroreceptor quantitation in vivo by the steady-state principle using constant infusion or bolus injection of radioactive tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A


    by administering the tracer alone. The pair of tracer studies, the one without and the other with infusion of cold ligand, allows calculation of the cold ligand's equilibrium dissociation constant Kd. In the special case when tracer and cold ligands are chemically identical, then Bmax can also be calculated. Two...... different modes of tracer administration can be used. If the tracer is also infused at a constant rate for a long time, then the occupancy of receptor sites by the cold ligand can be calculated by measuring the equilibrium tracer concentrations in brain and plasma. If the tracer is administered......The approaches hitherto used for measuring the kinetic constants Kd and Bmax of neuroreceptors in vivo all violate the steady state of the system. This complicates the kinetic analysis as approximations must be made, introducing errors of unknown magnitude. The present study presents the theory...

  2. Evaluating Application Scenarioswith React Native : A Comparative Study between Native and ReactNative Development


    Lelli, Andreas; Bostrand, Viktor


    There are multiple ways of creating a modern mobile application and differentcombinations of programming languages and tools can be used to suite specificneeds.Typically, open market products need to support various platforms which, due tomultiple code bases, might lead to difficulties with maintenance and new featuredeployment.React Native is a JavaScript library, announced by Facebook in 2015, that provides auniversal pattern for creating mobile applications for Android and iOS. Theframewor...

  3. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung


    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  4. Tracer-monitored flow titrations. (United States)

    Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Diogo L; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G


    The feasibility of implementing tracer-monitored titrations in a flow system is demonstrated. A dye tracer is used to estimate the instant sample and titrant volumetric fractions without the need for volume, mass or peak width measurements. The approach was applied to spectrophotometric flow titrations involving variations of sample and titrant flow-rates (i.e. triangle programmed technique) or concentration gradients established along the sample zone (i.e. flow injection system). Both strategies required simultaneous monitoring of two absorbing species, namely the titration indicator and the dye tracer. Mixing conditions were improved by placing a chamber with mechanical stirring in the analytical path aiming at to minimize diffusional effects. Unlike most of flow-based titrations, the innovation is considered as a true titration, as it does not require a calibration curve thus complying with IUPAC definition. As an application, acidity evaluation in vinegars involving titration with sodium hydroxide was selected. Phenolphthalein and brilliant blue FCF were used as indicator and dye tracer, respectively. Effects of sample volume, titrand/titrant concentrations and flow rates were investigated aiming at improved accuracy and precision. Results were reliable and in agreement with those obtained by a reference titration procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioethics. LC Science Tracer Bullet. (United States)

    Martin, Cathy, Comp.; Cadoree, Michelle

    This guide lists published materials on many aspects of bioethics, the literature of which is varied and scattered. Related guides in the LC Science Tracer Bullet series are TB 80-9, Terminal Care, TB 80-11, Drug Research on Human Subjects, TB 83-4, Science Policy, and TB 84-7, Biotechnology. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this…


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  7. Polyethyleneimine as tracer for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurer, Jacob Willem


    In this thesis the development of a tracer particle for use in electron microscopy is described. Attempts were made to use this tracer particle in immuno-electron microscopy and to trace negatively charged tissue components. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Antimatter persuaded to react with matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard


    "Matter and antimatter usually destroy each other in a flash of energy and a spray of exotic particles when they meet. Yet the two have been coaxed into a chemical reaction by the international research group Athena." (2/3 page)

  9. Numerical studies of complex reacting flows (United States)

    Pawlowski, Roger Patrick


    This work is a numerical study of the design and operation of three reactor systems that represent great potential in their respective fields. As the design of reacting flow systems becomes more and more complex, it becomes infeasible to build and experimentally verify new ideas. Numerical simulation has demonstrated the ability to evaluate design geometries and operation without the investment in time, money, and safety hazards associated with developing new reactor designs. Reaction-transport models based on the fundamental conservation equations are solved using the Finite Element Method to predict the fluid flow, heat, and species concentration profiles within the reactors. A counterflow jet reactor (CJR) is being developed to study the homogeneous thermal decomposition of precursors related to Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) and for particle nucleation studies. A proposed flow and heat transfer model of the CJR was validated through flow visualization. The geometry and operating conditions were evaluated with the model to locate optimal reactor configurations for the kinetic studies. A massively parallel 2D/3D bifurcation and stability analysis was undertaken which identified regions of multiplicity and oscillatory behavior with respect to the geometry and operating parameters. The design of vertical stagnation flow and rotating-disk reactors for the MOVPE of GaN has been studied. A fundamental reaction-transport model describing the MOVPE of GaN from trimethyl gallium and ammonia has been developed. This model has been tested against experimental data from research-scale and industrial-scale reactors. A reduced mechanism applied in 3D simulations accurately predicted the spatial variation of the deposition rate observed in the experimental data. Subsequent analysis revealed the sensitivity of growth rate uniformity to the position of obstructions in the gas inlets of the reactor. A parameter space study of a vertical reactor has revealed the

  10. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  11. Propel: A Discontinuous-Galerkin Finite Element Code for Solving the Reacting Navier-Stokes Equations (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan; Kercher, Andrew; Schwer, Douglas; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra


    This presentation focuses on the development of a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method for application to chemically reacting flows. The in-house code, called Propel, was developed by the Laboratory of Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics at the Naval Research Laboratory. It was designed specifically for developing advanced multi-dimensional algorithms to run efficiently on new and innovative architectures such as GPUs. For these results, Propel solves for convection and diffusion simultaneously with detailed transport and thermodynamics. Chemistry is currently solved in a time-split approach using Strang-splitting with finite element DG time integration of chemical source terms. Results presented here show canonical unsteady reacting flow cases, such as co-flow and splitter plate, and we report performance for higher order DG on CPU and GPUs.

  12. Filtered Mass Density Function for Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows (United States)

    Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.; Pope, S. B.


    A new methodology termed the ``filtered mass density function'' (FMDF) is developed and implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of variable density chemically reacting turbulent flows at low Mach numbers. The FMDF represents the single point joint probability density function of the subgrid scale scalar quantities and is governed by its modeled transport equation. In this equation, the effects of chemical reaction appear in closed form but the influences of scalar mixing and convection within the subgrid are modeled. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which yield statistically equivalent results to that of the FMDF transport equation are derived and are solved via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme. The consistency, the convergence, and the accuracy of FMDF and the Monte Carlo solution of its equivalent SDEs are demonstrated. The performance of the model is assessed by extensive comparisons with DNS and laboratory experimental data in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D reacting turbulent shear flows.

  13. Chaotic advection of reacting substances Plankton dynamics on a meandering jet

    CERN Document Server

    López, C; Hernández-García, E; Haynes, P H; Lopez, Cristobal; Neufeld, Zoltan; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Haynes, Peter H.


    We study the spatial patterns formed by interacting populations or reacting chemicals under the influence of chaotic flows. In particular, we have considered a three-component model of plankton dynamics advected by a meandering jet. We report general results, stressing the existence of a smooth-filamental transition in the concentration patterns depending on the relative strength of the stirring by the chaotic flow and the relaxation properties of planktonic dynamical system. Patterns obtained in open and closed flows are compared.

  14. Tracer Dispersion Within an Urban Environment. (United States)

    Martin, D.; Shallcross, D.; Price, C.; Nickless, G.; Simmonds, P.


    The transport and dispersion of pollutants has extremely important implications for the environment on urban, regional and global scales. At the urban level localised emissions of both biogenic and anthropogenic pollutants can directly impact the health of the inhabitants. The DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollutants and their Penetration into the Local Environment) project is a consortium of six universities, which involves a multidisciplinary approach to characterise relatively small-scale urban atmospheric dispersion including wind tunnel modelling, computer simulations, fieldwork and analysis. This work describes the tracer technology used to characterise atmospheric dispersion as well as preliminary results from the first tracer release experiment in Central London. A steady state finite duration release of both perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 ) was performed as part of the first DAPPLE campaign. These compounds were released over a fifteen-minute integrated time period with the SF6 release staggered one and a half minutes behind the PMCH. The low background concentrations of PMCH (~ 5 x 10-3 pptv) and SF6 (~5pptv) along with non-depositing and non-reactive characteristics allow for the implementation of near ideal fluid dynamic experiments. Sampling consists of a multiport ladder fitting with solenoid valves onto which a succession of sampling bags is attached. These are electrically actuated in sequential order with an integrated sampling time of three minutes. The samplers are placed at various receptor positions in the DAPPLE zone in predefined positions designed to best validate these model simulated meteorological dispersion processes. Analysis of PMCH is carried out using sample enrichment on carbon based adsorbents, separation by capillary Gas Chromatography and Negative Ion Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry detection (GC-MS-NICI). SF6 concentrations are determined using fixed volume loop injections with Gas

  15. Tracer transport in the Martian atmosphere (United States)

    Lian, Y.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Lee, C.; Toigo, A. D.; Campin, J.


    Transport is crucial to understanding and reproducing the Martian dust and water cycles, and to interpreting putative methane and other trace gas (e.g. Argon) observations. However, as quantified by comparing model predictions with Argon measurements made by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer [e.g. Sprague et al., 2004, 2007], current Mars general circulation models (GCM's) appear to do a poor job at tracer transport [e.g. Nelli et al., 2007]. This invalidates a core assumption of GCM modeling in the last decade - that transport is sufficiently well treated in models that we need focus only on improving physical parameterizations, and that differences between results from different GCM's stem purely from their treatment of physical processes. If instead it is the simulated dynamical processes that need better treatment we need to move towards higher-quality numerics, e.g. based on the finite volume formulation, and introduce a more sophisticated approach to advection following work done for terrestrial chemical transport modeling. Here we present the results of non-condensable tracer transport simulations using our newly developed Mars MITgcm, which has both of the aforementioned desirable attributes: a finite volume core and access to a range of sophisticated advection schemes. Our results are encouraging in that we are able to reproduce the observed peak polar Argon enhancement factor of six (about double that attainable with most other Mars GCMs). Our diagnostics show that the time-averaged zonal-mean advection produces net increases of Argon at the winter poles, while stationary and transient eddies transport Argon away from the poles. Using less diffusive nonlinear advection schemes with flux limiters tends to produce more advective fluxes of tracers into the southern winter pole than the more diffusive linear advection schemes, resulting in a greater net increase of polar Argon abundance. We further utilize a more realistic k-distribution radiative transfer model, an

  16. Filtered mass density function for large-eddy simulation of turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Jaberi, F. A.; Colucci, P. J.; James, S.; Givi, P.; Pope, S. B.


    A methodology termed the ‘filtered mass density function’ (FMDF) is developed and implemented for large-eddy simulation (LES) of variable-density chemically reacting turbulent flows at low Mach numbers. This methodology is based on the extension of the ‘filtered density function’ (FDF) scheme recently proposed by Colucci et al. (1998) for LES of constant-density reacting flows. The FMDF represents the joint probability density function of the subgrid-scale (SGS) scalar quantities and is obtained by solution of its modelled transport equation. In this equation, the effect of chemical reactions appears in a closed form and the influences of SGS mixing and convection are modelled. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which yield statistically equivalent results to those of the FMDF transport equation are derived and are solved via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo scheme. The consistency, convergence, and accuracy of the FMDF and the Monte Carlo solution of its equivalent SDEs are assessed. In non-reacting flows, it is shown that the filtered results via the FMDF agree well with those obtained by the ‘conventional’ LES in which the finite difference solution of the transport equations of these filtered quantities is obtained. The advantage of the FMDF is demonstrated in LES of reacting shear flows with non-premixed reactants. The FMDF results are appraised by comparisons with data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and with experimental measurements. In the absence of a closure for the SGS scalar correlations, the results based on the conventional LES are significantly different from those obtained by DNS. The FMDF results show a closer agreement with DNS. These results also agree favourably with laboratory data of exothermic reacting turbulent shear flows, and portray several of the features observed experimentally.

  17. Microbial DNA; a possible tracer of groundwater (United States)

    Sugiyama, Ayumi; Segawa, Takuya; Furuta, Tsuyumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji


    chemical materials dissolved in groundwater. Though viral particle was employed as a tracer to chase the movement of groundwater, it doesn't tell the chemical and physical environmental condition where the particle was incorporated into groundwater. Thus, we propose microbial DNA as a new tracer to track the route of groundwater.

  18. Predictions of PuO sub 2 and tracer compound release from ISV melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronenberg, A.W. (Engineering Science and Analysis, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Callow, R.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    Two field tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to assess in situ vitrification (ISV) suitability for long-term stabilization of buried radioactive waste. Both tests contained rare-earth oxide tracers (DY{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Tb{sub 4}O{sub 7}) to simulate the presence of plutonium in the form of PuO{sub 2}. In the first test, Intermediate Field Test (IFT)-l, approximately 4-% release of tracer material occurred during soil melting and associated off-gassing, while essentially nil release was observed for the second experiment (IFT-2) for which off-gassing was much reduced. This report presents an evaluation of the IFT test data in terms of governing release processes. Prediction of tracer release during ISV melting centered on an assessment of three potential transport mechanisms, (a) tracer diffusion through stagnant pool, (b) tracer transport by convective currents, and (c) tracer carry-off by escaping gas bubbles. Analysis indicates that tracer release by escaping gas is the dominant release mechanism, which is consistent with video records of gas bubble escape from the ISV melt surface. Quantitative mass transport predictions were also made for the IFT-I test conditions, indicating similarity between the 4-% release data and calculational results at viscosities of {approx} poise and tracer diffusivities of {approx}10{sub {minus}6} CM{sup 2}/s. Since PuO{sub 2} has similar chemical and transport (diffusivity) properties as the rare-earth tracers used in the rare earth tracers used in the IFT experiments, release of PuO{sub 2} is predicted for similar off-gassing conditions. Reduced off-gassing during ISV would thus be expected to improve the overall retention of heavy-oxides within vitrified soil.

  19. The Copenhagen tracer experiments: Reporting of measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Lyck, E.


    buoyancy from a tower at a height of 115 meters and then collected 2-3 meters above ground-level at positions in up to three crosswind arcs of tracer sampling units, positioned 2-6 km from the point of release. Three consecutive 20 min averaged tracer concentrations were measured, allowing for a total......This is the comprehensive data report from a series of tracer experiment carried out in the Copenhagen area in 1978/79 under neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. The report contains sulphurhexafluoride of tracer concentrations and meteorologicalmeasurements The tracer was released without...... sampling time of 1 hour. The site was mainly residential having a roughness length of 0.6 m. The meteorological measurements performed during the experimentsincluded standard measurements along the tower of tracer release as well as the three-dimensional wind velocity fluctuations at the height of release....

  20. Cross-platform mobile software development with React Native


    Warén, Janne


    The purpose of this study was to give an understanding of what React Native is and how it can be used to develop a cross-platform mobile application. The study explains the idea and key features of React Native based on source literature. The key features covered are the Virtual DOM, components, JSX, props and state. I found out that React Native is easy to get started with, and that it’s well-suited for a web programmer. It makes the development process for mobile programming a lot e...

  1. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management


    Axelsson G.


    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinj...


    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowledge of the basic hydraulic and geometric parameters desired and the appropriate tracer mass to release. A new efficient hydrologic tracer-test design (EHTD) methodology has been developed that combines basic measured field parameters (e.g., discharge, distance, cross-sectional area) in functional relationships that describe solute-transport processes related to flow velocity and time of travel. The new method applies these initial estimates for time of travel and velocity to a hypothetical continuously stirred tank reactor as an analog for the hydrologic flow system to develop initial estimates for tracer concentration and axial dispersion, based on a preset average tracer concentration. Root determination of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) using the preset average tracer concentration then provides a theoretical basis for an estimate of necessary tracer mass.Application of the predicted tracer mass with the hydraulic and geometric parameters in the ADE allows for an approximation of initial sample-collection time and subsequent sample-collection frequency where a maximum of 65 samples were determined to

  3. Tracer-Test Planning Using the Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design (Ehtd) Program (2003) (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitriya Karima; Kasmadi Imam Supardi


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap adanya perbedaan hasil belajar siswa yang diberi pembelajaran MEA dan REACT pada materi reaksi oksidasi reduksi, dan hasil belajar mana yang lebih baik di antara keduanya...

  5. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  6. Species Source Term Mapping for Reacting Flow CFD Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Simulations of reacting flow in applications such as scramjet engines are currently limited in their utility or accuracy by the chemistry sub-models employed....



    Ültay, Neslihan; DURUKAN, Ümmü Gülsüm; Eser ÜLTAY


    The purpose of this studyis to determine student teachers’ views about REACT strategy. In the study,data gathered quantitatively by the clinical interviews in the academic year of2012-2013 at the spring term. The clinical interviews were carried out with 11student teachers from two different classes in elementary education department.In both classes, REACT strategy was used as a teaching method by the sameresearcher in General Chemistry Course. In the clinical interviews, studentswere asked t...

  8. Comparing modifiability of React Native and two native codebases


    Abrahamsson, Robin; Berntsen, David


    Creating native mobile application on multiple platforms generate a lot of duplicate code. This thesis has evaluated if the code quality attribute modifiability improves when migrating to React Native. One Android and one iOS codebase existed for an application and a third codebase was developed with React Native. The measurements of the codebases were based on the SQMMA-model. The metrics for the model were collected with static analyzers created specifically for this project. The results cr...

  9. Analysis of 129I and its Application as Environmental Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Hou, Yingkun


    as an environmental tracer has highly increased in the past 10 years. Neutron activation analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry are the only techniques for measurement of 129I at environmental level. This article mainly compares these two analytical techniques for the determination of 129I at environmental level......Iodine-129, the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, occurs naturally, but anthropogenic generated 129I has dominated the environment in the past 60 years. Due to active chemical and environmental properties of iodine and the enhanced analytical capacity for 129I measurement, the application of 129I...... mass. The speciation analysis of 129I can also be used to investigate the geochemical cycle of stable iodine. Some representative works on the environmental tracer application of 129I are summarized....

  10. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull


    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  11. Recent advances in ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopy and imaging for reacting plasmas and flames (United States)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Adamovich, Igor; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh


    Reacting flows and plasmas are prevalent in a wide array of systems involving defense, commercial, space, energy, medical, and consumer products. Understanding the complex physical and chemical processes involving reacting flows and plasmas requires measurements of key parameters, such as temperature, pressure, electric field, velocity, and number densities of chemical species. Time-resolved measurements of key chemical species and temperature are required to determine kinetics related to the chemical reactions and transient phenomena. Laser-based, noninvasive linear and nonlinear spectroscopic approaches have proved to be very valuable in providing key insights into the physico-chemical processes governing reacting flows and plasmas as well as validating numerical models. The advent of kilohertz rate amplified femtosecond lasers has expanded the multidimensional imaging of key atomic species such as H, O, and N in a significant way, providing unprecedented insight into preferential diffusion and production of these species under chemical reactions or electric-field driven processes. These lasers not only provide 2D imaging of chemical species but have the ability to perform measurements free of various interferences. Moreover, these lasers allow 1D and 2D temperature-field measurements, which were quite unimaginable only a few years ago. The rapid growth of the ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic measurements has been fueled by the need to achieve the following when measurements are performed in reacting flows and plasmas. They are: (1) interference-free measurements (collision broadening, photolytic dissociation, Stark broadening, etc), (2) time-resolved single-shot measurements at a rate of 1-10 kHz, (3) spatially-resolved measurements, (4) higher dimensionality (line, planar, or volumetric), and (5) simultaneous detection of multiple species. The overarching goal of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art ultrafast-laser-based spectroscopic

  12. Controlling parameters of fluorescent tracer sorption on soils and sediments (United States)

    Bork, Marcus; Graf-Rosenfellner, Markus; Lange, Jens; Lang, Friederike


    expected, increasing clay content, which is associated with an increasing specific surface and therefore more sorption sites, led to an increasing sorption of UR and SRB. Here, after the addition of 4 % of the clay mineral montmorillonite, nearly 100 % of both tracers were sorbed. Furthermore, OC influenced the sorption of UR and SRB in different ways: while the sorption of UR increased, the sorption of SRB decreased with increasing OC. In conclusion, the sorption behaviour of the fluorescent tracers UR and SRB in soils is very complex, and for appropriate application, the physico-chemical properties of the respective soils or sediments have to be considered. These conditions essentially determine if the respective tracer shows a conservative or non-conservative behaviour. With these aspects in mind, applying SRB and UR has the potential to be a cheap and fast method to estimate the fate of pollutants in soils or sediments.

  13. Tracing wastewater effluents in surface and groundwaters: a couple approach with organic/inorganic tracers and isotopes (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Baran, Nicole; Soulier, Coralie


    In the context of land use change, the origins of contamination of water resources are often multiple, including for a single chemical element or molecule. For instance, excess of nitrates in both surface and groundwater can originate from agricultural practices and wastewater effluents. The discrimination of the origins and vectors of contamination in the environment is both an environmental and societal issue in order to define an integrated water resources management at the catchment or water body scale by implementing appropriate measures to effectively struggle against pollution. The objective of this study is to define a methodology for the identification of a "domestic wastewater" contamination within surface waters and groundwater. An ideal tracer should be conservative, persistent in the different water compartments, present in quantity above the detection limit and originate from a single type of pollution source. There is, however, no ideal tracer in the strict sense. Indeed, even chloride which is present in quantity in wastewater, and which behaves conservatively in the environment, is not an univocal tracer of wastewater, as it may come from atmospheric inputs, from the dissolution of evaporitic rocks, from the salting of roads or from fertilizers. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we propose a multi-tracer approach (chemical and isotopic) to identify and validate the relevance of foreseen tracers. Among the relevant tracers of wastewater, the following may be used for their intrinsic or combined discriminant power: 1) organic effluent tracers: nitrogen contents and isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen of nitrates; 2) tracer of detergents: boron contents and boron isotopes; 3) pharmaceuticals tracers: e.g. carbamazepine, ibuprofen, paracetamol, gadolinium anomaly; 4) life-style tracers: e.g. caffeine. The originality of the study relies on small capacities wastewater treatment plants without tertiary treatment process. Results on a

  14. Bacteriophages as surface and ground water tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rossi


    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are increasingly used as tracers for quantitative analysis in both hydrology and hydrogeology. The biological particles are neither toxic nor pathogenic for other living organisms as they penetrate only a specific bacterial host. They have many advantages over classical fluorescent tracers and offer the additional possibility of multi-point injection for tracer tests. Several years of research make them suitable for quantitative transport analysis and flow boundary delineation in both surface and ground waters, including karst, fractured and porous media aquifers. This article presents the effective application of bacteriophages based on their use in differing Swiss hydrological environments and compares their behaviour to conventional coloured dye or salt-type tracers. In surface water and karst aquifers, bacteriophages travel at about the same speed as the typically referenced fluorescent tracers (uranine, sulphurhodamine G extra. In aquifers of interstitial porosity, however, they appear to migrate more rapidly than fluorescent tracers, albeit with a significant reduction in their numbers within the porous media. This faster travel time implies that a modified rationale is needed for defining some ground water protection area boundaries. Further developments of other bacteriophages and their documentation as tracer methods should result in an accurate and efficient tracer tool that will be a proven alternative to conventional fluorescent dyes.

  15. Fate(s) of injected CO2 in a coal-bearing formation, Louisiana, Gulf Coast Basin: Chemical and isotopic tracers of microbial-brine-rock-CO2 interactions (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.


    Coal beds are one of the most promising reservoirs for geologic carbon dioxide (CO₂) sequestration, as CO₂ can strongly adsorb onto organic matter and displace methane; however, little is known about the long-term fate of CO₂ sequestered in coal beds. The "2800' sand" of the Olla oil field is a coal-bearing, oil and gas-producing reservoir of the Paleocene–Eocene Wilcox Group in north-central Louisiana. In the 1980s, this field, specifically the 2800' sand, was flooded with CO₂ in an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, with 9.0×10⁷m³ of CO₂ remaining in the 2800' sand after injection ceased. This study utilized isotopic and geochemical tracers from co-produced natural gas, oil and brine from reservoirs located stratigraphically above, below and within the 2800' sand to determine the fate of the remaining EOR-CO₂, examining the possibilities of CO₂ migration, dissolution, mineral trapping, gas-phase trapping, and sorption to coal beds, while also testing a previous hypothesis that EOR-CO₂ may have been converted by microbes (CO₂-reducing methanogens) into methane, creating a microbial "hotspot". Reservoirs stratigraphically-comparable to the 2800' sand, but located in adjacent oil fields across a 90-km transect were sampled to investigate regional trends in gas composition, brine chemistry and microbial activity. The source field for the EOR-CO₂, the Black Lake Field, was also sampled to establish the δ¹³C-CO₂ value of the injected gas (0.9‰ +/- 0.9‰). Four samples collected from the Olla 2800' sand produced CO₂-rich gas with δ¹³C-CO₂ values (average 9.9‰) much lower than average (pre-injection) conditions (+15.9‰, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field) and at much higher CO₂ concentrations (24.9 mole %) than average (7.6 mole %, average of sands located stratigraphically below the 2800' sand in the Olla Field), suggesting the presence of EOR-CO₂ and gas-phase trapping as

  16. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi


    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  17. Tracer studies on an aerated lagoon. (United States)

    Broughton, Alistair; Shilton, Andy


    The city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, has two aerated lagoons as its secondary treatment facility. Interest about treatment efficiency led to an investigation into the hydraulics in the second lagoon to determine if further optimisation was viable. A tracer study using rhodamine WT was undertaken to ascertain the stimulus response output. Samples were also taken at 24 points within the lagoon to determine the tracer concentration profile throughout the lagoon. The mean residence time was determined to be 39.9 h compared with a theoretical residence time of 55.4 h. Peak concentration of the tracer at the outlet occurred at 0.44 of the mean residence time. The results of the tracer study pointed to 28% of volume being dead space. A subsequent sludge survey indicated that 26% of the design volume of the lagoon was filled with sludge. While the curved geometry of the lagoon did not appear to impact the hydraulics the fact that the first aerator is confined in a relatively smaller area will have locally boosted the mixing energy input in this inlet zone. From interpretation of the tracer response and the tracer distribution profiles it appears that the aerators are mixing the influent into the bulk flow effectively in the front end of the lagoon and that there was no evidence of any substantive short-circuiting path of concentrated tracer around to the outlet. The tracer distribution profiles gave direct insight as to how the tracer was being transported within the pond and should be used more often when conducting tracer studies. Comparison with the literature indicated that the lagoon's hydraulic efficiency was on par with a baffled pond system and it would be expected that addition of several baffles to the lagoon would provide minimal further improvement.

  18. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph


    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  19. Quantifying uncertainties in tracer-based hydrograph separations: a case study for two-, three- and five-component hydrograph separations in a mountainous catchment (United States)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Hoeg, Simon


    The hydrograph separation technique using natural tracers, in which different runoff components are quantified according to their chemical signature, is a widely used method for investigating runoff generation processes at the catchment scale. The first objective of this study is to demonstrate a modified methodology for separating three and five runoff components using 18O and dissolved silica as tracers. The second is to evaluate, with an uncertainty propagation technique using Gaussian error estimators, the hydrograph separation uncertainties that arise due to different error effects.During four summer storm events, an interaction among three main runoff components having distinct dissolved silica concentrations was demonstrated for the mountainous Zastler catchment (18·4 km2, southern Black Forest Mountains, southwest Germany). The three main runoff components are surface storage (low silica, saturated and impermeable areas), shallow ground water (medium silica, periglacial and glacial drift cover), and deep ground water (high silica, crystalline detritus and hard rock aquifer). Together with the event and pre-event water fractions of surface runoff and shallow ground water runoff, five runoff components are considered in all. Pre-event water from shallow ground water storage dominated the total discharge during floods and was also important during low flows. Event water from shallow ground water was detectable only during the falling limb of a larger flood with high antecedent moisture conditions and during the peaks of three events with low antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from surface storage is only significant during floods and can be composed of event and pre-event water. The latter reacts later and is important only during the peak of the large event with high antecedent moisture conditions. Runoff from the deeper ground water behaves quite consistently (pure pre-event water).It is demonstrated that large relative uncertainties must be considered

  20. Coral red fluorescence protein as genetic modified baculovirus tracer. (United States)

    Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Kao, Suey-Sheng; Tzen, Jason T C; Wu, Tzong-Yuan


    Genetic modified baculovirus (GMBV) are among the most promising alternatives to chemical insecticides. One of the deterrents to the GMBV development is the lack of simple and cost-effective methods for monitoring their efficacy and ecology in fields. Here, we demonstrate the DsRed gene from coral can serve as a convenient GMBV tracer. Insect larvae, including Trichoplusia ni, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura, infected the GMBV containing the DsRed gene can emit red fluorescence under sun light without any prosthetic apparatus.

  1. Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite. (United States)

    Xulu, Bheki A; Ashby, Michael T


    Thiocyanate reacts noncatalytically with myeloperoxidase-derived HOCl to produce hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)), thereby potentially limiting the propensity of HOCl to inflict host tissue damage that can lead to inflammatory diseases. However, the efficiency with which SCN(-) captures HOCl in vivo depends on the concentration of SCN(-) relative to other chemical targets. In blood plasma, where the concentration of SCN(-) is relatively low, proteins may be the principal initial targets of HOCl, and chloramines are a significant product. Chloramines eventually decompose to irreversibly damage proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that SCN(-) reacts efficiently with chloramines in small molecules, in proteins, and in Escherichia coli cells to give OSCN(-) and the parent amine. Remarkably, OSCN(-) reacts faster than SCN(-) with chloramines. These reactions of SCN(-) and OSCN(-) with chloramines may repair some of the damage that is inflicted on protein amines by HOCl. Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids.


    Tamm, Igor; Horsfall, Frank L.


    A mucoprotein, present in normal human urine, has been isolated and obtained in a state of a high degree of purity. A number of the biological, chemical, and physicochemical properties of the substance have been studied. From the results obtained in the present investigation and those reported in succeeding papers (34, 35) it appears that the mucoprotein has a high molecular weight, i.e., of the order of 7.0 x 106, consists of thread-like molecules which have axial ratios of approximately 100, and is specifically antigenic. This substance, which appears to be free of contaminating material, possesses in extraordinary degree the capacity to react with influenza, mumps, and Newcastle disease viruses. At equilibrium, with influenza virus, the minimal amount of the substance capable of giving a demonstrable reaction with one hemagglutinating unit of virus appears to be about 0.0003 µg. The mucoprotein is altered by preparations of influenza viruses and its capacity to react with these agents or others is lost. The kinetics of the inactivation process brought about by influenza viruses is in accord with those of well known enzyme-substrate systems. With the exception of the capacity to react with viruses, altered mucoprotein did not differ from the native substance relative to any of the properties examined in the present study. That certain physicochemical properties of the altered mucoprotein are different from those of the native substance is demonstrated in succeeding papers (34, 35). PMID:14907962

  3. ReactPRED: a tool to predict and analyze biochemical reactions. (United States)

    Sivakumar, Tadi Venkata; Giri, Varun; Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Bhaduri, Anirban


    Biochemical pathways engineering is often used to synthesize or degrade target chemicals. In silico screening of the biochemical transformation space allows predicting feasible reactions, constituting these pathways. Current enabling tools are customized to predict reactions based on pre-defined biochemical transformations or reaction rule sets. Reaction rule sets are usually curated manually and tailored to specific applications. They are not exhaustive. In addition, current systems are incapable of regulating and refining data with an aim to tune specificity and sensitivity. A robust and flexible tool that allows automated reaction rule set creation along with regulated pathway prediction and analyses is a need. ReactPRED aims to address the same. ReactPRED is an open source flexible and customizable tool enabling users to predict biochemical reactions and pathways. The tool allows automated reaction rule creation from a user defined reaction set. Additionally, reaction rule degree and rule tolerance features allow refinement of predicted data. It is available as a flexible graphical user interface and a console application. ReactPRED is available at: CONTACT: or information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Compartmental modeling and tracer kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David H


    This monograph is concerned with mathematical aspects of compartmental an­ alysis. In particular, linear models are closely analyzed since they are fully justifiable as an investigative tool in tracer experiments. The objective of the monograph is to bring the reader up to date on some of the current mathematical prob­ lems of interest in compartmental analysis. This is accomplished by reviewing mathematical developments in the literature, especially over the last 10-15 years, and by presenting some new thoughts and directions for future mathematical research. These notes started as a series of lectures that I gave while visiting with the Division of Applied ~1athematics, Brown University, 1979, and have developed in­ to this collection of articles aimed at the reader with a beginning graduate level background in mathematics. The text can be used as a self-paced reading course. With this in mind, exercises have been appropriately placed throughout the notes. As an aid in reading the material, the e~d of a ...

  5. The accurate particle tracer code (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun


    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  6. Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Porcelli, D.


    The study of the noble gases has been associated with some of the most illustrious names in experimental science, and some of the most profound discoveries. Fundamental advances in nuclear chemistry and physics - including the discovery of isotopes - have resulted from their study, earning Nobel Prizes for a number of early practitioners (Rutherford in 1908; Soddy in 1921; Aston in 1922) as well as for their discoverers (Ramsay and Rayleigh in 1904). Within the Earth Sciences, the noble gases found application soon after discovery - helium was used as a chronometer to estimate formation ages of various minerals (Strutt, 1908). In more recent times, the emphasis of noble gas research has shifted to include their exploitation as inert tracers of geochemical processes. In large part, this shift stems from the realization that primordial volatiles have been stored within the Earth since the time of planetary accretion and are still leaking to the surface today. In this introduction, we give a brief overview of the discovery of the noble gases and their continuing utility in the Earth Sciences, prior to setting into perspective the present contribution, which focuses on noble gases in the Earth's mantle.

  7. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses (United States)

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.


    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Detailed Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Reacting Dusty Flows at Normal and Microgravity (United States)

    Andac, M. Gurhan; Cracchiola, Brad; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Campbell, Charles S.


