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Sample records for chemically contaminated sewage

  1. A laboratory manual for the determination of inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients in sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to a brief discussion on sewage sludge disposal, sludge contaminants, and the potential beneficial and adverse effects of the various inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients commonly present in sewage sludge, this technical guide presents a scheme of analysis for the determination of the major inorganic contaminants and nutrients. Safety and simplicity were the main criteria considered in the selection of the various sample pretreatment procedures and analytical techniques

  2. Analysis of a sewage sludge for inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis by 29 laboratories of a sample of dried sewage sludge for various inorganic contaminants and nutrients by means of methods provided by the originating laboratory, the aim being to test these methods for their suitability for use in a proposed manual of methods for sewage sludge analysis. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. From the results obtained, the suggested methods for the determination of pH, Kjeldahl, nitrogen, total phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, mercury, and arsenic were considered to be sufficiently reliable for inclusion in the manual. It was recommended that further investigation be carried out on finding suitable methods for the determination of selenium, molybdenum, boron, and fluoride

  3. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  4. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  5. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  6. The presence of contaminations in sewage sludge - The current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, Krzysztof; Rorat, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata J

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge/biosolids are by-wastes of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. As sources of nutrients (C, N, P) they are widely used in intensive farming where large supplementation of organic matter to maintain fertility and enhance crop yields is needed. However, according to the report of European Commission published in 2010, only 39% of produced sewage sludge is recycled into agriculture in the European Union. This situation occurs mainly due to the fact, that the sewage sludge may contain a dangerous volume of different contaminants. For over decades, a great deal of attention has been focused on total concentration of few heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) regulates the allowable limits of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg and pathogens and allows for recovery of sludge on land under defined sanitary and environmentally sound conditions. In this paper, a review on quality of sewage sludge based on the publications after 2010 has been presented. Nowadays there are several papers focusing on new serious threats to human health and ecosystem occurring in sewage sludge - both chemicals (such as toxic trace elements - Se, Ag, Ti; nanoparticles; polyaromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyl; perfluorinated surfactants, polycyclic musks, siloxanes, pesticides, phenols, sweeteners, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles) and biological traits (Legionella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157:H7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Kristina; Björlenius, Berndt; Shaik, Siraz; Lindberg, Richard H; Brunström, Björn; Brandt, Ingvar

    2017-06-01

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Käppala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Käppala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O 3 /m 3 ) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O 3 /m 3 ) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Käppala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1As and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficiency of Coagulation and Flocculation Process Combined with Chemical Sequestration in Removal of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants from Aautomotive Industry Sewag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important environmental problem of automotive industries is the produced wastewater due to its various processes. The flocculation and coagulation along with chemical sequestration are among important processes for removing contaminants from wastewaters. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation process along with chemical sequestration in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from automotive industry sewage. Study Method: This study is an applied-experimental study. The removal of organic and inorganic substances by coagulation, flocculation process combined with chemical sequestration was carried out in batch reactors. The parameters turbidity, heavy metals' concentration, color, phosphate, coagulants concentration, exposure time, TSS, pH and COD were studied. The concentration of color and residue of heavy metals were determined using spectrophotometer -UV and atomic absorption. Results: The research results showed that the removal percentage of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn by ferric sulfate combined with lime at a pH equal to 10 and the exposure time of 100 minutes were 52.65, 96.3, 3.27 and 100 respectively, and percentage of removing them by aluminum sulfate combined with lime was 52.65, 97.8, 3.37 and 99.81 respectively. the removal percentage of TSS, COD, color, turbidity, phosphates ferric sulfate was also 68.9, 83, 94, 84 and 47.2 respectively, and this amount of removal by aluminum sulfate was 62, 80, 94, 73.5 and 48 respectively at neutral pH and concentration of coagulant was obtained equal to 150 mg / L. Conclusion: According to the results, the use of coagulation and flocculation process combined with chemical sequestration in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewaters of automotive industry achieved under optimal conditions is very effective and can be used in water treatment of automotive industry.

  9. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  10. Chemical investigation of sewage effluents of Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, A.; Chandio, S.N.; Khushawar, M.Y.; Laghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples of sewage effluents were collected from sewage collection points located at Latifabad units 9-11, Husainabad and Qasimabad sewage pumping stations. The sewage is pumped towards Southern Sewage treatment plant (SSTP) or is used for agricultural purposes. The water samples from SSTP were also collected and analyzed for pH, conducively, salinity, alkalinity, chlorides, hardness, total, volatile and fixed residues, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorous contents. Variation in the results between sewage water and effluents were noted. (author)

  11. phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    repeated increase daily or weekly application of sewage ... fertilizers, herbicides, germicides and decomposition and burning of fossil fuels. ... However, organic and inorganic pollutants greatly ... green vegetables for the in-situ or ex-situ.

  12. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens on the soil chemical and microbiological properties under the contamination of zinc and cadmium from sewage sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Feng-Jiao; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Wu-Xing; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Taking the vegetable soil with zinc- and cadmium contamination from a long-term sewage sludge application as the object, a pot experiment was conducted to study the remediation effect of Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens under continuous monoculture and intercropping. With the remediation time increased, both S. plumbizincicola and A. graceolens under monoculture grew poorly, but S. plumbizincicola under intercropping grew well. Under intercropping, the soil organic matter, total N, extractable N, and total P contents decreased significantly while the soil extractable K content had a significant increase, the counts of soil bacteria and fungi increased by 7.9 and 18.4 times and 3.7 and 4.3 times, respectively, but the soil urease and catalase activities remained unchanged, as compared with those under A. graceolens and S. plumbizincicola monoculture. The BIOLOG ECO micro-plates also showed that the carbon sources utilization level and the functional diversity index of soil microbial communities were higher under intercropping than under monoculture, and the concentrations of soil zinc and cadmium under intercropping decreased by 5.8% and 50.0%, respectively, with the decrements being significantly higher than those under monoculture. It was suggested that soil microbial effect could be one of the important factors affecting plant growth.

  13. The use of municipal sewage sludge for the stabilization of soil contaminated by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratos, P; Moirou, A; Xenidis, A; Paspaliaris, I

    2000-10-02

    The ability of municipal sewage sludge to immobilize Pb, Zn and Cd contained in contaminated soil originating from a former mining area in Lavrion, Greece was investigated. The soil was cured with sewage sludge in various proportions. The stabilization was evaluated primarily by applying chemical tests and complemented by the performance of additional biological tests. Application of the U.S. EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) on the stabilized mixtures proved that Pb, Zn and Cd solubility was reduced by 84%, 64% and 76%, respectively, at 15% w/w sludge addition, while a 10% w/w addition was sufficient to reduce Pb solubility below the U.S. EPA TCLP regulatory limit. The results of the extraction using EDTA solution showed the same trend, resulting in 26%, 36% and 53% reduction in the Pb, Zn and Cd extractable fractions, respectively. Speciation analysis of the treated soils revealed a significant decrease in the mobile fractions of heavy metals, which was attributed to their retention in sewage sludge by adsorption and organic complexation mechanisms. For the assessment of possible phytotoxicity, experiments including growing dwarf beans in the treated soil was carried out. It was found that sewage sludge addition had a positive effect on plant growth. Furthermore, the Pb and Zn uptake of plant leaves and roots was reduced, while Cd uptake was unaffected by the sludge treatment. The results of this study support the hypothesis that municipal sewage sludge is a potential effective stabilizing agent for contaminated soil containing Pb, Zn and Cd.

  14. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    chemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity and nutrients) were measured. ... Kijichi than Rasi Dege). No significant variation was noted on the values of temperature, pH and salinity. A significant correlation between the levels of fecal bacteria indicators and nutrient ... ocean e.g. sewage is discharged directly into.

  15. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  16. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants. Optimizatsiya kontroya stochnykh vod, zagryaznennykh radionuklidami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, V N [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1991-03-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation.

  17. In situ disinfection of sewage contaminated shallow groundwater: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Morgan M; Cooper, William J; Grant, Stanley B

    2011-11-01

    Sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater is a potential cause of beach closures and water quality impairment in marine coastal communities. In this study we set out to evaluate the feasibility of several strategies for disinfecting sewage-contaminated shallow groundwater before it reaches the coastline. The disinfection rates of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci bacteria (ENT) were measured in mixtures of raw sewage and brackish shallow groundwater collected from a coastal community in southern California. Different disinfection strategies were explored, ranging from benign (aeration alone, and aeration with addition of brine) to aggressive (chemical disinfectants peracetic acid (PAA) or peroxymonosulfate (Oxone)). Aeration alone and aeration with brine did not significantly reduce the concentration of EC and ENT after 6 h of exposure, while 4-5 mg L(-1) of PAA or Oxone achieved >3 log reduction after 15 min of exposure. Oxone disinfection was more rapid at higher salinities, most likely due to the formation of secondary oxidants (e.g., bromine and chlorine) that make this disinfectant inappropriate for marine applications. Using a Lagrangian modeling framework, we identify several factors that could influence the performance of in-situ disinfection with PAA, including the potential for bacterial regrowth, and the non-linear dependence of disinfection rate upon the residence time of water in the shallow groundwater. The data and analysis presented in this paper provide a framework for evaluating the feasibility of in-situ disinfection of shallow groundwater, and elucidate several topics that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. assessment of fecal bacteria contamination in sewage and non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Microbiological quality of the intertidal pool water was evaluated in sewage impacted (Mtoni ... forest's act as filtering systems by trapping ... mangrove filtration will be useful in ..... enough to make decisions such as closure of.

  19. [Contamination of protozoa by enteroviruses in fresh water and sewages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skachkov, M V; Al'misheva, A Sh; Plotnikov, A O; Nemtseva, N V; Skvortsov, V O

    2009-01-01

    To determine rate of infection of protozoa by enteroviruses to assess the potential role of protozoa as a natural reservoir of enteroviruses. The samples were collected from flowing and stagnant water reservoirs in Orenburg region in summer and autumn. The samples of sewages were taken in all stages of their treatment. Cultures of protozoa were isolated with micromanipulator equipped with micropipette, incubated on Pratt's medium at 25 degrees C and fed with Pseudomonas fluorescens culture. RNA of enteroviruses was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-two protozoan species were found in Ural river, whereas 15 and 38 species were found in lakes and sewages respectively. Enteroviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 61.8% cultures of protozoa belonging to 23 species of flagellates, amoebae and ciliates isolated from natural water bodies undergoing anthropogenic impact as well as from sewages in all stages of their treatment. Predominant localization of enteroviruses in dominant taxons of protozoa (Paraphysomonas sp., Spumella sp., Petalomonas poosilla, Amoeba sp.) was noted. Obtained data confirm presence of enteroviruses in protozoa living both in flowing and stagnant recreation natural water bodies as well as in sewages and confirm the hypothesis of persistence of enteroviruses in protozoa and the reservoir role of the latter. Contingency of life cycles of viruses and protozoa allows to explain the seasonality of aseptic meningitis incidence caused by enteroviruses, which peaks in summer and autumn when protozoa massively multiply in water bodies.

  20. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    obtained applying SewageLCI 1.0 model reveal that it’s possible to account for many of the variations in emission quantities of chemicals, caused by variations in the chemical fate properties and in the composition of national waste water treatment grids. The results indicate that the total emission...... treatment is emission to surface water recipients, other environmental compartments such as agricultural soil may receive considerable loads of chemicals emitted by the national specific waste water grids. The SewageLCI 1.0 presentation and case study reveal how broad inclusion of chemicals emitted......Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...

  1. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination.

  3. Improving the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil by use of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sewage sludge, in particular from the food industry, is characterized by fertilizing properties, due to the high content of organic matter and nutrients. The application of sewage sludge causes an improvement of soil parameters as well as increase in cation exchange capacity, and thus stronger binding of cations in the soil environment, which involves the immobilization of nutrients and greater resistance to contamination. In a field experiment sewage sludge has been used as an additive to the soil supporting the phytoremediation process of land contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Pb) using trees species: Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and oak (Quercus robur L.). The aim of the research was to determine how the application of sewage sludge into the soil surface improves the phytoremediation process. The conducted field experiment demonstrated that selected trees like Scots pine and Norway spruce, because of its excellent adaptability, can be used in the remediation of soil. Oak should not be used in the phytoremediation process of soils contaminated with high concentrations of trace elements in the soil, because a significant amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the leaves of oak causing a risk of recontamination. PMID:26368503

  4. Survey in organic contaminants content in sewage sludge from the Emilia Romagna region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovi, P.; Sassi, D.; Piccinini, S.; Rossi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Data was collected on the organic pollutants cited in the Working document on sludge, 3. draft (AOX, LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F), for sewage sludge deriving from 12 municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants and 7 agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), taking samples in spring, summer and winter. The limit values given in the Working document were sporadically exceeded. The most frequent contamination was associated with LAS, in particular in the winter period. Results confirmed lower organic contaminant contents in sludge of agro-industrial origin, compared to sludge from municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants, with generally not detectable values for the majority of organic pollutants. Comparison of the results collected in this survey with values recorded in other European countries shows that the organic contaminant content of sewage sludge obtained in plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, excepting LAS, is reasonable [it

  5. Effect of Sewage Sludge on Some Macronutrients Concentration and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Vaseghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer has economic benefits. Land application of sewage sludge improves some soil chemical and physical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on soil chemical properties and macronutrient concentration in acid and calcareous soils. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using factorial experiment design as completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included : four levels of 0 or control, 50, and 100, 200 ton ha-1 sludge and one level of chemical fertilizer (F consisting of 250 kg ha-1 diammonium phosphate and 250 kg ha-1 urea, and soil including soils of Langroud, Lahijan, Rasht, and Isfahan. As a major vegetable , crop spinach (Spinacea oleracea was grown in the treated soils. Soils samples were analyzed for their chemical properties after crop narvesting. Application of sewage sludge significantly increased plant available k, P, total N, organic matter, electrical conductivity and cation exchange in the soils. Soils pH significantly decreased as a result sewage sludge application. The effect of sewage sludge on plant yield was significant. Overall, the results indicated that sewage sludge is potentially a valuable fertilizer. However, the sludge effect on soil EC and heavy metals should be taken into consideration before its widespread use on cropland.

  6. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  7. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  8. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  9. Absorption and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by plants from contaminated sewage sludge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrkoslavová, J.; Demnerová, K.; Macková, M.; Zemanová, T.; Macek, Tomáš; Hajšlová, J.; Pulkrabová, J.; Hrádková, P.; Stiborová, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2010), s. 381-386 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06151 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP104/08/P188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polybrominated diphenyl ethers * contaminated sewage sludge * plant uptake * bioconcentration factors * Nicotiana tabacum Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  10. Removal of emerging contaminants in sewage water subjected to advanced oxidation with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, M; Gracia-Lor, E; Bijlsma, L; Morales, E; Pastor, L; Hernández, F

    2013-09-15

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) based on ozone treatments, assisted by ultrasounds, have been investigated at a pilot-plant scale in order to evaluate the removal of emerging contaminants in sewage water. Around 60 emerging contaminants, mainly pharmaceuticals from different therapeutically classes and drugs of abuse, have been determined in urban wastewater samples (treated and untreated) by LC-MS/MS. In a first step, the removal efficiency of these contaminants in conventional sewage water treatment plants was evaluated. Our results indicate that most of the compounds were totally or partially removed during the treatment process of influent wastewater. Up to 30 contaminants were quantified in the influent and effluent samples analysed, being antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, cholesterol lowering statin drugs and angiotensin II receptor antagonists the most frequently detected. Regarding drugs of abuse, cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine were the most frequent. In a second step, the effectiveness of AOP in the removal of emerging contaminants remaining in the effluent was evaluated. Ozone treatments have been proven to be highly efficient in the removal, notably decreasing the concentrations for most of the emerging contaminants present in the water samples. The use of ultrasounds, alone or assisting ozone treatments, has been shown less effective, being practically unnecessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  12. Biostimulatory Effect Of Processed Sewage Sludge In Bioremediation Of Engine Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddeen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on biodegradation of engine oil in contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected from a mechanics workshop in Sokoto metropolis. The Soil samples were taken to the laboratory for isolation of engine oil degrading bacteria. About 1 g of soil sample was used to inoculate 9 ml of trypticase soy broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 h. The growth obtained was sub-cultured in mineral salt medium overlaid with crude oil and allowed to stand at 28oC for 72 h. The culture obtained was then maintained on tryticase soy agar plates at 28oC for 48 h. A combination of microscopy and biochemical tests was carried out to identify the colonies. The sewage sludge was obtained from sewage collection point located behind Jibril Aminu Hall of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and processed i.e. dried grounded and sterilized. A portion of land obtained in a botanical garden was divided into small portions 30 X 30 cm and the soil was excavated in-situ and sterilized in the laboratory. A polythene bag was subsequently used to demarcate between the sterilized soil and the garden soil. The sterilized soil plots were artificially contaminated with equal amount of used engine oil to represent a typical farmland oil spill. The plots were amended with various amount of processed sewage sludge i.e. 200 g 300 g and 400 g respectively. A pure culture of the bacteria was maintained on trypticase soy broth and was introduced into the sterile amended soil. The plots were watered twice daily for ten days. The degree of biodegradation and heavy metal content were assessed using standard procedures and the results obtained indicate a remarkable reduction in poly aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs total petroleum hydrocarbon TPH and heavy metal content.

  13. Sewage pollution in urban stormwater runoff as evident from the widespread presence of multiple microbial and chemical source tracking markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Gernjak, W; Aryal, R; McCarthy, D; Palmer, A; Kolotelo, P; Toze, S

    2013-10-01

    The concurrence of human sewage contamination in urban stormwater runoff (n=23) from six urban catchments across Australia was assessed by using both microbial source tracking (MST) and chemical source tracking (CST) markers. Out of 23 stormwater samples human adenovirus (HAv), human polyomavirus (HPv) and the sewage-associated markers; Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH and Bacteroides HF183 were detected in 91%, 56%, 43% and 96% of samples, respectively. Similarly, CST markers paracetamol (87%), salicylic acid (78%) acesulfame (96%) and caffeine (91%) were frequently detected. Twenty one samples (91%) were positive for six to eight sewage related MST and CST markers and remaining two samples were positive for five and four markers, respectively. A very good consensus (>91%) observed between the concurrence of the HF183, HAv, acesulfame and caffeine suggests good predictability of the presence of HAv in samples positive for one of the three markers. High prevalence of HAv (91%) also suggests that other enteric viruses may also be present in the stormwater samples which may pose significant health risks. This study underscores the benefits of employing a set of MST and CST markers which could include monitoring for HF183, adenovirus, caffeine and paracetamol to accurately detect human sewage contamination along with credible information on the presence of human enteric viruses, which could be used for more reliable public health risk assessments. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is recommended that some degree of treatment of captured stormwater would be required if it were to be used for non-potable purposes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative solidification/stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangshan; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-04-01

    The proper treatment of lead (Pb) contaminated soils and incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) has become an environmental concern. In this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and blended OPC containing incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) were used to solidify/stabilize (S/S) soils contaminated with different concentrations of Pb. After curing for 7 and 28 d, the S/S soils were subjected to a series of strength, leaching and microscopic tests. The results showed that replacement of OPC by ISSA significantly reduced the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of S/S soils and leached Pb. In addition, the leaching of Pb from the monolithic samples was diffusion controlled, and increasing the ISSA addition in the samples led to a lower diffusion coefficient and thus an increase in the feasibility for "controlled utilization" of S/S soils. Furthermore, the proposed S/S method significantly decreased the amount of Pb associated with carbonates and increased the amount of organic and residual Pb in S/S soils, reflecting that the risk of Pb contaminated soils can be effectively mitigated by the incorporating of ISSA. Overall, the leachability of Pb was controlled by the combined effect of adsorption, encapsulation or precipitation in the S/S soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of brominated flame retardants removal in contaminated wastewater sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-11-15

    Disposal of solid waste to landfills from waste water sewage treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a potential source of contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Native microbial communities have been found to degrade a variety of xenobiotics, such as PBDEs and HBCDs. This study investigates the potential of autochthonous microflora to remove 11 PBDE congeners and HBCDs in waste water sludge under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory microcosms were constructed with sewage sludge from the WWTPs of Hradec Kralove and Brno. BDE 209 was detected as the prevailing congener in concentrations 685 and 1403 ng/g dw and the total amounts of 10 lower PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) were 605 and 205 ng/g dw in sludge from Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The levels of HBCD were detected in both sludge lower than 24 ng/g dw. The experiment was carried out for 15 months. After three months of incubation, HBCD was completely degraded to below detection limits. In sewage from both WWTPs, the higher brominated DEs were removed faster than the lower brominated congeners. One exception was tri-BDE, which was degraded completely within 15 months of cultivation. A significant increase in congener tetra-BDE 49 concentrations was observed over the course of the experiment in all tested sewage. The relative distribution of individual congeners among all PBDEs changed after 15 months of the incubation in favour of lower brominated congeners. This indicates that debromination is the major mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation. Despite of the increase of BDE 49, the overall removal of all 11 PBDEs achieved the levels of 47.4 and 68.7% in samples from WWTPs Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

    1995-06-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

  17. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  18. Chemical Oxygen Demand abatement in sewage using Micro-Aeration Enhanced Ecological Floating Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongle; Zhou, Gaofeng; Liu, Yiqing; Tan, Jiancong; Fu, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The traditional ecological floating bed combined with micro-aeration system and artificial medium was developed for the removal of contaminants and remediation of surface water. This micro-aeration enhanced ecological floating bed (MAEEFB) consisted of aeration unit, microbial processing unit and aquatic plant unit. Batch experiments were conducted in different operating conditions on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the sewage using MAEEFB. The removal rate of COD by MAEEFB, enhanced ecological floating bed (EEFB) and traditional ecological floating bed (TEFB) in the same reaction conditions was 59.2%, 56.9% and 30.6%, respectively, indicating that the combination of micro-aeration system and artificial medium could enhance the removal efficiency of COD in TEFB. In MAEEFB, the aeration intensity should be designed reasonablely considering both treatment efficiency and operation cost. Only increasing the specific surface area of the packing cannot effectively improve the purification efficiency of water. Factors like packing material, ability of intercepting organics and complicated extent of microorganisms attaching on the packing should also be considered.

  19. Investigation of sewage contamination using steroid indexes in sediments of the Guajará Estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyde Gonçalves Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazonian aquatic systems are usually associated with pristine waters, however, irregular urban occupation of the hydrographic basins and sewerage deficiencies may lead to point and diffuse contamination. Sewage contamination in intertidal surface sediments from the Guajará Estuary, Brazilian Amazon coast, was evaluated using a set of steroids as biomarkers. Sediments collected along the urbanized margin were also analyzed for chlorophyll a, total organic carbon and grain sizes. Coprostanol, the main fecal sterol, was found at concentrations varying from 0.06 to 7.93 µg g-1 dry sediment, following the sequence Tucunduba > Ver-o-Peso > Porto da Palha > Tamandaré > Icoaraci > Miramar. Mixed sources of organic matter and coastal process probably concurred to produce weak correlations among the parameters. Plant derived sterols, including n-C30 alcohol and β-amyrinyl alkanoates, were clearly abundant, but they did not preclude the use of other steroid signals to the assessment of sewage contamination. High values of the steroid indexes involving 5α and 5β stanols and stanones highlighted sewage contamination at the sites with the lowest absolute coprostanol concentrations. The predominance of 5β stanols indicated a chronically sewage contamination of the area.

  20. Steroid markers to assess sewage and other sources of organic contaminants in surface sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, I; Mesa, M; Alonso-Hernandez, C M

    2014-09-15

    Analyses of faecal steroids in coastal sediments from Cienfuegos Bay Cuba indicate chronic sewage contamination at the main outfalls from the city, where concentrations of coprostanol up to 5400ngg(-)(1) (dry wt) were measured. In contrast, steroid concentrations and compositions from sites from the south part of the Bay are characteristic of uncontaminated sewage environments. The levels of coprostanol in the Cienfuegos sediments compares to the lower to mid-range of concentrations reported for coastal sediments on a world-wide basis, with sedimentary levels markedly below those previously reported for heavily impacted sites. This study delivers baseline data for further investigation of the effectiveness of the proposed sewerage plan promoted by the GEF project in Cienfuegos. Investigations on the correlations between faecal steroids and other organic contaminants confirmed that the major source of petroleum hydrocarbons within the bay was associated with the sewage effluents from the Cienfuegos city. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An extensive gastroenteritis outbreak after drinking-water contamination by sewage effluent, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, J; Huovinen, E; Virtanen, M J; Snellman, M; Lumio, J; Ruutu, P; Kujansuu, E; Vuento, R; Pitkänen, T; Miettinen, I; Herrala, J; Lepistö, O; Antonen, J; Helenius, J; Hänninen, M-L; Maunula, L; Mustonen, J; Kuusi, M

    2011-07-01

    An inappropriate cross-connection between sewage- and drinking-water pipelines contaminated tap water in a Finnish town, resulting in an extensive waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in this developed country. According to a database and a line-list, altogether 1222 subjects sought medical care as a result of this exposure. Seven pathogens were found in patient samples of those who sought treatment. To establish the true disease burden from this exposure, we undertook a population-based questionnaire investigation with a control population, infrequently used to study waterborne outbreaks. The study covered three areas, contaminated and uncontaminated parts of the town and a control town. An estimated 8453 residents fell ill during the outbreak, the excess number of illnesses being 6501. Attack rates were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.5-56.4] in the contaminated area, 15.6% (95% CI 13.1-18.5) in the uncontaminated area and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8-8.8) in the control population. Using a control population allowed us to differentiate baseline morbidity from the observed morbidity caused by the water contamination, thus enabling a more accurate estimate of the disease burden of this outbreak.

  2. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  3. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  4. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  5. Effects of Sewage Sludges Contaminated with Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Sludge-Treated Areas (Soils and Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Eljarrat

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques — such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal — was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments. Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments.

  6. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  7. Chemical characterization of vermicompost of sewage sludge with different proportions of diatomaceous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola M. Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pursuit for waste recovery has been the best way to contribute to environmental sustainability. The mix of sewage sludge (SS from Sewage Treatment Plant with diatomaceous material containing oil (DE, used as a filter in biofuel production, can form a substrate rich in minerals and organic matter through vermicomposting. Therefore, this study aimed to produce vermicompost using worms, Eisenia foetida, from a pre-compost (PC of sewage sludge and garden pruning residues mixed with different proportions of DE in relation to PC: 0; 7.53; 15.06; 22.59; and 30.12% v/v. The design was randomized complete blocks with five treatment replicates. The chemical characteristics of the vermicompost were analyzed after a period of four months. The proportion of up to 30.12% v/v of DE met the criteria established for agriculture uses, registration and marketing of the product as organic compost in accordance with the Normative Instructions SDA 27/2006 and 25/2009 from the Ministry of Agriculture.