    Dusty reacting flows are of particular interest for a wide range of applications. Inert particles can alter the flammability and extinction limits of a combustible mixture. Reacting particles can release substantial amount of heat and can be used either for power generation or propulsion. Accumulation of combustible particles in air can result in explosions which, for example, can occur in grain elevators, during lumber milling and in mine galleries. Furthermore, inert particles are used as flow velocity markers in reacting flows, and their velocity is measured by non-intrusive laser diagnostic techniques. Despite their importance, dusty reacting flows have been less studied and understood compared to gas phase as well as sprays. The addition of solid particles in a flowing gas stream can lead to strong couplings between the two phases, which can be of dynamic, thermal, and chemical nature. The dynamic coupling between the two phases is caused by the inertia that causes the phases to move with different velocities. Furthermore, gravitational, thermophoretic, photophoretic, electrophoretic, diffusiophoretic, centrifugal, and magnetic forces can be exerted on the particles. In general, magnetic, electrophoretic, centrifugal, photophoretic, and diffusiophoretic can be neglected. On the other hand, thermophoretic forces, caused by steep temperature gradients, can be important. The gravitational forces are almost always present and can affect the dynamic response of large particles. Understanding and quantifying the chemical coupling between two phases is a challenging task. However, all reacting particles begin this process as inert particles, and they must be heated before they participate in the combustion process. Thus, one must first understand the interactions of inert particles in a combustion environment. The in-detail understanding of the dynamics and structure of dusty flows can be only advanced by considering simple flow geometries such as the opposed

  9. A novel fluorine-18 β-fluoroethoxy organophosphate positron emission tomography imaging tracer targeted to central nervous system acetylcholinesterase. (United States)

    James, Shelly L; Ahmed, S Kaleem; Murphy, Stephanie; Braden, Michael R; Belabassi, Yamina; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Thompson, Charles M; Gerdes, John M


    Radiosynthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled organophosphate (OP) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the tracer in the rat central nervous system are reported. The tracer structure, which contains a novel β-fluoroethoxy phosphoester moiety, was designed as an insecticide-chemical nerve agent hybrid to optimize handling and the desired target reactivity. Radiosynthesis of the β-fluoroethoxy tracer is described that utilizes a [(18)F]prosthetic group coupling approach. The imaging utility of the [(18)F]tracer is demonstrated in vivo within rats by the evaluation of its brain penetration and cerebral distribution qualities in the absence and presence of a challenge agent. The tracer effectively penetrates brain and localizes to cerebral regions known to correlate with the expression of the AChE target. Brain pharmacokinetic properties of the tracer are consistent with the formation of an OP-adducted acetylcholinesterase containing the fluoroethoxy tracer group. Based on the initial favorable in vivo qualities found in rat, additional [(18)F]tracer studies are ongoing to exploit the technology to dynamically probe organophosphate mechanisms of action in mammalian live tissues.

  10. A Novel Fluorine-18 β-Fluoroethoxy Organophosphate Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Tracer Targeted to Central Nervous System Acetylcholinesterase (United States)


    Radiosynthesis of a fluorine-18 labeled organophosphate (OP) inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and subsequent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the tracer in the rat central nervous system are reported. The tracer structure, which contains a novel β-fluoroethoxy phosphoester moiety, was designed as an insecticide-chemical nerve agent hybrid to optimize handling and the desired target reactivity. Radiosynthesis of the β-fluoroethoxy tracer is described that utilizes a [18F]prosthetic group coupling approach. The imaging utility of the [18F]tracer is demonstrated in vivo within rats by the evaluation of its brain penetration and cerebral distribution qualities in the absence and presence of a challenge agent. The tracer effectively penetrates brain and localizes to cerebral regions known to correlate with the expression of the AChE target. Brain pharmacokinetic properties of the tracer are consistent with the formation of an OP-adducted acetylcholinesterase containing the fluoroethoxy tracer group. Based on the initial favorable in vivo qualities found in rat, additional [18F]tracer studies are ongoing to exploit the technology to dynamically probe organophosphate mechanisms of action in mammalian live tissues. PMID:24716794

  11. Non-Reacting Turbulent Mixing Experments. Revision 1 (United States)


    Discussions on Non-Reacting Supersonic Mixing Measurements Program", Calspan Technical Memorandum submitted to AFRPL, September 1978. 7. Sheeran , W.J...Aerodynamic Testing Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 1969. 8. Sheeran , W.J. and Hendershot, K.C., "A Tube Wind Tunnel Technique for Rocket Propulsion Testing

  12. Three-dimensional reacting shock–bubble interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diegelmann, Felix; Hickel, S.; Adams, Nikolaus A.


    We investigate a reacting shock–bubble interaction through three-dimensional numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. The convex shape of the bubble focuses the shock and generates regions of high pressure and temperature, which are sufficient to ignite the diluted stoichiometric

  13. Second law analysis of a reacting temperature dependent viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, entropy generation during the flow of a reacting viscous fluid through an inclined Channel with isothermal walls are investigated. The coupled energy and momentum equations were solved numerically. Previous results in literature (Adesanya et al 2006 [[17]) showed both velocity and temperature have two ...

  14. Parameter Optimization for Turbulent Reacting Flows Using Adjoints (United States)

    Lapointe, Caelan; Hamlington, Peter E.


    The formulation of a new adjoint solver for topology optimization of turbulent reacting flows is presented. This solver provides novel configurations (e.g., geometries and operating conditions) based on desired system outcomes (i.e., objective functions) for complex reacting flow problems of practical interest. For many such problems, it would be desirable to know optimal values of design parameters (e.g., physical dimensions, fuel-oxidizer ratios, and inflow-outflow conditions) prior to real-world manufacture and testing, which can be expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous. However, computational optimization of these problems is made difficult by the complexity of most reacting flows, necessitating the use of gradient-based optimization techniques in order to explore a wide design space at manageable computational cost. The adjoint method is an attractive way to obtain the required gradients, because the cost of the method is determined by the dimension of the objective function rather than the size of the design space. Here, the formulation of a novel solver is outlined that enables gradient-based parameter optimization of turbulent reacting flows using the discrete adjoint method. Initial results and an outlook for future research directions are provided.

  15. Tracer tests in karst hydrogeology and speleology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Smart


    Full Text Available This article presents an introduction to the fundamentals of tracing techniques and their application in cave and karst environments, illustrated by case studies from the Mammoth Cave, USA, and a small experimental site in Switzerland. The properties and limitations of the most important artificial tracers are discussed, and the available methods of tracer injection, sampling, online monitoring and laboratory analysis are presented. Fully quantitative tracer experiments result in continuous or discrete concentration-time data series, i.e. breakthrough curves, and concomitant discharge data, which make it possible to obtain detailed information about groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Within the frame of speleological investigations, tracer tests can help to resolve the active and often inaccessible part of cave and conduit networks and to obtain indications about the geometry and volume of the conduits. For hydrogeological studies, caves can in turn be used as natural experimental and monitoring sites inside the unsaturated or saturated zone of karst aquifer systems.

  16. Numerical Implementation and Computer Simulation of Tracer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , was most dependent on the source definition and the hydraulic conductivity K of the porous medium. The 12000mg/l chloride tracer source was almost completely dispersed within 34 hours. Keywords: Replication, Numerical simulation, ...

  17. Monitoring High Velocity Salt Tracer via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - Possibility for Salt Tracer Tomography (United States)

    Doro, K. O.; Cirpka, O. A.; Patzelt, A.; Leven, C.


    Hydrogeological testing in a tomographic sequence as shown by the use of hydraulic tomography, allows an improvement of the spatial resolution of subsurface parameters. In this regard, recent studies show increasing interest in tracer tomography which involves sequential and spatially separated tracer injections and the measurement of their corresponding tracer breakthrough at different locations and depths. Such concentration measurements however require large experimental efforts and can be simplified by geophysical tracer monitoring techniques such as electrical resistivity. In this study, we present the use of 4-D, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for monitoring salt tracer experiments in high velocity flow fields. For our study, we utilized a set up that enables the conduction of salt tracer experiments with complete recovery within 84 hours over a transport distance of 16 m. This allows the repetition of the experiments with different injection depths for a tomographic salt tracer testing. For ERT monitoring, we designed modular borehole electrodes for repeated usage in a flexible manner. We also assess the use of a high speed resistivity data acquisition mode for field scale tracer monitoring ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution without sacrificing data accuracy. We applied our approach at the Lauswiesen test site, Tübingen, Germany. In our 10 m × 10 m tracer monitoring domain with 16 borehole electrodes, we acquired 4650 data points in less than 18 minutes for each monitoring cycle. Inversion results show that the tracer could be successfully imaged using this approach. The results show that repeated salt tracer tests can be efficiently monitored at a high resolution with ERT which gives the possibility for salt tracer tomography at field scale. Our results also provide a data base for extending current hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to field scale data.

  18. Tracer tests in a fractured dolomite: 1. Experimental design and observed tracer recoveries (United States)

    Meigs, Lucy C.; Beauheim, Richard L.


    A series of tracer tests has been conducted in a 7-m-thick fractured dolomite at two sites in southeastern New Mexico. The tests were designed to evaluate transport processes, especially matrix diffusion, in fractured, permeable media. Both single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and multiwell convergent flow (MWCF) tests were conducted. Seventeen different organic tracers (he fluorobenzoic and chlorobenzoic acids) and iodide were used as conservative tracers for the tests. The MWCF tests included repeated tracer injections while pumping the central well at different rates, injection of tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients, and injection of tracers into both the full and partial formation thickness. This paper describes the tracer test sites and aquifer characteristics, the experimental methods, and the tracer data produced. The tracer test results provide a high-quality data set for a critical evaluation of the conceptual model for transport. Both the SWIW and MWCF tracer test data showed gradual mass recovery and breakthrough (or recovery) curve tailing consistent with matrix diffusion. However, the SWIW recovery curves did not display the -1.5 log-log slope expected from a conventional double-porosity medium with a single rate of diffusion. The breakthrough curves from MWCF tests conducted at two different pumping rates showed similar peak heights, which is also not what was expected with a conventional double-porosity model. However, the peak heights were different for two tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients that were injected simultaneously in one test, consistent with the effects of matrix diffusion. The complexity of the tracer test results suggests that a simple double- porosity conceptual model for transport in the Culebra with a single rate of diffusion is overly simplistic.

  19. The Study Effect of Fill and React Period Change on the Performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Azwar


    Full Text Available The operation of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR can be optimized by controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration, the dosage of external carbon, nitrification and denitrification, and the phase length of aeration (fills and react period. In this work, the analyses and tested with open loop identification the effect of fill and react period change on the performance of the SBR were studied. The process dynamic has been tested to determine the effect of Fill (tf and React (trperiod changes on soluble substrate (Ss, soluble intermediate product (Ps, inert substrate (Si, particulate organics concentration (Xs, active biomass concentration (Xa, inert biomass concentration (Xi, the total biomass concentration (Xto and the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD concentration in the SBR. In all simulations the total Fill and React time were set at 6 h, with the Fill time varied at 0.5 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 2.5 h, 3 h, and the corresponding react time set at 5.5 h, 5 h, 4.5 h, 4 h, 3.5 h, and 3 h, respectively. Keywords: fill time and reaction time, sequencing batch reactor, wastewater treatment

  20. Determination of recharge modes of aquifers by use of chemical and isotopic tracers. Case study of the contact zone between Western High-Atlas Chain and Souss Plain (SW Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagma, T.


    Full Text Available Determination of the origin of recharge of the unconfined aquifer in the right side of the Souss wadi between Agadir and Taroudant (South-western of Morocco was based on the use of hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater, surface water and springs of the contact zone between the High-Atlas Chain and the Souss plain.The correspondence in the space evolution of the various chemical elements of evaporitic origin (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+ in groundwater, piedmont springs, and surface water reveals the existence of recharge water from the adjacent High-Atlas Chain.The various recharge modes of the different aquifers (High Atlas and Souss plain determined by isotopic analysis, shows that the source of groundwater for the unconfined Souss aquifer seems to be composite between a direct infiltration on the High-Atlas tributaries and a remote recharge from the bordering High Atlas aquifers.La determinación del origen de los aportes de agua de la capa freática de la ribera derecha del rio Souss entre Agadir y Taroudant (Suroeste de Marruecos se ha basado en la hidroquímica y el análisis isotópico de las aguas subterráneas, aguas superficiales y manantiales de la zona de contacto entre el Alto Atlas y la llanura de Souss.La correspondencia en la evolución espacial de los diferentes elementos químicos de origen evaporítico (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+ en las aguas subterráneas, manantiales de pie de monte y aguas superficiales, revela la existencia de una recarga de agua procedente de la cadena del Alto Atlas. El análisis de los modos de recarga de los diferentes acuíferos (Alto Atlas y llanura de Souss determinado por análisis isotópico, demuestra que la alimentación de la capa freática de Souss a partir del Alto Atlas parece ser mixta, compuesta por una infiltración directa de los afluentes del Alto Atlas y una alimentación lejana desde los acuiferos que limitan con el borde del Alto Atlas.

  1. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers. (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Choy, C Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Fulton, Elizabeth A


    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  2. On characteristics of a non-reacting and a reacting turbulent flow over a backward facing step (BFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahi, Mina; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof


    The turbulent reacting flow over a backward facing step shares some essential characteristics of premixed combustion occurring in a typical gas turbine combustor, while it is a simpler configuration to observe and model. For this reason and to explore the characteristics of the turbulent flow, in

  3. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment (United States)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  4. Iodoamphetamine as a new tracer for local cerebral blood flow in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, J R; Le Poncin-Lafitte, M; Duterte, D


    blood flow and a more real estimation of hippocampal flow. It is concluded from the brain uptake of the derivatives of both amphetamines during the first minutes following their injection that these tracers can be used as a chemical microembolus for the measurement of local cerebral blood flow....

  5. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, I.


    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  6. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  7. Supersonic Flow of Chemically Reacting Gas-Particle Mixtures. Volume II. RAMP - A Computer Code for Analysis of Chemically Reacting Gas-Particle Flows, (United States)


    pitot pressure. This routine is used only for finite rate chemistry, real gas cases. CALLING SEQUENCE CALL NORSCK (VI, PI, EMI, TI, GMI, RI, HI, POSTR ...where VI, PI. HI are the local values of velocity, pressure, Mach number, temperature, gamma, gas constant and enthalpy POSTR is the pitot pressure

  8. Tracer-based prediction of thermal reservoir lifetime: scope, limitations, and the role of thermosensitive tracers (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Karmakar, S.; Licha, T.; Nottebohm, M.; Sauter, M.


    Thermal-lifetime prediction is a traditional endeavour of inter-well tracer tests conducted in geothermal reservoirs. Early tracer test signals (detectable within the first few years of operation) are expected to correlate with late-time production temperature evolutions ('thermal breakthrough', supposed to not occur before some decades of operation) of a geothermal reservoir. Whenever a geothermal reservoir can be described as a single-fracture system, its thermal lifetime will, ideally, be determined by two parameters (say, fracture aperture and porosity), whose inversion from conservative-tracer test signals is straightforward and non-ambiguous (provided that the tracer tests, and their interpretation, are performed in accordance to the rules of the art). However, as soon as only 'few more' fractures are considered, this clear-cut correlation is broken. A given geothermal reservoir can simultaneously feature a single-fracture behaviour, in terms of heat transport, and a multiple-fracture behaviour, in terms of solute tracer transport (or vice-versa), whose effective values of fracture apertures, spacings, and porosities are essentially uncorrelated between heat and solute tracers. Solute transport parameters derived from conservative-tracer tests will no longer characterize the heat transport processes (and thus temperature evolutions) taking place in the same reservoir. Parameters determining its thermal lifetime will remain 'invisible' to conservative tracers in inter-well tests. We demonstrate this issue at the example of a five-fracture system, representing a deep-geothermal reservoir, with well-doublet placement inducing fluid flow 'obliquely' to the fractures. Thermal breakthrough in this system is found to strongly depend on fracture apertures, whereas conservative-solute tracer signals from inter-well tests in the same system do not show a clear-cut correlation with fracture apertures. Only by using thermosensitive substances as tracers, a reliable

  9. Density Weighted FDF Equations for Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    In this report, we briefly revisit the formulation of density weighted filtered density function (DW-FDF) for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows, which was proposed by Jaberi et al. (Jaberi, F.A., Colucci, P.J., James, S., Givi, P. and Pope, S.B., Filtered mass density function for Large-eddy simulation of turbulent reacting flows, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 401, pp. 85-121, 1999). At first, we proceed the traditional derivation of the DW-FDF equations by using the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF), then we explore another way of constructing the DW-FDF equations by starting directly from the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We observe that the terms which are unclosed in the traditional DW-FDF equations are now closed in the newly constructed DW-FDF equations. This significant difference and its practical impact on the computational simulations may deserve further studies.

  10. Tracer tomography: design concepts and field experiments using heat as a tracer. (United States)

    Doro, Kennedy O; Cirpka, Olaf A; Leven, Carsten


    Numerical and laboratory studies have provided evidence that combining hydraulic tomography with tomographic tracer tests could improve the estimation of hydraulic conductivity compared with using hydraulic data alone. Field demonstrations, however, have been lacking so far, which we attribute to experimental difficulties. In this study, we present a conceptual design and experimental applications of tracer tomography at the field scale using heat as a tracer. In our experimental design, we improve active heat tracer testing by minimizing possible effects of heat losses, buoyancy, viscosity, and changing boundary conditions. We also utilize a cost-effective approach of measuring temperature changes in situ at high resolution. We apply the presented method to the 8 m thick heterogeneous, sandy gravel, alluvial aquifer at the Lauswiesen Hydrogeological Research Site in Tübingen, Germany. Results of our tomographic heat-tracer experiments are in line with earlier work on characterizing the aquifer at the test site. We demonstrate from the experimental perspective that tracer tomography is applicable and suitable at the field scale using heat as a tracer. The experimental results also demonstrate the potential of heat-tracer tomography as a cost-effective means for characterizing aquifer heterogeneity. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  11. An analysis of artificial viscosity effects on reacting flows using a spectral multi-domain technique (United States)

    Macaraeg, Michele G.; Streett, Craig L.


    Analytical and experimental techniques for modeling the aerothermodynamics of hypersonic flight are assessed, together with the problems which will be encountered in developing reusable hypersonic vehicles. Emphasis is placed on a numerical coupling between a nonequilibrium chemistry model and hypersonic flow kinematics. Finite difference and finite element descriptions of flow fields in which molecules encounter a shock wave and undergo various motion (and thereby energy) transformations are discussed. The effects of artificial smearing of the shock wave are considered in terms of the resulting effects on the distribution of the energies and chemical composition of the transition region. Results are provided from schlieren photographs of shock-tube experiments, Navier-Stokes calculations of axisymmetric flow over a conical body, and calculations using a spectral multidomain approach for chemically reacting flows.

  12. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery?


    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren


    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlli...

  13. REACT: REcommending Access Control decisions To social media users


    Misra, Gaurav; Such, Jose M.


    The problems that social media users have in appropriately controlling access to their content has been well documented in previous research. A promising method of providing assistance to users is by learning from the access control decisions made by them and making future recommendations. In this paper, we present REACT, a learning mechanism which utilizes information available in the social network in conjunction with information about the content to be shared to provide users with access c...

  14. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le


    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  15. Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows (United States)


    are very relevant for core-collapse supernova dynamics, but can also occur in the detonation scenarios involving reacting flows, including supersonic...Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities if misaligned with the shock’s pressure gradients. Finally, the mean vorticity within a shear layer does not necessarily...the transition of this initially laminar profile, a random phase velocity perturbation is added to the mean profile with a fixed energy spectrum. The


    Turner, P. R.


    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  17. Burial effects on bedload tracer transport (United States)

    Wu, Zi; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Parker, Gary; Singh, Arvind; Fu, Xudong; Wang, Guangqian


    The gradual burial of tracer particles during bedload transport is a recently identified physical source of super-diffusion. It remains unclear, however how exactly this burial effect is related to the possible regimes of anomalous diffusion. In this paper we incorporate the mechanism of tracer burial into the active layer formulation for bedload transport, enabling an analytical treatment of the problem. The deduced equation governing the active layer is shown to be an advection-diffusion equation (ADE) with a sink term, and the increase of tracer concentration in the substrate layer underneath is driven by a corresponding source term which corresponds precisely to the sink term of the active layer. The solution for the variance of the tracer plume is analytically determined by calculating the relevant concentration moments based on the solved concentration distribution. It is shown that when substrate burial is accounted for, there will generally be a normal diffusion regime at very short time scales and a sub-diffusion regime at very large time scales. The appearance and characteristics of a super-diffusion regime during intermediate time scales will depend on relations among particle diffusion coefficient, burial frequency, and the virtual streamwise velocity for the tracer plume. This is in contrast to the single normal diffusion regime obtained for bedload transport when the burial process is not considered.

  18. Radon-222 and beryllium-7 as natural tracer; Radon-222 und Beryllium-7 als natuerliche Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G.; Steinkopff, T. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany). Radioaktivitaetsueberwachung; Salvamoser, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Isotopen-, Gas- und Umweltuntersuchungen (IGU), Woerthsee (Germany)


    The Global Atmosphere Watch Program (GAW) is intended to analyse worldwide the influence of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere. Data are continuously transferred to the ''World Data Centre for Green House Gases'' of the WMO. For the study of atmospheric transports the natural radionuclides Rn-222, Be-7, Pb-210, Pb- 214 and Bi-214 are continuously measured at the Umweltforschungsstation Schneefernerhaus (2650 m) and at the Zugspitze (2962 m) by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Weather Service). The measurements support the classification of atmospheric transport, atmospheric dilution and dispersion models of gaseous and aerosol bond micro pollutants. Results are carried out in combination with meteorological data. It is shown the optimization and effect of a new sampling site for the measurement of Rn-222 activity at the Zugspitze. Results of Rn-222 and Be-7 concentrations are shown in relation to horizontal and vertical dispersion of air masses. The origin of natural Rn-222 and Be-7 are known, therefore both nuclides are well suited for the research of atmospheric transport. Rn-222 is an ideal tracer, because there is no influence by atmospheric processes (chemical processes, wash out effects).

  19. Feasibility of laser-separation of /sup 36/S and its use as an atmospheric tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, I.P.


    This report addresses one of the possible uses of isotopic tracers, produced by laser-assisted iostope separation, in the investigation of pollution problems. Specifically, the use of laser-produced sulfur isotopes to analyze the acid rain situation is considered as it is a most important application of this technique. The proposed use of isotopically-labelled SO/sub 2/, in particular of /sup 36/SO/sub 2/, as a tracer can help elucidate the chemical and transport facets in a unified experiment. Separation of a sufficient quantity of the rare /sup 36/S isotope to perform several of these tracer studies appears to be practical and economical. This overall process is certainly deserving of further investigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mufadhol


    Full Text Available Perkembangan jaringan komputer saat ini begitu pesat, monitoring jaringan komputer akan menjadi suatu hal yang sulit dan rumit. Koneksi jaringan komputer merupakan suatu hal yang mendasar dalam suatu jaringan, karena bila koneksi itu bermasalah maka semua jenis aplikasi yang dijalankan melalui jaringan komputer tidak dapat digunakan. Cisco packet tracer dapat digunakan untuk simulasi yang mencerminkan arsitektur dan juga model dari jaringan komputer pada sistem jaringan yang digunakan. Dengan menggunakan aplikasi cisco packet tracer, simulasi mengenai jaringan dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi informasi tentang keadaan koneksi komputer dalam suatu jaringan.

  1. The Behaviour of Fluorescent Dye Tracers in groundwater at new nuclear power plant site in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cidzikiene, V. [Vilnius Gediminas technical university (Lithuania); Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V. [Nature Research Centre (Lithuania)


    Tracers test in hydrology defines the scientific field that aims at understanding the hydrologic system by making use of environmental and artificial tracers and modelling. Sodium fluorescein (uranine) is one of the most popular fluorescent dyes for tracer experiments in the field due to its chemical properties, low detection limits and low costs. The tracer test has been started in 2013 year at new nuclear power plant site in Lithuania. The network was comprised of 19 wells, two systems. The first wells system defines the first semi-confined intertill aquifer with depth of 10-19 m. The second well system is installed in the unconfined aquifer (4.5-9 m depth). The injection masses amounted to 50 and 500 mg sodium fluorescein (uranine) respectively. The concentration of sodium fluorescein was measured with the computer-controlled Aminco Bowman luminescence spectrometer. The results of test with tracers in groundwater show the flow and transport mechanism in this area, aquifer parameters (effective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, matrix and etc.). The results were compared with other countries test results also. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman


    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  3. Tax havens under international pressure: How do they react?


    Patrice Pieretti; Giuseppe Pulina


    This paper contributes to the literature about tax havens by providing a more comprehensive analysis of their role. The aim is to analyze how low-tax jurisdictions can react to growing international pressure exerted, by high-tax countries, to enforce compliance with anti aggressive tax planning standards. To this end, we model how a small tax haven tries to be attractive to multinationals located in a high-tax region by providing aggressive tax planning services and/or a favorable environment...

  4. SQL Triggers Reacting on Time Events: An Extension Proposal (United States)

    Behrend, Andreas; Dorau, Christian; Manthey, Rainer

    Being able to activate triggers at timepoints reached or after time intervals elapsed has been acknowledged by many authors as a valuable functionality of a DBMS. Recently, the interest in time-based triggers has been renewed in the context of data stream monitoring. However, up till now SQL triggers react to data changes only, even though research proposals and prototypes have been supporting several other event types, in particular time-based ones, since long. We therefore propose a seamless extension of the SQL trigger concept by time-based triggers, focussing on semantic issues arising from such an extension.

  5. Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Tumor Imaging With 18F-FDG and Secondary Shorter-Lived Tracers


    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Kadrmas, Dan J


    Rapid multi-tracer PET, where two to three PET tracers are rapidly scanned with staggered injections, can recover certain imaging measures for each tracer based on differences in tracer kinetics and decay. We previously showed that single-tracer imaging measures can be recovered to a certain extent from rapid dual-tracer 62Cu – PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu — ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging. In this work, the feasibility of rapidly imaging 18F-FDG plus one or two of these shorter-lived secondary trac...

  6. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek


    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  7. Tracers discrimination of sediment provenience in rural catchment through EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Thomaz, Edivaldo L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geografia


    Full text: Sediment dynamics understanding in a drainage system is fundamental for soil and water conservation at hydro graphic basins. This work aim was to discriminate sediment provenance tracers in rural basin. Sediment samples from different points in the headwater (road, forest, riverbank, river sediment deposit) were collected. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was the analytical technique applied, which was efficient to detect the chemical composition of the sediments. The samples were dried for 48h at 50 deg C, ground and sieved for granulometry 1mm. In natura samples (3 g) were placed in cells covered with mylar film for irradiation. Titanium, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y and Zr were identified. It was concluded that the elements, when analyzed individually or paired, do not allow a clear environment distinction except for yttrium (Y) that indicates distinct characteristics between the riverbank materials related to the other environments. However, the cluster analysis provided discrimination between the different sources of sediment. Also, it was verified that the recent deposited sediment in the river channel displays greater similarity with the materials of the road than with the riverbank. It is probable that the roads has been the mainly sediment source in the studied headwater. The methodology is innovative for tracer determination in soil and erosion quantification. (author)

  8. GPR Phase Response to Fracture Saline Tracers (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Becker, M.


    Flow in fractured rock is highly heterogeneous and difficult to predict. Groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon resource development requires knowledge of fracture fluid flow properties. Geophysical methods such as seismic, electrical and electromagnetic, have been used to image fracture systems. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to image fractures and monitor saline tracers in groundwater aquifers. Previous studies have considered primarily the amplitude response of GPR signals. In this work we examine the phase response of GPR in a series of controlled field experiments spanning over a decade. We compare field observations to analytical models and FDTD numerical simulations of the phase response of GPR signals to saline tracers in fractures. We show that changes in the electrical conductivity of fracture fluid cause predictable and detectable phase changes in reflected and transmitted GPR signals through fractures. Lower frequency signals (MHz range) show greater sensitivity to fluid electrical conductivity changes, while being relatively insensitive to fracture aperture. Phase changes over time (time lapse) are used to image channeled flow through discrete fractures and to monitor tracer breakthrough. Although GPR is used extensively in near-surface groundwater investigations, deployment in boreholes can allow adaptation of the technology to monitor saline tracers in hydrocarbon and geothermal systems.

  9. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie


    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  10. Fractal tracer distributions in turbulent field theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. Lundbek; Bohr, Tomas


    We study the motion of passive tracers in a two-dimensional turbulent velocity field generated by the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. By varying the direction of the velocity-vector with respect to the field-gradient we can continuously vary the two Lyapunov exponents for the particle motion and t...

  11. Interaction of a planar reacting shock wave with an isotropic turbulent vorticity field (United States)

    Huete, César; Jin, Tai; Martínez-Ruiz, Daniel; Luo, Kun


    Linear interaction analysis (LIA) is employed to investigate the interaction of reactive and nonreactive shock waves with isotropic vortical turbulence. The analysis is carried out, through Laplace-transform technique, accounting for long-time effects of vortical disturbances on the burnt-gas flow in the fast-reaction limit, where the reaction-region thickness is significantly small in comparison with the most representative turbulent length scales. Results provided by the opposite slow-reaction limit are also recollected. The reactive case is here restricted to situations where the overdriven detonation front does not exhibit self-induced oscillations nor inherent instabilities. The interaction of the planar detonation with a monochromatic pattern of perturbations is addressed first, and then a Fourier superposition for three-dimensional isotropic turbulent fields is employed to provide integral formulas for the amplification of the kinetic energy, enstrophy, and anisotropy downstream. Transitory evolution is also provided for single-frequency disturbances. In addition, further effects associated to the reaction rate, which have not been included in LIA, are studied through direct numerical simulations. The numerical computations, based on WENO-BO4-type scheme, provide spatial profiles of the turbulent structures downstream for four different conditions that include nonreacting shock waves, unstable reacting shock (sufficiently high activation energy), and stable reacting shocks for different detonation thicknesses. Effects of the propagation Mach number, chemical heat release, and burn rate are analyzed.

  12. Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey


    In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

  13. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water (United States)

    Wörman, A.


    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  14. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna


    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  15. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery? (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J; Liikkanen, Lassi A; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren


    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  16. An indirect method for the characterization of locally reacting liners. (United States)

    Taktak, Mohamed; Ville, Jean Michel; Haddar, Mohamed; Gabard, Gwénaël; Foucart, Felix


    An indirect technique for educing the homogenized acoustic impedance of a liner mounted on the wall of a barrel is presented. It is based on measurements and computational simulations of the multimodal scattering matrix of this lined duct. Measurements are performed with a multisource method and the use of an anechoic duct termination. The numerical computation of the scattering matrix relies on a finite element model, and assume that the duct is axisymmetric and uniformly covered by a locally reacting material. The impedance is educed by minimizing the difference between the theoretical and experimental acoustic power dissipations, which are deduced from the scattering matrix. The source is an incoming pressure field generated at one end of the duct only and composed of all cut-on modes. This technique was tested on a cylindrical barrel whose wall was partially lined with a realistic, locally reacting material made of honeycomb cells and a perforated facing sheet. Results for the acoustic impedance are compared with those deduced from semiempirical models and the experimental two microphone method. The best agreement with the indirect method is found with the semiempirical impedance results when the difference between the acoustic power dissipated by the actual lined barrel and the reference barrel is chosen as the cost function of the minimizing procedure.

  17. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery? (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren


    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  18. Flame-conditioned turbulence modeling for reacting flows (United States)

    Macart, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.


    Conventional approaches to turbulence modeling in reacting flows rely on unconditional averaging or filtering, that is, consideration of the momentum equations only in physical space, implicitly assuming that the flame only weakly affects the turbulence, aside from a variation in density. Conversely, for scalars, which are strongly coupled to the flame structure, their evolution equations are often projected onto a reduced-order manifold, that is, conditionally averaged or filtered, on a flame variable such as a mixture fraction or progress variable. Such approaches include Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) and related variants. However, recent observations from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) have indicated that the flame can strongly affect turbulence in premixed combustion at low Karlovitz number. In this work, a new approach to turbulence modeling for reacting flows is investigated in which conditionally averaged or filtered equations are evolved for the momentum. The conditionally-averaged equations for the velocity and its covariances are derived, and budgets are evaluated from DNS databases of turbulent premixed planar jet flames. The most important terms in these equations are identified, and preliminary closure models are proposed.

  19. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Williamson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  20. The Joint Commission Ever-Readiness: Understanding Tracer Methodology. (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina


    The Joint Commission (TJC) evaluates the consistent provision of appropriate and safe access to health care, treatment, and services. Currently, TJC uses the tracer methodology to assess standards compliance and follows a number of patients through an organization's entire health care delivery process. The tracer methodology uses 3 different types of tracers as follows: individual or patient tracers, program-specific, and system tracers, to identify performance issues in one or more steps of the care process or at interfaces between them. This review article describes the different types of tracers used by TJC and provides examples of each tracer in radiology; it outlines how to achieve TJC ever-readiness with the use of mock tracers and provides practical suggestions on how to ensure staff engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation of high speed turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Frankel, S. H.; Madnia, C. K.; Givi, P.