  8. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine

  9. Preparation of thiol-functionalized activated carbon from sewage sludge with coal blending for heavy metal removal from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Xing, Xing; Li, Jiao; Shi, Mei; Lin, Aijun; Xu, Congbin; Zheng, Jianzhong; Li, Ronghua

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge produced from wastewater treatment is a pressing environmental issue. Mismanagement of the massive amount of sewage sludge would threat our valuble surface and shallow ground water resources. Use of activated carbon prepared from carbonization of these sludges for heavy metal removal can not only minimize and stabilize these hazardous materials but also realize resources reuse. In this study, thiol-functionalized activated carbon was synthesized from coal-blended sewage sludge, and its capacity was examined for removing Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from water. Pyrolysis conditions to prepare activated carbons from the sludge and coal mixture were examined, and the synthesized material was found to achieve the highest BET surface area of 1094 m 2 /g under 500 °C and 30 min. Batch equilibrium tests indicated that the thiol-functionalized activated carbon had a maximum sorption capacity of 238.1, 96.2, 87.7 and 52.4 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) removal from water, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that thiol-functionalized activated carbon prepared from coal-blended sewage sludge would be a promising sorbent material for heavy metal removal from waters contaminated with Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical composition of sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.P.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on chemical composition sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad city has been carried out. The sludge samples were collected from various domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad, over a period of 3 months. Analysis of sludge samples for different micro-nutrients and toxic elements has been accomplished by reliable analytical methods using atomic absorption, UV and colorimeter. It is observed that the levels of copper, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium are higher in sludge samples of industrial area than those of domestic areas of Hyderabad. (author)

  11. Chemical state of mercury and selenium in sewage sludge ash based P-fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Christian, E-mail: cv.vogel@yahoo.de [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, Oliver; Herzel, Hannes [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Amidani, Lucia [ESRF—The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Adam, Christian [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Mercury bonded to carbon/organic material was detected in some sewage sludge ashes. • After thermochemcial treatment some mercury remains stabilized in the SSA matrix. • Analysis of the chemical state of mercury and selenium in highly diluted samples. - Abstract: Phosphorus-fertilizers from secondary resources such as sewage sludge ash (SSA) will become more important in the future as they could substitute conventional fertilizers based on the nonrenewable resource phosphate rock. Thermochemical approaches were developed which remove heavy metals from SSA prior to its fertilizer application on farmlands. We analyzed the chemical state of mercury and selenium in SSA before and after thermochemical treatment under different conditions for P-fertilizer production by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In some incineration plants the mercury loaded carbon adsorber from off-gas cleaning was collected together with the SSA for waste disposal. SSAs from those plants contained mercury mainly bound to carbon/organic material. The other SSAs contained inorganic mercury compounds which are most probably stabilized in the SSA matrix and were thus not evaporated during incineration. During thermochemical treatment, carbon-bound mercury was removed quantitatively. In contrast, a certain immobile fraction of inorganic mercury compounds remained in thermochemically treated SSA, which were not clearly identified. HgSe might be one of the inorganic compounds, which is supported by results of Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy. Furthermore, the chemical state of selenium in the SSAs was very sensitive to the conditions of the thermochemical treatment.

  12. Use of fugacity model to analyze temperature-dependent removal of micro-contaminants in sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelly; Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Chunlong

    2011-08-01

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are known to contain residual micro-contaminants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) despite the utilization of various removal processes. Temperature alters the efficacy of removal processes; however, experimental measurements of EDC removal at various temperatures are limited. Extrapolation of EDC behavior over a wide temperature range is possible using available physicochemical property data followed by the correction of temperature dependency. A level II fugacity-based STP model was employed by inputting parameters obtained from the literature and estimated by the US EPA's Estimations Programs Interface (EPI) including EPI's BIOWIN for temperature-dependent biodegradation half-lives. EDC removals in a three-stage activated sludge system were modeled under various temperatures and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for representative compounds of various properties. Sensitivity analysis indicates that temperature plays a significant role in the model outcomes. Increasing temperature considerably enhances the removal of β-estradiol, ethinyestradiol, bisphenol, phenol, and tetrachloroethylene, but not testosterone with the highest biodegradation rate. The shortcomings of BIOWIN were mitigated by the correction of highly temperature-dependent biodegradation rates using the Arrhenius equation. The model predicts well the effects of operating temperature and HRTs on the removal via volatilization, adsorption, and biodegradation. The model also reveals that an impractically long HRT is needed to achieve a high EDC removal. The STP model along with temperature corrections is able to provide some useful insight into the different patterns of STP performance, and useful operational considerations relevant to EDC removal at winter low temperatures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the pH-mediated Extraction of Ionizable Organic Contaminants to Improve the Quality of Municipal Sewage Sludge Destined for Land Application

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-01-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and...

  14. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  15. Application of sewage sludge and intermittent aeration strategy to the bioremediation of DDT- and HCH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin; Yang, Jun; Wan, Xiaoming; Yang, Sucai

    2014-08-01

    Adding organic amendments to stimulate the biodegradation of pesticides is a subject of ongoing interest. The effect of sewage sludge on the bioremediation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil was investigated in bench scale experiments, and intermittent aeration strategy was also used in this study to form an anaerobic-aerobic cycle. Bioremediation of DDT and HCH was enhanced with the addition of sewage sludge and the intermittent aeration. The removal rates of HCH and DDT were raised by 16.8%-80.8% in 10 days. Sewage sludge increased the organic carbon content from 6.2 to 218 g/kg, and it could also introduce efficient degradation microbes to soil, including Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Sphingomonas sp. The unaerated phase enhanced the anaerobic dechlorination of DDT and HCH, and anaerobic removal rates of β-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT accounted for more than 50% of the total removal rates, but the content of α-HCH declined more in the aerobic phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSTP) Hyderabad for achieving sustainable development in sector of agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Shaikh, N.; Ahmed, R.S.; Nawaz, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A study on the chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSPP) Hyderabad was studied. Chemical analysis on sludge samples collected form the waste stabilization for different micro-nutrients (essential manures, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were conducted in year 1999-2000. These nutrients and metal were detected by reliable analytical method i.e. Kjeldahls method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis showed that sewage sludge contained sufficient quantity of primary and secondary nutrients, hence sewage sludge could be utilized as a natural fertilizer. This will not only solve the disposal problem but it would also be environmentally safer way of providing regulators to the plants. (author)

  17. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge contaminated by trace elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi Nissim, Werther; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Alvisi, Laura; Palm, Emily; Mancuso, Stefano; Azzarello, Elisa

    2018-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a green technique being increasingly used worldwide for various purposes including the treatment of municipal sewage sludge (MSS). Most plants proposed for this technique have high nutrient demands, and fertilization is often required to maintain soil fertility and nutrient balance while remediating the substrate. In this context, MSS could be a valuable source of nutrients (especially N and P) and water for plant growth. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity willow (Salix matsudana, cv Levante), poplar (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra, cv Orion), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to clean MSS, which is slightly contaminated by trace elements (TEs) and organic pollutants, and to assess their physiological response to this medium. In particular, we aimed to evaluate the TE accumulation by different species as well as the decrease of TEs and organic pollutants in the sludge after one cropping cycle and the effect of MSS on plant growth and physiology. Since MSS did not show any detrimental effect on the biomass yield of any of the species tested, it was found to be a suitable growing medium for these species. TE phytoextraction rates depended on the species, with eucalyptus showing the highest accumulation for Cr, whereas sunflower exhibited the best performance for As, Cu and Zn. At the end of the trial, some TEs (i.e. Cr, Pb and Zn), n-alkanes and PCBs showed a significant concentration decrease in the sludge for all tested species. The highest Cr decrease was observed in pots with eucalyptus (57.4%) and sunflower (53.4%), whereas sunflower showed the highest Cu decrease (44.2%), followed by eucalyptus (41.2%), poplar (16.2%) and willow (14%). A significant decrease (41.1%) of Pb in the eucalyptus was observed. Zn showed a high decrease rate with sunflower (59.5%) and poplar (52%) and to a lesser degree with willow (35.3%) and eucalyptus (25.4%). The highest decrease in n

  18. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    and the UV/H2O2-treatment were investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through set...

  19. SimpleTreat 3.0: a model to predict the distribution and elimination of Chemicals by Sewage Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs J; ECO

    1996-01-01

    The spreadsheet SimpelTreat 3.0 is a model to predict the distribution and elimination of chemicals by sewage treatment. Simpeltreat 3.0 is an improved version of SimpleTreat, applied in the Netherlands in the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES version 1.0, 1994). Although in the

  20. Sequential electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from low-temperature gasification ashes of chemically precipitated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    the P solubilisation from aluminium and ferric phosphates. In addition, P was separated from most metals as they became insoluble under the prevailing chemical environment. The obtained ratio of Al, Fe, Mg and most heavy metals to P was comparable to wet process phosphoric acid. Therefore......Phosphorus recycling from secondary materials like sewage sludge ashes offers an alternative to mining of phosphates from primary resources and a mean to counteract the current phosphorous rock depletion concern. A separation of P from the bulk ash is normally required, due to its low plant......, this sequential process was found to be suitable to recycle P and potentially use it in the production of common fertilizers like diammonium phosphate. ...

  1. Chemical and microbiological attributes of an oxisol treated with successive applications of sewage sludge¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pires Bueno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on sewage sludge (SS have confirmed the possibilities of using this waste as fertilizer and/or soil conditioner in crop production areas. Despite restrictions with regard to the levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE and pathogens, it is believed that properly treated SS with low PTE levels, applied to soil at adequate rates, may improve the soil chemical and microbiological properties. This study consisted of a long-term field experiment conducted on a Typic Haplorthox (eutroferric Red Latosol treated with SS for seven successive years for maize production, to evaluate changes in the soil chemical and microbiological properties. The treatments consisted of two SS rates (single and double dose of the crop N requirement and a mineral fertilizer treatment. Soil was sampled in the 0-0.20 m layer and analyzed for chemical properties (organic C, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb and microbiological properties (basal respiration, microbial biomass activity, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, and protease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Successive SS applications to soil increased the macro- and micronutrient availability, but the highest SS dose reduced the soil pH significantly, indicating a need for periodic corrections. The SS treatments also affected soil microbial activity and biomass negatively. There were no significant differences among treatments for maize grain yield. After seven annual applications of the recommended sludge rate, the heavy metal levels in the soil had not reached toxic levels.

  2. Radioactive contamination in the Bologna sewage system due to nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, G.; Bernardi, T.; Tubertini, O.; Bergamini, B.; Marengo, M.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid wastes produced by the city of Bologna and surrounding areas are collected by a sewage system, leading to a depuration plant. At present, the capacity of the sewage system is about 230,000 m 3 per day, half of which is treated by the depurator. The incoming flow is fairly constant throughout the year, except for August when, owing to factory shut-down for holidays, there is a decrease of about 60,000 m 3 per day. The treatment of of liquid waste in the depurator is in four phases : primary decantation, active oxidation, active decantation, and disinfection. After treatment lasting 12-13 hours, clarified liquids are discharged into the Navile canal. This leads to the Reno river and then to the Adriatic sea. Muds produced during decantation are further treated and reduced to ashes (within 24-48 hours) that are then stored. Since the sewage system also collects liquid waste from two nuclear medicine departments (Malpighi and Maggiore hospitals), we decided to measure radioactivity in the liquids both at entrance and at exit from the depurator, and in the muds and ashes produced by treatment

  3. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  4. Contamination of a municipal sewage system with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) with precipitation. Phase 1 (1990-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Reissinger, M.; Horstmann, M.; Kaune, A.; Buresch, H.; Hutzinger, O.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to estimate and assess the contamination of a municipal sewerage with PCDD/F through precipitation. Potential sources such as the rainwash of rooves and roads were examined directly. The last stages in the sewage transport are waters or water purification plants. Primary sludge, the most important accumulating compartment for PCDD/F, was also examined. (BBR) [de

  5. Environmental compatibility of chemicals for sewage treatment; Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Chemikalien zur Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, H.; Obst, K.; Friedrich, C.; Pattard, M.; Pluta, H.J.; Hahn, J.

    1997-05-30

    Due to the use of chemicals for waste water treatment the treated waste water and the effluents are polluted by the accompanying substance matrix of the chemicals. Furthermore, because of overstoichiometric dosage or additives also a not reacting part of toxic substances gets into the treated waste water and effluents. Therefore it is necessary to prevent that through waste water treatment further environmentally incompatible substances get into the waters. Within the framework of a research project promoted by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety proposals were made for guide values and respectively limit values for coagulant and flocculant salts, lime products, neutralising agents, technical hydrochloric acid, technical sulphuric acid, polyacrylamides and organic sulphuric compounds. In contrast to most of the anorganic chemicals for waste water treatment, which show only a relatively low increase of heavy metal concentrations caused by the accompanying substance matrix, organic chemicals for sewage treatment are partly considered to be problematic substances because of an adverse combination of characteristics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch den Einsatz von Chemikalien zur Behandlung von Abwaessern gelangen - Verunreinigungen durch die Nebenstoff-Matrix der eingesetzten Behandlungschemikalien in das behandelte Abwasser und in die Gewaesser und - durch ueberstoechiometrische Dosierung oder Additive tritt der nicht reagierende Teil toxischer Substanzen ebenfalls im behandelten Abwasserablauf und im Gewaesser auf. Vor diesem Hintergrund gilt es zu verhindern, dass durch Massnahmen der Abwasserbehandlung zusaetzlich umweltunvertraegliche Stoffe in die Gewaesser eingetragen werden. Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit gefoerderten Forschungsvorhabens wurden Vorschlaege fuer Richtwerte bzw. Anforderungen an Faellungs- und Flockungssalze, Kalkprodukte, Natronlauge, Soda, Salzsaeure

  6. Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of fecal microbial communities and overlap among human and other animal sources have made it difficult to identify source-specific fecal indicator bacteria. However, the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies now provides increased sequencing power to resolve microbial community composition within and among environments. These data can be mined for information on source-specific phylotypes and/or assemblages of phylotypes (i.e., microbial signatures). We report the development of a new genetic marker for human fecal contamination identified through microbial pyrotag sequence analysis of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence analysis of 37 sewage samples and comparison with database sequences revealed a human-associated phylotype within the Lachnospiraceae family, which was closely related to the genus Blautia. This phylotype, termed Lachno2, was on average the second most abundant fecal bacterial phylotype in sewage influent samples from Milwaukee, WI. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Lachno2 and used it along with the qPCR-based assays for human Bacteroidales (based on the HF183 genetic marker), total Bacteroidales spp., and enterococci and the conventional Escherichia coli and enterococci plate count assays to examine the prevalence of fecal and human fecal pollution in Milwaukee's harbor. Both the conventional fecal indicators and the human-associated indicators revealed chronic fecal pollution in the harbor, with significant increases following heavy rain events and combined sewer overflows. The two human-associated genetic marker abundances were tightly correlated in the harbor, a strong indication they target the same source (i.e., human sewage). Human adenoviruses were routinely detected under all conditions in the harbor, and the probability of their occurrence increased by 154% for every 10-fold increase in the human indicator concentration. Both Lachno2 and human Bacteroidales increased specificity to

  7. Enhancing sewage sludge dewaterability by bioleaching approach with comparison to other physical and chemical conditioning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Dianzhan; Zhou, Lixiang

    2012-01-01

    The sewage sludge conditioning process is critical to improve the sludge dewaterability prior to mechanical dewatering. Traditionally, sludge is conditioned by physical or chemical approaches, mostly with the addition of inorganic or organic chemicals. Here we report that bioleaching, an efficient and economical microbial method for the removal of sludge-borne heavy metals, also plays a significant role in enhancing sludge dewaterability. The effects of bioleaching and physical or chemical approaches on sludge dewaterability were compared. The conditioning result of bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans on sludge dewatering was investigated and compared with the effects of hydrothermal (121 degrees C for 2 hr), microwave (1050 W for 50 sec), ultrasonic (250 W for 2 min), and chemical conditioning (24% ferric chloride and 68% calcium oxide; dry basis). The results show that the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) or capillary suction time (CST) of sludge is decreased by 93.1% or 74.1%, respectively, after fresh sludge is conditioned by bioleaching, which is similar to chemical conditioning treatment with ferric chloride and calcium oxide but much more effective than other conditioning approaches including hydrothermal, microwave, and ultrasonic conditioning. Furthermore, after sludge dewatering, bioleached sludge filtrate contains the lowest concentrations of chroma (18 times), COD (542 mg/L), total N (TN, 300 mg/L), NH4(+)-N (208 mg/L), and total P (TP, 2 mg/L) while the hydrothermal process resulted in the highest concentration of chroma (660 times), COD (18,155 mg/L), TN (472 mg/L), NH4(+)-N (381 mg/L), and TP (191 mg/L) among these selected conditioning methods. Moreover, unlike chemical conditioning, sludge bioleaching does not result in a significant reduction of organic matter, TN, and TP in the resulting dewatered sludge cake. Therefore, considering sludge dewaterability and the chemical properties of sludge

  8. Responses and Remediating Effects of Pennisetum hydridum to Application of Heavy-Metals-Contaminated Chicken Manures and Sewage Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xi-na

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pennisetum hydridum is a rapid growth, large biomass and multi-stress resistant plant. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the bioremediation effects of P. hydridum by 2 kg heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contaminated chicken manure or sewage sludge mixing with 18 kg of lateritic red soil. The growth and heavy metal uptake of P. hydridum were measured in order to assess the phytoremediation potential. Results showed that P. hydridum growed well in all treatments and the best appeared in chicken manure. The biomass of plant in treatments with chicken manure, sewage sludge, and the control was 736.56±29.21, 499.99±32.01 g·pot-1, and 466.89±37.08 g·pot-1, respectively. The heavy metals in the soils were reduced significantly at the 200 d after planting P. hydridum in fall. The removing percentage of total Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in soil was 1.90%~4.52%, 3.96%~5.72%, 0.53%~1.24% and 10.34%~17.14% respectively. The best effect of removing Zn, Cd and Pb appeared in chicken manure treatment was 89.74, 0.68 mg and 19.18 mg. The best effect of removing Cu appeared in sludge treatment was 16.84 mg. The results indicated that P. hydridum could be used for removement of the heavy metals from the heavy metal contaminated soils which could be considered as an potential plant for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  9. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  10. Chapter 7. Monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter deals with the monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring. There are presented: the concept o monitoring of the environment of the Slovak Republic; unified monitoring system and complex information about state and development of the environment; analytical methods determination of chemical contaminants in the environment

  11. Chemical composition of Clarias Lazera (cuv and val., 1840) as an indicator of fish raising in treated sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Elkareem, Manal Mohamed El Hassan

    1998-07-01

    The present study is one of the pioneer studies dealing with the possibility of growing fish in treated sewage water in Sudan. Khartoum sewage treatment plant - Green Belt area - was the main study site for this work, where fish was some how introduced to the canal which receives water from the last stage of treatment. Fish have reached large sizes and numbers, they are highly consumed by people of the area and widely marketed in the nearby localities. So this study aimed to discuss the potential health associated with the utilization of such fish for food, throwing light, on the advantages and disadvantages of fish culture in treated sewage effluent. The research was directed towards the study of the chemical composition of Clarias lazera (Cuv. and Val., 1840) (Garmout fish) being the only fish species in the area during the course of this study . Fish samples were collected from the Green Belt and the White Nile at the vicinity of Jebel Aulia reservoir which was taken as a control area for (April 1995 - April 1996). Basic biology was studies for each specimen, the concentrations of some of the hazardous and potentially hazardous heavy metals were investigated in the flesh of 30, randomly selected fish samples from both study sites, beside the major chemical body constituents : fats, proteins, moisture and ash in all specimens, to determine the quality of the flesh> Data obtained was analyzed, trying to correlate fish chemical composition to the surrounding environment. Treated sewage-fish showed higher weights and lengths than natural water-fish from the White Nile. Most of the hazardous metals investigated in the muscle tissues of treated sewage-fish were found to be of insignificant variation from that of natural water-fish (Mercury and Lead). They were found to be at lower levels than what is recommended by the International Agencies human consumption. The essential micronutrients for fish like Copper, Ferric (Iron) and Zinc showed significantly higher levels

  12. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  13. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  14. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  15. Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters.

  16. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  17. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  18. Effect of sewage sludge hydrochar on soil properties and Cd immobilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Zhai, Yunbo; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    To investigate hydrochar as a soil amendment for the immobilization of Cd, the characteristics of hydrochars (HCs) under three temperatures and residence times, were studied, with a particular interest in soil properties, as well as the speciation, availability and plant uptake of Cd. HCs were obtained by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction of sewage sludge (SS). Based on the study of HC properties, we found that HCs present weak acidity with relatively high ash content and low electrical conductivity (EC) values. The addition of HCs to soil decreased soil pH and EC values but increased the abundance of soil microorganism. HCs also promoted the transformation of Cd from unstable to stable speciation and can decrease the content of phyto-available Cd (optimum condition and efficiency: A13, 2 15.38%), which restrained cabbage from assimilating Cd from soil both the aboveground (optimum condition and efficiency: A35, 52.29%) and underground (optimum condition and efficiency: C15, 57.53%) parts of it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence and persistence of organic emerging contaminants and priority pollutants in five sewage treatment plants of Spain: Two years pilot survey monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, M.J. Martínez; Gomez, M.J.; Herrera, S.; Hernando, M.D.; Agüera, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work summarized all results obtained during almost two-years of a monitoring programme carried out in five municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the north, centre and south-east of Spain. The study evaluated the occurrence and persistence of a group of 100 organic compounds belonging to several chemical groups (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and metabolites). The average removal efficiencies of the STPs studied varied from 20% (erythromycin) to 99% (acetaminophen). In analysed samples, we identified a large number of compounds at mean range concentrations between 7–59,495 ng/L and 5–32,720 ng/L for influent and effluent samples, respectively. This study also identified 20 of the mostly detected and persistent compounds in wastewater effluent, of which hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, gemfibrozil, galaxolide and three metabolites (fenofibric acid, 4-AAA and 4-FAA), presented the highest average contribution percentages, in relation to the total load of contaminants for the different STPs effluent studied. Highlights: ► The results summarize two-years of a monitoring programme. ► 100 organic compounds (priority substances and emerging contaminants) were analysed. ► The removal efficiency of 5 STPs of Spain was evaluated. ► The presence of target compounds in treated wastewater was also checked. ► The most frequently drugs detected were: antibiotics< anti-inflammatories<β-blockers. - Antibiotics and analgesics/anti-inflammatories were the most frequently drugs detected, following by some β-blockers, synthetic fragrances, lipid regulators and diuretics.

  20. Contaminant removal performances on domestic sewage using modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic process and micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Jingqing; Liu, Yifan; Xiao, Shuai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Zhang, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from domestic sewage in a sequencing batch reactor with added new materials. A modified anoxic/anaerobic/oxic (MAAO) process, integrating a micro-electrolysis (ME) bed in an anoxic tank, and complex biological media (CBM) in anoxic, anaerobic and oxic tanks to treat domestic sewage, and their performances were investigated. The MAAO system was operated at controlled hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) at 75%. The results showed that the MAAO system could effectively remove COD, TN and TP with average rates of 93%, 80% and 94%, respectively, in March, and 94%, 76% and 91%, respectively, in August. In this system, TP was primarily removed from the anoxic tank regardless of the operational conditions; removal contribution ratios to TP of the anoxic tank reached 56% both in March and August, indicating that the ME bed can effectively enhance phosphorus removal. TN was primarily removed from the anoxic and anaerobic tanks; removal contribution ratios to TN of anoxic and anaerobic tanks reached 36-38% and 37-38%, respectively. The oxic tank had the highest share of COD removal (56% both in March and August) in the removal of phosphorus. The outflow concentrations of COD, TN and TP were 3-46, 7-14 and 0.3-0.5 mg/L, respectively, in March, and 26-49, 9-15 and 0.04-0.1 mg/L, respectively, in August. COD and TN removal performances indicated that the innovative materials of the ME bed and CBM can effectively enhance COD and TN removal.

  1. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  2. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  3. National inventory of alkylphenol ethoxylate compounds in U.S. sewage sludges and chemical fate in outdoor soil mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the first nationwide inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS) using samples from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 national SS survey. Additionally, analysis of archived 3-year outdoor mesocosm samples served to determine chemical fates in SS-amended soil. Nonylphenol (NP) was the most abundant analyte (534 ± 192 mg/kg) in SS composites, followed by its mono- and di-ethoxylates (62.1 ± 28 and 59.5 ± 52 mg/kg, respectively). The mean annual load of NP and its ethoxylates in SS was estimated at 2408–7149 metric tonnes, of which 1204–4289 is applied on U.S. land. NP compounds showed observable loss from SS/soil mixtures (1:2), with mean half-lives ranging from 301 to 495 days. Surfactant levels in U.S. SS ten-times in excess of European regulations, substantial releases to U.S. soils, and prolonged half-lives found under field conditions, all argue for the U.S. to follow Europe's move from 20 years ago to regulate these chemicals. -- Highlights: ► First national survey of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges. ► Nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates were consistently detected in all samples. ► Levels of NP in U.S. biosolids exceed regulatory limit set by European Union. ► Significant surfactant releases to U.S. soils via biosolids land application. ► Half-lives >300 days for NP and its ethoxylates observed in outdoor soil mesocosms. -- First study providing national inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS), shows significant release of chemicals to U.S. soils through SS land application

  4. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-02-29

    The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  6. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  7. Chemical Contaminants in Raw and Pasteurized Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Cohen, Ronald S; Sakamoto, Pauline; Barr, Dana Boyd; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2018-05-01

    Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA). Human milk was analyzed raw and pasteurized for these chemicals using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the POPs and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for non-POPs. Within the different chemical classes, PBDE47, PCB153, ppDDE, and MEHHP (phthalate metabolite) had the highest median concentrations and were observed in all samples. We also observed chlorpyrifos and BPA in all samples and permethrin in 90% of the samples tested. Only two chemicals, chlorpyrifos and permethrin, were susceptible to substantial degradation from pasteurization, a standard method for processing donated human milk. We detected 19 of 23 chemicals in all of our prepasteurized milk and 18 of 23 chemicals in all of our pasteurized milk. Pasteurization did not affect the presence of most of the chemicals. Future research should continue to explore human milk for potential chemical contamination and as a means to surveil exposures among women and children.

  8. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  9. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  10. Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in a soil amended with repeated sewage sludge application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, I.; Cuevas, G.

    1999-01-01

    A sequential extraction method (KNO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 -EDTA, HNO 3 ) was used to determine the soil fraction of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cr in different plots treated with sewage sludges. The sludges were applied to cropland from 1983 to 1991. Soil samples were collected after the 1st and 5th-year of the last sludge application. Sludge applications increased the INOR-fraction for Zn, Cd, and Cu. Cu was the only element found in the EXCH-fraction. Pb and Cr were found mainly in the RES-fraction. Ni was found in the INOR and OM-fractions. All the metals increased in the more resistant fractions. Sewage sludge applications changed the metals distribution of the soil and this effect has continued for at least 5 years. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  12. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Structural damage and chemical contaminants on reprocessed arthroscopic shaver blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard. To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades. Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination. Controlled laboratory study. Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed. In the first part of the study, structural damage on the blades after 3 reprocessings was compared to that after 1 reprocessing using optical microscopy. In the second part, surface damage was observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; elemental and chemical analyses of contaminants found by the microscopy were performed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical microscopic examination revealed abrasion on the surface of the inner blade and cracks on the inner tube after 1 reprocessing. These changes were more evident after 3 reprocessings. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the blade reprocessed once showed contaminants containing calcium, carbon, oxygen, and silicon, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated biological protein consisting mainly of collagen, some type of salts, and polycarbonate used in plastic molding. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the reprocessed abrader revealed contaminants containing carbon, calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed H2O, hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyl proteins. Scanning Auger microscopy showed that the tin-nickel plating on the moving blade and abrader was missing in some locations. This is the first study to evaluate both mechanical damage and chemical contaminants containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and salts

  15. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads ( P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  16. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment--forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-06-01

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs.

  17. Archaeological recording and chemical stratigraphy applied to contaminated land studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos-Jones, Effie; Hall, Allan J

    2011-11-15

    The method used by archaeologists for excavation and recording of the stratigraphic evidence, within trenches with or without archaeological remains, can potentially be useful to contaminated land consultants (CLCs). The implementation of archaeological practice in contaminated land assessments (CLAs) is not meant to be an exercise in data overkill; neither should it increase costs. Rather, we suggest, that if the excavation and recording, by a trained archaeologist, of the stratigraphy is followed by in-situ chemical characterisation then it is possible that much uncertainty associated with current field sampling practices, may be removed. This is because built into the chemical stratigraphy is the temporal and spatial relationship between different parts of the site reflecting the logic behind the distribution of contamination. An archaeological recording with chemical stratigraphy approach to sampling may possibly provide 'one method fits all' for potentially contaminated land sites (CLSs), just as archaeological characterisation of the stratigraphic record provides 'one method fits all' for all archaeological sites irrespective of period (prehistoric to modern) or type (rural, urban or industrial). We also suggest that there may be practical and financial benefits to be gained by pulling together expertise and resources stemming from different disciplines, not simply at the assessment phase, but also subsequent phases, in contaminated land improvement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...