    The objective of this research is to make use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. Our efforts in the first phase of this research conducted within the past three years have been directed in several issues pertaining to intricate physics of turbulent reacting flows. In our previous 5 semi-annual reports submitted to NASA LaRC, as well as several technical papers in archival journals, the results of our investigations have been fully described. In this progress report which is different in format as compared to our previous documents, we focus only on the issue of LES. The reason for doing so is that LES is the primary issue of interest to our Technical Monitor and that our other findings were needed to support the activities conducted under this prime issue. The outcomes of our related investigations, nevertheless, are included in the appendices accompanying this report. The relevance of the materials in these appendices are, therefore, discussed only briefly within the body of the report. Here, results are presented of a priori and a posterior analyses for validity assessments of assumed Probability Density Function (PDF) methods as potential subgrid scale (SGS) closures for LES of turbulent reacting flows. Simple non-premixed reacting systems involving an isothermal reaction of the type A + B yields Products under both chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions are considered. A priori analyses are conducted of a homogeneous box flow, and a spatially developing planar mixing layer to investigate the performance of the Pearson Family of PDF's as SGS models. A posteriori analyses are conducted of the mixing layer using a hybrid one-equation Smagorinsky/PDF SGS closure. The Smagorinsky closure augmented by the solution of the subgrid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is employed to account for hydrodynamic fluctuations, and the PDF is employed for modeling the

  2. Gas Mass Tracers in Protoplanetary Disks: CO is Still the Best (United States)

    Molyarova, Tamara; Akimkin, Vitaly; Semenov, Dmitry; Henning, Thomas; Vasyunin, Anton; Wiebe, Dmitri


    Protoplanetary disk mass is a key parameter controlling the process of planetary system formation. CO molecular emission is often used as a tracer of gas mass in the disk. In this study, we consider the ability of CO to trace the gas mass over a wide range of disk structural parameters, and we search for chemical species that could possibly be used as alternative mass tracers to CO. Specifically, we apply detailed astrochemical modeling to a large set of models of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars to select molecules with abundances correlated with the disk mass and being relatively insensitive to other disk properties. We do not consider sophisticated dust evolution models, restricting ourselves to the standard astrochemical assumption of 0.1 μm dust. We find that CO is indeed the best molecular tracer for total gas mass, despite the fact that it is not the main carbon carrier, provided reasonable assumptions about CO abundance in the disk are used. Typically, chemical reprocessing lowers the abundance of CO by a factor of 3, compared to the case where photodissociation and freeze-out are the only ways of CO depletion. On average, only 13% C atoms reside in gas-phase CO, albeit with variations from 2% to 30%. CO2, H2O, and H2CO can potentially serve as alternative mass tracers, with the latter two only applicable if disk structural parameters are known.

  3. 10 CFR 39.45 - Subsurface tracer studies. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsurface tracer studies. 39.45 Section 39.45 Energy....45 Subsurface tracer studies. (a) The licensee shall require all personnel handling radioactive tracer material to use protective gloves and, if required by the license, other protective clothing and...

  4. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations. (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M


    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  5. Methods for Prediction of High-Speed Reacting Flows in Aerospace Propulsion (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip


    Research to develop high-speed airbreathing aerospace propulsion systems was underway in the late 1950s. A major part of the effort involved the supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, engine. Work had also begun to develop computational techniques for solving the equations governing the flow through a scramjet engine. However, scramjet technology and the computational methods to assist in its evolution would remain apart for another decade. The principal barrier was that the computational methods needed for engine evolution lacked the computer technology required for solving the discrete equations resulting from the numerical methods. Even today, computer resources remain a major pacing item in overcoming this barrier. Significant advances have been made over the past 35 years, however, in modeling the supersonic chemically reacting flow in a scramjet combustor. To see how scramjet development and the required computational tools finally merged, we briefly trace the evolution of the technology in both areas.

  6. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician


    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  7. Direct Numerical Simulations of Reacting Fronts in Incompressible Flows (United States)

    Vladimirova, N.; Cattaneo, F.; Malagoli, A.; Oberman, A.; Ruchayskiy, 0.; Rosner, R.


    We perform direct numerical simulations of an advected scalar field which diffuses and reacts according to a nonlinear reaction law. The goal of the simulations is to study flame stability with respect to initial conditions, and to determine how the bulk burning rate of the reaction front is affected by an imposed flow. We focus for simplicity on the cases of an imposed periodic shear or cellular flow. The interaction between the reaction front and the applied flow is determined by the following parameters: (a) the ratio between the laminar front thickness and the shear length scale, (b) the ratio between the laminar flame speed and the characteristic flow velocity, and (c) the ratio between heat conductivity and material diffusion (Lewis Number). We compare the numerical results with recent work of P. Constantin and collaborators, in particularly, their prediction for flame stability and analytical upper and lower bounds for the bulk burning rate.

  8. Vorticity Dynamics in Single and Multiple Swirling Reacting Jets (United States)

    Smith, Travis; Aguilar, Michael; Emerson, Benjamin; Noble, David; Lieuwen, Tim


    This presentation describes an analysis of the unsteady flow structures in two multinozzle swirling jet configurations. This work is motivated by the problem of combustion instabilities in premixed flames, a major concern in the development of modern low NOx combustors. The objective is to compare the unsteady flow structures in these two configurations for two separate geometries and determine how certain parameters, primarily distance between jets, influence the flow dynamics. The analysis aims to differentiate between the flow dynamics of single nozzle and triple nozzle configurations. This study looks at how the vorticity in the shear layers of one reacting swirling jet can affect the dynamics of a nearby similar jet. The distance between the swirling jets is found to have an effect on the flow field in determining where swirling jets merge and on the dynamics upstream of the merging location. Graduate Student, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

  9. Numerical simulation of laminar reacting flows with complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.


    We present an adaptive algorithm for low Mach number reacting flows with complex chemistry. Our approach uses a form of the low Mach number equations that discretely conserves both mass and energy. The discretization methodology is based on a robust projection formulation that accommodates large density contrasts. The algorithm uses an operator-split treatment of stiff reaction terms and includes effects of differential diffusion. The basic computational approach is embedded in an adaptive projection framework that uses structured hierarchical grids with subcycling in time that preserves the discrete conservation properties of the underlying single-grid algorithm. We present numerical examples illustrating the performance of the method on both premixed and non-premixed flames.

  10. Representation of tropical deep convection in atmospheric models – Part 2: Tracer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Hoyle


    Full Text Available The tropical transport processes of 14 different models or model versions were compared, within the framework of the SCOUT-O3 (Stratospheric-Climate Links with Emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere project. The tested models range from the regional to the global scale, and include numerical weather prediction (NWP, chemical transport, and chemistry-climate models. Idealised tracers were used in order to prevent the model's chemistry schemes from influencing the results substantially, so that the effects of modelled transport could be isolated. We find large differences in the vertical transport of very short-lived tracers (with a lifetime of 6 h within the tropical troposphere. Peak convective outflow altitudes range from around 300 hPa to almost 100 hPa among the different models, and the upper tropospheric tracer mixing ratios differ by up to an order of magnitude. The timing of convective events is found to be different between the models, even among those which source their forcing data from the same NWP model (ECMWF. The differences are less pronounced for longer lived tracers, however they could have implications for modelling the halogen burden of the lowermost stratosphere through transport of species such as bromoform, or short-lived hydrocarbons into the lowermost stratosphere. The modelled tracer profiles are strongly influenced by the convective transport parameterisations, and different boundary layer mixing parameterisations also have a large impact on the modelled tracer profiles. Preferential locations for rapid transport from the surface into the upper troposphere are similar in all models, and are mostly concentrated over the western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and the Indian Ocean. In contrast, models do not indicate that upward transport is highest over western Africa.

  11. Fungal decay resistance of wood reacted with phosphorus pentoxide-amine system (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell


    Resistance of wood reacted in situ with phosphorus pentoxide-amine to the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was examined. Wood reacted with either octyl, tribromo, or nitro derivatives were more resistant to both fungi. Threshold retention values of phosphoramide-reacted wood to white-rot fungus T. versicolor ranged from 2.9...

  12. Sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal sulfides. (United States)

    Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf


    Recent studies have documented that the sulfidation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that sulfidized Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP sulfidation also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal sulfides that are more resistant toward oxidation than free sulfide, could enable the sulfidation of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP sulfidation was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The sulfidation of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal sulfide concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal sulfide. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex sulfidation patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP sulfidation observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free sulfide, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal sulfides.

  13. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography (United States)

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic


    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  14. PET tracers for somatostatin receptor imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnbeck, Camilla Bardram; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas


    Neuroendocrine tumors have shown rising incidence mainly due to higher clinical awareness and better diagnostic tools over the last 30 years. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumors with PET tracers is an evolving field that is continuously refining the affinity of new tracers in the search...... for the perfect neuroendocrine tumor imaging tracer. (68)Ga-labeled tracers coupled to synthetic somatostatin analogs with differences in affinity for the five somatostatin receptor subtypes are now widely applied in Europe. Comparison of sensitivity between the most used tracers - (68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide...

  15. The medical applications of radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.


    This report provides a broad yet in depth overview of the use of radioactive materials as tracers in medicine and biology for the period of 1935--1947. Particular attention is paid to is of radio-sodium, radio-iodine, radio-iron, radio-phosphorus, radio-strontium, and fission products. The main thrust of this paper is human rather than animal work and focuses in work that has been published.



    Thelma L. Ramirez; Leonardo T. Cruz,; Nida V. Alcantara


    This paper aimed to determine if the field of specialization in the different colleges of RTU graduates and their academic-acquired skills and competencies are related to their present occupations. A modified Graduate Tracer Study (GTS) instrument was utilized to gather the quantitative data. Out of 500 questionnaires administered, there were 250 graduates returned answered questionnaires representing the three Colleges: Education, Arts and Sciences, Business and Entrepreneuria...

  17. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework (United States)

    Zang, Dongsong; Garonne, Vincent; Barisits, Martin; Lassnig, Mario; Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Molfetas, Angelos; Beermann, Thomas


    The DDM Tracer monitoring framework is aimed to trace and monitor the ATLAS file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the framework was put in production in 2009. Now there are about 5 million trace messages every day and peaks can be near 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer monitoring framework. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve query performance and provided almost real time results. In this paper, the design principles, architecture and main characteristics of Tracer monitoring framework will be described and examples of its usage will be presented.

  18. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.


    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  19. Stochastic simulation of chemically reacting systems using multi-core processors. (United States)

    Gillespie, Colin S


    In recent years, computer simulations have become increasingly useful when trying to understand the complex dynamics of biochemical networks, particularly in stochastic systems. In such situations stochastic simulation is vital in gaining an understanding of the inherent stochasticity present, as these models are rarely analytically tractable. However, a stochastic approach can be computationally prohibitive for many models. A number of approximations have been proposed that aim to speed up stochastic simulations. However, the majority of these approaches are fundamentally serial in terms of central processing unit (CPU) usage. In this paper, we propose a novel simulation algorithm that utilises the potential of multi-core machines. This algorithm partitions the model into smaller sub-models. These sub-models are then simulated, in parallel, on separate CPUs. We demonstrate that this method is accurate and can speed-up the simulation by a factor proportional to the number of processors available.

  20. Slip Effect on MHD Chemically Reacting Convictive Boundary Layer Flow with Heat Absorption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayano, Mekonnen Shifferaw; Demeke, Negussie Tadege


      The aim of this paper is to investigate steady magneto micropolar fluid past a stretched semi-infinite vertical and permeable surface taking into account heat absorption, hall and ion-slip effect...

  1. Comment on "Flow-distributed oscillations: Stationary chemical waves in a reacting flow"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Peter Ragnar; Mosekilde, Erik; Dewel, G.


    In a recent paper by Kern and Menzinger [Phys. Rev. E 60, R3471 (1999)] a successful verification of the stationary space-periodic structures predicted by Andresen et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 297 (1999)] was reported. Kaern and Menzinger suggest a mechanism for the formation of such structures...... that yields a linear relationship between the selected wavelength and the flow rate. We find this mechanism too simple and produce numerical simulations that support the original interpretation of these structures....

  2. A Unified Gaskinetic Methodology for Full-Knudsen-Range Flows with Chemically Reacting Effects Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA proposes a Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) to cover the full Knudsen number range from the continuum flow to free molecular flow that can simultaneously exist...

  3. High shear dispersion of tracers in polyolefins for improving their detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Massardier


    Full Text Available Abstract An efficient recycling of end-of-life products is of crucial interest from an economical and ecological point of view. However, the near infrared spectroscopy often used for the optic sorting processes is limited because of the absorption of carbon black present in black plastics and as it only sorts as a function of chemical formulas. The tracing technology developed in this study is based on the dispersion of lanthanide complexes particles into polymers to give them a code that can be related to their formulation and viscosity that are important parameters for their re-processing. As the success of this technology is conditioned by achieving a fine dispersion of the tracer particles, we also focus on accomplishing a fine dispersion of tracer particles by using a high shear process. Processing under high shear rate (N= 800 rpm has proved to play a determining role in dispersing finely and homogenously tracer particles within PP matrix. Thanks to the good quality of dispersion, the detection of three tracers at a level of 0.1 wt% has been successfully achieved, even in black matrices for an acquisition time of 10 ms.

  4. Modeling surf zone tracer plumes: 2. Transport and dispersion (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Guza, R. T.


    Five surf zone dye tracer releases from the HB06 experiment are simulated with a tracer advection diffusion model coupled to a Boussinesq surf zone model (funwaveC). Model tracer is transported and stirred by currents and eddies and diffused with a breaking wave eddy diffusivity, set equal to the breaking wave eddy viscosity, and a small (0.01 m2 s-1) background diffusivity. Observed and modeled alongshore parallel tracer plumes, transported by the wave driven alongshore current, have qualitatively similar cross-shore structures. Although the model skill for mean tracer concentration is variable (from negative to 0.73) depending upon release, cross-shore integrated tracer moments (normalized by the cross-shore tracer integral) have consistently high skills (≈0.9). Modeled and observed bulk surf zone cross-shore diffusivity estimates are also similar, with 0.72 squared correlation and skill of 0.4. Similar to the observations, the model bulk (absolute) cross-shore diffusivity is consistent with a mixing length parameterization based on low-frequency (0.001-0.03 Hz) eddies. The model absolute cross-shore dispersion is dominated by stirring from surf zone eddies and does not depend upon the presence of the breaking wave eddy diffusivity. Given only the bathymetry and incident wave field, the coupled Boussinesq-tracer model qualitatively reproduces the observed cross-shore absolute tracer dispersion, suggesting that the model can be used to study surf zone tracer dispersion mechanisms.

  5. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  6. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy? (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna


    Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  7. CERN reacts to increased costs to completion of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia


    Aspects of LHC construction. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 120th session on 14 December under the chairmanship of Prof. Maurice Bourquin (CH). CERN adjusts to the LHC Director-General, Luciano Maiani, stressed that CERN was now fully engaged in the LHC and outlined the first moves to react to the increased cost to completion of the LHC. The new accelerator is an extremely complex, high-tech project which CERN is building under very severe conditions. However, the technical challenges are solved and industrial production of accelerator elements, and installation are starting. Professor Maiani said that 2001 had been a very hard but decisive year for CERN. An important milestone had been passed during this meeting with the approval of the LHC dipole magnets contract, the last major contract for the accelerator. The new costs to completion of the LHC project are now clear. A first propos...

  8. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  9. Environment tracers application to groundwater circulation assessment in an alluvial aquifer in Central Italy (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Maurizio; Vitale, Stefania


    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important tool in order to plan any groundwater protection strategy. The aim of this study is to experiment a specific approach to give a conceptual model about groundwater circulation characterization. This approach has been applied to a suspected contaminated site in a large alluvial plan, made of sediments coming from weathered volcanic rocks, laying on marine sediments, where more than thirty years ago had been built a very important urban waste solid landfill. In referring to this case history it has been pointed out the importance of natural chemical interaction between ground water and rock mass, especially when pyroclastic origin sediments are involved. The landfill had been isolated from the surrounding environment, especially to protect aquifers, by a waterproof diaphragm This land is characterised by intensive agricultural and industrial activities (oil refineries, medical waste incinerators, concrete production, tar factory). The study will highlight the importance of environmental tracers which provide information about the flow and mixing processes of water coming from different sources. They are also useful to point out directions of groundwater flow and to determine origin Environmental tracers are natural chemical and isotopic substances that can be measured in groundwater and used to understand hydrologic properties of aquifers. They may be input into the hydrological system from the atmosphere at recharge and/or are added/lost/exchanged inherently as waters flow over and through materials. Variations in their chemical abundances and isotopic compositions can be used as tracers to determine sources (provenance), pathways (of reaction or interaction) and also timescales (dating) of environmental processes. In combination with these, the basic idea is to use. In this case enviromental tracers have been integrated by temperature and electric conductivity logs, to better investigate different levels of faster

  10. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution: an EMIR survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; I. Rodriguez, M.


    We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telescope...... on Pico Veleta, Spain. We compare the emission of the main molecular species with existing models of chemical evolution by means of line intensity ratios diagrams and principal component analysis. We detect molecular emission in 19 galaxies in two 8 GHz-wide bands centred at 88 and 112 GHz. The main...... detected transitions are the J=1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, CN, and C2H. We also detect HC3N J=10-9 in the galaxies IRAS 17208, IC 860, NGC 4418, NGC 7771, and NGC 1068. The only HC3N detections are in objects with HCO+/HCN 0.8). The brightest HC3N emission is found in IC 860, where we also...

  11. Pharmaceuticals as Groundwater Tracers - Applications and Limitations (United States)

    Scheytt, T. J.; Mersmann, P.; Heberer, T.


    Pharmaceutically active substances and metabolites are found at concentrations up to the microgram/L-level in groundwater samples from the Berlin (Germany) area and from several other places world wide. Among the compounds detected in groundwater are clofibric acid, propyphenazone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine. Clofibric acid, the active metabolite of clofibrate and etofibrate (blood lipid regulators) is detected in groundwater at maximum concentrations of 7300 ng/L. Among the most important input paths of drugs are excretion and disposal into the sewage system. Groundwater contamination is likely to be due to leaky sewage systems, influent streams, bank filtration, and irrigation with effluent water from sewage treatment plants. There are no known natural sources of the above mentioned pharmaceuticals. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers may include: (a) Quantification of infiltration from underground septic tanks (b) Detection of leaky sewage systems / leaky sewage pipes (c) Estimation of the effectiveness of sewage treatment plants (d) Identification of transport pathways of other organic compounds (e) Quantification of surface water / groundwater interaction (f) Characterization of the biodegradation potential. The use of pharmaceuticals as tracers is limited by variations in input. These variations depend on the amount of drugs prescribed and used in the study area, the social structure of the community, the amount of hospital discharge, and temporal concentration variations. Furthermore, the analysis of trace amounts of pharmaceuticals is sophisticated and expensive and may therefore limit the applicability of pharmaceuticals as tracers. Finally, the transport and degradation behavior of pharmaceuticals is not fully understood. Preliminary experiments in the laboratory were conducted using sediment material and groundwater from the Berlin area to evaluate the transport and sorption behavior of selected drugs. Results of the column experiments

  12. Accounting for pharmacokinetic differences in dual-tracer receptor density imaging


    Tichauer, K M; Diop, M.; Elliott, J. T.; Samkoe, K S; Hasan, T.; St. Lawrence, K; Pogue, B W


    Dual-tracer molecular imaging is a powerful approach to quantify receptor expression in a wide range of tissues by using an untargeted tracer to account for any nonspecific uptake of a molecular-targeted tracer. This approach has previously required the pharmacokinetics of the receptor-targeted and untargeted tracers to be identical, requiring careful selection of an ideal untargeted tracer for any given targeted tracer. In this study, methodology capable of correcting for tracer differences ...

  13. Neutrally buoyant tracers in hydrogeophysics: Field demonstration in fractured rock (United States)

    Shakas, Alexis; Linde, Niklas; Baron, Ludovic; Selker, John; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Lavenant, Nicolas; Bour, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy


    Electrical and electromagnetic methods are extensively used to map electrically conductive tracers within hydrogeologic systems. Often, the tracers used consist of dissolved salt in water, leading to a denser mixture than the ambient formation water. Density effects are often ignored and rarely modeled but can dramatically affect transport behavior and introduce dynamics that are unrepresentative of the response obtained with classical tracers (e.g., uranine). We introduce a neutrally buoyant tracer consisting of a mixture of salt, water, and ethanol and monitor its movement during push-pull experiments in a fractured rock aquifer using ground-penetrating radar. Our results indicate a largely reversible transport process and agree with uranine-based push-pull experiments at the site, which is in contrast to results obtained using dense saline tracers. We argue that a shift toward neutrally buoyant tracers in both porous and fractured media would advance hydrogeophysical research and enhance its utility in hydrogeology.

  14. How Will We React to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life? (United States)

    Kwon, Jung Yul; Bercovici, Hannah L.; Cunningham, Katja; Varnum, Michael E. W.


    How will humanity react to the discovery of extraterrestrial life? Speculation on this topic abounds, but empirical research is practically non-existent. We report the results of three empirical studies assessing psychological reactions to the discovery of extraterrestrial life using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis software. We examined language use in media coverage of past discovery announcements of this nature, with a focus on extraterrestrial microbial life (Pilot Study). A large online sample (N = 501) was asked to write about their own and humanity’s reaction to a hypothetical announcement of such a discovery (Study 1), and an independent, large online sample (N = 256) was asked to read and respond to a newspaper story about the claim that fossilized extraterrestrial microbial life had been found in a meteorite of Martian origin (Study 2). Across these studies, we found that reactions were significantly more positive than negative, and more reward vs. risk oriented. A mini-meta-analysis revealed large overall effect sizes (positive vs. negative affect language: g = 0.98; reward vs. risk language: g = 0.81). We also found that people’s forecasts of their own reactions showed a greater positivity bias than their forecasts of humanity’s reactions (Study 1), and that responses to reading an actual announcement of the discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life showed a greater positivity bias than responses to reading an actual announcement of the creation of man-made synthetic life (Study 2). Taken together, this work suggests that our reactions to a future confirmed discovery of microbial extraterrestrial life are likely to be fairly positive. PMID:29367849

  15. How Will We React to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yul Kwon


    Full Text Available How will humanity react to the discovery of extraterrestrial life? Speculation on this topic abounds, but empirical research is practically non-existent. We report the results of three empirical studies assessing psychological reactions to the discovery of extraterrestrial life using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC text analysis software. We examined language use in media coverage of past discovery announcements of this nature, with a focus on extraterrestrial microbial life (Pilot Study. A large online sample (N = 501 was asked to write about their own and humanity’s reaction to a hypothetical announcement of such a discovery (Study 1, and an independent, large online sample (N = 256 was asked to read and respond to a newspaper story about the claim that fossilized extraterrestrial microbial life had been found in a meteorite of Martian origin (Study 2. Across these studies, we found that reactions were significantly more positive than negative, and more reward vs. risk oriented. A mini-meta-analysis revealed large overall effect sizes (positive vs. negative affect language: g = 0.98; reward vs. risk language: g = 0.81. We also found that people’s forecasts of their own reactions showed a greater positivity bias than their forecasts of humanity’s reactions (Study 1, and that responses to reading an actual announcement of the discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life showed a greater positivity bias than responses to reading an actual announcement of the creation of man-made synthetic life (Study 2. Taken together, this work suggests that our reactions to a future confirmed discovery of microbial extraterrestrial life are likely to be fairly positive.

  16. How Will We React to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life? (United States)

    Kwon, Jung Yul; Bercovici, Hannah L; Cunningham, Katja; Varnum, Michael E W


    How will humanity react to the discovery of extraterrestrial life? Speculation on this topic abounds, but empirical research is practically non-existent. We report the results of three empirical studies assessing psychological reactions to the discovery of extraterrestrial life using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis software. We examined language use in media coverage of past discovery announcements of this nature, with a focus on extraterrestrial microbial life (Pilot Study). A large online sample ( N = 501) was asked to write about their own and humanity's reaction to a hypothetical announcement of such a discovery (Study 1), and an independent, large online sample ( N = 256) was asked to read and respond to a newspaper story about the claim that fossilized extraterrestrial microbial life had been found in a meteorite of Martian origin (Study 2). Across these studies, we found that reactions were significantly more positive than negative, and more reward vs. risk oriented. A mini-meta-analysis revealed large overall effect sizes (positive vs. negative affect language: g = 0.98; reward vs. risk language: g = 0.81). We also found that people's forecasts of their own reactions showed a greater positivity bias than their forecasts of humanity's reactions (Study 1), and that responses to reading an actual announcement of the discovery of extraterrestrial microbial life showed a greater positivity bias than responses to reading an actual announcement of the creation of man-made synthetic life (Study 2). Taken together, this work suggests that our reactions to a future confirmed discovery of microbial extraterrestrial life are likely to be fairly positive.

  17. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.


    Issues related to the design of biphasic (liquid) catalytic reaction operations are discussed. A chemical system involving the reaction of an organic-phase soluble reactant (A) with an aqueous-phase soluble reactant (B) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) is modeled and based on it, ...

  18. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))


    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  19. Enzymatic tracer damage during the gonadotropin releasing hormone radioimmunoassay: analytical and immunological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Conner, J.L.; Lapp, C.A.; Clary, A.R.


    Hypothalamic supernatants from 60 day female rats were fractionated from Sephadex G-200 columns. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) detected an apparently cross-reacting high molecular weight substance. The substance caused apparent displacement of iodinated GnRH binding in dose response fashion; however, no biological activity was observed in pituitary cell cultures. In order to determine whether the depressed binding might be caused by enzymatic degradation of iodinated GnRH during the RIA incubation, iodinated GnRH was preincubated under RIA conditions with either buffer or increasing concentrations of the GnRH cross-reacting material. Aliquots were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the gels slices counted. Identical aliquots were subsequently used as iodinated hormone in the RIA of known quantities of synthetic GnRH. Tracer damage during the RIA-like preincubation period was reflected in the subsequent PAGE studies as decreased counts per minute in the intact GnRH peak and in the RIA studies as over-estimated quantification of the GnRH standards. This report describes such damage during the GnRH RIA and the data misinterpretations which result. 30 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  20. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim M Al-Naiema; Elizabeth A Stone


    ...) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1...

  1. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with multiple epitopes on the human insulin receptor.


    Soos, M A; Siddle, K; Baron, M D; Heward, J M; Luzio, J P; Bellatin, J; Lennox, E S


    Monoclonal antibodies for the human insulin receptor were produced following immunization of mice with IM-9 lymphocytes and/or purified placental receptor. Four separate fusions yielded 28 antibodies, all of which reacted with receptor from human placenta, liver and IM-9 cells. Some antibodies cross-reacted to varying degrees with receptor from rabbit, cow, pig and sheep, but none reacted with rat receptor. At least 10 distinct epitopes were recognized as indicated by species specificity and ...

  2. Performance Testing of Tracer Gas and Tracer Aerosol Detectors for use in Radionuclide NESHAP Compliance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lattin, Rebecca Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Rad-NESHAP program, part of the Air Quality Compliance team of LANL’s Compliance Programs group (EPC-CP), and the Radiation Instrumentation & Calibration team, part of the Radiation Protection Services group (RP-SVS), frequently partner on issues relating to characterizing air flow streams. This memo documents the most recent example of this partnership, involving performance testing of sulfur hexafluoride detectors for use in stack gas mixing tests. Additionally, members of the Rad-NESHAP program performed a functional trending test on a pair of optical particle counters, comparing results from a non-calibrated instrument to a calibrated instrument. Prior to commissioning a new stack sampling system, the ANSI Standard for stack sampling requires that the stack sample location must meet several criteria, including uniformity of tracer gas and aerosol mixing in the air stream. For these mix tests, tracer media (sulfur hexafluoride gas or liquid oil aerosol particles) are injected into the stack air stream and the resulting air concentrations are measured across the plane of the stack at the proposed sampling location. The coefficient of variation of these media concentrations must be under 20% when evaluated over the central 2/3 area of the stack or duct. The instruments which measure these air concentrations must be tested prior to the stack tests in order to ensure their linear response to varying air concentrations of either tracer gas or tracer aerosol. The instruments used in tracer gas and aerosol mix testing cannot be calibrated by the LANL Standards and Calibration Laboratory, so they would normally be sent off-site for factory calibration by the vendor. Operational requirements can prevent formal factory calibration of some instruments after they have been used in hazardous settings, e.g., within a radiological facility with potential airborne contamination. The performance tests described in this document are intended to demonstrate the reliable

  3. The ATLAS DDM Tracer monitoring framework

    CERN Document Server



    The DDM Tracer Service is aimed to trace and monitor the atlas file operations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The volume of traces has increased significantly since the service started in 2009. Now there are about ~5 million trace messages every day and peaks of greater than 250Hz, with peak rates continuing to climb, which gives the current service structure a big challenge. Analysis of large datasets based on on-demand queries to the relational database management system (RDBMS), i.e. Oracle, can be problematic, and have a significant effect on the database's performance. Consequently, We have investigated some new high availability technologies like messaging infrastructure, specifically ActiveMQ, and key-value stores. The advantages of key value store technology are that they are distributed and have high scalability; also their write performances are usually much better than RDBMS, all of which are very useful for the Tracer service. Indexes and distributed counters have been also tested to improve...

  4. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden


    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  5. Making sense of and reacting to organizational change : a descriptive study of how change recipients make sense of and react to an organizational change initiative


    Nerby, Frithjov Angel


    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in how employees in an international energy company made sense of and reacted to an organizational change initiative. Furthermore how such responses to change might affect the implementation of the change initiative. The studied change concerns the introduction of a new management system platform. Existing literature highlights employees’ reacting or responding to change in various ways, and that this in turn will have effect on ...

  6. Development of an activatable nanospheres tracer for use in industry and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Raquel Luiza M.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEMAM/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Servico ao Meio Ambiente; Moura, Igor Felipe S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares


    Nanoparticles (NP's) can act as tracers for the study of several transport phenomena in industrial practice and environmental processes provided their physical and chemical properties meet specific requirements dictated by the application. Silica-coated gold nanoparticles in the size interval from 20 to 200 nm can be produced by gamma-ray irradiation. Submitted to neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor, they will convert gold nuclides into {sup 198}Au (E{sub γ} = 412 keV). These NP's can used as a tracer in oil fields, in petrochemical and refinery industrial processes in which conventional organic radioactive labeled compounds would not withstand, as well as in some hydrology and hydrogeology studies. (author)

  7. On the linearity of tracer bias around voids (United States)

    Pollina, Giorgia; Hamaus, Nico; Dolag, Klaus; Weller, Jochen; Baldi, Marco; Moscardini, Lauro


    The large-scale structure of the Universe can be observed only via luminous tracers of the dark matter. However, the clustering statistics of tracers are biased and depend on various properties, such as their host-halo mass and assembly history. On very large scales, this tracer bias results in a constant offset in the clustering amplitude, known as linear bias. Towards smaller non-linear scales, this is no longer the case and tracer bias becomes a complicated function of scale and time. We focus on tracer bias centred on cosmic voids, i.e. depressions of the density field that spatially dominate the Universe. We consider three types of tracers: galaxies, galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei, extracted from the hydrodynamical simulation Magneticum Pathfinder. In contrast to common clustering statistics that focus on auto-correlations of tracers, we find that void-tracer cross-correlations are successfully described by a linear bias relation. The tracer-density profile of voids can thus be related to their matter-density profile by a single number. We show that it coincides with the linear tracer bias extracted from the large-scale auto-correlation function and expectations from theory, if sufficiently large voids are considered. For smaller voids we observe a shift towards higher values. This has important consequences on cosmological parameter inference, as the problem of unknown tracer bias is alleviated up to a constant number. The smallest scales in existing data sets become accessible to simpler models, providing numerous modes of the density field that have been disregarded so far, but may help to further reduce statistical errors in constraining cosmology.

  8. Super parameterization of ocean dynamics for tracer transport models (United States)

    Le Sommer, J.; Bricaud, C.; Madec, G.; Calone, C.; Chanut, J.; Ethe, C.; Perruche, C.


    Ocean mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence contribute to ocean tracer transport and to shaping ocean biogeochemical tracers distribution. Representing adequately tracer transport in ocean models therefore requires to increase model resolution so that the impact of ocean turbulence is adequately accounted for. But due to supercomputers power and storage limitations, global biogeochemical models are not yet run routinely at eddying resolution. Still, because the "effective resolution" of eddying ocean models is much coarser than the physical model grid resolution, tracer transport can be reconstructed to a large extent by computing tracer transport and diffusion with a model grid resolution close to the effective resolution of the physical model. This observation has motivated the implementation of a new capability in NEMO ocean model ( that allows to run the physical model and the tracer transport model at different grid resolutions. Here, we present results obtained with this new capability applied to a synthetic age tracer in a global eddying model configuration. In this model configuration, ocean dynamic is computed at ¼° resolution but tracer transport is computed at 3/4° resolution. The solution obtained is compared to a reference setup, where age tracer is computed at the same grid resolution as ocean dynamics. We discuss possible options for defining the vertical diffusivity coefficient for the tracer transport model based on information from the high resolution grid. We describe the impact of this choice on the distribution and one the penetration of the age tracer. The method described here can found applications in ocean forecasting, such as the Copernicus Marine service operated by Mercator-Ocean, and in Earth System Models for climate applications.

  9. A Magnitite Tracer Protocol for Seasonal Measurement of Bed Sediment Biodiffusion Coefficients (United States)

    Thibodeaux, L. J.