  19. Chemical speciation and behaviour of cyanide in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is present as a contaminant of the soil on several hundred (former) industrial sites in the Netherlands. The risk for the occurrence of adverse effects on human health and the environment strongly depends on the chemical form in which cyanide is present and on the behaviour of this

  20. Estimating chemical footprint: Contamination with mercury and its compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasova, Natalia; Makarova, Anna; Fantke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -SETAC scientific consensus model USEtox, which is recommended for and widely applied in life cycle impact assessment. Our approach was tested using the example of mercury, which has been shown to be a hazardous pollutant at regional and global scales. Results show that the main contribution to the overall chemical......Chemical pollution is a problem of global importance. However, there are currently no agreed approaches for integrated environmental impact assessment (EIA) of chemical effects at global scale. We present a new systems-based approach to EIA of chemicals. Our methodology considers propagation...... of chemical pollutants in the environment, in conjunction with the approach followed in the Russian regulatory system. To estimate chemical footprints related to environmental contamination by potentially toxic substances, measured environmental concentrations were combined with results from the UNEP...

  1. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  2. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: xingmeiyan@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and

  3. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. ► Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. ► The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10 3 and 10 6 Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00–3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00–4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost.

  4. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  5. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  6. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  7. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical speciation and transformation of mercury in contaminated sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Drott, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Biomagnification of mercury (Hg) in aquatic food webs occurs almost exclusively as mono-methyl Hg (MeHg). In this thesis, the influence of chemical speciation and environmental conditions on transformations of inorganic Hg (HgII) and MeHg was studied at eight sites in Sweden with Hg contaminated sediments. The source of contamination was either Hg0(l) or phenyl-Hg, and total Hg concentrations ranged between 1.0-1100 nmol g-1. The environmental conditions, e.g. salinity, temperature climate, p...

  9. Levels of chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U. S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, J.W.; Hammons, A.S.

    1978-08-01

    Data are presented on the levels of all chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissues including blood, urine, breast milk, and tissue samples obtained at autopsy. Most data results from specific surveys to determine health hazards. The roles of trace elements and recognition of the need to determine baseline levels of chemicals introduced into the environment are factors which have motivated surveys by individual investigators. Thus, most data on chemicals in human tissues record levels of pesticides (e.g., DDT and metabolites), levels of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, or levels of nutritionally essential elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and fluoride. Data available on iron and calcium are not presented as their presence in the environment is generally not considered hazardous. Data on several uncommon chemicals, such as indium and ytterbium, are included basically as items of interest and to further document their presence in healthy individuals. Baseline data were presented where available to provide perspective as to chemical levels which might be expected under conditions where exposure could be considered normal or not directly related to a pollutant source. Nearly 600 cited surveys or investigations, most of which were reported within the past decade, are listed. Ninety-four different chemical contaminants, primarily trace metals and organochlorine pesticides, are reported. It is estimated that over 75% of the data published during the past 30 years on chemical contaminants derived from environmental pollution and found in human tissue in the United States are represented in this report.

  10. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Bioprocessing of sewage sludge for safe recycling on agricultural land - BIOWASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Christensen, Nina; Batstone, Damien John; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lichtfouse, Eric; Elbisser, Brigitte; Rogers, Kayne; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Dernaix, Laurence; Caria; Giovanni; Metzger, Laure; Borghi, Veronica; Montcada, Eloi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal and handling of sewage sludge are increasing problems in Europe due to the increasing quantities of the sewage sludge produced. A large amount of the sewage sludge contains small fractions of toxic chemicals, which results in problems with safe use of the sewage sludge on agricultural land. From an ecological and economical point of view, it would be essential to establish methodologies, which could allow sewage sludge to be reused as fertilizers on agricultural land. Energy efficient biotreatment processes of organic waste are, therefore, of crucial importance. BIOWASTE will offer an integrated study of this area. The typical composition of sewage sludge will be characterized with regard to key contaminating compounds. The following compounds will be in focus: Emulsifying agents such as nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from incomplete combustion processes and phthalates, which are used as additives in plastics and surfactants such as linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS). Analytical techniques suitable for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chemical species involved in the processes under investigation will be determined. Bacteria that are able to degrade selected contaminating compounds under anaerobic and aerobic conditions will be isolated, characterized and bioaugmented for decontamination of sewage sludge through bioprocessing. Aerobic, anaerobic and combination of aerobic/anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge will be applied. A mathematical model will be developed to describe the biodegradation processes of the contaminating compounds after establishing the kinetic parameters for degradation of contaminating compounds. The bioprocessed sewage sludge will be used in eco- and plant- toxicology tests to evaluate the impact of the xenobiotics on the environment. Methodologies will be developed and applied to assess the cleanliness of the bioprocessing as a safe method for waste

  12. Energy Effectiveness of Direct UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment of Estrogenic Chemicals in Biologically Treated Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla M. S. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous exposure of aquatic life to estrogenic chemicals via wastewater treatment plant effluents has in recent years received considerable attention due to the high sensitivity of oviparous animals to disturbances of estrogen-controlled physiology. The removal efficiency by direct UV and the UV/H2O2 treatment was investigated in biologically treated sewage for most of the estrogenic compounds reported in wastewater. The investigated compounds included parabens, industrial phenols, sunscreen chemicals, and steroid estrogens. Treatment experiments were performed in a flow through setup. The effect of different concentrations of H2O2 and different UV doses was investigated for all compounds in an effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant. Removal effectiveness increased with H2O2 concentration until 60 mg/L. The treatment effectiveness was reported as the electrical energy consumed per unit volume of water treated required for 90% removal of the investigated compound. It was found that the removal of all the compounds was dependent on the UV dose for both treatment methods. The required energy for 90% removal of the compounds was between 28 kWh/m3 (butylparaben and 1.2 kWh/m3 (estrone for the UV treatment. In comparison, the UV/H2O2 treatment required between 8.7 kWh/m3 for bisphenol A and benzophenone-7 and 1.8 kWh/m3 for ethinylestradiol.

  13. Disinfectant properties of acid mine drainage: its effects on enteric bacteria in a sewage-contaminated stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, S.T.; Celements, C.M.; Ostrowski, D.; Hanlon, T. [St. Francis College, Loretto, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1996-09-01

    Studies conducted in a Cambria County, Pennsylvania, acid mine drainage stream suggest that mine drainage rapidly reduces in situ populations of fecal bacteria associated with inputs of untreated sewage. The density of lactose-fermenting bacteria, mostly coliform species from sewage, declined 1000-fold over a distance of less than 100 m following the input of high acid (pH 3.5 to 4.0), high ferrous iron (45 mg/l) acid mine drainage. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from the stream, identified, and tested for tolerance to acid mine drainage by exposing cells to drainage for 10 minutes at 0 or 37{degree}C. Populations of all tested isolates were reduced by this treatment, but some isolates were significantly less affected than others. Thus, while mine drainage may act as a disinfectant, it may not reduce all populations of disease-causing intestinal bacteria at an equal, rapid rate.

  14. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  15. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  16. Fate of emerging and priority micropollutants during the sewage sludge treatment: Case study of Paris conurbation. Part 1: Contamination of the different types of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Patureau, D; Vulliet, E; Delgenes, N; Danel, A; Deshayes, S; Eudes, V; Guerin, S; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2017-01-01

    This article provides data on the contamination of different kinds of sludge (raw, centrifuged, digested, thermally dried sludge and sludge cake) from Paris conurbation by 71 various pollutants including pharmaceutical products (PHPs), hormones, perfluorinated acids (PFAs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alkylphenols (APs), phthalates (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Very high contents of LAS (0.1-10g/kg dry matter - DM) compared to other compounds were found in all types of sludge followed by DEHP (10-100mg/kg DM) and fluoroquinolones (1-100mg/kg DM). APs were measured at intermediary contents in Parisian sludge, lying in the 2-20mg/kg DM range. Finally, hormones, PAHs, PCBs, PAEs, PFAs and the remaining PHPs were all found at contents lower than 1mg/kg DM. For most compounds (PHPs, PFOS, DEHP, PAHs), no significant differences in the micropollutant contents were found for similar types of sludge from different WWTP in Paris, highlighting the homogeneity of sludge contamination in downstream Paris catchment. The variability of concentration is rather high (coefficient of variation >100%) for several PHPs, PFAs or PCBs while it is moderate (PFAs, APs and PCBs. During sludge treatment (centrifugation, digestion, thermal drying, sludge conditioning+press filtration), the hormones, LAS, APs, PAHs, DEHP and PCBs concentrations increased, while those of PHPs and PFAs decreased. In the case of digestion, the increase of content can be explained by no pollutant removal or a lower removal than DM removal (concentration phenomenon) whereas the decrease underlines that the compound is more removed than the DM. In any case, these concentration variations presuppose the mechanisms of dissipation that could be attributed to volatilization, biotic or abiotic transformation (complete or with metabolites production), bound residues formation. In addition, data on sludge liquors - centrifuged (CW) and condensed (TDW) waters

  17. Emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds during different sewage sludge chemical conditioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Guang-Qian; Hu, Hong-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Jia-Kuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Hong, E-mail: hyao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and COS are emitted during different sludge conditioning processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} generation increase in the acidic environment created by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaO leads to the conversion of free ammonia or protonated amine to volatile NH{sub 3}. - Abstract: Chemical conditioners are often used to enhance sewage sludge dewaterability through altering sludge properties and flocs structure, both affect odorous compounds emissions not only during sludge conditioning but also in subsequent sludge disposal. This study was to investigate emission characteristics of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) generated from sewage sludge conditioned by three representative conditioners, i.e., organic polymers, iron salts and skeleton builders, F-S (Fenton's reagent and skeleton builders) composite conditioner. The results demonstrate that polyacrylamide (PAM) has an insignificant effect on emission characteristics of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing odorous compounds, because the properties, sulfur and nitrogen speciations are similar in PAM-conditioned sludge and raw sludge (RS). Significant increases of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S emissions in the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} conditioning process were observed due to the accelerated decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in acidic environment. Fenton peroxidation facilitates the formation of COS. CaO can reduce sulfur-containing gases emission via generation of calcium sulfate. However, under strong alkaline conditions, free ammonia or protonated amine in sludge can be easily converted to volatile ammonia, resulting in a significant

  18. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  19. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-01-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  20. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  1. A case study to detect the leakage of underground pressureless cement sewage water pipe using GPR, electrical, and chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanqun; Jia, Yonggang; Liu, Hongjun; Qiu, Hanxue; Qiu, Dongling; Shan, Hongxian

    2002-03-01

    The exploration and determination of leakage of underground pressureless nonmetallic pipes is difficult to deal with. A comprehensive method combining Ground Penetrating Rader (GPR), electric potential survey and geochemical survey is introduced in the leakage detection of an underground pressureless nonmetallic sewage pipe in this paper. Theoretically, in the influencing scope of a leakage spot, the obvious changes of the electromagnetic properties and the physical-chemical properties of the underground media will be reflected as anomalies in GPR and electrical survey plots. The advantages of GPR and electrical survey are fast and accurate in detection of anomaly scope. In-situ analysis of the geophysical surveys can guide the geochemical survey. Then water and soil sampling and analyzing can be the evidence for judging the anomaly is caused by pipe leakage or not. On the basis of previous tests and practical surveys, the GPR waveforms, electric potential curves, contour maps, and chemical survey results are all classified into three types according to the extent or indexes of anomalies in orderto find out the leakage spots. When three survey methods all show their anomalies as type I in an anomalous spot, this spot is suspected as the most possible leakage location. Otherwise, it will be down grade suspected point. The suspect leakage spots should be confirmed by referring the site conditions because some anomalies are caused other factors. The excavation afterward proved that the method for determining the suspected location by anomaly type is effective and economic. Comprehensive method of GRP, electric potential survey, and geochemical survey is one of the effective methods in the leakage detection of underground nonmetallic pressureless pipe with its advantages of being fast and accurate.