    Anticipating its use in contaminant remediation this paper describes the development of a particle tracer technique for making short-term,in situ measurements of aquatic bed sediment biodiffusion coefficients. The bioturbation process in the upper sediment layers of streams, lakes, estuaries and the marine environment moves particles and porewater. When present, organic chemcals, metals, colloids, etc., are transported across these layers and exchanges may occur at the sediment water interface. Fickian biodiffusion coefficients that characterize such particle movements,Db (cm2/yr), are used for assessing chemical diagenesis rates and contaminant fluxes and are specific to each site. Chemical fate and transport models, developed for tracking contaminants in aquatic systems, requite a method of measuring in situ Db numerical values. The protocols should be able to detect seasonal and other time or position dependent variations in the coefficients for improved model predictions. Magnetite, a tracer with a long history of use in scientific studies of porous media, particle transport, etc., was chosen. Unlike most tracers it is inexpensive, naturally occuring and readiy available. The steps of the protocol include deployment and retrieval of the tracer, magnitite sepatation and measurement, mathematical model interpretation, an statistical treatment of data. Application of the techinque was tested on South Capitol Lake, a manmade, freshwater lake located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The surficial sediment in the lake was found to contain a fairly large population of oglichaete worms in abundances of approximately 18,000 per/m2. Field deployments were conducted in December 2001, January and February 2002, giving biodiffusion coefficients of 0.95, 0.46 and 0.66 cm2/yr. Although the protocol was capable of in situ measurements, testing over one or more calendar years at this and other sites will be needed to determine if the protocol can be used to detect changes in Db with

  10. Carbon-14 as a tracer of groundwater discharge to streams (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah; Harrington, Glenn; Cook, Peter; Post, Vincent; Dogramaci, Shawan


    The provenance of groundwater discharge to a stream can be determined by measuring the response of multiple groundwater age tracers within the stream across the discharge zone. The sampling interval required to detect groundwater discharge is limited by the rate of equilibration with the atmosphere downstream of the discharge zone, which is determined by the gas transfer velocity. Carbon-14 (14C) equilibration is driven by CO2 exchange, which is a small component of the dissolved inorganic carbon in most stream systems, and therefore the rate of equilibration is slower than for other gaseous age tracers. In this paper we use a step-wise approach to develop and demonstrate the use of 14C as a tracer in streams receiving groundwater discharge. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) in the emerging groundwater degasses until equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is reached; increasing pH and enriching the residual 14C by fractionation. In addition, the 14C gradient between groundwater and the atmosphere drives a slower process of isotopic equilibration. We have measured the rates of this chemical and isotopic equilibration experimentally by exposing 250 L of old groundwater to the atmosphere in an evaporation pan. Chemical equilibrium was achieved within 2 days, during which the 14C increased from 6 to 16 pMC. The influence of fractionation during the initial CO2 degassing on isotopic equilibrium rates was negligible. Isotopic equilibrium took over 2 months, with 14C in the evaporation pan increasing to 108 pMC over 71 days. This increase in 14C was simulated using a mass balance model with an effective 14C gas transfer velocity of 0.013 m d-1. Field testing of the method was conducted at two sites. Firstly, we measured the evolution of 14C in dewatering discharge as it flows along an ephemeral creek channel in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Measured 14C increased from 11 to 31 pMC along the 10km reach, which corresponds to a travel time of about 2 days. The measured increase was

  11. Urban Pollutant Transport and Infiltration into Buildings Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (United States)

    Matthews, James C.; Bacak, Asan; Khan, M. Anwar H.; Wright, Matthew D.; Priestley, Michael; Martin, Damien; Percival, Carl J.; Shallcross, Dudley E.


    People spend the majority of their time indoors and therefore the quality of indoor air is worthy of investigation; indoor air quality is affected by indoor sources of pollutants and from pollutants entering buildings from outdoors. In this study, unique perfluorocarbon tracers were released in five experiments at a 100 m and ~2 km distance from a large university building in Manchester, UK and tracer was also released inside the building to measure the amount of outdoor material penetrating into buildings and the flow of material within the building itself. Air samples of the tracer were taken in several rooms within the building, and a CO2 tracer was used within the building to estimate air-exchange rates. Air-exchange rates were found to vary between 0.57 and 10.90 per hour. Indoor perfluorocarbon tracer concentrations were paired to outdoor tracer concentrations, and in-out ratios were found to vary between 0.01 and 3.6. The largest room with the lowest air-exchange rate exhibited elevated tracer concentrations for over 60 min after the release had finished, but generally had the lowest concentrations, the room with the highest ventilation rates had the highest concentration over 30 min, but the peak decayed more rapidly. Tracer concentrations indoors compared to outdoors imply that pollutants remain within buildings after they have cleared outside, which must be considered when evaluating human exposure to outdoor pollutants. PMID:28230812

  12. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives. (United States)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M


    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution modeling of PET tracer uptake in solid tumors. (United States)

    Soltani, Madjid; Sefidgar, Mostafa; Bazmara, Hossein; Casey, Michael E; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman


    Distribution of PET tracer uptake is elaborately modeled via a general equation used for solute transport modeling. This model can be used to incorporate various transport parameters of a solid tumor such as hydraulic conductivity of the microvessel wall, transvascular permeability as well as interstitial space parameters. This is especially significant because tracer delivery and drug delivery to solid tumors are determined by similar underlying tumor transport phenomena, and quantifying the former can enable enhanced prediction of the latter. We focused on the commonly utilized FDG PET tracer. First, based on a mathematical model of angiogenesis, the capillary network of a solid tumor and normal tissues around it were generated. The coupling mathematical method, which simultaneously solves for blood flow in the capillary network as well as fluid flow in the interstitium, is used to calculate pressure and velocity distributions. Subsequently, a comprehensive spatiotemporal distribution model (SDM) is applied to accurately model distribution of PET tracer uptake, specifically FDG in this work, within solid tumors. The different transport mechanisms, namely convention and diffusion from vessel to tissue and in tissue, are elaborately calculated across the domain of interest and effect of each parameter on tracer distribution is investigated. The results show the convection terms to have negligible effect on tracer transport and the SDM can be solved after eliminating these terms. The proposed framework of spatiotemporal modeling for PET tracers can be utilized to comprehensively assess the impact of various parameters on the spatiotemporal distribution of PET tracers.

  14. Nitramine Monopropellant Deflagration and General Nonsteady Reacting Rocket Chamber Flows. (United States)


    36), an expression is derived for the specific (per unit mass generated at the propellant surface) turbulent heat feedback; after replacing qw by qfb ...point (where AdT/dy and qfb are tangent in the G - plane) may not be unique. Consistency with physically observed behavior and uniqueness of The source terms in the energy equRtion are defined: = Q2 W2,C’ Qfb = -qfbbp/A, and Qinj = "M h being the heat release by chemical reaction

  15. National Biomedical Tracer Facility. Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, R.


    We request a $25 million government-guaranteed, interest-free loan to be repaid over a 30-year period for construction and initial operations of a cyclotron-based National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF) in North Central Texas. The NBTF will be co-located with a linear accelerator-based commercial radioisotope production facility, funded by the private sector at approximately $28 million. In addition, research radioisotope production by the NBTF will be coordinated through an association with an existing U.S. nuclear reactor center that will produce research and commercial radioisotopes through neutron reactions. The combined facilities will provide the full range of technology for radioisotope production and research: fast neutrons, thermal neutrons, and particle beams (H{sup -}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +}). The proposed NBTF facility includes an 80 MeV, 1 mA H{sup -} cyclotron that will produce proton-induced (neutron deficient) research isotopes.

  16. 3D simulation of polyurethane foam injection and reacting mold flow in a complex geometry (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Fırat


    The aim of the present work is to develop a flow model which can be used to determine the paths of the polyurethane foam in the mold filling process of a refrigerator cabinet so that improvements in the distribution and the size of the venting holes can be achieved without the expensive prototyping and experiments. For this purpose, the multi-component, two-phase chemically reacting flow is described by Navier Stokes and 12 scalar transport equations. The air and the multi-component foam zones are separated by an interface, which moves only with advection since the mass diffusion of species are set zero in the air zone. The inverse density, viscosity and other diffusion coefficients are calculated by a mass fraction weighted average of the corresponding temperature-dependent values of all species. Simulations are performed in a real refrigerator geometry, are able to reveal the problematical zones where air bubbles and voids trapped in the solidified foam are expected to occur. Furthermore, the approach proves itself as a reliable design tool to use in deciding the locations of air vents and sizing the channel dimensions.

  17. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows (United States)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.


    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  18. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao


    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others


    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.



    Runtyani Irjayanti Putri; Rusgianto Heri Santosa


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1) mendeskripsikan keefektifan strategi pembelajaran REACT pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, (2) menentukan strategi pembelajaran yang lebih efektif diantara strategi REACT dan pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesa...

  1. ReACT!: An Interactive Educational Tool for AI Planning for Robotics (United States)

    Dogmus, Zeynep; Erdem, Esra; Patogulu, Volkan


    This paper presents ReAct!, an interactive educational tool for artificial intelligence (AI) planning for robotics. ReAct! enables students to describe robots' actions and change in dynamic domains without first having to know about the syntactic and semantic details of the underlying formalism, and to solve planning problems using…

  2. Improving Resilience to Emergencies through Advanced Cyber Technologies: the I-REACT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maltoni


    be equipped with essential tools for early warning and response. At the same time, private companies could leverage specific set of I-REACT components to improve their business, when linked to disaster management. Overall, I-REACT aims to be a European-wide contribution to build more secure and resilient societies to disasters.

  3. Characterization of an alluvial aquifer with thermal tracer tomography (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Bayer, Peter


    In the summer of 2015, a series of thermal tracer tests was performed at the Widen field site in northeast Switzerland. At this site numerous hydraulic, tracer, geophysical and hydrogeophysical field tests have been conducted in the past to investigate a shallow alluvial aquifer. The goals of the campaign in 2015 were to design a cost-effective thermal tracer tomography setup and to validate the concept of travel time-based thermal tracer tomography under field conditions. Thermal tracer tomography uses repeated thermal tracer injections with different injection depths and distributed temperature measurements to map the hydraulic conductivity distribution of a heterogeneous aquifer. The tracer application was designed with minimal experimental time and cost. Water was heated in inflatable swimming pools using direct sunlight of the warm summer days, and it was injected as low temperature pulses in a well. Because of the small amount of injected heat, no long recovery times were required between the repeated heat tracer injections and every test started from natural thermal conditions. At Widen, four thermal tracer tests were performed during a period of three days. Temperatures were measured in one downgradient well using a distributed temperature measurement system installed at seven depth points. Totally 12 temperature breakthrough curves were collected. Travel time based tomographic inversion assumes that thermal transport is dominated by advection and the travel time of the thermal tracer can be related to the hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer. This assumption is valid in many shallow porous aquifers where the groundwater flow is fast. In our application, the travel time problem was treated by a tomographic solver, analogous to seismic tomography, to derive the hydraulic conductivity distribution. At the test site, a two-dimensional cross-well hydraulic conductivity profile was reconstructed with the travel time based inversion. The reconstructed profile

  4. An LES-PBE-PDF approach for modeling particle formation in turbulent reacting flows (United States)

    Sewerin, Fabian; Rigopoulos, Stelios


    Many chemical and environmental processes involve the formation of a polydispersed particulate phase in a turbulent carrier flow. Frequently, the immersed particles are characterized by an intrinsic property such as the particle size, and the distribution of this property across a sample population is taken as an indicator for the quality of the particulate product or its environmental impact. In the present article, we propose a comprehensive model and an efficient numerical solution scheme for predicting the evolution of the property distribution associated with a polydispersed particulate phase forming in a turbulent reacting flow. Here, the particulate phase is described in terms of the particle number density whose evolution in both physical and particle property space is governed by the population balance equation (PBE). Based on the concept of large eddy simulation (LES), we augment the existing LES-transported probability density function (PDF) approach for fluid phase scalars by the particle number density and obtain a modeled evolution equation for the filtered PDF associated with the instantaneous fluid composition and particle property distribution. This LES-PBE-PDF approach allows us to predict the LES-filtered fluid composition and particle property distribution at each spatial location and point in time without any restriction on the chemical or particle formation kinetics. In view of a numerical solution, we apply the method of Eulerian stochastic fields, invoking an explicit adaptive grid technique in order to discretize the stochastic field equation for the number density in particle property space. In this way, sharp moving features of the particle property distribution can be accurately resolved at a significantly reduced computational cost. As a test case, we consider the condensation of an aerosol in a developed turbulent mixing layer. Our investigation not only demonstrates the predictive capabilities of the LES-PBE-PDF model but also

  5. Development of Comprehensive Reduced Kinetic Models for Supersonic Reacting Shear Layer Simulations (United States)

    Zambon, A. C.; Chelliah, H. K.; Drummond, J. P.


    Large-scale simulations of multi-dimensional unsteady turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport can be computationally extremely intensive even on distributed computing architectures. With the development of suitable reduced chemical kinetic models, the number of scalar variables to be integrated can be decreased, leading to a significant reduction in the computational time required for the simulation with limited loss of accuracy in the results. A general MATLAB-based automated mechanism reduction procedure is presented to reduce any complex starting mechanism (detailed or skeletal) with minimal human intervention. Based on the application of the quasi steady-state (QSS) approximation for certain chemical species and on the elimination of the fast reaction rates in the mechanism, several comprehensive reduced models, capable of handling different fuels such as C2H4, CH4 and H2, have been developed and thoroughly tested for several combustion problems (ignition, propagation and extinction) and physical conditions (reactant compositions, temperatures, and pressures). A key feature of the present reduction procedure is the explicit solution of the concentrations of the QSS species, needed for the evaluation of the elementary reaction rates. In contrast, previous approaches relied on an implicit solution due to the strong coupling between QSS species, requiring computationally expensive inner iterations. A novel algorithm, based on the definition of a QSS species coupling matrix, is presented to (i) introduce appropriate truncations to the QSS algebraic relations and (ii) identify the optimal sequence for the explicit solution of the concentration of the QSS species. With the automatic generation of the relevant source code, the resulting reduced models can be readily implemented into numerical codes.

  6. Journal: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency, 1 Method Development (United States)

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for the determination of basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test design can be difficult because of a lack of prior knowl...

  7. High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows: Intrinsic Flame Instability and its Effects on the Turbulent Cascade (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei


    Turbulent reacting flows are pervasive both in our daily lives on Earth and in the Universe. They power modern society being at the heart of many energy generation and propulsion systems, such as gas turbines, internal combustion and jet engines. On astronomical scales, thermonuclear turbulent flames are the driver of some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, knows as Type Ia supernovae. Despite this ubiquity in Nature, turbulent reacting flows still pose a number of fundamental questions often exhibiting surprising and unexpected behavior. In this talk, we will discuss several such phenomena observed in direct numerical simulations of high-speed, premixed, turbulent flames. We show that turbulent flames in certain regimes are intrinsically unstable even in the absence of the surrounding combustor walls or obstacles, which can support the thermoacoustic feedback. Such instability can fundamentally change the structure and dynamics of the turbulent cascade, resulting in a significant (and anisotropic) redistribution of kinetic energy from small to large scales. In particular, three effects are observed. 1) The turbulent burning velocity can develop pulsations with significant peak-to-peak amplitudes. 2) Unstable burning can result in pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks when the flame speed approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. 3) Coupling of pressure and density gradients across the flame can lead to the anisotropic generation of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. We extend our earlier analysis, which relied on a simplified single-step reaction model, by demonstrating existence of these effects in realistic chemical flames (hydrogen and methane) and in thermonuclear flames in degenerate, relativistic plasmas found in stellar interiors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for subgrid-scale LES combustion models. This work was supported by the Air Force

  8. Electrical Conductivity Measurements in Reacting Metastable Intermolecular Composites (United States)

    Asay, B. W.; Tasker, D. G.; King, J. C.; Sanders, V. E.; Son, S. F.


    Metastable Intermolecular Composite (MIC) materials are comprised of a mixture of oxidizer and fuel with particle sizes in the nanometer range. To better understand the reaction mechanisms of burning MIC materials, dynamic electrical conductivity measurements have been performed on a MIC material for the first time. Simultaneous optical measurements of the wave front position have shown that the reaction and conduction fronts are coincident within 160 μm. Unlike detonating high explosives (HE) where the conductivity profile is represented by an initial peak followed by an exponential decay of conductivity, the MIC conductivity profile is a gradual, irregular ramp which increases from zero over many microseconds. This suggests that the reaction zone thickness is different in MICs compared to detonating HE. Static measurements of conductivity of pressed MIC pellets suggest that the conduction is associated with chemical reaction in the MIC.

  9. Prediction of swirling reacting flow in ramjet combustors (United States)

    Lilley, D. G.; Samples, J. W.; Rhode, D. L.


    Numerical computations have been undertaken for a basic two-dimensional axisymmetric flowfield which is similar to that found in conventional gas turbine and ramjet combustors. A swirling flow enters a larger chamber via a sudden or gradual expansion. The calculation method involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation turbulence energy-turbulence dissipation rate turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. The results include recirculation zone characterization and predicted mean streamline patterns. Predictions with and without chemical reaction are obtained. An associated isothermal experimental flow study is providing a useful data base. Successful outcomes of the work can be incorporated into the more combustion- and hardware-oriented activities of industrial concerns.

  10. Recover Act. Verification of Geothermal Tracer Methods in Highly Constrained Field Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Matthew W. [California State University, Long Beach, CA (United States)


    pumping tests in identifying a poorly connected well. As a result, we were able to predict which well pairs would demonstrate channelized flow. The focus of the tracer investigation was multi-ionic tests. In multi-ionic tests several ionic tracers are injected simultaneously and the detected in a nearby pumping well. The time history of concentration, or breakthrough curve, will show a separation of the tracers. Anionic tracers travel with the water but cationic tracer undergo chemical exchange with cations on the surface of the rock. The degree of separation is indicative of the surface area exposed to the tracer. Consequently, flow channelization will tend to decrease the separation in the breakthrough. Estimation of specific surface area (the ration of fracture surface area to formation volume) is performed through matching the breakthrough curve with a transport model. We found that the tracer estimates of surface area were confirmed the prediction of channelized flow between well pairs produced by the periodic hydraulic tests. To confirm that the hydraulic and tracer tests were correctly predicting channelize flow, we imaged the flow field using surface GPR. Saline water was injected between the well pairs which produced a change in the amplitude and phase of the reflected radar signal. A map was produced of the migration of saline tracer from these tests which qualitatively confirmed the flow channelization predicted by the hydraulic and tracer tests. The resolution of the GPR was insufficient to quantitatively estimate swept surface area, however. Surface GPR is not applicable in typical geothermal fields because the penetration depths do not exceed 10’s of meters. Nevertheless, the method of using of phase to measure electrical conductivity and the assessment of antennae polarization represent a significant advancement in the field of surface GPR. The effect of flow character on fracture / rock thermal exchange was evaluated using heated water as a tracer. Water

  11. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.


    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  12. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium. (United States)

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Coronado, M; Hernández-Coronado, H


    A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case.

  13. High-Resolution Stratospheric Tracer Fields Reconstructed with Lagrangian Techniques: A Comparative Analysis of Predictive Skill. (United States)

    Dragani, R.; Redaelli, G.; Visconti, G.; Mariotti, A.; Rudakov, V.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Stefanutti, L.


    Numerical experiments and statistical analyses are conducted to determine the skill of different Lagrangian techniques for the construction of tracer distributions. High-resolution potential vorticity (PV) maps are calculated from simulations of the 1996/97 arctic winter stratospheric dynamics using two different numerical schemes-reverse domain filling trajectories (RDF) and contour advection with surgery (CAS)-and data from three meteorological agencies (NCEP, the Met Office, and ECMWF). The PV values are then converted into ozone (O3) concentrations and statistically compared to in situ O3 data measured by the electro chemical ozone cell (ECOC) instrument during the Airborne Polar Experiment (APE) using cross correlation, rms differences, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test.Results indicate that while Lagrangian techniques are successful in increasing the presence of lower-scale tracer structures with respect to the plain meteorological analyses, they significantly improve the statistical agreement between the simulated and the measured tracer profiles only when there is clear evidence of filaments in the measured data. This better fit is most clearly seen by using the KS test, rather than cross correlation. It is argued that this difference in the performance of Lagrangian techniques can be partly related to the treatment of mixing processes in the framework of the Lagrangian schemes. Statistical analyses also show that the temporal rather than the spatial resolution of the input meteorological fields, used to advect tracers, enhances the predictive skill of the Lagrangian products. The best overall performance is obtained with the Lagrangian product (not gridded) based on high-resolution reverse trajectories calculated along a flight track, in particular when the simulation is initialized with ECMWF data. Other products, such as CAS initialized with ECMWF and 3D-gridded RDF initialized with the Met Office data, show fairly good performances, thus with lower

  14. Developing Dynamic Single Page Web Applications Using Meteor : Comparing JavaScript Frameworks: Blaze and React


    Yetayeh, Asabeneh


    This paper studies Meteor which is a JavaScript full-stack framework to develop interactive single page web applications. Meteor allows building web applications entirely in JavaScript. Meteor uses Blaze, React or AngularJS as a view layer and Node.js and MongoDB as a back-end. The main purpose of this study is to compare the performance of Blaze and React. A multi-user Blaze and React web applications with similar HTML and CSS were developed. Both applications were deployed on Heroku’s w...

  15. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.


    Field studies evaluating chemical protective clothing (CPC), which is often employed as a primary control option to reduce occupational exposures during pesticide applications, are limited. This study, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was designed to...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyta Dwi Kurniasih


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh metode pembelajaran REACT terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis mahasiswa calon guru. Penelitian ini dilakukan di program studi Pendidikan Matematika Universtas Muhammadiyah Prof DR HAMKA. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah treatment by level 2x2, dengan variabel bebas adalah metode pembelajaran yaitu REACT dan konvensional, variabel terikat adalah kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis, dan variabel moderator adalah habit of mind. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan cluster random sampling. Hasil penelitian ini ialah pertama pembelajaran REACT efektif untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis mahasiswa sehingga metode ini dapat digunakan dalam perkuliahan Analisis Real bagi calon guru matematika. Kedua, pembelajaran berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis mahasiswa tergantung dengan habit of mind mahasiswa. Ketiga, perkuliahan dengan pembelajaran REACT mahasiswa yang memiliki habit of mind tinggi memiliki skor kemampuan berpikir kritis yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perkuliahan konvensional. Uji selanjutnya diharapkan untuk menentukan metode pembelajaran yang tepat untuk mahasiswa yang memiliki habit of mind rendah.

  18. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  19. Ambulatory REACT: real-time seizure detection with a DSP microprocessor. (United States)

    McEvoy, Robert P; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William P


    REACT (Real-Time EEG Analysis for event deteCTion) is a Support Vector Machine based technology which, in recent years, has been successfully applied to the problem of automated seizure detection in both adults and neonates. This paper describes the implementation of REACT on a commercial DSP microprocessor; the Analog Devices Blackfin®. The primary aim of this work is to develop a prototype system for use in ambulatory or in-ward automated EEG analysis. Furthermore, the complexity of the various stages of the REACT algorithm on the Blackfin processor is analysed; in particular the EEG feature extraction stages. This hardware profile is used to select a reduced, platform-aware feature set, in order to evaluate the seizure classification accuracy of a lower-complexity, lower-power REACT system.

  20. West Twin Creek Alaska Subsurface Bromide Tracer Experiment, 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data was produced as part of a subsurface tracer experiment performed on a boreal hillslope in July, 2015. The data is separated into three files: 'Well...

  1. Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtyani Irjayanti Putri


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mendeskripsikan keefektifan strategi pembelajaran REACT pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, (2 menentukan strategi pembelajaran yang lebih efektif diantara strategi REACT dan pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian quasi experiment. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik tes dan nontes. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji one sample t-test, uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, dan (2 strategi pembelajaran REACT lebih efektif daripada pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Kata Kunci: strategi REACT, prestasi belajar, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REACT STRATEGY VIEWED FROM LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT, PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY, MATHEMATICAL CONNECTION, SELF EFFICACY Abstract The aims of this study are to: (1 to describe the effectiveness of the REACT strategy viewed from Mathematics Learning Achievement, Mathematics Problem Solving Ability, Mathematics Connection Ability, and Student Self efficacy of State Senior High School 4 Magelang Students, and (2 determine a more effective

  3. Keefektifan Strategi REACT Ditinjau Dari Prestasi Belajar, Kemampuan Penyelesaian Masalah, Koneksi Matematis, Self-efficacy


    Putri, Runtyani Irjayanti; Santosa, Rusgianto Heri


    The aims of this study are to: (1) to describe the effectiveness of the REACT strategy viewed from Mathematics Learning Achievement, Mathematics Problem Solving Ability, Mathematics Connection Ability, and Student Self efficacy of State Senior High School 4 Magelang Students, and (2) determine a more effective learning strategies between REACT strategy and conventional learning in the derivative function instruction viewed from mathematics learning achievement, mathematical problem solving ab...

  4. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert


    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  5. Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation (United States)


    liquid rocket engines, studied the concept of rotating detonation rocket engine in both gaseous and two-phase propellants . Recently, there have been...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0195 Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation Kenneth Yu MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE...MARCH 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE OF HIGH-SPEED REACTING FLOWS: SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION AND DETONATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  6. Wet Cold Plumes as Revealed by One Billion Tracers (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Yuen, D. A.; Rudolph, M.; Capel, A.; Sevre, E. O.


    We have modeled the dynamics of plume development above subducting slabs. Our 2-D model incorporates the effects of thermal-chemical buoyancy as well as the combined effects of both hydration and melting. We have used up to ONE BILLION tracers to delineate the evolution of the lithological, rheological and deformation structure of subduction zone with resolution down to between 10 and 50 meters. In contrast to common thinking that hot rising mantle flows prevail in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab our results suggest that partially molten hydrated upwellings (WET COLD PLUMES) in the mantle wedge are characterized by a colder thermal anomaly of 300 to 400 degrees! The process is propelled by the subduction of buoyant crustal rocks and infiltration of aqueous fluids releasing from the slab, particularly due to decomposition of serpentine at depths >100 km. Low viscosity of these silicate bearing fluids under subsolidus conditions results in a rapid upward transport of water from the slab toward the melting front that forms within the mantle wedge. This melting front lies nearly parallel to the slab and is located just a few kilometers atop the slab. Higher viscosity and slower infiltration of hydrous basaltic melts formed above the melting front produces a slab-parallel layer of partially molten peridotite which is the source layer for the unmixed cold plumes transporting magmas of peridotitic origin. Mixed cold plumes responsible for transportation of crustal and mixed magmas starts directly from the slab and consist of hydrated, partially molten both mantle and subducted crustal rocks mixed on hundreds to tens of meter scale. Unmixed and mixed wave-like structures were also observed and they propagate upward along descending slabs. Both cold plumes and cold waves may have an upward velocity >1 m/year rapidly transporting thousands of cubic kilometers of rocks and magmas. Visualizing one billion tracers is a daunting task, as there is no single display

  7. A 3-D hydrologic transport model of a water recharge system using carbamazepine and chloride as tracers (United States)

    Rona, Michael; Gasser, Guy; Negev, Ido; Pankratov, Irena; Elhanany, Sara; Lev, Ovadia; Gvirtzman, Haim


    Wastewater recharge facilities are often used as a final water treatment before the discharge to the sea or before water reclamation. These facilities are often located in active aquifers that supply drinking water. Thus, leakage from the water recharge facility and gradual expansion of the underground wastewater plume are of considerable health concern. Hydrological modeling of water recharge systems are widely used as operational and predictive tools. These models rely on distributed water head monitoring and at least one chemical or physical tracer to model solutes' transport. Refractory micropollutants have proven useful in qualitative identification of pollution leakages and for quantification of pollution to a specific site near water recharge facilities. However, their usefulness as tracers for hydrological modeling is still questionable. In this article, we describe a long term, 3-D hydraulic model of a large-scale wastewater effluents recharge system in which a combination of chloride and a refractory micropollutant, carbamazepine is used to trace the solute transport. The combination of the two tracers provides the model with the benefits of the high specificity of the carbamazepine and the extensive historic data base that is available for chloride. The model predicts westward expansion of the pollution plume, whereas a standing front is formed at the east. These trends can be confirmed by the time trace of the carbamazepine concentrations at specific locations. We show that the combination of two tracers accounts better (at least at some locations) for the evolution of the pollution plume than a model based on chloride or carbamazepine alone.

  8. Modeling of gaseous reacting flow and thermal environment of liquid rocket injectors (United States)

    Sozer, Emre

    Reacting flow and thermal fields around the injector critically affect the performance and life of liquid rocket engines. The performance gain by enhanced mixing is often countered by increased heat flux to the chamber wall, which can result in material failure. A CFD based design approach can aid in optimization of competing objectives by providing detailed flow field data and an ability to feasibly evaluate a large number of design configurations. To address issues related to the CFD analysis of such flows, various turbulence and combustion modeling aspects are assessed. Laminar finite-rate chemistry and steady laminar flamelet combustion models are adopted to facilitate individual assessments of turbulence-chemistry interactions (TCI) and chemical non-equilibrium. Besides the experimental wall heat transfer information, assessments are aided by evaluations of time scales, grid sensitivity, wall treatments and kinetic schemes. Several multi-element injector configurations are considered to study element-to-element interactions. Under the conditions considered, chemical non-equilibrium effect is found to be unimportant. TCI is found to noticeably alter the flow and thermal fields near the injector and the flame surface. In the multi-element injector case, due to proximity of the outer row injector elements to the wall, wall heat flux distribution is also significantly affected by TCI. The near wall treatment is found to critically affect wall heat flux predictions. A zonal treatment, blending the low-Reynolds number model and the law-of-the-wall approach is shown to improve the accuracy significantly. Porous materials such as Rigimesh are often used as the injector face plate of liquid rocket engines. A multi-scale model which eliminates the empirical dependence of conventional analysis methods, is developed. The resulting model is tested using experimental information showing excellent agreement. The model development and assessment presented for both injector

  9. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeanette


    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  10. Only Successful Graduates Respond to Tracer Studies: A Myth? Results from the German Corporation Project Tracer Studies


    Lutz Heidemann


    INCHER-Kassel and 58 German Higher Education Institutions conducted together the biggest tracer studies campaign in Germany so far. Up to date, more than 100.000 graduates of the cohorts 2006 – 2009 were surveyed in the years 2007 – 2011. During this project it was often claimed that graduate tracer studies cannot be representative. This doubt is based on the assumption that only particularly successful or satisfied persons participate in these surveys. This hypothesis will be discussed in th...

  11. Can one identify karst conduit networks geometry and properties from hydraulic and tracer test data? (United States)

    Borghi, Andrea; Renard, Philippe; Cornaton, Fabien


    Karst aquifers are characterized by extreme heterogeneity due to the presence of karst conduits embedded in a fractured matrix having a much lower hydraulic conductivity. The resulting contrast in the physical properties of the system implies that the system reacts very rapidly to some changes in the boundary conditions and that numerical models are extremely sensitive to small modifications in properties or positions of the conduits. Furthermore, one major issue in all those models is that the location and size of the conduits is generally unknown. For all those reasons, estimating karst network geometry and their properties by solving an inverse problem is a particularly difficult problem. In this paper, two numerical experiments are described. In the first one, 18,000 flow and transport simulations have been computed and used in a systematic manner to assess statistically if one can retrieve the parameters of a model (geometry and radius of the conduits, hydraulic conductivity of the conduits) from head and tracer data. When two tracer test data sets are available, the solution of the inverse problems indicate with high certainty that there are indeed two conduits and not more. The radius of the conduits are usually well identified but not the properties of the matrix. If more conduits are present in the system, but only two tracer test data sets are available, the inverse problem is still able to identify the true solution as the most probable but it also indicates that the data are insufficient to conclude with high certainty. In the second experiment, a more complex model (including non linear flow equations in conduits) is considered. In this example, gradient-based optimization techniques are proved to be efficient for estimating the radius of the conduits and the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix in a promising and efficient manner. These results suggest that, despite the numerical difficulties, inverse methods should be used to constrain numerical

  12. Identification of unique peanut and soy allergens in sera adsorbed with cross-reacting antibodies. (United States)

    Eigenmann, P A; Burks, A W; Bannon, G A; Sampson, H A


    Soybean and peanut are members of the legume family and share several common antigenic fractions. Patients allergic to one of these foods have serum IgE antibodies that immunologically cross-react with other legumes. Nevertheless, ingestion of other legumes generally does not induce an allergic reaction, suggesting that cross-reacting antibodies are not clinically relevant. This study was designed to identify unique peanut or soybean antigenic fractions, with sera adsorbed to remove cross-reacting antibodies, thus resulting in sera with IgE antibodies unique to either soy or peanut. Cross-reacting antibodies to soy were removed from the sera of two patients allergic to peanut and soy and three patients allergic to peanut by soy-affinity chromatography. Cross-reacting antibodies to peanut were adsorbed from the sera of a patient allergic to peanut and soy and a patient allergic to peanut by peanut-affinity chromatography. Adequate removal of cross-reacting antibodies was verified by ELISA after each adsorption step. Unadsorbed sera and sera adsorbed to remove cross-reacting antibodies (either to soy or to peanut) were assayed for specific IgE binding to peanut or soy immunoblots. Unique peanut-specific IgE antibodies (i.e., soy antibody-adsorbed) were found to bind to peanut fractions at 46, 29, 25, 19, 17, 14, and 5 kd on immunoblots of whole peanut protein. Similarly, unique soy-specific IgE (i.e., peanut antibody-adsorbed) were found to bind a fraction at 46 kd, and to a lesser extent, to a fraction at 21 kd on immunoblots of whole soy protein. The 73% reduction of IgE antibody binding to peanut by ELISA after adsorption of cross-reacting antibodies indicates extensive cross-reactivity between soy and peanut antigens. Antigen-affinity chromatography is an effective method for removal of cross-reacting antibodies. We identified IgE antibody binding (with sera where cross-reacting antibodies were removed) to several unique antigenic fractions of peanut and soy

  13. Sistem Pre Kompilasi Data Tracer Studi Online Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti (Studi Kasus: Politeknik Harapan Bersama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Very Kurnia Bakti


    Full Text Available Tracer studi merupakan salah satu upaya yang diharapkan dapat menyediakan informasi untuk mengevaluasi hasil pendidikan di Politeknik Harapan Bersama dari kuisioner yang diberikan kepada alumni. Kegiatan tracer studi ini sudah dilaksanakan secara online, namun masih terdapat kendala pada bagian sistem yang digunakan saat ini, hal tersebut menyebabkan Politeknik Harapan Bersama tidak dapat melaporkan / mengunggah hasil tracer studi kepada Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti, dimana form kuisioner dan data export tracer studi yang dihasilkan berbeda dengan kebutuhan seperti yang tercantum pada surat edaran No. 313/B/SE/2016 tentang pelaksanaan tracer studi di tingkat perguruan tinggi. Mengingat pentingnya tracer studi sebagai umpan balik bagi Politeknik Harapan Bersama, maka perlu solusi untuk mengatasi kekurangan sistem ini. Dengan merubah sistem yang ada dengan sistem tracer studi yang baru merupakan solusi yang tepat dalam permasalahan ini. Sistem tracer studi yang baru mampu menghasilkan data tracer studi alumni dan pengisian form kuisioner sesuai dengan standar Ditjen Belmawa Ristekdikti yang dapat diunggah sistem tracer studi ristekdikti.