  2. Method of and apparatus for cleaning garments and soft goods contaminated with nuclear, chemical and/or biological contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for decontaminating garments, soft good or mixtures thereof contaminated with radioactive particulates, toxin, chemical, and biological contaminants comprising the steps of: (a) depositing contaminated garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof in a cleaning drum; (b) charging the drum with a cleaning solvent in which the chemical contaminants are soluble; (c) agitating the drum during a wash cycle to separate radioactive, toxin, biological particulate matter of mixtures thereof from the garments; (d) draining the drum of the dry cleaning solvent which contains suspended particulate contaminants and dissolved chemical contaminants; (e) contacting the drained solvent with both a neutralizing agent and an oxidizing agent, the neutralizing agent being selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof and having a concentration greater than one (1.0) normal; (f) rinsing the garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof by circulating clean solvent from a solvent tank through the drum thereby effecting additional removal and flushing of particulate and chemical contaminants; (g) filtering the circulated solvent to remove the particulate material suspended in the solvent prior to addition to the drum; and (h) preferentially adsorbing the chemical contaminants dissolved in the circulated solvent prior to addition to the drum

  3. Distribuição ambiental de poluentes orgânicos encontrados em lodos de esgoto Environmental distribution of the organic contaminants found in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Costa Paraíba

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma modelagem da distribuição ambiental de vinte e nove poluentes orgânicos encontrados em amostras de lodos de esgoto das estações de tratamento de esgoto de Barueri e Suzano, SP. Lodos de esgoto são misturas de produtos orgânicos e inorgânicos gerados nos processos primários e secundários de tratamento que, mediante adequado controle de qualidade, podem ser reutilizados como fertilizantes agrícolas. O modelo de fugacidade nível I foi aplicado a um sistema compartimental hipotético constituído de ar, água, solo, sedimento, biota aquática e plantas. Foi utilizada a massa molecular, a pressão de vapor, a solubilidade em água, a constante de Henry, o coeficiente de partição octanol-água e a meia-vida no solo de cada um dos poluentes. O coeficiente de sorção no solo, os fatores de bioconcentração em organismos aquáticos, raízes e na seiva do xilema de plantas foram calculados por meio de expressões que correlacionam cada um desses parâmetros com o coeficiente de partição octanol-água do poluente. Foram estimados e usados os coeficientes de partição folha-ar e ar-água e o índice GUS de cada poluente. A modelagem e os cálculos dos fatores de bioconcentração e dos coeficientes de partição revelam os compartimentos preferenciais dos poluentes.The objective of this work was to present a model of environmental distribution of twenty-nine organic contaminants found in samples of sewage sludge of the sewage treatment plant of Barueri and Suzano SP, Brazil. Sewage sludge is a mixture of organic and inorganic products generated in primary and secondary processes of treatment that can be reused as fertilizer by the agriculture. The modeling of the contaminants distribution was accomplished by means of the level I fugacity model applied to a hypothetical compartmental system constituted by air, water, soil, sediment, aquatic biota and plants. The molecular weight, vapor pressure

  4. Evaluating effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Petersen, S.O.; Kure, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture may help maintain soil fertility via effects on physical, chemical and biological properties. Efficient use, however, requires an individual assessment of waste products, and effects should be compared with natural variations due to climate and soil......C, as well as in the field. The following properties were monitored: wet-stability of soil aggregates, clay dispersibility, hot-water extractable carbohydrates, resin-extractable P-i, inorganic N, biomass C and N, PLFA profiles, FDA hydrolysis activity, beta-glucosidase activity and CO2 evolution. In general...... amendment on the fraction of soil in wet-stable aggregates, or on the microbiological properties tested, which supported the observation from the incubation study that effects of organic wastes were transient. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Design of radiation-chemical devices with gamma source for sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel'son, Eh.L.; Gol'din, V.A.; Breger, A.Kh.

    1981-01-01

    The semiempirical method of calculating conductivity of radiation- chemical devices (RCD) with γ-sources to purify domestic and industrial drainage waters and other processes in liquid phase systems which meet definite requirements based on taking into account the structure of the technological process, is suggested RCD of a new type is developed. It is coaxially cylindrical. A correcting coefficient which takes into account the difference in the actual time of keeping a current of drainage water in the device and its avaraged calculation value, conditioned by the longtitudinal transfer of a substance in the device, is determined. It is shown that the above RCD productivity can be considerably increased due to creating the structure of adisplacement current which provides the equality of absorbed doses in all its elements [ru

  6. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  8. Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events

  9. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site

  10. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

  11. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valles Adrian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC. Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no

  12. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  13. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara, E-mail: B.Kasprzyk-Hordern@hud.ac.u [University of Huddersfield, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J. [University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  14. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  15. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  16. Physical-chemicals parameters and microbiological indicators in sewage treatment of Ciudad Real; Parametros fisicoquimicos e indicadores microbiologicos en la depuracion de aguas residuales de Ciudad Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Solanilla, E.; Ubeda Iranzo, J.F.; Perez Bencecry, C. [E.U.I. Tecnica Agricola. Ciudad Real. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this work is to find out the possible relationship between some physico-chemical (pH, conductivity dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, DBO, DQO) and sanitary microbiological parameters (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococcus , coliphages) in a sewage treatment. It was carried out in a waste water treatment plant with an activated sludges process of conventional design. The most significative effects that primary treatment and the biological treatment on the parameters analyzed were stablished. On the other hand, effective chlorine doses and contact time were determined for a possible reuse of the treated water. (Author) 16 refs.

  17. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  18. Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

  19. Analysis of coral mucus as an improved medium for detection of enteric microbes and for determining patterns of sewage contamination in reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Erin K.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional fecal indicator bacteria are often subject to a high degree of die-off and dilution in tropical marine waters, particularly in offshore areas such as coral reefs. Furthermore, these microbes are often not associated with human waste, and their presence may not be indicative of health risk. To address the offshore extent of wastewater contamination in the Florida Keys reef tract, we assayed coral surfaces for the presence of human-specific enteric viruses. The overlying water column and surface mucopolysaccharide (mucus) layers from scleractinian corals were sampled from three stations along a nearshore-to-offshore transect beginning at Long Key in the middle Florida Keys, USA. Samples were assayed for standard bacterial water quality indicators (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci) and for human enteroviruses by direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The concentration of the bacterial indicators was greatest at the nearshore station in both the water column and corals, and decreased with distance from shore; no indicator bacteria were detected at the offshore station. Whereas human enteroviruses were not detected in any of the water column samples, they were detected in 50–80% of coral mucus samples at each station. These data provide evidence that human sewage is impacting the reef tract up to ~6.5 km from shore in the middle Florida Keys and that coral mucus is an efficient trap for viral markers associated with anthropogenic pollution.

  20. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A.; Koh, Wee Yin; Paek, Woon K.; Lim, Jeongheui

    2017-01-01

    Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed. PMID:29204118

  1. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed.

  2. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  3. Fluorographene as a Mass Spectrometry Probe for High-Throughput Identification and Screening of Emerging Chemical Contaminants in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Nie, Zhou; Ruan, Ting; Du, Yuguo; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-17

    Mass spectrometry techniques for high-throughput analysis of complex samples are of profound importance in many areas such as food safety, omics studies, and environmental health science. Here we report the use of fluorographene (FG) as a new mass spectrometry probe for high-throughput identification and screening of emerging chemical contaminants in complex samples. FG was facilely synthesized by one-step exfoliation of fluorographite. With FG as a matrix or probe in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- or SELDI-TOF MS), higher sensitivity (detection limits at ppt or subppt levels), and better reproducibility were achieved than with other graphene-based materials due to the unique chemical structure and self-assembly properties of FG. The method was validated with different types of real complex samples. By using FG as a SELDI probe, we could easily detect trace amount of bisphenol S in paper products and high-fat canned food samples. Furthermore, we have successfully identified and screened as many as 28 quaternary ammonium halides in sewage sludge samples collected from municipal wastewater treatment plants. These results demonstrate that FG probe is a powerful tool for high-throughput analysis of complex samples by MS.

  4. Simulating Mobility of Chemical Contaminants from Unconventional Gas Development for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; Edlin, D.; Borrillo-Hutter, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Potential contamination of ground water and surface water supplies from chemical contaminants in hydraulic fracturing fluids or in natural gas is of high public concern. However, quantitative assessments have rarely been conducted at specific energy-producing locations so that the true risk of contamination can be evaluated. The most likely pathways for contamination are surface spills and faulty well bores that leak production fluids directly into an aquifer. This study conducts fate and transport simulations of the most mobile chemical contaminants, based on reactivity to subsurface soils, degradation potential, and source concentration, to better understand which chemicals are most likely to contaminate water resources, and to provide information to planners who wish to be prepared for accidental releases. The simulations are intended to be most relevant to the Niobrara shale formation.

  5. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benon Kwesiga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. Methods We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN method. Results We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5–14 year age group (4.1/10,000. The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49 of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201 of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (ORM-H=4.8, 95% CI: 1.3–18. Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No

  6. A prolonged, community-wide cholera outbreak associated with drinking water contaminated by sewage in Kasese District, western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwesiga, Benon; Pande, Gerald; Ario, Alex Riolexus; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Matovu, Joseph K B; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2017-07-18

    In May 2015, a cholera outbreak that had lasted 3 months and infected over 100 people was reported in Kasese District, Uganda, where multiple cholera outbreaks had occurred previously. We conducted an investigation to identify the mode of transmission to guide control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 February 2015 onwards in a Kasese resident. A confirmed case was a suspected case with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba cultured from a stool sample. We reviewed medical records to find cases. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures among confirmed case-persons and asymptomatic controls, matched by village and age-group. We conducted environmental assessments. We tested water samples from the most affected area for total coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. We identified 183 suspected cases including 61 confirmed cases of Vibrio cholerae 01; serotype Inaba, with onset between February and July 2015. 2 case-persons died of cholera. The outbreak occurred in 80 villages and affected all age groups; the highest attack rate occurred in the 5-14 year age group (4.1/10,000). The outbreak started in Bwera Sub-County bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo and spread eastward through sustained community transmission. The first case-persons were involved in cross-border trading. The case-control study, which involved 49 confirmed cases and 201 controls, showed that 94% (46/49) of case-persons compared with 79% (160/201) of control-persons drank water without boiling or treatment (OR M-H =4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18). Water collected from the two main sources, i.e., public pipes (consumed by 39% of case-persons and 38% of control-persons) or streams (consumed by 29% of case-persons and 24% control-persons) had high coliform counts, a marker of faecal contamination. Environmental assessment revealed evidence of open defecation along the streams. No food items were significantly associated with

  7. Changes in microbiological composition of soils and soil contamination with drug-resistant bacteria caused by the use of sewage sludge in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk-Mazanek, Ewa; Pasonl, Lukasz; Kepa, Urszula

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the use of sewage sludge in nature on biological soil parameters. The study was conducted is field experiment environment (small beds). The sandy soil was fertilized with sewage sludge dried naturally (in heaps) and in solar drying facilities. The fertilization was based on the doses of sewage sludge and manure with the amounts of 10, 20, 30 and 40 Mg/ha. The experiment duration was 3 years. The sanitary status of the soils fertilized with the sludge and manure was evaluated (coliform index, Clostridium perfrinens). Furthermore, the content of pathogenic bacteria was evaluated, with determination of its resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  8. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  9. Effects of chemical contamination on HDPE - thermo-mechanical and characterisation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, G.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE is an important precursor in recycling of plastic packaging and polymer reprocessing. This research involves and discusses the results of an in-depth investigation into the effects of chemically contaminating, using various acids, commercial grade high density polyethylene (HDPE) used commonly in packaging applications. An extensive formulation study was conducted and it became obvious that in some cases degradation had occurred to HDPE when chemically contaminated with particular functional group types. The functional groups in contaminated HDPE were successfully identified. A variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray Florescence, x-ray photo electron spectroscopy could identify compounds such as HCl acid, HNO/sub 3/ acid and other related contaminants. Some chemical additives had effects on the mechanical and thermal properties when added in the most appropriate concentration. The results have shown lower tensile modulus and strength tensile elongation, lower modular weight, melt flow index and crystallinity. The amount of contaminant concentration, the type of chemical functional groups used and the type of test selected to affect degradation are important factors in proving the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE in the melt state. (author)

  10. USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William D. Bostick

    2003-05-01

    Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

  11. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of emerging organic chemicals in urban rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Feng Jiao; Pan, Chang Gui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nai Sheng; Windfeld, Ronja; Salvito, Daniel; Selck, Henriette; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Ying, Guang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Urban rivers may receive contamination from various sources including point sources like domestic sewage and nonpoint sources (e.g., runoff), resulting in contamination with various chemicals. This study investigated the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (3 endocrine disrupting

  12. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  13. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  14. Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Contaminant Hydrology in Cold Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... The chemical thermodynamics of geochemical solutions below 0 deg C is then reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the physical-chemical properties of ice and liquid water at subzero temperatures...

  15. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  16. Chemical Alterations of Pb using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data include chemical composition of Pb contaminated soils by adding FGDG as an amendment. The data shows the changes in Pb speciation to sulfur based minerals....

  17. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  18. Raman spectroscopy-based detection of chemical contaminants in food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy technique has proven to be a reliable method for qualitative detection of chemical contaminants in food ingredients and products. For quantitative imaging-based detection, each contaminant particle in a food sample must be detected and it is important to determine the necessary sp...

  19. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  20. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  1. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  2. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  3. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  4. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately

  5. Effectiveness of DTPA Chelate on Cd Availability in Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Houshyar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on farmlands is a common practice in most countries. Although the practice may play a positive role in plant performance, the organic amendments introduced may increase the soil heavy metals content. This study was conducted in Arak, Iran, to investigate the effectiveness of DTPA chelate on corn Cd availability in a sewage sludge treated soil. The treatments consisted of sewage sludge (0, 15, and 30 t ha-1 polluted with cadmium applied at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1 as well as DTPA applied at 0 and 1.5 mmol kg-1 soil. Corn plants were then grown in the soil in each treatmnent and, on day 60, the physic-chemical characteristics and Cd quantities were measured ion both the corn plants and soil samples. Application of 1.5 m mol of DTPA chelate in soil contaminated with 5 mg Cd led to a significant increase in the soil available Cd content. It was also observed that application of DTPA chelate to soils containing 30 t ha-1 of sewage sludge polluted with 10 mg Cd increased root and shoot Cd concentrations by 17 and 25%, respectively. Results indicated the effectiveness of DTPA chelate in reducing Cd phytoremediation with increasing sewage sludge loading rate. This was evidenced by the lowest phytoremediation effectiveness observed for the treatment with the greatest sewage sludge loading (30 t ha-1 and the lowest cadmium pollution (5 mg Cd.