  14. Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer (United States)

    Modaresi, J; Baharizade, M; Shareghi, A; Ahmadi, M; Daneshkazemi, A


    Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal. Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method. Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope. Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods. Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between the dye

  15. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.


    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  16. Chelator-accelerated one-pot 'click' labeling of small molecule tracers with 2-[¹⁸F]fluoroethyl azide. (United States)

    Galante, Eva; Schoultz, Bent Wilhelm; Koepp, Matthias; Arstad, Erik


    2-[¹⁸F]Fluoroethyl azide ([¹⁸F]FEA) can readily be obtained by nucleophilic substitution of 2-azidoethyl-4-toluenesulfonate with [¹⁸F]fluoride (half-life 110 min), and has become widely used as a reagent for 'click' labeling of PET tracers. However, distillation of [18F]FEA is typically required, which is time-consuming and unpractical for routine applications. In addition, copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of [¹⁸F]FEA with non-activated alkynes, and with substrates containing labile functional groups, can be challenging. Herein, we report a highly efficient and practical ligand-accelerated one-pot/two-step method for 'click' labeling of small molecule tracers with [¹⁸F]FEA. The method exploits the ability of the copper(I) ligand bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate to accelerate the rate of the cycloaddition reaction. As a result, alkynes can be added directly to the crude reaction mixture containing [¹⁸F]FEA, and as cyclisation occurs almost immediately at room temperature, the reaction is tolerant to labile functional groups. The method was demonstrated by reacting [¹⁸F]FEA with a series of alkyne-functionalized 6-halopurines to give the corresponding triazoles in 55-76% analytical radiochemical yield.


    A large-scale natural gradient tracer experiment was conducted on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to examine the transport and dispersion of solutes in a sand and gravel aquifer. The nonreactive tracer, bromide, and the reactive tracers, lithium and molybdate, were injected as a pulse i...

  18. TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data (United States)

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; Böhlke, J.K.; Eberts, Sandra M.


    TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary LPMs are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary LPMs in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from other LPMs not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained. TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one

  19. Historical and contemporary stable isotope tracer approaches to studying mammalian protein metabolism (United States)


    Over a century ago, Frederick Soddy provided the first evidence for the existence of isotopes; elements that occupy the same position in the periodic table are essentially chemically identical but differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons within the atomic nucleus. Allied to the discovery of isotopes was the development of some of the first forms of mass spectrometers, driven forward by the Nobel laureates JJ Thomson and FW Aston, enabling the accurate separation, identification, and quantification of the relative abundance of these isotopes. As a result, within a few years, the number of known isotopes both stable and radioactive had greatly increased and there are now over 300 stable or radioisotopes presently known. Unknown at the time, however, was the potential utility of these isotopes within biological disciplines, it was soon discovered that these stable isotopes, particularly those of carbon (13C), nitrogen (15N), oxygen (18O), and hydrogen (2H) could be chemically introduced into organic compounds, such as fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars, and used to “trace” the metabolic fate of these compounds within biological systems. From this important breakthrough, the age of the isotope tracer was born. Over the following 80 yrs, stable isotopes would become a vital tool in not only the biological sciences, but also areas as diverse as forensics, geology, and art. This progress has been almost exclusively driven through the development of new and innovative mass spectrometry equipment from IRMS to GC‐MS to LC‐MS, which has allowed for the accurate quantitation of isotopic abundance within samples of complex matrices. This historical review details the development of stable isotope tracers as metabolic tools, with particular reference to their use in monitoring protein metabolism, highlighting the unique array of tools that are now available for the investigation of protein metabolism in vivo at a whole body down to a single protein level

  20. Quantitation of lead-210 (210Pb) using lead-203 (203Pb) as a "Massless" yield tracer. (United States)

    May, D; Nelson, A N; Schultz, M K


    Determination of Pb-210 (210Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of 210Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify. Examples of these challenges include interference from endogenous stable Pb in complex sample matrices; contamination of stable Pb carrier with 210Pb; and high detection limits due to counting efficiency limitations. We hypothesized that many of these challenges could be avoided by the use of the electron-capture, gamma-emitting isotope, 203Pb as a chemical yield tracer in the analysis of 210Pb. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of 203Pb as a tracer. Four different matrices were analyzed, including a complex matrix (hydraulic-fracturing produced fluids); and samples comprising less complicated matrices (i.e., river water, deionized water, and tap water). Separation techniques and counting methodologies were also compared and optimized. Due to a relatively short-half life (52 h), 203Pb tracer is effectively massless for the purposes of chemical separations, allowing for reduced chromatography column resin bed volumes. Because 203Pb is a gamma emitter (279 keV; 81% intensity), recovery can be determined non-destructively in a variety of matrices, including liquid scintillation cocktail. The use of liquid scintillation as a counting methodology allowed for determination of 210Pb activities via 210Pb or 210Po; and recoveries of greater than 90% are routinely achievable using this approach. The improved method for the analysis of 210Pb in aqueous matrices allows for the analysis of complex matrices, at reduced cost

  1. Development of radioisotope tracer technology and nucleonic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee and others


    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and basic technology of nuclear control systems that are widely used for automation of industrial plants, and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology, the data acquisition system, the column scanning equipment and the detection pig for a leakage test have been developed. In order to use in analyzing data of tracer experiments, a computer program for the analysis of residence time distribution has been created as well. These results were utilized in developing the tracer technologies, such as the column scanning, the flow measurement using the dilution method, the simultaneous monitoring rotational movement of piston rings and the optimization of a waste water treatment facility, and the technologies were successfully demonstrated in the local industrial. The stripper of RFCC reactor has been examined to find an unwanted structure in it by imminent request from the industry. Related to the development of nucleonic control system, the state of art report on the technology has been written and an equipment for the analysis of asphalt content has been developed. (author)

  2. Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

  3. Cosmological constraints from multiple tracers in spectroscopic surveys (United States)

    Alarcon, Alex; Eriksen, Martin; Gaztanaga, Enrique


    We use the Fisher matrix formalism to study the expansion and growth history of the Universe using galaxy clustering with 2D angular cross-correlation tomography in spectroscopic or high-resolution photometric redshift surveys. The radial information is contained in the cross-correlations between narrow redshift bins. We show how multiple tracers with redshift space distortions cancel sample variance and arbitrarily improve the constraints on the dark energy equation of state ω(z) and the growth parameter γ in the noiseless limit. The improvement for multiple tracers quickly increases with the bias difference between the tracers, up to a factor ∼4 in FoMγω. We model a magnitude limited survey with realistic density and bias using a conditional luminosity function, finding a factor 1.3-9.0 improvement in FoMγω - depending on global density - with a split in a halo mass proxy. Partly overlapping redshift bins improve the constraints in multiple tracer surveys a factor ∼1.3 in FoMγω. This finding also applies to photometric surveys, where the effect of using multiple tracers is magnified. We also show large improvement on the FoM with increasing density, which could be used as a trade-off to compensate some possible loss with radial resolution.

  4. Use of multiple age tracers to estimate groundwater residence times and long-term recharge rates in arid southern Oman (United States)

    Müller, Th.; Osenbrück, K.; Strauch, G.; Pavetich, S.; Al-Mashaikhi, K.-S.; Herb, C.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Aeschbach, W.; Sanford, Ward E.


    Multiple age tracers were measured to estimate groundwater residence times in the regional aquifer system underlying southwestern Oman. This area, known as the Najd, is one of the most arid areas in the world and is planned to be the main agricultural center of the Sultanate of Oman in the near future. The three isotopic age tracers 4He, 14C and 36Cl were measured in waters collected from wells along a line that extended roughly from the Dhofar Mountains near the Arabian Sea northward 400 km into the Empty Quarter of the Arabian Peninsula. The wells sampled were mostly open to the Umm Er Radhuma confined aquifer, although, some were completed in the mostly unconfined Rus aquifer. The combined results from the three tracers indicate the age of the confined groundwater is recharge area in the Dhofar Mountains, > 100 ka in the central section north of the mountains, and up to and > one Ma in the Empty Quarter. The 14C data were used to help calibrate the 4He and 36Cl data. Mixing models suggest that long open boreholes north of the mountains compromise 14C-only interpretations there, in contrast to 4He and 36Cl calculations that are less sensitive to borehole mixing. Thus, only the latter two tracers from these more distant wells were considered reliable. In addition to the age tracers, δ2H and δ18O data suggest that seasonal monsoon and infrequent tropical cyclones are both substantial contributors to the recharge. The study highlights the advantages of using multiple chemical and isotopic data when estimating groundwater travel times and recharge rates, and differentiating recharge mechanisms.

  5. Two-fluid model for reacting turbulent two-phase flows (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Abou-Ellail, M. M. M.


    A reacting two-fluid model, based on the solution of separate transport equations for reacting gas-liquid two-phase flow, is presented. New time-mean transport equations for two-phase mixture fraction bar-f and its variance g are derived. The new two-fluid transport equations for bar-f and g are useful for two-phase reacting flows in which phases strongly interact. They are applicable to both submerged and nonsubmerged combustion. A pdf approach to the reaction process is adopted. The mixture fraction pdf assumes the shape of a beta function while the instantaneous thermochemical properties are computed from an equilibrium model. The proposed two-fluid model is verified by predicting turbulent flow structures of an n-pentane spray flame and a nonreacting bubbly jet flow for which experimental data exist. Good agreement is found between the predictions and the corresponding experimental data.

  6. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff


    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about C. to C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with multiple epitopes on the human insulin receptor. (United States)

    Soos, M A; Siddle, K; Baron, M D; Heward, J M; Luzio, J P; Bellatin, J; Lennox, E S


    Monoclonal antibodies for the human insulin receptor were produced following immunization of mice with IM-9 lymphocytes and/or purified placental receptor. Four separate fusions yielded 28 antibodies, all of which reacted with receptor from human placenta, liver and IM-9 cells. Some antibodies cross-reacted to varying degrees with receptor from rabbit, cow, pig and sheep, but none reacted with rat receptor. At least 10 distinct epitopes were recognized as indicated by species specificity and binding competition experiments. All of these epitopes appeared to be on extracellular domains of the receptor as shown by binding of antibodies to intact cells. In some cases the epitopes were further localized to alpha or beta subunits by immunoblotting. Several antibodies inhibited binding of 125I-insulin to the receptor, some had no effect on binding, and others enhanced the binding of 125I-insulin. It is concluded that these antibodies will be valuable probes of receptor structure and function.

  8. Assessment of myocardial pathogenesis with new radioisotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    In the field of nuclear cardiology, various new radioisotopic tracers have been commercially available since 1993 in Japan. These tracers can be divided into (1) [sup 99m]Tc-labeled myocardial perfusion imaging agents ([sup 99m]Tc-MIBI, [sup 99m]Tc-tetrofosimin, and [sup 99m]Tc-teboroxime); (2) [sup 123]I-labeled myocardial fatty acid imaging agents ([sup 123]-BMIPP and [sup 123]I-IPPA); (3) [sup 123]I-labeled myocardial sympathetic imaging agent ([sup 123]I-MIBG); (4) [sup 111]In-labeled imaging agents for myocardial cell damage ([sup 111]In-monoclonal antimyosin antibody); and (5) [sup 67]Ga thrombosis imaging agent ([sup 67]Ga-fibrinogen). This article outlines these new tracers, focussing on their potential in assessing myocardial pathogenesis. (N.K.) 64 refs.

  9. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT2A agonist PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Martin; Santini, Martin A


    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT(2A) receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [(11)C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracer....... In an attempt to further optimize the target-to-background binding ratio, we modified the chemical structure of the phenethylamine backbone and carbon-11 labelling site of [(11)C]Cimbi-5 in different ways. Here, we present the in vivo validation of nine novel 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracers in the pig...

  10. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of a series of substituted 11C-phenethylamines as 5-HT (2A) agonist PET tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Martin; Santini, Martin A


    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors with agonist tracers holds promise for the selective labelling of 5-HT(2A) receptors in their high-affinity state. We have previously validated [(11)C]Cimbi-5 and found that it is a 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracer....... In an attempt to further optimize the target-to-background binding ratio, we modified the chemical structure of the phenethylamine backbone and carbon-11 labelling site of [(11)C]Cimbi-5 in different ways. Here, we present the in vivo validation of nine novel 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist PET tracers in the pig...

  11. Estimating flow using tracers and hydraulics in synthetic heterogeneous aquifers. (United States)

    Larocque, Marie; Cook, Peter G; Haaken, Klaus; Simmons, Craig T


    Regional ground water flow is most usually estimated using Darcy's law, with hydraulic conductivities estimated from pumping tests, but can also be estimated using ground water residence times derived from radioactive tracers. The two methods agree reasonably well in relatively homogeneous aquifers but it is not clear which is likely to produce more reliable estimates of ground water flow rates in heterogeneous systems. The aim of this paper is to compare bias and uncertainty of tracer and hydraulic approaches to assess ground water flow in heterogeneous aquifers. Synthetic two-dimensional aquifers with different levels of heterogeneity (correlation lengths, variances) are used to simulate ground water flow, pumping tests, and transport of radioactive tracers. Results show that bias and uncertainty of flow rates increase with the variance of the hydraulic conductivity for both methods. The bias resulting from the nonlinearity of the concentration-time relationship can be reduced by choosing a tracer with a decay rate similar to the mean ground water residence time. The bias on flow rates estimated from pumping tests is reduced when performing long duration tests. The uncertainty on ground water flow is minimized when the sampling volume is large compared to the correlation length. For tracers, the uncertainty is related to the ratio of correlation length to the distance between sampling wells. For pumping tests, it is related to the ratio of correlation length to the pumping test's radius of influence. In regional systems, it may be easier to minimize this ratio for tracers than for pumping tests. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Noble gases, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon as tracers of flow in the Dakota aquifer, Colorado and Kansas (United States)

    Clark, J.F.; Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Macfarlane, P.A.


    A suite of chemical and isotope tracers (dissolved noble gases, stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, and CI) have been analyzed along a flow path in the Dakota aquifer system to determine likely recharge sources, ground water residence times, and the extent of mixing between local and intermediate flow systems, presumably caused by large well screens. Three water types were distinguished with the tracers, each having a very different history. Two of the water types were found in south-eastern Colorado where the Dakota is poorly confined. The tracer data suggest that the first group recharged locally during the last few thousand years and the second group was composed of ground water that recharged earlier during a cooler climate, presumably during the last glacial period (LGP) and mixed aged water. The paleotemperature record archived in this groundwater system indicates that south-eastern Colorado was about 5??C cooler during the LGP than during the late Holocene. Similar temperature changes derived from dissolved noble gases in other aquifer systems have been reported earlier for the south-western United States. The third water type was located down gradient of the first two in the confined Dakota in western and central Kansas. Groundwater residence time of this water mass is on the order of 104-105 yrs and its recharge location is near the Colorado and Kansas border down gradient of the other water types. The study shows the importance of using multiple tracers when investigating ground water systems.A suite of chemical and isotope tracers (dissolved noble gases, stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, and CL) were analyzed along a flow path in the Dakota aquifer system to determine likely recharge sources, ground water residence times, and the extent of mixing between local and intermediate flow systems. Three water types were distinguished with the tracers, each having a very different history. Two of the water types were located in south-eastern Colorado

  13. Tracers and impact of open burning of rice straw residues on PM in Eastern Spain (United States)

    Viana, M.; López, J. M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; García-Gacio, D.; Blanco-Heras, G.; López-Mahía, P.; Piñeiro-Iglesias, M.; Sanz, M. J.; Sanz, F.; Chi, X.; Maenhaut, W.

    Biomass burning emissions of rice straw residues may be carried out near urban agglomerations and may present a potential health risk for the population. Thus, tracers of these emissions should be clearly identified. We present a detailed chemical characterisation, including inorganic and organic tracer species, of PM 10 aerosol at a rural site located close to the urban agglomeration of Valencia (Eastern Spain) during the rice straw burning season in 2006. Our results show that open burning of rice field residues increased daily PM 10 concentrations on a regional scale (approximately 17,400 ha) by 10-15 μg m -3 on average, with a maximum of 30 μg m -3 on peak episodic days. PM 10 levels during open burning events were especially enriched in oxalate, fluoranthene, C 31n-alkane, levoglucosan, K, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), oleic acid, Cl -, Na, NO 3-, and V. High enrichments were also obtained for Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Na, probably as a consequence of the bioaccumulation of trace metals in rice straw and the influence of sea spray and brackish waters on the crops. Anthropogenic contributions from lubricant oil residues, probably from agricultural machinery or nearby traffic emissions, were also detected in the levels of n-alkanes (C 19). The high Carbon Preference Index (CPI; >3.5) obtained for n-alkanoic acids confirmed their mostly biogenic origin. Organic tracers were more sensitive than inorganic species to the influence of indirect (regional scale or long-range transported) biomass burning emissions. Source apportionment of the PM 10 mass by means of PCA-MLRA showed that rice straw burning reached maximum contributions up to 40% of the PM 10 mass during peak episodes.

  14. Characterization of rhodamine-123 as a tracer dye for use in in vitro drug transport assays. (United States)

    Forster, Samantha; Thumser, Alfred E; Hood, Steve R; Plant, Nick


    Fluorescent tracer dyes represent an important class of sub-cellular probes and allow the examination of cellular processes in real-time with minimal impact upon these processes. Such tracer dyes are becoming increasingly used for the examination of membrane transport processes, as they are easy-to-use, cost effective probe substrates for a number of membrane protein transporters. Rhodamine 123, a member of the rhodamine family of flurone dyes, has been used to examine membrane transport by the ABCB1 gene product, MDR1. MDR1 is viewed as the archetypal drug transport protein, and is able to efflux a large number of clinically relevant drugs. In addition, ectopic activity of MDR1 has been associated with the development of multiple drug resistance phenotype, which results in a poor patient response to therapeutic intervention. It is thus important to be able to examine the potential for novel compounds to be MDR1 substrates. Given the increasing use rhodamine 123 as a tracer dye for MDR1, a full characterisation of its spectral properties in a range of in vitro assay-relevant media is warranted. Herein, we determine λmax for excitation and emission or rhodamine 123 and its metabolite rhodamine 110 in commonly used solvents and extraction buffers, demonstrating that fluorescence is highly dependent on the chemical environment: Optimal parameters are 1% (v/v) methanol in HBSS, with λex = 505 nm, λem = 525 nm. We characterise the uptake of rhodamine 123 into cells, via both passive and active processes, and demonstrate that this occurs primarily through OATP1A2-mediated facilitated transport at concentrations below 2 µM, and via micelle-mediated passive diffusion above this. Finally, we quantify the intracellular sequestration and metabolism of rhodamine 123, demonstrating that these are both cell line-dependent factors that may influence the interpretation of transport assays.

  15. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut


    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  16. Key aspects of stratospheric tracer modeling using assimilated winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bregman


    Full Text Available This study describes key aspects of global chemistry-transport models and their impact on stratospheric tracer transport. We concentrate on global models that use assimilated winds from numerical weather predictions, but the results also apply to tracer transport in general circulation models. We examined grid resolution, numerical diffusion, air parcel dispersion, the wind or mass flux update frequency, and time interpolation. The evaluation is performed with assimilated meteorology from the "operational analyses or operational data" (OD from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. We also show the effect of the mass flux update frequency using the ECMWF 40-year re-analyses (ERA40. We applied the three-dimensional chemistry-transport Tracer Model version 5 (TM5 and a trajectory model and performed several diagnoses focusing on different transport regimes. Covering different time and spatial scales, we examined (1 polar vortex dynamics during the Arctic winter, (2 the large-scale stratospheric meridional circulation, and (3 air parcel dispersion in the tropical lower stratosphere. Tracer distributions inside the Arctic polar vortex show considerably worse agreement with observations when the model grid resolution in the polar region is reduced to avoid numerical instability. The results are sensitive to the diffusivity of the advection. Nevertheless, the use of a computational cheaper but diffusive advection scheme is feasible for tracer transport when the horizontal grid resolution is equal or smaller than 1 degree. The use of time interpolated winds improves the tracer distributions, particularly in the middle and upper stratosphere. Considerable improvement is found both in the large-scale tracer distribution and in the polar regions when the update frequency of the assimilated winds is increased from 6 to 3 h. It considerably reduces the vertical dispersion of air parcels in the tropical lower stratosphere. Strong

  17. Relation of plasma flow structures to passive particle tracer orbits (United States)

    García, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Llerena, I.


    The properties of plasma flow topological structures are compared with those of passive tracer particles within a framework of the continuous random walk (CTRW) approach. Vortices may cause some of the trapping of particles, while large scale flows may carry them from vortex to vortex. The results indicate that most of the trappings that are completed during the calculation correspond to tracers trapped on broken filaments, including possible multiple trappings. The probability distribution function of the trapping times is then a function of the filament length, and has a lognormal character, like the distribution of filament lengths.

  18. Biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system. (United States)

    Picanço-Diniz, C W; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Martin, K A


    We have successfully used biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system. Retinal ganglion cells, pyramidal and stellate cortical neurons were labelled. Both pressure injections and gel implants were used successfully for retrograde labelling. Biocytin was detected using avidin conjugates and horseradish peroxidase histochemistry. Retrograde filling with biocytin proved to be more reliable and to allow better morphological resolution than other commonly used neurotracers such as horseradish peroxidase. The fine details of cell morphology observable by this method are comparable in many cases to the results obtained with intracellular tracer injections. The morphological resolution obtained with this method allows the study of brain microcircuits using extracellular deposits of biocytin.

  19. MPSalsa Version 1.5: A Finite Element Computer Program for Reacting Flow Problems: Part 1 - Theoretical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, K.D.; Hennigan, G.L.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.; Salinger, A.G.; Schmidt, R.C.; Shadid, J.N.; Smith, T.M.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa Version 1.5, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar or turbulent low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow (with auxiliary turbulence equations), heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solve coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion-reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMK3N, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element database suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec. solver library.

  20. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heredia, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Logue, Jennifer [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison between different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.

  1. An improved radiosynthesis of O-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethyl)-O-(p-nitrophenyl)methylphosphonate: A first-in-class cholinesterase PET tracer. (United States)

    Neumann, Kiel D; Thompson, Charles M; Blecha, Joseph E; Gerdes, John M; VanBrocklin, Henry F


    O-(2-Fluoroethyl)-O-(p-nitrophenyl) methylphosphonate 1 is an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that creates a phosphonyl-serine covalent adduct at the enzyme active site blocking cholinesterase activity in vivo. The corresponding radiolabeled O-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethyl)-O-(p-nitrophenyl) methylphosphonate, [(18) F]1, has been previously prepared and found to be an excellent positron emission tomography imaging tracer for assessment of cholinesterases in live brain, peripheral tissues, and blood. However, the previously reported [(18) F]1 tracer synthesis was slow even with microwave acceleration, required high-performance liquid chromatography separation of the tracer from impurities, and gave less optimal radiochemical yields. In this paper, we report a new synthetic approach to circumvent these shortcomings that is reliant on the facile reactivity of bis-(O,O-p-nitrophenyl) methylphosphonate, 2, with 2-fluoroethanol in the presence of DBU. The cold synthesis was successfully translated to provide a more robust radiosynthesis. Using this new strategy, the desired tracer, [(18) F]1, was obtained in a non-decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 8 ± 2% (n = 7) in >99% radiochemical and >95% chemical purity with a specific activity of 3174 ± 345 Ci/mmol (EOS). This new facile radiosynthesis routinely affords highly pure quantities of [(18) F]1, which will further enable tracer development of OP cholinesterase inhibitors and their evaluation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Optimization of measurement of {sup 63}Ni in reactor waste samples using {sup 65}Ni as a tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul; Martin, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Industrial Health; Griffin, H.C. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Consistent, clean, and high chemical recovery is important for {sup 63}Ni analysis of low-level radioactive waste samples from nuclear power reactors. These samples generally contain numerous radionuclides in high concentrations which can interfere with nickel measurements. Chemical recovery of approx. 90% can be achieved consistently using an optimized procedure. The use of {sup 65}Ni as a chemical tracer was incorporated into such a procedure to provide sample-specific chemical recovery, eliminating error associated with using the average recovery value of several standards. Methods were also used to correct the contaminants of {sup 55}Fe, {sup 58}Co, and {sup 60}Co should they be present in separated fractions for measurement of {sup 63}Ni activity. (author).

  3. Detecting and Reacting to Change: The Effect of Exposure to Narrow Categorizations (United States)

    Chakravarti, Amitav; Fang, Christina; Shapira, Zur


    The ability to detect a change, to accurately assess the magnitude of the change, and to react to that change in a commensurate fashion are of critical importance in many decision domains. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that systematically affect people's reactions to change. In this article we document a novel effect: Decision…

  4. Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell


    The objective of this research was to improve the fire-retardant properties of wood in one treatment using a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Phosphorus pentoxide and 16 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines were compounded in N,N-dimethylformamide and the resulting solutions containing phosphoramides were reacted with wood. The characteristics of...

  5. Reacting to Galileo: Introducing a New Approach for Gen Ed Science (United States)

    Pettersen, Michael


    Either Galileo was right, or he was wrong; either way, why was there ever any debate about it? And why should we care today about the opposing ideas, which proven wrong so long ago? In the ``Reacting to the Past'' series of curricular materials, students engage with key turning points in human intellectual history by taking sides and recreating the original debate. In this way, students personally identify with points of view that they would otherwise find wrong, boring, and incomprehensible --- and they learn how we test ideas by challenging them, and defend them by marshalling evidence, which is the core of critical thinking. Students almost universally report that the ``Reacting'' experience is tremendously engaging. I shall describe an application of the ``Reacting'' format to the case of Galileo. The scientific issues involved are comprehensible to non-science majors, the cultural context of Renaissance Italy is rich and wonderful, and Galileo's personal history is tremendously moving. The materials include labs designed to be taught by non-scientists teaching cross-disciplinary liberal arts courses. Other ``Reacting'' science materials have been published or are under development.

  6. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina


    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts in the REACT Strategy (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Ültay, Eser


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of conceptual change text (CCT) in the REACT strategy for students' conceptions of solutions. A quasi-experimental method was used in the study. The study was carried out in the spring term of the 2012-2013 academic year with 61 freshmen students (aged 18-20 years) studying in the Elementary Education…


    Perlmann, Gertrude E.; Tamm, Igor; Horsfall, Frank L.


    A mucoprotein isolated from human urine and possessing the capacity to react with a number of viruses is electrophoretically homogeneous at pH 6.8 and 8.6. After treatment with influenza virus and elimination of its biological activity, the substance remains homogeneous and its electrophoretic mobility is decreased by approximately 20 per cent. PMID:14907963

  9. Anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies react with native but not denatured myeloperoxidase. (United States)

    Falk, R J; Becker, M; Terrell, R; Jennette, J C


    We wondered whether anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) autoantibodies (MPO-ANCA) found in patients with systemic vasculitis react with a conformational epitope or epitopes on the MPO molecule. Sera from 15 human MPO-ANCA, and a polyclonal and a monoclonal anti-MPO antibodies were reacted with MPO in native and denatured states. Human MPO-ANCA and mouse monoclonal anti-MPO reacted with native MPO, and a 120-kD band representing the MPO hologenzyme, but not with denatured MPO fragments; however, MPO-ANCA and mouse anti-MPO did not demonstrate competitive inhibition of binding to MPO. Polyclonal rabbit anti-MPO reacted with both native and denatured MPO. All MPO-ANCA tested showed the same patterns of reactivity with native and denatured MPO in dot blot and Western blot analyses. Both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-MPO antibodies inhibited MPO's protein iodination by over 90%, whereas MPO-ANCA IgGs, normal IgGs and disease control IgGs did not. These data suggest that (i) MPO-ANCA interact with a conformational epitope on the MPO molecule; and (ii) MPO-ANCA from different patients have similar reactivity with native versus denatured MPO.

  10. Properties of steady solutions of a reacting non-Newtonian viscous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We revisit an Eyring-powell reacting fluid whose viscosity depends on temperature and the vertical distance, we further assume that the MHD flow satisfies the poiseuille boundary conditions. We show that the velocity field has two solutions corresponding to each solution of the temperature. In particular we show that the ...

  11. MHD flow and heat transfer of a viscous reacting fluid over a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a boundary layer flow analysis for a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting reacting fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of a magnetic field. It is shown that the Hartmann, Prandtl and the Eckert numbers have effect on the velocity and temperature fields. Journal of the Nigerian ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Objective: To develop a method to detect acrosome-reacted spermatozoa on human zonae pellucidae using only commercially available reagents and without need for sperm fixation. Design: Sperm head labeling with biotinylated soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI-biotin) was compared with results of a known

  13. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic (United States)

    Guterman, Lila


    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  14. On the Arrhenius reacting flow over a stretching sheet in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present an analysis of the boundary layer flow of a reacting fluid. We show that the problem has a solution. We present an analytical solution for the limiting case of the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter ε . Numerical Results feature preliminary when ε = O(1) . Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  15. Exploring Classroom Community: A Social Network Study of Reacting to the Past (United States)

    Webb, Jeff; Engar, Ann


    In this exploratory social network study, we examined how student relationships evolved during three month-long Reacting to the Past (RTTP) role-playing games in a lower division honors course at a large US public university. Our purpose was to explore how RTTP games--and collaborative learning approaches more generally--impact classroom community…

  16. Effectiveness of the REACT Strategy on 12th Grade Students' Understanding of the Alkenes Concept (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Yigit, Mahmut


    Background: The context-based approach (CBA) is one of the approaches that allow learning to take place with real and related context, and this has increasingly become more popular. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the REACT strategy of the CBA on remedying 12th grade students' alternative conceptions of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wahyuni


    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menerapkan model pembelajaran yang berkualitas dan dapat mengembangkan kecakapan hidup mahasiswa. Model pembelajaran yang diterapkan adalah model pembelajaran berorientasi chemo-entrepreneurship berbasis REACT. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan met ode deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai akhir kelompok eksperimen lebih baik dibanding kelas KontroL Kelas Eksperimen memberikan skor kecakapan hidup yang lebih tinggi dibanding Kelas Kontrol. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai manfaat yang lebih spesifik penerapan model pembelajaran kimia berorientasi Chemo­ entrepreneurship berstrategi REACT, misalnya dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis mahasiswa.The purpose of this study was to apply a qualified model and can develop students' life skills. Applied learning model was REACT based and chemo-entrepreneurship oriented learning model. This research is development research. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive-qualitative method. The results showed that the final value of the experimental class was better than that of the control class. The experimental class provided life skills higher score than the control class. A further research on the benefits of a more specific application of chemistry learning model oriented to chemo-entrepreneurship with REACT strategy is necessary to be conducted, for example in improving students' critical thinking skills.

  18. Non-input analysis for incomplete trapping irreversible tracer with PET. (United States)

    Ohya, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Irie, Toshiaki


    When using metabolic trapping type tracers, the tracers are not always trapped in the target tissue; i.e., some are completely trapped in the target, but others can be eliminated from the target tissue at a measurable rate. The tracers that can be eliminated are termed 'incomplete trapping irreversible tracers'. These incomplete trapping irreversible tracers may be clinically useful when the tracer β-value, the ratio of the tracer (metabolite) elimination rate to the tracer efflux rate, is under approximately 0.1. In this study, we propose a non-input analysis for incomplete trapping irreversible tracers based on the shape analysis (Shape), a non-input analysis used for irreversible tracers. A Monte Carlo simulation study based on experimental monkey data with two actual PET tracers (a complete trapping irreversible tracer [(11)C]MP4A and an incomplete trapping irreversible tracer [(18)F]FEP-4MA) was performed to examine the effects of the environmental error and the tracer elimination rate on the estimation of the k3-parameter (corresponds to metabolic rate) using Shape (original) and modified Shape (M-Shape) analysis. The simulation results were also compared with the experimental results obtained with the two PET tracers. When the tracer β-value was over 0.03, the M-Shape method was superior to the Shape method for the estimation of the k3-parameter. The simulation results were also in reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. M-Shape can be used as the non-input analysis of incomplete trapping irreversible tracers for PET study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of reacting atoms for the major biotransformation reactions of organic xenobiotics. (United States)

    Rudik, Anastasia V; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V


    The knowledge of drug metabolite structures is essential at the early stage of drug discovery to understand the potential liabilities and risks connected with biotransformation. The determination of the site of a molecule at which a particular metabolic reaction occurs could be used as a starting point for metabolite identification. The prediction of the site of metabolism does not always correspond to the particular atom that is modified by the enzyme but rather is often associated with a group of atoms. To overcome this problem, we propose to operate with the term "reacting atom", corresponding to a single atom in the substrate that is modified during the biotransformation reaction. The prediction of the reacting atom(s) in a molecule for the major classes of biotransformation reactions is necessary to generate drug metabolites. Substrates of the major human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases from the Biovia Metabolite database were divided into nine groups according to their reaction classes, which are aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, N- and O-glucuronidation, N-, S- and C-oxidation, and N- and O-dealkylation. Each training set consists of positive and negative examples of structures with one labelled atom. In the positive examples, the labelled atom is the reacting atom of a particular reaction that changed adjacency. Negative examples represent non-reacting atoms of a particular reaction. We used Labelled Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms descriptors for the designation of reacting atoms. A Bayesian-like algorithm was applied to estimate the structure-activity relationships. The average invariant accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-one-out and 20-fold cross-validation procedures for five human isoforms of cytochrome P450 and all isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase varies from 0.86 to 0.99 (0.96 on average). We report that reacting atoms may be predicted with reasonable accuracy for the major classes of metabolic reactions

  20. Radiolabelling diverse positron emission tomography (PET) tracers using a single digital microfluidic reactor chip. (United States)

    Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad Rashed; Kim, Hee-Kwon; Lei, Jack; Lazari, Mark; Shah, Gaurav J; van Dam, R Michael; Keng, Pei-Yuin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J


    Radiotracer synthesis is an ideal application for microfluidics because only nanogram quantities are needed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Thousands of radiotracers have been developed in research settings but only a few are readily available, severely limiting the biological problems that can be studied in vivo via PET. We report the development of an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidic chip that can synthesize a variety of (18)F-labeled tracers targeting a range of biological processes by confirming complete syntheses of four radiotracers: a sugar, a DNA nucleoside, a protein labelling compound, and a neurotransmitter. The chip employs concentric multifunctional electrodes that are used for heating, temperature sensing, and EWOD actuation. All of the key synthesis steps for each of the four (18)F-labeled tracers are demonstrated and characterized with the chip: concentration of fluoride ion, solvent exchange, and chemical reactions. The obtained fluorination efficiencies of 90-95% are comparable to, or greater than, those achieved by conventional approaches.