  6. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately. (ERB)

  7. Chemical Contaminants as Stratigraphic Markers for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Thousands and even millions of years from now, widespread anthropogenic contaminants in sediments would likely persist, incorporated into the geological record. They would inadvertently preserve evidence of our present era (informally designated as the Anthropocene Epoch) characterized by large human populations engaged in intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Hypothetical geologists in the distant future would likely find unusually high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants at stratigraphic levels corresponding to our present time, analogous to the iridium anomaly marking the bolide impact event at the close of the Cretaceous Period. These would include both organic and inorganic substances, such as industrially-derived heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn) and hydrocarbons, both petrogenic (derived directly from petroleum) and pyrogenic (combustion products). While there are natural sources for these materials, such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and oil seeps, their co-occurrence would provide a signature characteristic of human activity. Diagnostic assemblages of organic compounds would carry an anthropogenic imprint. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment sample could distinguish between natural and human sources. Stable isotopic signatures would provide additional evidence. Concentrations of contaminants in the sedimentary record would increase exponentially with increasing proximity to urban source areas, where at present billions of people are collectively consuming vast quantities of fossil fuels and generating large amounts of waste. Aolian and marine transport prior to deposition has been seen at present to globally redistribute detectable amounts of contaminants including Hg and PAHs, even at great distances from principal source areas. For organic contaminants, deposition in an anoxic sedimentary environment could insure their preservation, increasing the likelihood of their inclusion in the

  8. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

  10. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  11. Improved Understanding of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Contaminant Oxidation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    natural oxidant demand •OH hydroxide radical Ox oxidant O3 ozone PCE perchloroethylene HSO5− peroxymonosulfate PNDA p...properties (e.g., soil mineralogy , natural carbon content) affect oxidant mobility and stability in the subsurface, and develop a standardized natural...chlorinated ethenes For contaminant oxidation by activated S2O82−, it is more difficult to develop a general description of kobs vs. T because there are

  12. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  14. Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen ( 15 N / 14 N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon ( 13 C / 12 C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  16. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  17. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  18. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  19. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  20. Radiochemical and chemical contamination of unimproved ecosystems in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Dragovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the contamination of the following mountain ecosystems: Sinjajevina, Durmitor, Bjelasica, Selicevica, Tara and Kopaonik, by analyzing the activity levels of 137 Cs and content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd) in bioindicator organisms (lichens, mosses and mushrooms). High activity levels of 137 Cs remained in all bioindicator species, although the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl happened 15 years ago in 1986. Heavy metals contents were low in nearly all samples of lichens, mosses and mushrooms. Only one high result was found for the content of lead in moss originating from Kopaonik mountain. (author)

  1. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  2. Evaluation and Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals (HMs) in Sewage Sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Liu, Fenwu; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiaomei; Bu, Yushan

    2015-12-11

    Heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge have become the crucial limiting factors for land use application. Samples were collected and analyzed from 32 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Shanxi Province, China. HM levels in sewage sludge were assessed. The multivariate statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the sources of HMs in sewage sludge. HM pollution classes by geochemical accumulation index I(geo) and correlation analyses between HMs were also conducted. HMs were arranged in the following decreasing order of mean concentration: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > As > Hg > Cd; the maximum concentrations of all HMs were within the limit of maximum content permitted by Chinese discharge standard. I(geo) classes of HMs pollution in order from most polluted to least were: Cu and Hg pollution were the highest; Cd and Cr pollution were moderate; Zn, As and Pb pollution were the least. Sources of HM contamination in sewage sludge were identified as three components. The primary contaminant source accounting for 35.7% of the total variance was identified as smelting industry, coking plant and traffic sources; the second source accounting for 29.0% of the total variance was distinguished as household and water supply pollution; the smallest of the three sources accounting for 16.2% of the total variance was defined as special industries such as leather tanning, textile manufacturing and chemical processing industries. Source apportionment of HMs in sewage sludge can control HM contamination through suggesting improvements in government policies and industrial processes.

  3. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  4. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  5. Effects of Physico-Chemical Post-Treatments on the Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production in wastewater treatment plants is increasing worldwide due to the increasing population. This work investigated the effects of ultrasonic (ULS, ultrasonic-ozone (ULS-Ozone and ultrasonic + alkaline (ULS+ALK post-treatments on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Three conditions were tested with different hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10 or 20 days and sludge recycle ratios (R = QR/Qin (%: 50 or 100%. Biogas yield increased by 17.8% when ULS+ALK post-treatment was applied to the effluent of a reactor operating at 20 days HRT and at a 100% recycle ratio. Operation at 10 days HRT also improved the biogas yield (277 mL CH4/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids versus 249 mL CH4/g VSadded in the control. The tested post-treatment methods showed 4–7% decrease in effluent VS. The post-treatment resulted in a decrease in the cellular ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate concentration indicating stress imposed on microorganisms in the reactor. Nevertheless, this did not prevent higher biogas production. Based on the results, the post-treatment of digested sludge or treating the sludge between two digesters is an interesting alternative to pre-treatments.

  6. Leaching of Cs and Sr from sewage sludge ash buried in a landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been found in sewage sludge ash produced in eastern Japan. When such contaminated waste contains less than 8,000 Bq/kg radiocesium, it is being disposed in controlled landfill sites. In order to assess the possible spread of the radionuclides by their leaching from the landfill sites, it is important to know the leaching behavior of the radionuclides from the sewage sludge ash and factors influencing the leaching behavior. In this study, leaching experiments using stable Cs and Sr were conducted for sewage sludge ash under several conditions to investigate effects of chemical composition of leachate, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on Cs and Sr leaching behaviors. In the pH range from 6 to 12, the leaching ratio of Cs or Sr was less than 5.2 or 0.21%, respectively. Additionally, the leaching ratio of Sr decreased with increasing pH of the leachate. In contrast, the higher the pH in the leachate was, the higher the leaching ratio of Cs was. Finally, possible radionuclide leaching from contaminated sewage sludge ash and then radionuclide concentrations in an actual landfill leachate were assessed. It could be suggested that 90 Sr leaching from the landfill site had the least effect on the environment, whereas 134+137 Cs leaching needed to be taken into account for spreading radioactive materials from the landfill site to the environment. (author)

  7. Equilibrium sampling reveals increasing thermodynamic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during sewage sludge digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøholm, Karina Knudsmark; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Jahnke, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The reuse of digested sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as soil fertilizer poses a risk for contamination of soil and water environments. The present study provides a new approach for investigating the exposure of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sewage sludge. The methodology...... (Cfree). The PAHs with logKow > 6 had ARs close to 1.3, whereas PAHs with logKow sediment....

  8. The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Violina R. Angelova; Sava G. Tabakov; Aleksander B. Peltekov; Krasimir I. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on ...

  9. The Physic-chemical and Bacteriological Contamination of Water in Sitnica, Iber and Lushta rivers

    OpenAIRE

    , Flora Zabërgja; , Mihone Kerolli; , Asllan Vitaku; , Afete Musliu

    2016-01-01

    The study on the physic-chemical and bacteriological contamination of water was carried out in three rivers of Mitrovica town, in Kosova. Water quality in the lowland rivers (like Sitnica which crosses central Kosova), Iber and Lushta is very poor owing to a lack of waste water treatment and waste disposal. According to the effluents received, six sampling station were selected. The results obtained shows that bacterial contamination is very frequent, particularly with the pressure of colifor...

  10. Response of rainbow trout transcriptome to model chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, Heikki; Pehkonen, Petri; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Krasnov, Aleksei; Rexroad, Caird; Afanasyev, Sergey; Moelsa, Hannu; Oikari, Aimo

    2004-01-01

    We used high-density cDNA microarray in studies of responses of rainbow trout fry at sublethal ranges of β-naphthoflavone, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, and pyrene. The differentially expressed genes were grouped by the functional categories of Gene Ontology. Significantly different response to the studied compounds was shown by a number of classes, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, signal transduction, oxidative stress, subcellular and extracellular structures, protein biosynthesis, and modification. Cluster analysis separated responses to the contaminants at low and medium doses, whereas at high levels the adaptive reactions were masked with general unspecific response to toxicity. We found enhanced expression of many mitochondrial proteins as well as genes involved in metabolism of metal ions and protein biosynthesis. In parallel, genes related to stress and immune response, signal transduction, and nucleotide metabolism were down-regulated. We performed computer-assisted analyses of Medline abstracts retrieved for each compound, which helped us to indicate the expected and novel findings

  11. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  12. Effect of Particle-size Distribution on Chemical Washing Experiment of Uranium Contaminated Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan Suk; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Kun Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Taken down of nuclear institution was radioactive contaminated concrete over 70% of whole waste. Advanced countries have realized the importance of waste processing. Nuclear institutions keep a lot of radioactive contaminated concrete in internal waste storage. Therefore radioactive contaminated concrete disport to whole waste and reduce for self-processing standard concentration may be disposed of inexpensive more than radioactive waste storage. This study uses mechanical and thermal technology for a uranium contaminated concrete process in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's radioactive waste storage. Mechanical and thermal technologies are divided based on particle size. Each particles-sized concrete analyzed for uranium contamination using an MCA instrument. A chemical washing experiment was carried out

  13. High sensitivity detection and characterization of the chemical state of trace element contamination on silicon wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Pianetta, Piero A; Baur, K; Brennan, S; Homma, T; Kubo, N

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the speed and complexity of semiconductor integrated circuits requires advanced processes that put extreme constraints on the level of metal contamination allowed on the surfaces of silicon wafers. Such contamination degrades the performance of the ultrathin SiO sub 2 gate dielectrics that form the heart of the individual transistors. Ultimately, reliability and yield are reduced to levels that must be improved before new processes can be put into production. It should be noted that much of this metal contamination occurs during the wet chemical etching and rinsing steps required for the manufacture of integrated circuits and industry is actively developing new processes that have already brought the metal contamination to levels beyond the measurement capabilities of conventional analytical techniques. The measurement of these extremely low contamination levels has required the use of synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) where sensitivities 100 times better than conv...

  14. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  15. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability: Large Item Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    CWAs. May cause hardening or swelling of the sealant, which may weaken the seal. Rivet Stainless steel Not expected to have any effect. Not... Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). TOP 08-2-509 22 June 2012 A-2 APPENDIX A. EXPLANATION OF TERMS. Combat Developer. A category of sponsor...Edgewood Chemical Biological Center EMP electromagnetic pulse FD/SC Failure Definition/Scoring Criteria FM Field Manual FP fluorescent particle

  16. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  18. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  19. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  20. Ecological risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at a site with historical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Janes, A.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    An Ecological Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The ERA assessed risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated no undue risk to aquatic biota from radionuclides. Small potential risks were identified for terrestrial biota at limited locations associated with this industrial site. Recommendations are provided for follow-up risk-informed activities. (author)

  1. Applications of micro-spectroscopy and chemical imaging to delineate contaminant associations in heterogeneous mineral environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chemical speciation of a contaminant in the environment controls its mobility, bioavailability and ultimately its toxicity to organisms, including man. Transport models for environmental contaminants have continually failed because of an incomplete understanding of the physicochemical controls regulating the chemical speciation of both inorganic and organic contaminants. One of the greatest analytical difficulties to studying contaminant behavior in the subsurface is the inherent heterogeneity of mineral and organic constituents. Added to the multiplicity, of geological component surfaces that contaminants can interact with is the synergistic (both positive and negative) effects that occur due to non-conservative interactions between these components. Modern spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed quantitative and qualitative information on how contaminants behave within a specific mineral's surface-water interface. In general, the information is so rich as to be un interpretable in heterogeneous systems where multiple binding environments exist on competing multi-mineralic surfaces. None-the-less, it is the behaviour of contaminants in complex heterogeneous environments that is tantamount to understanding and predicting transport behaviour under field conditions. One solution is micro-spot spectroscopy. In micro-spot spectroscopy, chemical composition is determined by dispersing light absorbed or emitted from a highly localized spatial position within a heterogeneous sample. Such examples include FT-IR, Raman, fluorescence, and X-Ray absorption spectroscopies where spatial resolutions of 1 to 10 μm can be achieved. This scale can be still far too large to fully spectroscopically probe binding behaviour that is heterogeneous on colloidal scales ranging down to nanometers. However, it can provide a bridge to established characterization techniques such as optical petrography, since the challenge lies not only in identifying the speciation and

  2. Development of a purification system at Dhruva to treat oil contaminated and chemically impure heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttraway, S.K.; Mishra, V.; Bitla, S.V.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW (thermal) Research reactor uses Heavy Water as moderator, reflector and coolant. Normally during plant operation, the Heavy water from the system gets removed during operational and maintenance activities and this collected heavy water gets degraded and contaminated in the process. The degraded heavy water meeting the chemical specification requirement of the up gradation plant is sent for up gradation. Part of the Heavy water collected is contaminated with various organic and inorganic impurities and therefore cannot be sent for IP up gradation as it does not meet the chemical specification of the up gradation plant. This contaminated Heavy water was being stored in SS drums. Over the years of Reactor operation reasonable amount of contaminated Heavy water got collected in the plant. This Heavy water collected from leakages, during routine maintenance, operational activities and fuelling operation had tritium activity and variety of contamination including oil, chlorides, turbidity due to which the specific conductivity was very high. It was decided to purify this Heavy water in house to bring it up to up gradation plant chemical specification requirement. There were number of challenges in formulating a scheme to purify this Heavy water. The scheme needed to be simple and compact in design which could be set up in the plant itself. It should not pose radiological hazards due to radioactive Heavy water during its purification and handling. The contaminated Heavy water collected in drums had varying chemistry and IP. The purification plant should be able to do batch processing so that the different IP and chemical quality of Heavy water stored in different drums are not mixed during purification. It should be capable of removing the oil, chlorides, turbidity and decrease the conductivity to acceptable limits of the Up gradation plant. A purification plant was developed and commissioned after detail laboratory studies and trials. This paper explains

  3. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Proehl, G.

    1997-01-01

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9 th Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.) [de

  4. Chemical removal of radionuclides in contaminated spinach derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined a simple and effective removal method for contaminated farm products to ensure the relief of farmers and the security of consumers. Removal of radionuclides from spinach by chemical methods was investigated. The result of chemical removal showed that antioxidant agents removed radionuclides from spinach by 70–80% for 131 I and more than 80% for radiocesium. In particular, ascorbic acid is promising as a safe and versatile option. (author)

  5. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  6. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

    2014-09-16

    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. δ(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ∼ 1‰ during metamorphosis, while δ(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ∼ 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ∼ 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

  7. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, de J.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Deliza, R.; Cunha de Andrade, J.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical

  8. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  9. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected ...