  1. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group


    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  2. Keefektifan Strategi Pembelajaran React Pada Kemampuan Siswa Kelas VII Aspek Komunikasi Matematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Arifin


    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pembelajaran dengan strategi REACT efektif ter-hadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan de-ngan metode dokumentasi, tes, dan observasi. Hasil uji proporsi menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen pada aspek kemampuan komunikasi matematis telah men-capai ketuntasan klasikal, mencapai lebih dari 80 % yaitu sebesar 96,7%. Dilihat dari nilai rata-rata tes kemampuan komunikasi matematis kelas eksperimen  adalah 83,61 sedangkan kelas kontrol adalah 73,79 dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kon-trol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif terhadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa materi segiempat kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Gembong. Kata kunci:      keefektifan, kemampuan komunikasi matematis, Relating Experiencing Applying Cooperating Transferring (REACT  AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the application of REACT learning strategy approach to mathematic communication ability of students. Methods of data collection is done by the method of documentation, testing, and observation. The test results showed that the proportion of student learning outcomes in the experimental class with the aspects of mathematic communication ability has reached the classical completeness, reached more than 80% is equal to 96.7%. Judging from the value of the average test learners' ability to mathematic communication experimental class was 83.61 while the control class is 73.79 it can be concluded that the mathematic communication skills of learners experimental classes are better than mathematic communication abilities of learners control class. The results showed that the application of REACT learning strategy approach effective to mathematic communication abilities of students of class VII

  3. Alternative PET tracers in head and neck cancer. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Halmos, Gyorgy; Langedijk, Johannes A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a standard in staging Head and Neck cancer. While F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical, glycolysis is not the only metabolic process that can be visualized. Different PET tracers can also be used to

  4. Use of dual isotope tracers in biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F

    Biomedical stable isotope studies involve administration of tracer and measurement of isotope enrichment in blood, urine, feces or breath. The aim of the studies is to gather quantitative information about a specific metabolic function. However, the measured isotope enrichment may be affected by

  5. Uptake and transport of positron-emitting tracer in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Shimazu, Masamitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others


    The transport of a positron-emitting isotope introduced into a plant was dynamically followed by a special observation apparatus called `Positron-Emitting Tracer Imaging System`. In the system, annihilation {gamma}-rays from the positron emitter are detected with two planer detectors (5 x 6 cm square). The water containing ca. 5 MBq/ml of {sup 18}F was fed to the cut stem of soybean for 2 min and then the images of tracer activity were recorded for 30 - 50 min. When the midrib of a leaf near the petiole was cut just before measurement, the activity in the injured leaf was decreased but detected even at the apex. This result suggests that the damaged leaf recovered the uptake of water through the lamina. Maximum tracer activities in leaves of unirradiated plant were observed within 10 min, whereas those of irradiated plant at 100 Gy were observed after over 25 min. The final activity of irradiated plant after 30 min was lower than that of unirradiated plant. In case of beans, there was a difference in the absorption behavior of the {sup 18}F-labeled water between unirradiated and irradiated samples. These results show that the system is effective to observe the uptake and transportation of water containing positron emitting tracer for the study of damage and recovery functions of plants. (author)

  6. Testing different tracers for stream flow monitoring with UAS (United States)

    Fortunato Dal Sasso, Silvano; Manfreda, Salvatore; Pizarro, Alonso; Mita, Leonardo


    In hydrological applications flow monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial to understand the interactions between flow dynamics and infrastructures as well as to estimate streamflow discharges during extreme events. In this context, the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) combined with particle tracking techniques provide one of the greatest potential for hydraulic monitoring allowing to measure surface 2D velocity fields based on video acquisitions. The measurement equipment consists of an action-cam installed on a low-cost quadrocopter and floating particle tracers. Particles have been distributed manually on the water surface in order to obtain an optimal spread able to cover the entire cross-section. In the present study, several experiments in laboratory and on natural streams have been carried out using different tracers in different hydraulic configurations. Thereafter, acquired videos have been processed with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) optical technique to derive free surface velocity fields. The image processing is very sensitive to the tracer characteristics, water color, river bed material, and flow velocity. The aim of the study is to describe the optimal tracer for stream flow monitoring and parameter setting for each configuration. The obtained results provide flow velocity fields with high resolution in time and space with relatively good accuracy in comparison with benchmark velocity values measured by conventional current meters and radar techniques. The tested methodology, allowing a non-intrusive monitoring of watercourses, have great potential applicability in monitoring any river system at large scale and also in difficult-to-access environments.

  7. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G. [Union Electric Company, Fulton, MO (United States); Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)


    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  9. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G


    with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...

  10. Microfluidics: A Groundbreaking Technology for PET Tracer Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wängler


    Full Text Available Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  11. Tracers for investigating pathogen fate and removal mechanisms in mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werker, Alan G. [AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosteraengsvaegen 11A, S226-47, Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Van Loon, Wendy [University of Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Legge, Raymond L. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    The purpose of the present investigation has been to develop a tracer suite that has application in in-situ assessment and optimization of physical and biological removal and elimination mechanisms of pathogens within laboratory scale biological treatment systems. The tracer suite includes three pathogen indicators, namely, a conserved non-viable particle (fluorescently labelled microspheres, FLM), a non-conserved non-viable particle (fluorescently labelled bioparticles, FLB), and a non-conserved viable particle (Nalidixic acid resistant E. coli, NAREC). The tracer triplet principles were developed with practical experiments on planted, and unplanted subsurface flow wetland mesocosms treating a synthetic domestic wastewater. The tracers monitor for physical removal mechanisms (FLM), elimination activity (FLB), and removal thresholds (NAREC). FLM enumeration was simplified by calibration of particle concentration with respect to acetone-extractable fluorescence. Similarly, FLB elimination was assessed by bulk fluorescence using two characteristic excitation-emission wavelength pairs: 494/519 and 220/319 nm. NAREC results indicated that first order removal kinetics may only proceed down to limiting threshold concentrations.

  12. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization? (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao


    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  13. A Lagrangian particle method with remeshing for tracer transport on the sphere (United States)

    Bosler, Peter A.; Kent, James; Krasny, Robert; Jablonowski, Christiane


    A Lagrangian particle method (called LPM) based on the flow map is presented for tracer transport on the sphere. The particles carry tracer values and are located at the centers and vertices of triangular Lagrangian panels. Remeshing is applied to control particle disorder and two schemes are compared, one using direct tracer interpolation and another using inverse flow map interpolation with sampling of the initial tracer density. Test cases include a moving-vortices flow and reversing-deformational flow with both zero and nonzero divergence, as well as smooth and discontinuous tracers. We examine the accuracy of the computed tracer density and tracer integral, and preservation of nonlinear correlation in a pair of tracers. We compare results obtained using LPM and the Lin-Rood finite-volume scheme. An adaptive particle/panel refinement scheme is demonstrated.

  14. Understanding Flow and Transport in Ice Wedge Polygons Using Tracers (United States)

    Wales, N. A.; Newman, B. D.; Wilson, C. J.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.


    Ice wedge polygons are among the most prevalent landforms in lowland Arctic landscapes and are associated with high concentrations of permafrost carbon. The fate of this carbon in a warming climate is dependent on the rate of ice wedge degradation and its influence on hydrology. Most regional and pan-arctic land models focus on the representation of vertical water fluxes in the form of infiltration and evapotranspiration. Our work aims to better quantify the relative roles of vertical and subsurface horizontal water fluxes in these landscapes, providing data to revise, test, and calibrate permafrost hydrology representations in these models. We examined the controls of frost table depth, microtopography, and soil type on subsurface flow and transport within both a low centered polygon (LCP) and a high centered polygon (HCP) to better understand how topographic inversion due to ice wedge degradation will impact subsurface horizontal flow. A bromide solution was applied at both polygons in July of 2015. Macrorhizon samplers placed at various depths in the polygon centers, rims, and troughs were used to monitor tracer concentrations. Water level data and frost table depth measurements were also taken throughout the experiment. Tracer movement has been relatively slow, taking most of the first field season to arrive at a subsurface sampler, also called "breakthrough". Tracer travel times from polygon centers to rims and from surface to the frost table were shorter in the LCP than in the HCP. Preferential flow paths, influenced by topography and frost table depth, were found exist between polygon centers and troughs. Preliminary data also suggests that water typically flows downward to the frost table and then laterally. Correlations between tracer arrival time and absolute thaw depth are assessed, along with the relationships between tracer breakthough curves and polygon types and features.

  15. Single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor characterization. (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Rust, Thomas C; Hoffman, John M


    Rapid multi-tracer PET aims to image two or more tracers in a single scan, simultaneously characterizing multiple aspects of physiology and function without the need for repeat imaging visits. Using dynamic imaging with staggered injections, constraints on the kinetic behavior of each tracer are applied to recover individual-tracer measures from the multi-tracer PET signal. The ability to rapidly and reliably image both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) would provide complementary measures of tumor metabolism and proliferative activity, with important applications in guiding oncologic treatment decisions and assessing response. However, this tracer combination presents one of the most challenging dual-tracer signal-separation problems--both tracers have the same radioactive half-life, and the injection delay is short relative to the half-life and tracer kinetics. This work investigates techniques for single-scan dual-tracer FLT+FDG PET tumor imaging, characterizing the performance of recovering static and dynamic imaging measures for each tracer from dual-tracer datasets. Simulation studies were performed to characterize dual-tracer signal-separation performance for imaging protocols with both injection orders and injection delays of 10-60 min. Better performance was observed when FLT was administered first, and longer delays before administration of FDG provided more robust signal-separation and recovery of the single-tracer imaging measures. An injection delay of 30 min led to good recovery (R > 0.96) of static image values (e.g. SUV), K(net), and K(1) as compared to values from separate, single-tracer time-activity curves. Recovery of higher order rate parameters (k(2), k(3)) was less robust, indicating that information regarding these parameters was harder to recover in the presence of statistical noise and dual-tracer effects. Performance of the dual-tracer FLT(0 min)+FDG(32 min) technique was further evaluated using PET/CT imaging

  16. Open ocean pelago-benthic coupling: cyanobacteria as tracers of sedimenting salp faeces (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Olaf; Lochte, Karin


    Coupling between surface water plankton and abyssal benthos was investigated during a mass development of salps ( Salpa fusiformis) in the Northeast Atlantic. Cyanobacteria numbers and composition of photosynthetic pigments were determined in faeces of captured salps from surface waters, sediment trap material, detritus from plankton hauls, surface sediments from 4500-4800 m depth and Holothurian gut contents. Cyanobacteria were found in all samples containing salp faeces and also in the guts of deep-sea Holothuria. The ratio between zeaxanthin (typical of cyanobacteria) and sum of chlorophyll a pigments was higher in samples from the deep sea when compared to fresh salp faeces, indicating that this carotenoid persisted longer in the sedimenting material than total chlorophyll a pigments. The microscopic and chemical observations allowed us to trace sedimenting salp faeces from the epipelagial to the abyssal benthos, and demonstrated their role as a fast and direct link between both systems. Cyanobacteria may provide a simple tracer for sedimenting phytodetritus.

  17. Response Analysis of Multiple Tracers for Assessment of Fate and Transport Heterogeneities in a Karstified Limestone Model (United States)

    Toro, J.; Padilla, I. Y.


    Karst terrains have high capacity to transport and store large amounts of water. These features makekarst vulnerable to potential contamination of hazardous chemical substances. The interest to delineateand predict flow and transport processes in karst groundwater systems has increased due to thetremendous challenge on detecting and removing contaminants in these systems. Characterization andquantification of flow and transport processes at field-scale is limited by low resolution ofspatiotemporal data. Studies at the laboratory scale can provide fundamental knowledge oncharacterization and quantification tools that can be applied at the field scale to enhance resolution.This work developed an intermediate karstified lab-scale physical model (IKLPM) to study fate andtransport (F&T) processes and assess viable tools to characterize heterogeneities in karst systems. Two-dimensional temporal concentration distributions (TCDs) obtained from calcium chloride, uranine, andrhodamine wt tracer experiments in the IKLPM were analyzed using method of moments and CXTFIT tocharacterize and quantify fate and transport parameters in the system at various flow rates. TCDsshowed variability associated with differences in the dominant physicochemical processes affecting theF&T of the tracers. The estimated F&T parameters for the tracers revealed high spatial variability relatedto preferential flow heterogeneities and scale dependence. Future work will integrate the experimentalresults to develop technologies for enhanced spatial characterization of transport regions in karstgroundwater systems. The development of these technologies will improve our ability to predict fateand transport of contaminants in these systems and reduce impacts to the environment and humanhealth.

  18. Numerical study of chemically reacting unsteady Casson fluid flow past a stretching surface with cross diffusion and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha K.


    Full Text Available The problem of an unsteady MHD Casson fluid flow towards a stretching surface with cross diffusion effects is considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. Further, these equations have been solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. Finally, we studied the influence of various non-dimensional governing parameters on the flow field through graphs and tables. Results indicate that Dufour and Soret numbers have tendency to enhance the fluid velocity. It is also found that Soret number enhances the heat transfer rate where as an opposite result is observed with Casson parameter. A comparison of the present results with the previous literature is also tabulated to show the accuracy of the results.

  19. Numerical study of chemically reacting unsteady Casson fluid flow past a stretching surface with cross diffusion and thermal radiation (United States)

    Pushpalatha, K.; Ramana Reddy, J. V.; Sugunamma, V.; Sandeep, N.


    The problem of an unsteady MHD Casson fluid flow towards a stretching surface with cross diffusion effects is considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations. Further, these equations have been solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. Finally, we studied the influence of various non-dimensional governing parameters on the flow field through graphs and tables. Results indicate that Dufour and Soret numbers have tendency to enhance the fluid velocity. It is also found that Soret number enhances the heat transfer rate where as an opposite result is observed with Casson parameter. A comparison of the present results with the previous literature is also tabulated to show the accuracy of the results.

  20. A Unified Multi-Dimensional Gaskinetic Hybrid BGK-DSMC Method for Nonequilibrium and Chemically Reacting Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A consistent and accurate Hybrid gaskinetic BGK and DSMC method, valid in the full Knudsen number (Kn) range, is proposed as a 3D tool to handle hypersonic...

  1. Tracers of the Extraterrestrial Component in Sediments and Inferences for Earth's Accretion History (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.


    The study of extraterrestrial matter in sediments began with the discovery of cosmic spherules during the HMS Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), but has evolved into a multidisciplinary study of the chemical, physical, and isotopic study of sediments. Extraterrestrial matter in sediments comes mainly from dust and large impactors from the asteroid belt and comets. What we know of the nature of these source materials comes from the study of stratospheric dust particles, cosmic spherules, micrometeorites, meteorites, and astronomical observations. The most common chemical tracers of extraterrestrial matter in sediments are the siderophile elements, most commonly iridium and other platinum group elements. Physical tracers include cosmic and impact spherules, Ni-rich spinels, meteorites, fossil meteorites, and ocean-impact melt debris. Three types of isotopic systems have been used to trace extraterrestrial matter. Osmium isotopes cannot distinguish chondritic from mantle sources, but provide a useful tool in modeling long-term accretion rates. Helium isotopes can be used to trace the long-term flux of the fine fraction of the interplanetary dust complex. Chromium isotopes can provide unequivocal evidence of an extraterrestrial source for sediments with high concentrations of meteoritic Cr. The terrestrial history of impacts, as recorded in sediments, is still poorly understood. Helium isotopes, multiple Ir anomalies, spherule beds, and craters all indicate a comet shower in the late Eocene. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact event appears to have been caused by a single carbonaceous chondrite projectile, most likely of asteroid origin. Little is known of the impact record in sediments from the rest of the Phanerozoic. Several impact deposits are known in the Precambrian, including several possible mega-impacts in the Early Archean.

  2. Investigation of the properties of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane networks and their extracted network fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl; Jensen, Mette Krog; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela


    We investigated the linear dynamic response of a series of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks and of the two corresponding network fractions namely the sol and the washed network. The sol and the washed network were separated by a simple extraction process. This way...... it was possible to obtain rheological data from the washed network without interference from the sol fraction, and furthermore from the sol fraction without interference from the elastic washed network. When the stoichiometry increased towards perfectly reacted networks and beyond we observed harder networks both...... qualitatively and by rheology and the properties of the two fractions became more and more different. At the gel point, the sol fraction and the washed network have more or less identical properties which our data also shows. The storage and loss moduli, G′ and G′′, were analysed with the gel equation...

  3. Demonstration of glucuronic acid on brain glycoproteins which react with HNK-1 antibody. (United States)

    Shashoua, V E; Daniel, P F; Moore, M E; Jungalwala, F B


    Ependymins, a family of extracellular glycoproteins of goldfish and mammalian brain, were shown to contain N-linked complex glycan chains. These glycoproteins reacted with a monoclonal antibody, HNK-1 which recognizes a membrane antigen on a subset of human lymphocytes, myelin-associated glycoprotein glycoprotein epitope reacting with HNK-1 antibody was previously shown to include a terminal 3-sulfoglucuronosyl residue present in certain glycolipids of the nervous tissue (Chou et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1985, 128, 383-388). In this report, the presence of glucuronic acid in ependymins was demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. We suggest that a 3-sulfoglucuronosyl residue may be the common epitope on HNK-1-reactive glycoproteins.

  4. Hydrated electrons react with high specificity with cisplatin bound to single-stranded DNA. (United States)

    Behmand, B; Cloutier, P; Girouard, S; Wagner, J R; Sanche, L; Hunting, D J


    Short oligonucleotides TTTTTGTGTTT and TTTTTTTGTTT in solution with and without cisplatin (cisPt) bound to the guanine bases were irradiated with γ-rays at doses varying from 0 to 2500 Gy. To determine the effect of hydrated electrons from water radiolysis on the oligonucleotides, we quenched (•)OH radicals with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and displaced oxygen, which reacts with hydrated electrons, by bubbling the solution with wet nitrogen. DNA strand breaks and platinum detachment were quantified by gel electrophoresis. Our results demonstrate that hydrated electrons react almost exclusively at the position of the cisPt adduct, where they induce cisPt detachment from one or both guanines in the oligonucleotide. Given the high yield of hydrated electrons in irradiated tissues, this reaction may be an important step in the mechanism of radiosensitization of DNA by cisPt.

  5. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force ...



    Delsika Pramata Sari; Darhim Darhim; Rizky Rosjanuardi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability c...

  7. Pengaruh Strategi React Terhadap Hasil Belajar Matematika Ditinjau Dari Aktivitas Belajar Siswa Kelas V SD


    I KOMANG AGUNG DIANSIH FORTUNA; Prof. Dr. Nyoman Dantes; Prof. Drs. Sariyasa,M.Sc., Ph.D


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh strategi REACT terhadap hasil belajar matematika ditinjau dari aktivitas belajar pada siswa kelas V. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V SD Gugus 3 Kecamatan Marga yang berjumlah 153 orang. Sampel penelitian ini berjumlah 60 orang dari 4 sekolah yang dipilih dengan teknik random sampling denga 2 kelas eksperimen dan 2 kelas kontrol. Desain penelitian ini adalah desain dua faktor (two factor design) dengan instrumen tes hasil belajar ...

  8. Exploring Classroom Community: A Social Network Study of Reacting to the Past


    Jeff Webb; Ann Engar


    In this exploratory social network study, we examined how student relationships evolved during three month-long Reacting to the Past (RTTP) role-playing games in a lower division honors course at a large US public university. Our purpose was to explore how RTTP games—and collaborative learning approaches more generally—impact classroom community in college courses. We found that both acquaintance and friendship ties between students increased dramatically during the game, eliminating student ...

  9. Effects on performance and usability for cross-platform application development using React Native


    Hansson, Niclas; Vidhall, Tomas


    A big problem with mobile application development is that the mobile market is divided amongst several platforms. Because of this, development time gets longer, more development skills are needed and the application gets harder to maintain. A solution to this is cross-platform development, which allows you to develop an application for several platforms at the same time. Since September 2015 the cross-platform framework React Native, created by Facebook, has been available for public use. Thi...

  10. Cross-platform development of smartphone applications : An evaluation of React Native


    Furuskog, Martin; Wemyss, Stuart


    During the last ten years the market for smartphones has grown drastically. Because of the current state of the market with different operating systems many smartphone applications need to be developed for several platforms. With this thesis, the goal was ultimately to contribute to the understanding of cross-platform development as a way of developing smartphone applications. React Native has been evaluated as a framework with which development is done for both Android and iOS using the same...

  11. Allylmagnesium Halides Do Not React Chemoselectively Because Reaction Rates Approach the Diffusion Limit. (United States)

    Read, Jacquelyne A; Woerpel, K A


    Competition experiments demonstrate that additions of allylmagnesium halides to carbonyl compounds, unlike additions of other organomagnesium reagents, occur at rates approaching the diffusion rate limit. Whereas alkylmagnesium and alkyllithium reagents could differentiate between electronically or sterically different carbonyl compounds, allylmagnesium reagents reacted with most carbonyl compounds at similar rates. Even additions to esters occurred at rates competitive with additions to aldehydes. Only in the case of particularly sterically hindered substrates, such as those bearing tertiary alkyl groups, were additions slower.

  12. A framework for the design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Shaw, Andrew; Hodges, George


    A generic modelling framework for phase transition catalyst based reacting systems has been developed and converted into a software tool. The modelling framework accommodates models of different types representing different sub-systems of the PTCbased reactive system; databases of model parameters...... and carefully collected and checked (for thermodynamic consistency) experimentally measured data. The models, data and software have been tested on various PTC-based reactive systems. Illustrative examples are provided....

  13. A framework for the design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Shaw, Andrew; Hodges, George

    A generic modelling framework for phase transition catalyst based reacting systems has been developed and converted into a software tool. The modelling framework accommodates models of different types representing different sub-systems of the PTCbased reactive system; databases of model parameters...... and carefully collected and checked (for thermodynamic consistency) experimentally measured data. The models, data and software have been tested on various PTC-based reactive systems. Illustrative examples are provided....

  14. (U) Design Considerations for Obtaining Deep Release in Reacted Epon 828

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Langdon Stanford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Our document summarizes results from one-dimensional calculations performed to investigate the release behavior of reacted Epon 828. Two design goals were set, (1) the product phase had to be achieved upon the initial shock loading, and (2) a deep release state could be achieved. Both transmission and front surface impact geometry were investigated. Moreover, the two design criteria were met with the front surface impact design employing a modi ed projectile.

  15. Enhancement effect of pre-reacted glass on strength of glass-ionomer cement. (United States)

    Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Soodsawang, Wiwaporn; Tanodekaew, Siriporn


    In this paper, we report on the enhanced strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) by using the process of pre acid-base reaction and spray drying in glass preparation. The pre acid-base reaction was induced by prior mixing of the glass powder with poly(alkenoic acid). The weight ratios of glass powder to poly(alkenoic acid) were varied to investigate the extent of the pre acid-base reaction of the glass. The effect of the spray drying process which produced spherical glass particles on cement strength was also studied and discussed. The results show that adding 2%-wt of poly(alkenoic acid) liquid in the pre-reacted step improved cement strength. GICs prepared using a mixture of pre-reacted glass with both spherical and irregular powders at 60:40 by weight exhibited the highest compressive strength at 138.64±7.73 MPa. It was concluded that glass ionomer cements containing pre-reacted glass with mixed glass morphology using both spherical and irregular forms are promising as restorative dental materials with improved mechanical properties and handling characteristics.

  16. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms. (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng


    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  17. Characterization of Aeromonas trota strains that cross-react with Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal. (United States)

    Albert, M J; Ansaruzzaman, M; Shimada, T; Rahman, A; Bhuiyan, N A; Nahar, S; Qadri, F; Islam, M S


    It has previously been shown that Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal shares antigens with V. cholerae serogroups O22 and O155. We detected six surface water isolates of Aeromonas trota that agglutinated in polyclonal antisera to V. cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O22 but not in antiserum to V. cholerae O155. On the basis of agglutinin-absorption studies, the antigenic relationship between the cross-reacting bacteria were found to be in an a,b-a,c fashion, where a is the common antigenic epitope and b and c are unique epitopes. The antigen sharing between A. trota strains and V. cholerae O139 was confirmed in immunoblot studies. However, A. trota strains did not react with two monoclonal antibodies specific for V. cholerae O139 and, consequently, tested negative in the Bengal SMART rapid diagnostic test for V. cholerae O139 which uses one of the monoclonal antibodies. A polyclonal antiserum to a cross-reacting A. trota strain cross-protected infant mice against cholera on challenge with virulent V. cholerae O139. All A. trota strains were cytotoxic for HeLa cells, positive for adherence to HEp-2 cells, and weakly invasive for HEp-2 cells; one strain was heat-stable toxin positive in the suckling mouse assay; however, all strains were negative for cholera toxin-like enterotoxin. Studies on bacteria that share somatic antigen with V. cholerae O139 may shed further light on the genesis of V. cholerae O139.

  18. Changes in the Chemistry of Groundwater Reacted with CO2: Comparison of Laboratory Results with the ZERT Field Pilot (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Abedini, Atosa A.; Beers, Sarah; Thomas, Burt


    As part of the ZERT program, sediments from two wells at the ZERT site, located in Bozeman, Montana, USA were reacted with a solution having the composition of local groundwater. A total of 50 water samples were collected from 7 containers placed for 15 days in a glove box with one atmosphere of CO2 to investigate detailed changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic compounds, and to compare these with changes observed in groundwater at the ZERT site following CO2 injection. Laboratory results included rapid changes in pH (8.6 to 5.7), alkalinity (243 to 1295 mg/L as HCO3), electrical conductance (539 to 1822 μS/cm), Ca (28 to 297 mg/L), Mg (18 to 63 mg/L), Fe (5 to 43 μg/L) and Mn (2 to 837 μg/L) following CO2 injection. These chemical changes, which are in general agreement with those obtained from sampling the ZERT monitoring wells, could provide early detection of CO2 leakage into shallow groundwater. Dissolution of calcite, some dolomite and minor Mn-oxides, and desorption/ion exchange are likely the main geochemical processes responsible for the observed changes.

  19. Cob(I)alamin reacts with sucralose to afford an alkylcobalamin: relevance to in vivo cobalamin and sucralose interaction. (United States)

    Motwani, Hitesh V; Qiu, Shiran; Golding, Bernard T; Kylin, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta


    Vitamin B(12), viz., cyano- or hydroxo-cobalamin, can be chemically or enzymatically converted into the derivatives methyl- and adenosyl-cobalamin, which are complex organometallic cofactors associated with several cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The reduced form of vitamin B(12), cob(I)alamin {Cbl(I)}, obtained by reduction of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) with e.g. sodium borohydride, is one of the most powerful nucleophiles known. Cbl(I) was shown to react readily with the synthetic sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) in an aqueous system to form an alkylcobalamin (Suc-Cbl). This occurred by replacement of one of the three chlorine atoms of sucralose with a cobalamin moiety. The efficiency of trapping sucralose in presence of excess Cbl(I) was estimated to be >90%. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using human liver S9 with NADPH regeneration, in presence of OH-Cbl and sucralose, Suc-Cbl was shown to be formed. The Suc-Cbl was characterized primarily by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS. Given the human consumption of sucralose from food and beverages, such a reaction between the sweetener and reduced vitamin B(12) could occur in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel 1D approach for the simulation of unsteady reacting flows in diesel exhaust after-treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscaglia, F.; Ferrari, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)


    A new one-dimensional approach, based on the solution of the governing equations for unsteady, reacting and compressible flows has been developed for the simulation of the hydrodynamics, the transient filtration/loading and the catalytic/NO{sub 2}-assisted regeneration occurring in diesel particulate filters (DPF). The model is able to keep track of the chemical compounds, of the amount of soot transported by the flow, and it can estimate the increasing of back-pressure occurring in the exhaust system, due to the permeability variation of the porous wall and to the soot cake building up on the DPF porous surface. Further, a prediction of the oxidation of the deposited particulate induced by the Oxygen (collected in the exhaust gas), by the nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), by the carbon oxide (CO) and by the hydrocarbons (HC) converted along the diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) is given. A first validation of the code has been performed by the comparison with the results coming from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and with experimental measurements published in literature. The proposed model has been included in an engine simulation code, in order to perform a simulation of a complete engine; results coming from an optimization work recently carried out on a 1.9 L JTD turbocharged diesel engine, equipped with a complex after-treatment system, are presented. (author)

  1. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): The Dimensionality of Student Perceptions of the Instructional Environment (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Demers, Joseph A.; Christ, Theodore J.


    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale…

  2. A monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution for research on plant physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzui, N.; Kawachi, N.; Ishioka, N.; Fujimaki, S. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    The mechanism of nutrient uptake in plants has received considerable attention in the field of plant science. Here we describe the development of a new monitoring system of radioactive tracers in hydroponic solution, which enables the noninvasive measurement of radioactive tracer uptake by an intact plant. In addition, we incorporated a weighing instrument into this system in order to simultaneously monitor water uptake by the same plant. For an evaluation of this monitoring system, we conducted a tracer experiment with a rice plant and a positron-emitting radioactive tracer, and successfully obtained continuous data for the amounts of radioactive tracer and water taken up by the intact plant over 36 h. (authors)

  3. Accurate assessment of exposure using tracer gas measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, Wojciech; Bivolarova, Mariya; Zavrl, Eva


    Room airflow interaction, particularly in the breathing zone, is important to assess exposure to indoor air pollution. A breathing thermal manikin was used to simulate a room occupant with the convective boundary layer (CBL) generated around the body and the respiratory flow. Local airflow against...... the face of the manikin was applied to increase the complexity of the airflow interaction. CO2 was released at the armpits and N2O at the groin to simulate the respective bio-effluents generated at these two body sites. The tracer gas concentration at the mouth/nose of the manikin was measured with gas...... with a decrease in the response time of the gas analyzer. When only CBL was present, shorter measurement time was needed for the accurate concentration measurement of the tracer gas released close to the breathing zone. For more complex flow, as a result of CBL interaction with the exhalation flow, the needed...

  4. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  5. Pyrolyzable Nanoparticle Tracers for Environmental Interrogation and Monitoring. (United States)

    Cox, Jason R; Alsenani, Mohammed; Miller, Scott E; Roush, James A; Shi, Rena; Ow, Hooisweng; Chang, Sehoon; Kmetz, Anthony A; Eichmann, Shannon L; Poitzsch, Martin E


    Environmental tracing applications require materials that can be detected in complex fluids composed of multiple phases and contaminants. Moreover, large libraries of tracers are necessary in order to mitigate memory effects and to deploy multiple tracers simultaneously in complex oil fields. Herein, we disclose a novel approach based on the thermal decomposition of polymeric nanoparticles comprised of styrenic and methacrylic monomers. Polymeric nanoparticles derived from these monomers cleanly decompose into their constituent monomers at elevated temperatures, thereby maximizing atom economy wherein the entire nanoparticle mass contributes to the generation of detectable units. A total of ten unique single monomer particles and three dual-monomer particles were synthesized using semicontinuous monomer starved addition polymerization. The pyrolysis gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) behavior of these particles was studied using high-pressure mass spectrometry. The programmable nature of our methodology permits simultaneous removal of contaminants and subsequent identification and quantification in a single analytical step.

  6. Assessing the elements mobility through the regolith and their potential as tracers for hydrological processes (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter


    Regoliths encompass different materials from the fresh bedrock to the top of the organic horizons. The regolith is a major component of the critical zone where fluxes of water, energy, solutes and matter occur. Therefore, its bio-physico-chemical properties drastically impact the water that percolates and/or stores in its different parts (organic and mineral soil horizons, and weathered and fractured bedrock). In order to better understand the critical zone functioning, we propose to assess the interaction between chemical elements from the regolith matrix and water during drainage infiltration. For this, we focus firstly on the potential mobility of different groups of major and trace elements according to a leaching experiment made on 10 different layers of a 7.5 m depth slate regolith, which covers a large part of the Rhenish Massif. Secondly, we carried out Sr-Nd-Pb-U-Th isotope analyses for 5 of these samples in both the untreated and leached samples. Given the specific chemical and mineralogical composition of each sampled material, our approach enables to trace the origin of major and trace elements and eventually assess their mobility. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith, which could improve the selection of tracers for the study of hydrological processes.

  7. Myocardial uptake of a bone tracer associated with hypercalcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H.L.; Oster, Z.H.


    A patient with end-stage renal disease and hypercalcemia was referred for a radionuclide bone imaging study. Deposition of Tc-99m hydroxymethylenediphosphonate was apparent in the lungs and myocardium as well as in the skeleton. Renal uptake was also noted, despite anuria. Computed tomography demonstrated nephrocalcinosis but no myocardial calcification. The cause of myocardial uptake of tracer is unknown. Amyloidosis is suggested as a possibility but is not validated in this case.

  8. Implementation of a Hardware Ray Tracer for digital design education


    Eggen, Jonas Agentoft


    Digital design is a large and complex field of electronic engineering, and learning digital design requires maturing over time. The learning process can be facilitated by making use of a single learning platform throughout a whole course. A learning platform built around a hardware ray tracer can be used in illustrating many important aspects of digital design. A unified learning platform allows students to delve into intricate details of digital design while still seeing the bigger pictur...

  9. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  10. In-Situ Characterization of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary A. Pope; Daene C. McKinney; Akhil Datta Gupta; Richard E. Jackson; Minquan Jin


    Majors advances have been made during the past three years in our research on interwell partitioning tracers tests (PITTs). These advances include (1) progress on the inverse problem of how to estimate the three-dimensional distribution of NAPL in aquifers from the tracer data, (2) the first ever partitioning tracer experiments in dual porosity media, (3) the first modeling of partitioning tracers in dual porosity media (4) experiments with complex NAPLs such as coal tar, (5) the development of an accurate and simple method to predict partition coefficients using the equivalent alkane carbon number approach, (6) partitioning tracer experiments in large model aquifers with permeability layers, (7) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data to estimate the change in composition of a NAPL before and after remediation (8) the first ever analysis of partitioning tracer data after a field demonstration of surfactant foam to remediate NAPL and (9) experiments at elevated temperatures .

  11. Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; X.S. Chai


    This method describes a procedure to determine hexeneuronic acid groups (HexA) in chemical pulps. HexA affects the kappa number determination by reaction with permanganate, and can react with certain bleaching chemicals, e.g. chlorine dioxide and ozone, but not with some others such as oxygen and peroxide. The method is based on the highly selective hydrolysis of HexA...

  12. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    Staged combustion is one design approach in a gas turbine engine to reduce pollutant emission levels. In axially staged combustion, portions of the air and fuel are injected downstream of a lean premixed low NOx primary combustion zone. The gas residence time at elevated temperatures is decreased resulting in lower thermal NOx, and the reduced oxygen and high temperature vitiated primary zone flow further help to reduce pollutant emissions and quickly complete combustion. One implementation of axially staged combustion is transverse fuel jet injection. An important consideration for staged combustion systems, though, is how the primary and secondary combustion zones can couple through the acoustic resonances of the chamber. These couplings can lead to additional source terms that pump energy into the resonant acoustic field and help sustain the high-amplitude combustor pressure oscillations. An understanding of these couplings is important so that it may be possible to design a secondary combustion system that provides inherent damping to the combustor system. To systematically characterize the coupling of a reacting jet in unsteady crossflow in detail, the effects of an an unsteady pressure flowfield and an unsteady velocity flowfield are separately investigated. An optically accessible resonant combustion chamber was designed and built as part of this work to generate a standing wave unsteady vitiated crossflow at a chamber pressure of 0.9 MPa. The location of transverse jet injection corresponds to one of two locations, where one location is the pressure node and the other location the pressure anti-node of the resonant chamber acoustic mode. The injection location is optically accessible, and the dynamic interactions between the transverse jet flow and the 1st and 2nd axial combustor modes are measured using 10 kHz OH-PLIF and 2D PIV. This document analyzes five test cases: two non-reacting jets and three reacting jets. All cases correspond to jet injection

  13. Radon as tracer to identify discharge sections at Juatuba basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna Magalhaes; Fonseca, Raquel Luisa Mageste; Rocha, Zildete; Moreira, Rubens Martins; Lemos, Nayron Cosme; Menezes, Angela de Barros Correia, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita Oliveira, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares


    The use of natural tracers in hydrological studies is a very useful tool, being applied in several studies. One of these tracers is the radon, {sup 222}Rn, noble gas derived from natural sources, been found in all underground waters, as a product of radioactive decay of the {sup 226}Ra. This gas can be found in the air, water, rocks or soil. In this paper, the {sup 222}Rn detection in surface water was used as tracer in order to identify aquifer discharge sections in surface water at the Fundao stream, which belongs to the Juatuba river basin, through the second semester of 2014 and the first semester of 2015, in three sampling campaigns. The {sup 222}Rn measurements at Fundao stream were carried out using the equipment RAD 7. The results showed that {sup 222}Rn is present in some sections of the water course suggesting that there is a connection between groundwater and surface water. It also justifies the variation in the water level in the stream, recorded by a fluviometric station. (author)

  14. Tensor anisotropy as a tracer of cosmic voids (United States)

    Bustamante, Sebastian; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.


    We present a new method to find voids in cosmological simulations based on the tidal and the velocity shear tensors definitions of the cosmic web. We use the fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from the eigenvalues of each web scheme as a void tracer. We identify voids using a watershed transform based on the local minima of the FA field without making any assumption on the shape or structure of the voids. We test the method on the Bolshoi simulation and report on the abundance and radial averaged profiles for the density, velocity and FA. We find that voids in the velocity shear web are smaller than voids in the tidal web, with a particular overabundance of very small voids in the inner region of filaments/sheets. We classify voids as subcompensated/overcompensated depending on the absence/presence of an overdense matter ridge in their density profile, finding that close to 65 and 35 per cent of the total population are classified into each category, respectively. Finally, we find evidence for the existence of universal profiles from the radially averaged profiles for density, velocity and FA. This requires that the radial coordinate is normalized to the effective radius of each void. Put together, all these results show that the FA is a reliable tracer for voids, which can be used in complementarity to other existing methods and tracers.

  15. FormTracer. A mathematica tracing package using FORM (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Strodthoff, Nils


    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided. Program Files doi: Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Mathematica and FORM Nature of problem: Efficiently compute traces of large expressions Solution method: The expression to be traced is decomposed into its subspaces by a recursive Mathematica expansion algorithm. The result is subsequently translated to a FORM script that takes the traces. After FORM is executed, the final result is either imported into Mathematica or exported as optimized C/C++/Fortran code. Unusual features: The outstanding features of FormTracer are the simple interface, the capability to efficiently handle an arbitrary number of Lie groups in addition to Dirac and Lorentz tensors, and a customizable input-syntax.

  16. Studies of Tracer Dispersion and Fluid Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, T.


    This doctoral thesis explores the connection between the topology of a porous medium and its macroscopic transport properties and is based on computerized simulation. In porous media, both diffusion and convection contribute to the dispersion of a tracer and their combined effect is emphasized. The governing equations are solved numerically, using finite differences and Monte Carlo technique. The influence of finite Reynolds number on the outcome of echo-experiments is discussed. Comparing experiments and simulations it is found that nonlinear inertial forces lead to a visible deformation of a returned tracer at surprisingly small Reynolds numbers. In a study of tracer dispersion and fluid flow in periodic arrays of discs it is demonstrated that the mechanisms of mechanical dispersion in periodic media and in natural (non-periodic) porous media are essentially different. Measurements of the percolation probability distribution of a sandstone sample is presented. Local porosity theory predicts that this simple geometric function of a porous medium is of dominant importance for its macroscopic transport properties. It is demonstrated that many aspects of transport through fractures can be studied by using simple but realistic models and readily available computer resources. An example may be the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from the source rock to a reservoir. 165 refs., 44 figs., 1 table

  17. Influence of residual surfactants on DNAPL characterization using partitioning tracers (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Rao, P. Suresh C.


    The partitioning tracer technique is among the DNAPL source-zone characterization methods being evaluated, while surfactant in-situ flushing is receiving attention as an innovative technology for enhanced source-zone cleanup. Here, we examine in batch and column experiments the magnitude of artifacts introduced in estimating DNAPL content when residual surfactants are present. The batch equilibrium tests, using residual surfactants ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%, showed that as the surfactant concentrations increased, the tracer partition coefficients decreased linearly for sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (DowFax 8390), increased linearly for polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether (Brij 97), and decreased slightly or exhibited no observable trend for sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate (AMA 80). Results from column tests using clean sand with residual DowFax 8390 and Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were consistent with those of batch tests. In the presence of DowFax 8390 (less than 0.5 wt.%), the PCE saturations were underestimated by up to 20%. Adsorbed surfactants on a loamy sand with positively charged oxides showed false indications of PCE saturation based on partitioning tracers in the absence of PCE. Using no surfactant (background soil) gave a false PCE saturation of 0.0004, while soil contacted by AMA 80, Brij 97, and DowFax 8390 gave false PCE saturations of 0.0024, 0.043, and 0.23, respectively.

  18. A galaxy-halo model for multiple cosmological tracers (United States)

    Bull, Philip


    The information extracted from large galaxy surveys with the likes of DES, DESI, Euclid, LSST, SKA, and WFIRST will be greatly enhanced if the resultant galaxy catalogues can be cross-correlated with one another. Predicting the nature of the information gain, and developing the tools to realize it, depends on establishing a consistent model of how the galaxies detected by each survey trace the same underlying matter distribution. Existing analytic methods, such as halo occupation distribution modelling, are not well suited for this task, and can suffer from ambiguities and tuning issues when applied to multiple tracers. In this paper, we take the first step towards constructing an alternative that provides a common model for the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes across a wide range of wavelengths (and thus tracer populations). This is based on a chain of parametrized statistical distributions that model the connection between (I) halo mass and bulk physical properties of galaxies, such as star formation rate; and (II) those same physical properties and a variety of emission processes. The result is a flexible parametric model that allows analytic halo model calculations of one-point functions to be carried out for multiple tracers, as well as providing semi realistic galaxy properties for fast mock catalogue generation.

  19. Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas. (United States)

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A


    A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael


    in the October respectively February measurement. The CH4 emission from the compost area was 0.5 kg CH4 h-1, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and nitrous oxide (N2O) was quantified to be in the order of 332 kg CO2 h-1 and 0.06 kg N2O h-1 respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material......A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...... sources; a composting facility and a sewage sludge storage unit by scaling the tracer method down. Two field campaigns were performed; during October 11-12, 2006 and February 19-20, 2007. At both field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH4 emission from the old landfill section...

  1. Measuring Lipid Membrane Viscosity Using Rotational and Translational Tracer Diffusion (United States)

    Hormel, Tristan; Kurihara, Sarah; Reyer, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer


    The two-dimensional fluidity of lipid membranes enables the motion of membrane-bound macromolecules and is therefore crucial to biological function. However, current methods of measuring membrane viscosity rely on particular membrane lipid compositions or geometries, making the comparison of different measurements difficult. We address this with a new technique for measuring lipid membrane viscosity, in which determination of both the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of tracer particles enables quantification of viscosity as well as the effective size of the tracers. This technique is general, and can be applied to different model membrane systems to determine the effects of membrane composition and protein modulation. We present measurements of lipid membrane viscosity for two different lipids with phosphatidylcholine headgroups, finding a surprisingly wide distribution of effective tracer sizes, due presumably to a large variety of couplings to the membrane. We also compare the effective viscosity of two different structures - black lipid membranes and membrane multilayers - as well as changes in viscosity induced by peripheral protein binding.

  2. Evaluation of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers from aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.


    Products of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, dicarboxylic acids, nitromonoaromatics, and furandiones - were evaluated for their potential to serve as anthropogenic SOA tracers with respect to their (1) ambient concentrations and detectability in PM2.5 in Iowa City, IA, USA; (2) gas-particle partitioning behaviour; and (3) source specificity by way of correlations with primary and secondary source tracers and literature review. A widely used tracer for toluene-derived SOA, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid was only detected in the particle phase (Fp = 1) at low but consistently measurable ambient concentrations (averaging 0.3 ng m-3). Four aromatic dicarboxylic acids were detected at relatively higher concentrations (9.1-34.5 ng m-3), of which phthalic acid was the most abundant. Phthalic acid had a low particle-phase fraction (Fp = 0.26) likely due to quantitation interferences from phthalic anhydride, while 4-methylphthalic acid was predominantly in the particle phase (Fp = 0.82). Phthalic acid and 4-methylphthalic acid were both highly correlated with 2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid (rs = 0.73, p = 0.003; rs = 0.80, p phthalic acid, 4-methylphthalic acid, and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzyl alcohol are good candidates for tracing SOA from aromatic VOCs.

  3. Interpretation of Water Tracer Simulation in the H-1 Segment of the Gullfaks Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moid, Farrukh


    This thesis describes the water tracer simulation in the H-1 segment of the Gullfaks field. Three passive water tracer slugs were injected from the two producing wells during water flooding, pressure maintenance and reservoir monitoring program in the Gullfaks field. The same program is considered in this thesis. Computer Modelling Group's (CMG) simulator STARS is used for the general reservoir simulation and a separate module for tracer flow (ITRC-SIM) which is incorporated in the STARS and developed at Institute For Energy (IFE) is used for the tracer simulation. Water cut and tracer concentration data are used in history matching of the field. History matching is performed by changing the transmissibility and permeability of different layers; also the effect of changing saturations near the well bore on history matching is examined. It is noted that water cut is sensitive to transmissibility of the layers and the saturation around the well bore. Tracers are found to be moving in the most permeable layers. The corresponding history matching of water and tracer production shows a severe loss of first tracer injected because of imbibition process. Water phase velocity and areal communication between different wells are determined. Advance numerical features of tracer module ITRC-SIM such as flux limiting scheme and grid refinement scheme are evaluated and are found to be an important tool for reducing the numerical smearing. The effects of dispersion and diffusion on tracer response curve are also evaluated. Dispersion makes the tracer concentration curve smeared. Simulation results of water cut and tracer concentration show a good history match for this reservoir. The improved simulation model and the tracer module for this reservoir can be used for the prediction of future performance of the reservoir and interpretation of the tracer behaviour in the reservoir. (author)

  4. Multiple chemical sensitivity, en veldefineret lidelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Silberschmidt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Bo


    Some peope react to smells or chemicals at levels far below toxicological thresholds with nonspecific symptoms, fear and social isolation. They may be diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivity. There is no empirical evidence indicating that this condition is explained by toxicological mechanisms......, even though a number of theories have been proposed. The authors of this review conclude that this is a functional condition. These patients need information and treatment in accordance with this fact. Instead of being advised how to avoid exposure to chemicals, they should be properly trained...... in appropriate confrontation with the chemicals encountered in everyday life....

  5. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test (United States)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir


    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  6. Structure and dynamics of the wake of a reacting jet injected into a swirling, vitiated crossflow in a staged combustion system (United States)

    Panda, Pratikash P.; Roa, Mario; Szedlacsek, Peter; Laster, Walter R.; Lucht, Robert P.


    Secondary injection of the fuel, also referred to as staged combustion, is being studied by gas turbine manufacturers as a means of increasing the power output of the gas turbine systems with minimal contribution to NO x emission. A reacting jet issuing into a swirling, vitiated crossflow operating at gas turbine relevant conditions was investigated as a means of secondary injection. In this study, the flow field of the reacting jet was investigated using high repetition rate (HRR) (5 kHz), two-component particle imaging velocimetry and OH-PLIF. In applications similar to the one currently studied in this work, viz. secondary injection of fuel in a gas turbine combustor, rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of jet injection are desirable. Based on our analysis, it is hypothesized that the shear layer and wake field vortices play a significant role in stabilizing a steady reaction front within the near wake region of the jet. Premixed jets composed of natural gas and air were injected through an extended nozzle into the vitiated flow downstream of a low-swirl burner that produced the vitiated, swirled flow. The jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio was varied to study the corresponding effect on the flow field. The time-averaged flow field shows a steady wake vortex very similar to that seen in the wake of a cylindrical bluff body which helps to stabilize the reaction zone within the wake of the jet. The HRR data acquisition also provided temporally resolved information on the transient structure of the wake flow associated with the reacting jet in crossflow.

  7. Evaluation of the hydrological flow paths in a gravel bed filter modeling a horizontal subsurface flow wetland by using a multi-tracer experiment. (United States)

    Birkigt, Jan; Stumpp, Christine; Małoszewski, Piotr; Nijenhuis, Ivonne


    In recent years, constructed wetland systems have become into focus as means of cost-efficient organic contaminant management. Wetland systems provide a highly reactive environment in which several removal pathways of organic chemicals may be present at the same time; however, specific elimination processes and hydraulic conditions are usually separately investigated and thus not fully understood. The flow system in a three dimensional pilot-scale horizontal subsurface constructed wetland was investigated applying a multi-tracer test combined with a mathematical model to evaluate the flow and transport processes. The results indicate the existence of a multiple flow system with two distinct flow paths through the gravel bed and a preferential flow at the bottom transporting 68% of tracer mass resulting from the inflow design of the model wetland system. There the removal of main contaminant chlorobenzene was up to 52% based on different calculation approaches. Determined retention times in the range of 22d to 32.5d the wetland has a heterogeneous flow pattern. Differences between simulated and measured tracer concentrations in the upper sediment indicate diffusion dominated processes due to stagnant water zones. The tracer study combining experimental evaluation with mathematical modeling demonstrated the complexity of flow and transport processes in the constructed wetlands which need to be taken into account during interpretation of the determining attenuation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komendant-Brodowska Agata


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the relationship between group characteristics and the scope of reaction of the group to socially undesirable behaviour. Sometimes small groups or communities fail to react to undesirable or violent behaviour and their apathy can have devastating consequences. Such a situation can occur among co-workers witnessing workplace mobbing, or neighbours who do not react to a suspicion of domestic violence. Reasons for their inaction are diverse and can include fear, doubts concerning the necessity of such a reaction, and also conformity. In the paper I examine a seemingly favourable situation: I assume that reaction is costless and all the members of the group would like to react (internalised norm, but they also want to conform. In order to analyse the factors that can influence the scope of group reaction, a structurally embedded sequential coordination game was played for different initial conditions. Computer simulations were conducted for networks of a specific type (Erd¨os-R´enyi random graph. The main aim of the analysis was to identify non-structural and structural features of the group that can impede or even block the intervention of the group. There is a positive relationship between the scope of group reaction and the strength of the internalized norm, whereas the level of conformity affects the chances of group intervention in a negative way. Heterogeneity of the group is an important factor - the scope of reaction is higher when members of the group have different levels of norm internalisation and conformity. There is a non-linear relationship between network density and the scope of reaction. Both low and high density can make it harder for people to act.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Ismawati


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of inquiry learning model with REACT strategy on learning outcomes and to determine the contribution to the learning outcomes. The expected benefits are improvements in learning chemistry subjects in class XI of high school through constructivism learning activities. The population in this study were students of class XI of high school in Semarang. The analysis showed the early stages of the population have the same degree of homogeneity and normal distribution. Average learning outcomes after experimental class treated were better than the control class, which amounted to 75.52 and 67.14. Test the difference between two average results obtained t from calculation (4.85> t from table (1.66, so we can conclude the experimental class learning results are better than the control class. Correlation test resulted biserial correlation coefficient (rb of 0.58 and t from calculation (5.68> t from table (1.99, so the influence was significant. Effect of application of inquiry learning model with REACT strategy shown by the coefficient of determination of 33.64%.The cognitive learning outcomes of experimental class had reached mastery learning classical while control class not yet. The average value of affective and psychomotor experimental classes are better than the control class. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the inquiry learning with REACT strategy have positive effect on learning outcomes chemistry in student class XI of high school in Semarang.



    Riva lsmawati; Saptorini Saptorini; Nanik Wijayati


    This study aimed to determine the effect of inquiry learning model with REACT strategy on learning outcomes and to determine the contribution to the learning outcomes. The expected benefits are improvements in learning chemistry subjects in class XI of high school through constructivism learning activities. The population in this study were students of class XI of high school in Semarang. The analysis showed the early stages of the population have the same degree of homogeneity and normal dis...

  11. Cytochrome P450 isoforms catalyze formation of catechol estrogen quinones that react with DNA. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Olson, Kevin; Zahid, Muhammad; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G


    Accumulating evidence suggests that specific metabolites of estrogens, namely, catechol estrogen quinones, react with DNA to form adducts and generate apurinic sites, which can lead to the mutations that induce breast cancer. Oxidation of estradiol (E(2)) produces 2 catechol estrogens, 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2)) and 2-OHE(2) among the major metabolites. These, in turn, are oxidized to the quinones, E(2)-3,4-quinone (E(2)-3,4-Q) and E(2)-2,3-Q, which can react with DNA. Oxidation of E(2) to 2-OHE(2) is mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, and CYP3A4, whereas oxidation of E(2) to 4-OHE(2) in extrahepatic tissues is mainly catalyzed by CYP1B1 as well as some CYP3As. The potential involvement of CYP isoforms in the further oxidation of catechols to semiquinones and quinones has, however, not been investigated in detail. In this project, to identify the potential function of various CYPs in oxidizing catechol estrogens to quinones, we used different recombinant human CYP isoforms, namely, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP3A4, with the scope of oxidizing the catechol estrogens 2-OHE(2) and 4-OHE(2) to their respective estrogen quinones, which then reacted with DNA. The depurinating adducts 2-OHE(2)-6-N3Ade, 4-OHE(2)-1-N3Ade, and 4-OHE(2)-1-N7Gua were observed in the respective reaction systems by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Furthermore, more than 100-fold higher levels of estrogen-glutathione (GSH) conjugates were detected in the reactions. Glutathione conjugates were observed, in much smaller amounts, when control microsomes were used. Depurinating adducts, as well as GSH conjugates, were obtained when E(2)-3,4-Q was incubated with CYP1B1 or control microsomes in a 30-minute reaction, further demonstrating that GSH is present in these recombinant enzyme preparations. These experiments demonstrated that CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP3A4 are able to oxidize catechol estrogens to their respective quinones, which can further react with GSH

  12. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Complex Curvature Applications (United States)

    Brown, Randy J.; Martin, W.; Schneider, J.; Hartley, P. J.; Russell, Carolyn; Lawless, Kirby; Jones, Chip


    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of sucessful research conducted by Lockheed Martin and NASA to develop an advanced self-reacting friction stir technology for complex curvature aluminum alloys. The research included weld process development for 0.320 inch Al 2219, sucessful transfer from the 'lab' scale to the production scale tool and weld quality exceeding strenght goals. This process will enable development and implementation of large scale complex geometry hardware fabrication. Topics covered include: weld process development, weld process transfer, and intermediate hardware fabrication.

  13. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder


    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  14. Xanthine Dehydrogenase (XDH) cross-reacting material in mutants of Drosophila melanogaster deficient in XDH activity. (United States)

    Browder, L W; Tucker, L; Wilkes, J


    Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to estimate xanthine dehydrogenase cross-reacting material (XDH-CRM) in strains containing the cin and cin mutant genes, which are deficient in XDH enzymatic activity. CRM levels were determined as percentages of CRM in the Oregon-R wild-type strain. The mutant strains contain 72 and 76% of Oregon-R CRM, respectively. CRM levels in strains containing the XDH-deficient mutant genes lxd and mal are 93 and 105%, respectively. The high levels of CRM in these four mutant strains indicate that the primary effects of the mutant genes are on the function of XDH protein rather than its accumulation.

  15. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric


    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  16. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.


    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites.

  17. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for ... (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estimation equations are reviewed here, 32 of which were evaluated using previously published tracer-test design examination parameters. Comparison of the results produced a wide range of estimated tracer mass, but no means is available by which one equation may be reasonably selected over the others. Each equation produces a simple approximation for tracer mass. Most of the equations are based primarily on estimates or measurements of discharge, transport distance, and suspected transport times. Although the basic field parameters commonly employed are appropriate for estimating tracer mass, the 33 equations are problematic in that they were all probably based on the original developers' experience in a particular field area and not necessarily on measured hydraulic parameters or solute-transport theory. Suggested sampling frequencies are typically based primarily on probable transport distance, but with little regard to expected travel times. This too is problematic in that tends to result in false negatives or data aliasing. Simulations from the recently developed efficient hydrologic tracer-test design methodology (EHTD) were compared with those obtained from 32 of the 33 published tracer-

  18. Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  19. Accounting for pharmacokinetic differences in dual-tracer receptor density imaging. (United States)

    Tichauer, K M; Diop, M; Elliott, J T; Samkoe, K S; Hasan, T; St Lawrence, K; Pogue, B W


    Dual-tracer molecular imaging is a powerful approach to quantify receptor expression in a wide range of tissues by using an untargeted tracer to account for any nonspecific uptake of a molecular-targeted tracer. This approach has previously required the pharmacokinetics of the receptor-targeted and untargeted tracers to be identical, requiring careful selection of an ideal untargeted tracer for any given targeted tracer. In this study, methodology capable of correcting for tracer differences in arterial input functions, as well as binding-independent delivery and retention, is derived and evaluated in a mouse U251 glioma xenograft model using an Affibody tracer targeted to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell membrane receptor overexpressed in many cancers. Simulations demonstrated that blood, and to a lesser extent vascular-permeability, pharmacokinetic differences between targeted and untargeted tracers could be quantified by deconvolving the uptakes of the two tracers in a region of interest devoid of targeted tracer binding, and therefore corrected for, by convolving the uptake of the untargeted tracer in all regions of interest by the product of the deconvolution. Using fluorescently labeled, EGFR-targeted and untargeted Affibodies (known to have different blood clearance rates), the average tumor concentration of EGFR in four mice was estimated using dual-tracer kinetic modeling to be 3.9 ± 2.4 nM compared to an expected concentration of 2.0 ± 0.4 nM. However, with deconvolution correction a more equivalent EGFR concentration of 2.0 ± 0.4 nM was measured.

  20. Impact of solvent granularity and layering on tracer hydrodynamics in confinement. (United States)

    Bollinger, Jonathan A; Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Truskett, Thomas M


    Classic hydrodynamic arguments establish that when a spherical tracer particle is suspended between parallel walls, tracer-wall coupling mediated by the solvent will cause the tracer to exhibit position-dependent diffusivity. We investigate how the diffusivity profiles of confined tracers are impacted by the diameter size-ratio of the tracer to solvent: starting from the classic limit of infinite size-ratio (i.e., continuum solvent), we consider size-ratios of four or less to examine how hydrodynamic predictions are disrupted for systems where the tracer and solvent are of similar scale. We use computer simulations and techniques based on the Fokker-Planck formalism to calculate the diffusivity profiles of hard-sphere tracer particles in hard-sphere solvents, focusing on the dynamics perpendicular to the walls. Given wall separations of several tracer diameters, we first consider confinement between hard walls, where anisotropic structuring at the solvent lengthscale generates inhomogeneity in the tracer free-energy landscape and undermines hydrodynamic predictions locally. We then introduce confining planes that we term transparent walls, which restrict tracer and solvent center-accessibilities while completely eliminating static anisotropy, and reveal position-dependent signatures in tracer diffusivity solely attributable to confinement. With or without suppressing static heterogeneity, we find that tracer diffusivity increasingly deviates on a local basis from hydrodynamic predictions at smaller size-ratios. However, hydrodynamic theory still approximately captures spatially-averaged dynamics across the pores even for very small tracer-solvent size-ratios over a wide range of solvent densities and wall separations.

  1. Direct Parametric Image Reconstruction in Reduced Parameter Space for Rapid Multi-Tracer PET Imaging. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhoulei; Liu, Zhen; Navab, Nassir; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Keller, Ulrich; Ziegler, Sibylle; Shi, Kuangyu


    The separation of multiple PET tracers within an overlapping scan based on intrinsic differences of tracer pharmacokinetics is challenging, due to limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PET measurements and high complexity of fitting models. In this study, we developed a direct parametric image reconstruction (DPIR) method for estimating kinetic parameters and recovering single tracer information from rapid multi-tracer PET measurements. This is achieved by integrating a multi-tracer model in a reduced parameter space (RPS) into dynamic image reconstruction. This new RPS model is reformulated from an existing multi-tracer model and contains fewer parameters for kinetic fitting. Ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) was employed to approximate log-likelihood function with respect to kinetic parameters. To incorporate the multi-tracer model, an iterative weighted nonlinear least square (WNLS) method was employed. The proposed multi-tracer DPIR (MTDPIR) algorithm was evaluated on dual-tracer PET simulations ([18F]FDG and [11C]MET) as well as on preclinical PET measurements ([18F]FLT and [18F]FDG). The performance of the proposed algorithm was compared to the indirect parameter estimation method with the original dual-tracer model. The respective contributions of the RPS technique and the DPIR method to the performance of the new algorithm were analyzed in detail. For the preclinical evaluation, the tracer separation results were compared with single [18F]FDG scans of the same subjects measured 2 days before the dual-tracer scan. The results of the simulation and preclinical studies demonstrate that the proposed MT-DPIR method can improve the separation of multiple tracers for PET image quantification and kinetic parameter estimations.

  2. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics in a pilot-scale constructed wetland using a multi-tracer experiment (United States)

    Birkigt, Jan; Stumpp, Christine; Małoszewski, Piotr; Richnow, Hans H.; Nijenhuis, Ivonne


    In recent years, constructed wetland systems have become into focus as means for organic contaminant removal. The use of constructed wetlands as part of water treatment offers great opportunities to realize significant savings in future wastewater treatment costs for small communities and the adaptation of large wastewater treatment plants. Wetland systems provide a highly reactive environment in which several elimination pathways of organic chemicals may be present at the same time; however, these elimination processes and hydraulic conditions are usually poorly understood. Previously, in our study site monochlorobenzene removal was observed in a pilot-scale wetland system which treats contaminated groundwater from the regional aquifer in Bitterfeld. The degradation was linked to either aerobic or anaerobic, iron- or sulfate- reduction or multiple processes, in parallel. However, it was unclear how the groundwater flows through this system, precluding a more founded understanding of the flow and transport processes. Therefore, we investigated the flow system in this three dimensional pilot-scale constructed wetland applying a multi tracer test combined with a mathematical model to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics. The pilot system consisted of a 6 m length x 1 m wide x 0.5 m depth gravel filter with a triple inflow distributed evenly approx. 5 cm from the bottom at the inflow. Three conservative tracers (uranine, bromide and deuterium) were injected as a pulse at the inflow and analyzed at 4 meters distance from the inflow at three different depths to obtain residence time distributions of groundwater flow in the gravel bed of the wetland. A mathematical multi-flow dispersion model was used to model the tracer breakthrough curves of the different sampling levels, which assumes parallel combinations of the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. The model was successfully applied to fit the experimental tracer breakthrough curves by assuming three flow

  3. Studying coupled hydrological and micro-biological processes by means of tracer injections and mathematical models (United States)

    Worman, A.; Kjellin, J. P.; Lindahl, A.; Johansson, H.


    To throw light on coupled hydrological, chemical and microbiological processes in treatment wetlands, this study uses both radioactive water and reactive tracers. A tracer mixture consisting of tritiated water, P-32 in the form of PO4- and N-15 in the form of N2O was injected to the 2.6 hectare large Ekeby wetland, Sweden. From the breakthrough curves of tritium, the mean residence time of water in pond 1 can be estimated to be about 3 to 3.5 days. The total injected activity of phosphorus was 17.98 GBq and about 13.73 GBq was recovered at the outlet during the investigation period ending 10 days and 16 hours after the start of the injection. This implies that 24% of the phosphate solution was removed in the November - December period in which the experiment was performed. The total injected amount of N-15 was 42.1 grams and 29.6 grams was retained at the effluent. This means that 30% of the nitrogen was either retained in the wetland or removed due to denitrification. An analysis of regular monitoring data shows that the annual removal rate in the entire wetland (each flow line passes two ponds in series) is about 50% for total phosphorus and 25% for total nitrogen. Probably, the most important mechanism for this removal is adsorption onto particulate matter and deposition. Analyses of vegetation material indicate that a certain (minor) fraction was adsorbed to submersed and emerging macrophytes, like Elodera Canadensis, Thypa sp. (Cattail) and Glyceria sp. (Manna grass). A 2D mathematical model for both water flow and solute transport could explain the N-transport through the wetland. The model accounts for the rate-limited exchange with bed sediments and denitrification in the water and bed sediment. Independent batch tests indicate a particularly high microbiological activity in the bed sediments. The rate-limited exchange with the bed limits also the denitrification capacity of the wetland.

  4. Microbial-sized, carboxylate-modified microspheres as surrogate tracers in a variety of subsurface environments: An overview (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; LeBlanc, Denis R.


    Since 1986, fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene/latex microspheres (FCM) have been co-injected into aquifers along with conservative tracers and viruses, bacteria, and (or) protozoa. Use of FCM has resulted in new information about subsurface transport behaviors of microorganisms in fractured crystalline rock, karst limestone, soils, and granular aquifers. FCM have been used as surrogates for oocysts of the pathogenic protist Cryptosporidium parvum in karst limestone and granular drinking-water aquifers. The advantages of FCM in subsurface transport studies are that they are safe in tracer applications, negatively charged, easy to detect, chemically inert, and available in wide range of sizes. The limitations of FCM are that the quantities needed for some field transport studies can be prohibitively expensive and that their surface characteristics may not match the microorganisms of interest. These limitations may be ameliorated, in part by using chemically modified FCM so that their surface characteristics are a better match to that of the organisms. Also, more sensitive methods of detection may allow using smaller quantities of FCM. To assess how the transport behaviors of FCM and pathogens might compare at the field scale, it is helpful to conduct side-by-side comparisons of their transport behaviors using the geologic media and site-specific conditions that characterize the field site.

  5. Photolytic transformation products and biological stability of the hydrological tracer Uranine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Lukasz, E-mail:; Olsson, Oliver, E-mail:; Lange, Jens, E-mail:; Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail:


    Among many fluorescence tracers, Uranine (sodium fluorescein, UR) has most widely been used in hydrological research. Extensive use of UR for tracing experiments or commercial use might cause a potential risk of long-term environmental contamination. As any organic substance released to the environment, also UR is subjected to chemical and physical reactions that can be chemical, biological and photolysis processes. These processes transform the parent compound (PC) and have not been extensively investigated for UR. This study applies two OECDs (301 D and 301 F) tests and a screening water sediment test (WST) to investigate the biodegradability of the PC. Photolysis in water was explored by Xe lamp irradiation. Subsequently, the biodegradability of the photolysis mixtures was examined. The primary elimination of UR was monitored and structures of its transformation products (TPs) were elucidated by HPLC–FLD–MS/MS. UR was found not readily biodegradable, although small degradation rates could be observed in the OECD 301 D and WST. HPLC–FLD analysis showed high primary elimination of the tracer during photolysis. However, the low degree of mineralization found indicates that the UR was not fully degraded, instead transformed to TPs. A total of 5 photo-TPs were identified. According to MS/MS data, chemical structures could be proposed for all identified photo-TPs. Likewise the parent compound it was demonstrated that photo-TPs were largely recalcitrant to microbial degradation. Although we did not find indications for toxicity, target-oriented studies on the environmental impact of these photo-TPs are warranted. Results obtained in this study show that deeper investigations are necessary to fully understand fate and risk connected to the use of UR. - Highlights: • Uranine (UR) was not biodegraded in water and water-sediment system (WST). • Only small degradation rate occurred in OECD 301 D and WST. • Photolysis leads to incomplete mineralization of UR.

  6. Unstructured LES of Reacting Multiphase Flows in Realistic Gas Turbine Combustors (United States)

    Ham, Frank; Apte, Sourabh; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Herrmann, Marcus; Constantinescu, George; Mahesh, Krishnan; Moin, Parviz


    As part of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program, an accurate and robust simulation tool is being developed to perform high-fidelity LES studies of multiphase, multiscale turbulent reacting flows in aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations using hybrid unstructured grids. In the combustor, pressurized gas from the upstream compressor is reacted with atomized liquid fuel to produce the combustion products that drive the downstream turbine. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is used to simulate the combustor because of its demonstrated superiority over RANS in predicting turbulent mixing, which is central to combustion. This paper summarizes the accomplishments of the combustor group over the past year, concentrating mainly on the two major milestones achieved this year: 1) Large scale simulation: A major rewrite and redesign of the flagship unstructured LES code has allowed the group to perform large eddy simulations of the complete combustor geometry (all 18 injectors) with over 100 million control volumes; 2) Multi-physics simulation in complex geometry: The first multi-physics simulations including fuel spray breakup, coalescence, evaporation, and combustion are now being performed in a single periodic sector (1/18th) of an actual Pratt & Whitney combustor geometry.

  7. On one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a reacting mixture in unbounded domains (United States)

    Li, Siran


    In this paper we consider the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes system for a heat-conducting, compressible reacting mixture which describes the dynamic combustion of fluids of mixed kinds on unbounded domains. This model has been discussed on bounded domains by Chen (SIAM J Math Anal 23:609-634, 1992) and Chen-Hoff-Trivisa (Arch Ration Mech Anal 166:321-358, 2003), among others, in which the reaction rate function is a discontinuous function obeying the Arrhenius' law of thermodynamics. We prove the global existence of weak solutions to this model on one-dimensional unbounded domains with large initial data in H^1. Moreover, the large-time behaviour of the weak solution is identified. In particular, the uniform-in-time bounds for the temperature and specific volume have been established via energy estimates. For this purpose we utilise techniques developed by Kazhikhov-Shelukhin (cf. Kazhikhov in Siber Math J 23:44-49, 1982; Solonnikov and Kazhikhov in Annu Rev Fluid Mech 13:79-95, 1981) and refined by Jiang (Commun Math Phys 200:181-193, 1999, Proc R Soc Edinb Sect A 132:627-638, 2002), as well as a crucial estimate in the recent work by Li-Liang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 220:1195-1208, 2016). Several new estimates are also established, in order to treat the unbounded domain and the reacting terms.

  8. Large eddy simulations of turbulent reacting flows in real burners: the status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gicquel, L Y M; Staffelbach, G; Cuenot, B [CERFACS, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Poinsot, T [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)], E-mail:


    Turbulence is a recurrent and recognised challenge for which the scientific community has not been able to provide reliable methodologies necessary for predictions in complex industrial applications. In fact and throughout the past century, that challenge has been identified as a million dollar achievement simply because of the tremendous impact such a contribution would have on existing industrial processes. Among all industries, the gas-turbine companies are probably the most receptive to new contributions in the field of turbulent reacting flows because of the upcoming new regulations and the existing pressure linked to petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions. From a purely scientific point of view, the treatment of combustion and turbulence yields additional difficulties. However, and because of the advent of high-performane computers providing teraflop capabilities, the fully unsteady, temporally and spatially dependent approach that is large eddy simulations (LES) provides new insights and promises when dealing with these industrial applications. In this document, state-of-the-art LES for complex flows is presented, along with developments and potential challenges that are needed to improve LES in order to yield an efficient and reliable tool for the prediction of real industrial turbulent reacting flows.

  9. Effects of mesh resolution on large eddy simulation of reacting flows in complex geometry combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudier, G.; Gicquel, L.Y.M. [CERFACS, 42 Avenue G. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse cedex (France); Poinsot, T.J. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Avenue C. Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    The power of current parallel computers is becoming sufficient to apply large eddy simulation (LES) tools to reacting flows not only in academic configurations but also in real gas turbine chambers. The most limiting factor in performing LES of real systems is the mesh size, which directly controls the overall cost of the simulation, so that the effects of mesh resolution on LES results become a key issue. In the present work, an unstructured compressible LES solver is used to compute the reacting flow in a domain corresponding to a sector of a realistic helicopter chamber. Three grids ranging from 1.2 to 44 million elements are used for LES and results are compared in terms of mean and fluctuating fields as well as of pressure spectra. Results show that the mean temperature, reaction rate, and velocity fields are almost insensitive to the grid size. The RMS field of the resolved velocity is also reasonably independent of the mesh, while the RMS fields of temperature exhibit more sensitivity to the grid, as expected from the fact that most of the combustion process proceeds at small scales. The acoustic field exhibits a limited sensitivity to the mesh, suggesting that LES is adapted to the computation of combustion instabilities in complex systems. (author)

  10. Reacting to different types of concept drift: the Accuracy Updated Ensemble algorithm. (United States)

    Brzezinski, Dariusz; Stefanowski, Jerzy


    Data stream mining has been receiving increased attention due to its presence in a wide range of applications, such as sensor networks, banking, and telecommunication. One of the most important challenges in learning from data streams is reacting to concept drift, i.e., unforeseen changes of the stream's underlying data distribution. Several classification algorithms that cope with concept drift have been put forward, however, most of them specialize in one type of change. In this paper, we propose a new data stream classifier, called the Accuracy Updated Ensemble (AUE2), which aims at reacting equally well to different types of drift. AUE2 combines accuracy-based weighting mechanisms known from block-based ensembles with the incremental nature of Hoeffding Trees. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with 11 state-of-the-art stream methods, including single classifiers, block-based and online ensembles, and hybrid approaches in different drift scenarios. Out of all the compared algorithms, AUE2 provided best average classification accuracy while proving to be less memory consuming than other ensemble approaches. Experimental results show that AUE2 can be considered suitable for scenarios, involving many types of drift as well as static environments.

  11. Modeling of detonation transition through the field of mixing the reacting and inert gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Evgeniy


    Full Text Available The non-stationary problem of exciting a plane shock wave by gas detonation in a tube is numerically solved. The case, when the field of mixing the reacting and inert gases filling the closed tube end has finite size, is considered. The influence of mixing field width on the intensity and damping law of excited shock waves is studied. Ignoring energy losses, the problem solution is determined by one dimensionless parameter equal to the ratio of gas mixture volume in the mixing field to the volume of reacting gas located in the tube before the detonation is initiated. By varying this parameter within the range from 0 to 2, the maximal value for the Mach number of the shock wave in inert gas (air is decreased by about 20%. It is established that decrease pattern of the shock-wave front velocity can be approximately described by the dependence corresponding to the conclusions made from the theory of point explosion for the case of plane adiabatic gas motions.

  12. Reacting shock waves characteristics for biogas compared to other gaseous fuel (United States)

    Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Ujir, Haffis


    Present article aims to report an experimental study conducted to characterize the reacting shock waves for biogas compared to several other gaseous fuels. A dedicated experimental system which consists of a stainless steel tube with inner diameter of 100mm, a data acquisition system, ignition control unit and gas filling system was built in order to measure the characteristics of high speed reacting shock waves for synthetic biogas such as, pressure history, velocity and cell width. Two types of hydrocarbon fuels were used for comparison in this investigation; propane and natural gas with 92.7% methane. Biogas was synthetically produced by mixing 65% natural gas with 35% carbon dioxide. The oxygen concentration in the oxidizer mixture was diluted with nitrogen gas at various percentage of dilution. Results show that natural gas and biogas were not sensitive to detonation propagation compared to propane. For biogas, methane, and propane it was found that in smooth inner-wall tube, detonation will likely to occur if the percent of dilution gas is not more than approximately 8%, 10% and 35%, respectively. In order to decrease the tube length required for deflagration to detonation transition, an array of obstacles with identical blockage ratio was placed inside the tube near the ignition source. The effect of combustion wave-obstacle interaction was also investigated.

  13. FluxFix: automatic isotopologue normalization for metabolic tracer analysis. (United States)

    Trefely, Sophie; Ashwell, Peter; Snyder, Nathaniel W


    Isotopic tracer analysis by mass spectrometry is a core technique for the study of metabolism. Isotopically labeled atoms from substrates, such as [(13)C]-labeled glucose, can be traced by their incorporation over time into specific metabolic products. Mass spectrometry is often used for the detection and differentiation of the isotopologues of each metabolite of interest. For meaningful interpretation, mass spectrometry data from metabolic tracer experiments must be corrected to account for the naturally occurring isotopologue distribution. The calculations required for this correction are time consuming and error prone and existing programs are often platform specific, non-intuitive, commercially licensed and/or limited in accuracy by using theoretical isotopologue distributions, which are prone to artifacts from noise or unresolved interfering signals. Here we present FluxFix ( ), an application freely available on the internet that quickly and reliably transforms signal intensity values into percent mole enrichment for each isotopologue measured. 'Unlabeled' data, representing the measured natural isotopologue distribution for a chosen analyte, is entered by the user. This data is used to generate a correction matrix according to a well-established algorithm. The correction matrix is applied to labeled data, also entered by the user, thus generating the corrected output data. FluxFix is compatible with direct copy and paste from spreadsheet applications including Excel (Microsoft) and Google sheets and automatically adjusts to account for input data dimensions. The program is simple, easy to use, agnostic to the mass spectrometry platform, generalizable to known or unknown metabolites, and can take input data from either a theoretical natural isotopologue distribution or an experimentally measured one. Our freely available web-based calculator, FluxFix ( ), quickly and reliably corrects metabolic tracer data for

  14. A novel PET tracer for evaluation of gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, S.; Monclus, M.; Cool, V. [Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles-Hopital Erasme, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others


    A promising approach of gene therapy for cancer consist in the transduction of neoplastic cells with the herpes virus thymidine-kinase gene (HSV-tk) which renders transduced cells sensitive to the lethal effect of anti-viral agent such as ganciclovir (GCV). Pet with adapted radiotracers represents an adequate tool to determine in vivo the level of HSV-tk expression and to establish the optimal protocol of gene and GCV administrations in human. We have developed a new potential PET tracer, 9-((1-[F-18]fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl)guanine [F-18]FHPG should theoretically accumulate in cells expressing HSV-tk. [F-18]FHPG was obtained by nucleophilic substitution on a ditosylate precursor followed by hydrolysis. To determine the biological behavior of this compound, we synthetized the corresponding non radioactive fluorinated analog (FHPG) and tested its inhibitory activity on HSV-tk transduced 9L gliosarcoma cells maintained in culture. FHPG at 100 {mu}M suppress cell growth by 50% while GCV and acyclovir induced 100% suppression at 10 and 100 {mu}M, respectively. We then tested the in vitro uptake of n.c.a. [F-18]FHPG in cultured cells transduced with HSV-tk or a control gene (neomycin). Ratio of [F-18]FHPG uptake in HSV-tk versus control cells was 240 after 6 hours of incubation. In vivo uptake of [F-18]FHPG was tested in experimental tumors obtained by stereotactical implantion of transduced 9L cells in the brain of male Fischer 344 rats. Ratio of [F-18]FHPG uptake in HSV-tk versus control tumors was 2.5, 3 hours after intravenous tracer injection. Uptake in HSV-tk tumor was 19-fold higher than in the cortex. We concluded that [F-18]FHPG is a promising PET tracer for the evaluation of gene therapy involving viral thymidine kinase genes.

  15. Chelator-Accelerated One-Pot ‘Click’ Labeling of Small Molecule Tracers with 2-[18F]Fluoroethyl Azide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Årstad


    Full Text Available 2-[18F]Fluoroethyl azide ([18F]FEA can readily be obtained by nucleophilic substitution of 2-azidoethyl-4-toluenesulfonate with [18F]fluoride (half-life 110 min, and has become widely used as a reagent for ‘click’ labeling of PET tracers. However, distillation of [18F]FEA is typically required, which is time-consuming and unpractical for routine applications. In addition, copper(I-catalyzed cycloaddition of [18F]FEA with non-activated alkynes, and with substrates containing labile functional groups, can be challenging. Herein, we report a highly efficient and practical ligand-accelerated one-pot/two-step method for ‘click’ labeling of small molecule tracers with [18F]FEA. The method exploits the ability of the copper(I ligand bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate to accelerate the rate of the cycloaddition reaction. As a result, alkynes can be added directly to the crude reaction mixture containing [18F]FEA, and as cyclisation occurs almost immediately at room temperature, the reaction is tolerant to labile functional groups. The method was demonstrated by reacting [18F]FEA with a series of alkyne-functionalized 6-halopurines to give the corresponding triazoles in 55–76% analytical radiochemical yield.

  16. Radiocarbon tracer measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations (United States)

    Campbell, M. J.; Farmer, J. C.; Fitzner, C. A.; Henry, M. N.; Sheppard, J. C.


    The usefulness of the C-14 tracer in measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration is discussed. The apparatus and the experimental conditions of three variations of a radiochemical method of atmosphere analysis are described and analyzed: the Teflon bag static reactor, the flow reactor (used in the Wallops Island tests), and the aircraft OH titration reactor. The procedure for reduction of the aircraft reactor instrument data is outlined. The problems connected with the measurement of hydroxyl radicals are discussed. It is suggested that the gas-phase radioisotope methods have considerable potential in measuring tropospheric impurities present in very low concentrations.

  17. Monitoring of sediment transport processes using tracer stones (United States)

    Redtenbacher, Matthias; Harb, Gabriele; Barbas, Teresa; Schneider, Josef


    In the last decades the vulnerability of our civilization to geomorphological damaging events like debris flows and exceptional floods increased. The reasons are, on one side, that the global hydrological cycle became more intense during the recent past and on the other side that the material assets of the population increased. Risk prevention, risk analysis and forecast methods thus became more important. Geomorphological processes are often not easy to analyse. To get information about the probability and the consequences of these increasing events, it is necessary to analyse the availability of sediments in the catchment area, the erosion processes of the sediment and the transport of the sediments along torrents. The project ClimCatch, which started in April 2012, investigates the torrential sediment transport processes in a non-glaciated Alpine valley in Austria and the related natural hazards under the viewpoint of the on-going climate change. Due to an extreme precipitation event in 2011 debris flow-similar discharges occurred in this catchment and since that the sediment sources are highly erodible there. The aims of the project are to derive a quantitative sediment budget model, including geomorphic process domains, determining sediment transport in the river system and the measurement of bed load output, besides others. To quantify river sediment dynamics several different methodologies are applied within the project. Discharge and sediment transport measurement as well as hydrological stations are installed in the catchment area. Aggradation and erosion are analysed by means of laser scanning technology in the sediment storage basin which is located at the outlet of the catchment. The observation and measurement of the sediment transport is performed by the application of radio telemetry stones and colour tracer stones. Line pebble counting, automated grain size determination using photographs and sieving on-site is performed to get qualitative sediment

  18. Application of enriched stable isotopes as tracers in biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, Stefan; Hansen, Helle Rüsz; Gammelgaard, Bente


    The application of enriched stable isotopes of minerals and trace elements as tracers in biological systems is a rapidly growing research field that benefits from the many new developments in inorganic mass spectrometric instrumentation, primarily within inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry......, and the development of new methodologies coupled with more advanced compartmental and mathematical models for the distribution of elements in living organisms has enabled a broader use of enriched stable isotope experiments in the biological sciences. This review discusses the current and future uses of enriched...... stable isotope experiments in biological systems....

  19. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus


    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  20. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  1. Metodika pro vývoj mobilních aplikací v React Native


    Suk, Filip


    Main goal of this thesis is designing a methodology for developing mobile applications in React Native framework. To accomplish the main goal, these goals were set: characterize current state of mobile development, introduce reader to JavaScript and React Native development, design methodology content by extending OpenUP methodology and applying the new methodology to implementation of example app. Outputs of this thesis could be valuable for small mobile development teams and students intere...

  2. Impact of community tracer teams on treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients in South Africa. (United States)

    Bronner, Liza E; Podewils, Laura J; Peters, Annatjie; Somnath, Pushpakanthi; Nshuti, Lorna; van der Walt, Martie; Mametja, Lerole David


    Tuberculosis (TB) indicators in South Africa currently remain well below global targets. In 2008, the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) implemented a community mobilization program in all nine provinces to trace TB patients that had missed a treatment or clinic visit. Implementation sites were selected by TB program managers and teams liaised with health facilities to identify patients for tracing activities. The objective of this analysis was to assess the impact of the TB Tracer Project on treatment outcomes among TB patients. The study population included all smear positive TB patients registered in the Electronic TB Registry from Quarter 1 2007-Quarter 1 2009 in South Africa. Subdistricts were used as the unit of analysis, with each designated as either tracer (standard TB program plus tracer project) or non-tracer (standard TB program only). Mixed linear regression models were utilized to calculate the percent quarterly change in treatment outcomes and to compare changes in treatment outcomes from Quarter 1 2007 to Quarter 1 2009 between tracer and non-tracer subdistricts. For all provinces combined, the percent quarterly change decreased significantly for default treatment outcomes among tracer subdistricts (-0.031%; p tracer subdistricts (0.003%; p = 0.03). A significant decrease in the proportion of patient default was observed for all provinces combined over the time period comparing tracer and non-tracer subdistricts (p = 0.02). Examination in stratified models revealed the results were not consistent across all provinces; significant differences were observed between tracer and non-tracer subdistricts over time in five of nine provinces for treatment default. Community mobilization of teams to trace TB patients that missed a clinic appointment or treatment dose may be an effective strategy to mitigate default rates and improve treatment outcomes. Additional information is necessary to identify best practices and elucidate discrepancies across

  3. Final Progress Report for Project Entitled: Quantum Dot Tracers for Use in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bartl, Michael [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reimus, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mella, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new class of tracers that offer great promise for use in characterizing fracture networks in EGS reservoirs. From laboratory synthesis and testing through numerical modeling and field demonstrations, we have demonstrated the amazing versatility and applicability of quantum dot tracers. This report summarizes the results of four years of research into the design, synthesis, and characterization of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) for use as geothermal tracers.

  4. Using Molecular Tracers to Understand BVOC Interactions with Anthropogenic Pollutants in the Southeast U.S. and Amazonia (United States)

    Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Zhang, H.; Misztal, P. K.; Wernis, R. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Seco, R.; Guenther, A. B.; Su, L.; Mak, J. E.; Hu, W.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Koss, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Upshur, M. A.; Thomson, R. J.; Geiger, F.; Glasius, M.; Bering, M. S.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Viegas, J.; Manzi, A. O.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.


    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are the dominant source of reduced carbon to the atmosphere. The SOAS 2013 and GoAmazon 2014/15 campaigns were designed to investigate how anthropogenic pollution alters the fate of BVOCs. We used speciated organic chemical measurements to observe the major BVOCs (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes) and many of their oxidation products, ranging from volatile (using in-situ GC-MS and PTR-ToF-MS) to semi-volatile gas and particle phase compounds (using in-situ SV-TAG, offline GCxGC-VUV/EI-HRTOFMS, and other techniques). We use these speciated chemical observations of nearly 1000 molecular tracers with measurements made by collaborating groups to investigate their phase partitioning, contributions to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and mechanisms controlling their transformations. Major findings include that polyols from isoprene oxidation contributed 8% to 15% on average to organic aerosol mass, but with different chemical compositions in the southeast US and Amazon, indicating differences in chemical transformation pathways forming SOA. We also observed substantial gas-phase concentrations of polyols, and that the gas-particle partitioning of approximately 100 known and newly observed oxidation products is not well explained by environmental factors (e.g. temperature). Compounds having high vapor pressures have higher particle fractions than expected from absorptive equilibrium partitioning models, suggesting many commonly measured biogenic oxidation products can be bound in low-volatility mass (e.g. accretion products, inorganic-organic adducts) that decomposes to individual compounds on analysis. Correlation of isoprene derived polyols, and BVOC organosulfates, with aerosol sulfate was observed across all three campaigns, demonstrating a strong link between anthropogenic pollution and the fate of BVOCs forming SOA. We also observed sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, and through synthesizing authentic standards, we

  5. Two-phase reactive transport of an oil-soluble chemical : An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, H.J.


    An oil-soluble chemical (OSC) is a chemical substance which is soluble and chemically inert in oil, but reacts with water to form a gel. Application of an OSC can be found in oil- and gas production. An increased water production, which usually occurs in mature oil fields, can be remedied by

  6. Chiral Chemicals as Tracers of Atmospheric Sources and Fate Processes in a World of Changing Climate (United States)

    F. Bidleman, Terry; M. Jantunen, Liisa; Binnur Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Wong, Fiona; Hung, Hayley; Ma, Jianmin; Stern, Gary; Rosenberg, Bruno


    Elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under national and international regulations reduces “primary” emissions, but “secondary” emissions continue from residues deposited in soil, water, ice and vegetation during former years of usage. In a future, secondary source controlled world, POPs will follow the carbon cycle and biogeochemical processes will determine their transport, accumulation and fate. Climate change is likely to affect mobilisation of POPs through e.g., increased temperature, altered precipitation and wind patterns, flooding, loss of ice cover in polar regions, melting glaciers, and changes in soil and water microbiology which affect degradation and transformation. Chiral compounds offer advantages for following transport and fate pathways because of their ability to distinguish racemic (newly released or protected from microbial attack) and nonracemic (microbially degraded) sources. This paper discusses the rationale for this approach and suggests applications where chiral POPs could aid investigation of climate-mediated exchange and degradation processes. Multiyear measurements of two chiral POPs, trans-chlordane and α-HCH, at a Canadian Arctic air monitoring station show enantiomer compositions which cycle seasonally, suggesting varying source contributions which may be under climatic control. Large-scale shifts in the enantioselective metabolism of chiral POPs in soil and water might influence the enantiomer composition of atmospheric residues, and it would be advantageous to include enantiospecific analysis in POPs monitoring programs. PMID:24349938

  7. A deliberate tracer experiment in Santa Monica Basin. [for ocean density strata diffusion (United States)

    Ledwell, J. R.; Broecker, W. S.; Watson, A. J.


    A tracer technique was developed for measurements of diffusion across oceanic density strata using SF6 and perfluorodecalin (PFD) tracers in the Santa Monica Basin. Fifty days after injection, the tracers were found to have mixed along the isopycnal surface to nearly every part of the basin. The diapycnal spreading of the tracer distributions yielded an apparent eddy diffusivity of 0.33 + or - 0.08 sq cm/s at the ambient density gradient of 4.0 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -9th g/cm to the 4th.

  8. Tracer diffusion in a sea of polymers with binding zones: mobile vs. frozen traps. (United States)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi


    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the tracer diffusion in a sea of polymers with specific binding zones for the tracer. These binding zones act as traps. Our simulations show that the tracer can undergo normal yet non-Gaussian diffusion under certain circumstances, e.g., when the polymers with traps are frozen in space and the volume fraction and the binding strength of the traps are moderate. In this case, as the tracer moves, it experiences a heterogeneous environment and exhibits confined continuous time random walk (CTRW) like motion resulting in a non-Gaussian behavior. Also the long time dynamics becomes subdiffusive as the number or the binding strength of the traps increases. However, if the polymers are mobile then the tracer dynamics is Gaussian but could be normal or subdiffusive depending on the number and the binding strength of the traps. In addition, with increasing binding strength and number of polymer traps, the probability of the tracer being trapped increases. On the other hand, removing the binding zones does not result in trapping, even at comparatively high crowding. Our simulations also show that the trapping probability increases with the increasing size of the tracer and for a bigger tracer with the frozen polymer background the dynamics is only weakly non-Gaussian but highly subdiffusive. Our observations are in the same spirit as found in many recent experiments on tracer diffusion in polymeric materials and question the validity of using Gaussian theory to describe diffusion in a crowded environment in general.

  9. Plan for radionuclide tracer studies of the residence time distribution in the Wilsonville dissolver and preheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Begovich, J.M.; Brashear, H.R.; Case, N.; Clark, T.G.; Emery, J.F.; Patton, B.D.; Rodgers, B.R.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Watson, J.S.


    Stimulus-response measurements using radiotracers to measure residence time distribution (RTD) and hydrodynamic parameters for the preheaters and dissolvers at the Ft. Lewis Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal conversion pilot plants are reviewed. A plan is also presented for a series of radioactive tracer studies proposed for the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama, to measure the RTD for the preheater and dissolvers in the SRC-I mode. The tracer for the gas phase will be /sup 133/Xe, and /sup 198/Au (on carbonized resin or as an aqueous colloidal suspension) will be used as the slurry tracer. Four experimental phases are recommended for the RTD tracer studies: (1) preheater; (2) dissolver with 100% takeoff; (3) dissolver with 100% takeoff and solids withdrawal; and (4) dissolver with 50% takeoff. Eighteen gas-tracer and 22 liquid-tracer injections are projected to accomplish the four experimental phases. Two to four tracer injections are projected for preliminary tests to ensure the capability of safe injection of the radiotracers and the collection of statistically significant data. A complete projected cost and time schedule is provided, including procurement of necessary components, preparation of the radiotracers, assembly and testing of tracer injection apparatus and detection systems, onsite work and tracer injections, laboratory experimentation, data analysis, and report writing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta


    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  11. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian


    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...... and its control software offers the flexibility to automatically adapt to the different irradiation conditions set by the flashing solar simulator. Simulation and experimental tests have been carried out, in order to verify the behaviour and performance of the designed I-V curve tracer....

  12. Concentration Field of Reactants and Products Species in a Reacting Vortex Ring (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Silver, Joel A.; Tryggvason, Gretar; Brooker, J. (Technical Monitor)


    The proposed paper will present experimental and numerical results on the concentration fields of both reactants and products species in a reacting vortex ring that is generated from the interaction between a diffusion flame and a laminar vortex ring. Flame-vortex interactions are canonical configurations used to study the underlying processes occurring in complicated turbulent reacting flows. This type of configuration contains many of the fundamental aspects of the coupling between fluid dynamics and combustion that could be investigated with more controllable conditions than are possible under direct investigations of turbulent flames. The current configuration has been studied experimentally by Chen and Dahm and Chen et al. under microgravity conditions, and by Park and Shin, and You et al. under normal gravity conditions. This configuration is similar to that used in the analyses of Karagozian and Manda of their 2-D vortex pair in which both fuel and entrained oxidizer are present. The vortex ring used in this study is generated by issuing methane into an air environment through the exit of an axisymmetric nozzle. The experiments were conducted under microgravity conditions in order to remove the undesirable effects of buoyancy that can affect both the flame structure and ring dynamics resulting in possibly asymmetric and nonrepeatable interactions. The experimental technique of diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to measure concentration fields of reactants, CH4 and O2, products, H2O, CO2, OH, and temperature fields which can be inferred from either line pairs of O2 or OH lines. This technique has been investigated previously by Silver and Bomse et al. This is the first time that the technique has been applied to reacting vortex rings under microgravity conditions. The effect of ring circulation and fuel volume on the species concentration fields will be investigated. The experimental results will be compared to the current numerical

  13. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate. (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg


    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracer Flux Balance at an Urban Canyon Intersection (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.


    Despite their importance for pollutant dispersion in urban areas, the special features of dispersion at street intersections are rarely taken into account by operational air quality models. Several previous studies have demonstrated the complex flow patterns that occur at street intersections, even with simple geometry. This study presents results from wind-tunnel experiments on a reduced scale model of a complex but realistic urban intersection, located in central London. Tracer concentration measurements were used to derive three-dimensional maps of the concentration field within the intersection. In combination with a previous study (Carpentieri et al., Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:277-296, 2009) where the velocity field was measured in the same model, a methodology for the calculation of the mean tracer flux balance at the intersection was developed and applied. The calculation highlighted several limitations of current state-of-the-art canyon dispersion models, arising mainly from the complex geometry of the intersection. Despite its limitations, the proposed methodology could be further developed in order to derive, assess and implement street intersection dispersion models for complex urban areas.

  15. Short term variations of tracer transit speed on alpine glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Werder


    Full Text Available We first present the results of a series of tracer experiments conducted on an alpine glacier (Gornergletscher, Switzerland over a diurnal discharge cycle. For these injections, a moulin was used into which an ice marginal lake was draining, providing a relatively constant discharge. The measured tracer transit speeds show two diurnal maxima and minima. These findings are qualitatively different to existing observations from two series of injections conducted at Unteraargletscher (Switzerland using a moulin fed by supraglacial meltwater having a high diurnal variability, which displayed one diurnal maximum and minimum.

    We then develop and use a simple two-component model of the glacier drainage system, comprising a moulin and a channel element, to simulate the measured transit speeds for all three injection series. The model successfully reproduces all the observations and shows that the same underlying processes can produce the qualitatively different behaviour depending on the different moulin input discharge regimes. Using the model, we assess the relative importance of the different measurement quantities, show that frequent measurements of moulin input discharge are indispensable and propose an experiment design to monitor the development of the drainage system over several weeks.

  16. Acupuncture meridians demythified. A study using the radioactive tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Esquerre, J.P.; Guiraud, R.; Guiraud, G.; Lazorthes, Y.


    Radioactive trajectories can be visualized by injecting a radioactive tracer, technetium 99 m, at the site of acupuncture points. To determine the exact nature of these trajectories we performed several experiments on healthy volunteers, and our results may be summarized as follows. The target organs of technetium 99 m, and notably the thyroid gland, were always visualized. The circulating radioactivity, visible on scintiscans and confirmed by venous blood counts, was not negligible. The radioactive trajectories we observed were often divided at their starting point and did not extend along the whole length of the acupuncture meridians they might have made visible. The radioactive trajectories disappeared after venous blockade to reappear when the blockade was lifted. Finally, the radioactive trajectories obtained were very similar after injection at the acupuncture point and at a control point. These findings indicate a lymphatic and venous drainage of the radioactive tracer at the site of injection followed by transportation through the veins, rather than visualization of acupuncture meridians as suggested by some authors.

  17. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers in groundwater in urban environments (United States)

    Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Roy, James W.; Brown, Susan J.; Bickerton, Greg


    SummaryThere is little information available on the prevalence of artificial sweeteners in groundwater, though these compounds may prove to be useful tracers of human wastewater, especially in urban settings with complex hydrology. In this study, the artificial sweetener acesulfame was detected in groundwater at all eight urban sites investigated (from five different urban areas in Canada), often at high concentrations (i.e., μg/L-scale). In a municipal wastewater plume at Jasper, Alberta, acesulfame was strongly correlated with chloride and was positively correlated with other wastewater-related contaminants indicating that this sweetener has potential to be a good tracer of young wastewater (sucralose at three sites, and cyclamate at five of seven sites where it was analyzed. The occurrence of sucralose may have been affected by its detection limit, which was much higher than for the other sweeteners. These results, and those of a parallel study, are the first reported detections of saccharin and cyclamate in groundwater, and suggest that these sweeteners may be more common than previously anticipated. In general, fewer samples from each site contained these other three sweeteners compared to acesulfame. At Barrie, Ontario, adjacent to an old landfill, the concentration of saccharin was higher than acesulfame in many samples. These results suggest that analyses of multiple sweeteners, rather than just acesulfame, may provide useful information on contaminant sources and groundwater conditions in urban settings. Further work is needed to address this potential use.

  18. The Bekenstein-Hawking Corpuscular Cascading from the Back-Reacted Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Övgün


    Full Text Available Exciting peculiarities of Planck-scale physics have immediate effects on the Bekenstein-Hawking radiation emitted from black holes (BHs. In this paper, using the tunneling formalism, we determine the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature for the vector particles from a back-reacted black hole (BBH constructed from a conformal scalar field surrounded by a BTZ (Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli BH. Then, under the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle, we extend our calculations for scalar particles to understand the effects of quantum gravity. Then, we calculate an evaporation time for the BBH, the total number of Bekenstein-Hawking particles, and the quantum corrections of the number. We observe that remnants of the BH evaporation occur and that they affect the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature of the BBH as well as the total number of Bekenstein-Hawking particles.

  19. Laser Ablation Cleaning of Self-Reacting Friction Stir Weld Seam Surfaces: A Preliminary Evaluation (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Brooke, S. A.; Parry, Q.; Lowrey, N. M.


    Anodized aluminum panels were cleaned by three lasers at three separate sites with a view to determining whether more economical laser cleaning might supplant current manual cleaning methods for preparation of surfaces to be welded by the self-reacting friction stir process. Uncleaned panels yielded welds exhibiting residual oxide defect (ROD) and failing at very low stresses along the trace of the weld seam. Manually cleaned panels yielded welds without ROD; these welds failed at nominal stress levels along an angled fracture surface not following the weld seam trace. Laser cleaned panels yielded welds failing at intermediate stress levels. The inadequacy of the laser cleaning processes leaves questions: Was the anodized aluminum test too stringent to represent actual cleaning requirements? Were the wrong laser cleaning techniques/parameters used for the study? Is the laser cleaning mechanism inadequate for effective preweld surface cleaning?

  20. Characterisation of new monoclonal antibodies reacting with prions from both human and animal brain tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Ohm, Jakob


    Post-mortem diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopaties (prion diseases) is primarily based on the detection of a protease resistant, misfolded disease associated isoform (PrPSc) of the prion protein (PrPc) on neuronal cells. These methods depend on antibodies directed aganinst Pr......Pc and capable of reacting with PrpSc in situ (immunohistochemistry on nervous tissue sections) or with the unfolded form of the protein (western and paraffin embedded tissue (PET) blotting). Here, high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1.5D7, 1.6F4) were produced against synthetic PrP peptides in wild......-type mice and used for western blotting and immunohistochemistry to detect several types of human prion-disease associated PrPSc, including sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (subtypes MM1 and V"), familial CJD and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease PrPSc as well as PrPSc of bovine...