  10. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  11. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H 2 S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol R sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  12. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  13. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  14. Sorption kinetics and microbial biodegradation activity of hydrophobic chemicals in sewage sludge: Model and measurements based on free concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Damen, K.; Jager, T.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, a new method is introduced with which the rate-limiting factor of biodegradation processes of hydrophobic chemicals in organic and aqueous systems can be determined. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of a free concentration-based kinetic model with

  15. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  16. Worldwide estimation of river concentrations of any chemical originating from sewage-treatment plants using dilution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Virginie D J; Williams, Richard J; Lofthouse, Caryn; Johnson, Andrew C

    2014-02-01

    Dilution factors are a critical component in estimating concentrations of so-called "down-the-drain" chemicals (e.g., pharmaceuticals) in rivers. The present study estimated the temporal and spatial variability of dilution factors around the world using geographically referenced data sets at 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Domestic wastewater effluents were derived from national per capita domestic water use estimates and gridded population. Monthly and annual river flows were estimated by accumulating runoff estimates using topographically derived flow directions. National statistics, including the median and interquartile range, were generated to quantify dilution factors. Spatial variability of the dilution factor was found to be considerable; for example, there are 4 orders of magnitude in annual median dilution factor between Canada and Morocco. Temporal variability within a country can also be substantial; in India, there are up to 9 orders of magnitude between median monthly dilution factors. These national statistics provide a global picture of the temporal and spatial variability of dilution factors and, hence, of the potential exposure to down-the-drain chemicals. The present methodology has potential for a wide international community (including decision makers and pharmaceutical companies) to assess relative exposure to down-the-drain chemicals released by human pollution in rivers and, thus, target areas of potentially high risk. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  17. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  18. Assessment Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils to Petroleum Compounds and Role of Chemical Fertilizers in the Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Parvizi Mosaed; S. Sobhan Ardakani; M. Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Today oil removal from contaminated soil by new methods such as bioremediation is necessary.  In this paper, the effect of chemical fertilizers and aeration on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil has been investigated. Also the control group, (bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil without treatment by chemical fertilizers and aeration treatment was examined. The condition of experiment is as following: those were treated 70 days in glass columns (30×30×30cm dimensi...

  19. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate

  20. Inventory and systematization of data on radiation-chemical contamination of rivers running along Bryansk-Belarusian 'cesium spot'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Bakarykava, Zh.; Popova, E.; Gorbatova, G.

    2005-01-01

    Inventory and systematization of the data on radioactive-chemical contamination of rivers are made. Systematization of the data on chemical and radiation contamination component of rivers was made with using the index of integrated radiation-chemical surface waters contamination (IRCCI=WCI+RCI). Chemical contamination of surface water has been estimated using water contamination index (WCI). It constitutes an integrated magnitude considering ratios of six more significant pollutants to their maximum concentration limits. In dependence on WCI surface water can be attributed to one of seven classes: from 'clean' (with WCI≤1) to 'extremely dirty' (with WCI>10). At present for estimation of radioactive contamination of surface water only comparison with Republican permissible levels are used. But it is not enough for complex estimation of water quality because it does not enable to estimate the extent of radionuclide exceeding over their permissible levels. Therefore for estimation of radioactive pollution level, water radioactive contamination index (RCI) was applied. It is a sum of ratios of main radionuclide concentrations to their permissible levels. Application of RCI enabled to compare radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl accident. Application of the index of integrated radiation-chemical surface water contamination enabled to obtain the most complete and impartial estimate of surface water quality of some rivers. Retrospective estimation of the water quality shows that in 1990 surface waters of some rivers should be considered as belonging to more contaminated category of quality if radiation component would have been considered. (authors)

  1. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    using two soils with different content of organic carbon (f(oc) of 1.5 and 6.5%, respectively). A quadruple blind test of the ER-V system using glass beads in stead of soil showed an acceptable recovery (65-85%) of all of the 11 VOCs tested. Only for the most volatile compound (heptane, K-H similar...... to 80) an unacceptable recovery was found (9%). The contact time needed for obtaining chemical equilibrium was tested in the ER-H system by performing five test with different duration (1, 2, 4, 7 and 19 days) using the low organic carbon soil. Seven days of contact time appeared sufficient...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...

  2. Surface contamination effects on leaf chemical composition in the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.A.; Franca, E.J.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The exogenous material that adheres to the leaf surface affects the elemental composition of the plant itself, thereby constituting one of the major error sources in plant analysis. The present work investigated the surface contamination of leaves from the Atlantic Forest. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess the efficiency of leaf EDTA-washing. Chemical element concentrations were corrected using Sc (soil tracer) since resuspended soil is the main source of contamination in leaves. As a result, EDTA-washing should be used mainly for the evaluation of terrigenous elements, while the Sc-corrected concentrations are considered satisfactory for the other elements. (author)

  3. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  4. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  5. Levels of chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, J.W.; Hammons, A.S.

    1978-08-01

    Data are presented on the levels of all chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissues including blood, urine, breast milk, and tissue samples obtained at autopsy. Most data results from specific surveys to determine health hazards. The roles of trace elements and recognition of the need to determine baseline levels of chemicals introduced into the environment are factors which have motivated surveys by individual investigators. Thus, most data on chemicals in human tissues record levels of pesticides (e.g., DDT and metabolites), levels of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, or levels of nutritionally essential elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and fluoride. Data available on iron and calcium are not presented as their presence in the environment is generally not considered hazardous. Data on several uncommon chemicals, such as indium and ytterbium, are included basically as items of interest and to further document their presence in healthy individuals. Baseline data were presented where available to provide perspective as to chemical levels which might be expected under conditions where exposure could be considered normal or not directly related to a pollutant source. Nearly 600 cited surveys or investigations, most of which were reported within the past decade, are listed. Ninety-four different chemical contaminants, primarily trace metals and organochlorine pesticides, are reported. It is estimated that over 75% of the data published during the past 30 years on chemical contaminants derived from environmental pollution and found in human tissue in the United States are represented in this report

  6. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  7. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...... components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were...

  8. The Use of Phosphate Amendments for Chemical Immobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M.; Coutelot, F.; Seaman, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Past Department of Energy (DOE) production of nuclear materials has resulted in uranium (U) contaminated soil and groundwater posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. In situ remediation strategies are typically less expensive and rely on the introduction of chemical additives in order to reduce contaminant migration and ultimately the associated exposure hazard. Phosphate addition to U-contaminated subsurface environments has been proposed as a U remediation strategy. Saturated and unsaturated batch experiments were performed to investigate the ability of three different phosphate source treatments: hydroxyapatite (HA), phytic acid (IP6) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to chemically immobilize U in contaminated Savannah River Site (SRS) soil (2,040 mg U/kg soil). Amendment treatments ranged from 925 to 4620 mg P /kg soil. Unsaturated test samples were equilibrated for 3 weeks at 60% of the soil's field capacity, followed by pore-water extraction by centrifugation to provide an indication of the remaining mobile U fraction. Saturated batch experiments were equilibrated on an orbital shaker for 30 days under both oxic and anoxic conditions, with aliquots taken at specific intervals for chemical analysis. In the saturated microcosms, HA decreased the mobile U concentration by 98% in both redox environments and at all treatment levels. IP6 and TPP were able to decrease the soluble U concentration at low treatment levels, but tended to release U at higher treatment levels compared to the control. Unsaturated microcosms also showed HA to be the most effective treatment for immobilizing U, but IP6 and TPP were as effective as HA at the lowest treatment level. The limited contaminant immobilization following TPP and IP6 amendments correlated with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids. For both experiment types, TPP and IP6 samples showed a very limited ortho-phosphate (PO4-) in the solution, indicating the slow mineralization

  9. Microbiological and chemical contamination in different types of food of non-European origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the markets of the European Union (EU the presence of food imported from non-European countries such as Asia, Africa and America is increasingly more widespread. Non-European countries, indeed, are much more competitive in terms of prices compared to European countries. For these reasons, EU has issued important laws. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of these regulations, estimating the levels of microbiological and chemical contamination of food samples of 91 different matrices imported from third countries. The microbiological methods used are those required by the UNI EN ISO, while for the determination of chemical parameters validated methods according to the Standard UNI EN ISO 16140:2003 were used. Our investigation revealed qualitative or quantitative microbial contamination in 23 out of 91 samples analysed (25.2%. We found high total microbial loads in alimentary conserves, multiple bacterial contamination (Salmonella thiphymurium, Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus and viral contamination (Norovirus in shellfish of the species Cassostrea gigas, and the presence of other pathogens in various products such as hamburgers (Yersinia enterocolitica, frozen fish (Listeria monocytogenes and honey (Bacillus cereus. With regard to chemical contamination, 24 samples of different food products were analysed. In 9 samples (37.5%, the levels of the following substances exceeded the permitted limits: histamine (fish conserves, mercury (crab meat, cadmium (crab meat and fish conserves, lead (cheese and honey and polyphosphates (chicken meat. Despite the limited number of samples analysed, these data prompt reflection on the need to implement a more detailed and rigorous activity of monitoring and control in order to guarantee adequate levels of safety with regard to the consumption of foodstuffs imported into the EU from non-European countries.

  10. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  11. Efficiency of modified chemical remediation techniques for soil contaminated by organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, S. N.; Kopytko, M.; Avila, S.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the optimization of innovation chemical techniques in order to improve the remediation of soils contaminated with organochloride pesticides. The techniques used for remediation were dehalogenation and chemical oxidation in soil contaminated by pesticides. These techniques were applied sequentially and combined to evaluate the design optimize the concentration and contact time variables. The soil of this study was collect in cotton crop zone in Agustin Codazzi municipality, Colombia, and its physical properties was measure. The modified dehalogenation technique of EPA was applied on the contaminated soil by adding Sodium Bicarbonate solution at different concentrations and rates during 4, 7 and 14 days, subsequently oxidation technique was implemented by applying a solution of KMnO4 at different concentration and reaction times. Organochlorine were detected by Gas Chromatography analysis coupled Mass Spectrometry and its removals were between 85.4- 90.0% of compounds such as 4, 4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4-DDE, trans-Clordane y Endrin. These results demonstrate that the technique of dehalogenation with oxidation chemistry can be used for remediation soils contaminated by organochloride pesticides.

  12. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  13. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  14. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  15. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production......, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical...... stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality...

  16. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Small Items of Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    contaminated with CWAs. May cause hardening or swelling of the sealant, which may weaken the seal. Rivet Stainless steel Not expected to have any effect...fallout, and nuclear survivability, which covers initial nu- clear weapon effects including Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). Combat Developer . A...EA environmental assessment ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center EMP electromagnetic pulse FD/SC Failure Definition/Scoring Criteria FM

  17. Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, S. A.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Karim, Y.; Loro, P.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229E as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. A 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. Sixteen disinfectant formulations were...

  18. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Sevigny, J.H. [Komex Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H{sub 2}S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol{sup R} sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  20. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ''Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.'' The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue

  1. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  2. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Anne Th; McKnight, Ursula S; Rønde, Vinni; Bjerg, Poul L

    2017-11-15

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality of all three stream compartments - stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment - made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs of chlorinated ethenes and pharmaceutical compounds discharge into the stream every year. The strongly reduced redox conditions in the plume result in high concentrations of dissolved iron and additionally release arsenic, generating the complex contaminant mixture found in the narrow discharge zone. The fingerprint of the plume was observed in the stream several km downgradient, while nutrients, inorganics and pesticides played a minor role for the stream health. The

  3. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  4. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  5. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  6. Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance To Diagnose Hazardous Chemicals in Multiple Contaminated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Gunold, Roman; Mothes, Sibylle; Paschke, Albrecht; Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-08-18

    Aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated with large numbers of chemicals, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by chemical target analyses. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) enables the identification of toxicants in complex contaminated environmental samples. This study suggests pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a confirmation tool for EDA to identify contaminants which actually impact on local communities. The effects of three phytotoxic compounds local periphyton communities, cultivated at a reference (R-site) and a polluted site (P-site), were assessed to confirm the findings of a former EDA study on sediments. The sensitivities of R- and P-communities to prometryn, tributyltin (TBT) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) were quantified in short-term toxicity tests and exposure concentrations were determined. Prometryn and PNA concentrations were significantly higher at the P-site, whereas TBT concentrations were in the same range at both sites. Periphyton communities differed in biomass, but algal class composition and diatom diversity were similar. Community tolerance of P-communities was significantly enhanced for prometryn, but not for PNA and TBT, confirming site-specific effects on local periphyton for prometryn only. Thus, PICT enables in situ effect confirmation of phytotoxic compounds at the community level and seems to be suitable to support confirmation and enhance ecological realism of EDA.

  7. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C.; Fernandes, José O.; Rasmussen, Rie R.; Sloth, Jens J.; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the

  8. Prioritization of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges using Chemical:Gene Interactions in Caged Fish.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene...

  9. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  10. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros Mercadal, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras Riba, Núria; Comas Angelet, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areaswherewater demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, itmust copewith the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging fromtrace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants ...

  11. Study of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Microbial Activities of Sludge and Degradation of Biohazardous Contaminants in the Sewage Sludge Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Libing; Wang Jianlong; Wang Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the response of sewage sludge exposed to 60 Co gamma irradiation at a dose of 0-25 kGy was investigated. Results showed that gamma irradiation could disintegrate sludge flocs and release proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular enzymes into the bulk solution. The maximum oxygen uptake rate decreased by 58%, and 99% of the culturable bacteria were inactivated at 25 kGy. However, the tested protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase showed slight inactivation during irradiation treatment. The efficiency of sludge solubilization reached around 6.5% with a dose of 25 kGy. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the over all reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution. (author)

  12. Study of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Microbial Activities of Sludge and Degradation of Biohazardous Contaminants in the Sewage Sludge Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libing, Chu; Jianlong, Wang; Bo, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2012-07-01

    In this report, the response of sewage sludge exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation at a dose of 0-25 kGy was investigated. Results showed that gamma irradiation could disintegrate sludge flocs and release proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular enzymes into the bulk solution. The maximum oxygen uptake rate decreased by 58%, and 99% of the culturable bacteria were inactivated at 25 kGy. However, the tested protease, superoxide dismutase and catalase showed slight inactivation during irradiation treatment. The efficiency of sludge solubilization reached around 6.5% with a dose of 25 kGy. The efficiency of sludge solubilization with aeration was increased by around 25% compared to that without aeration at an irradiation dose of 2.5-9 kGy. The soluble protein, polysaccharide and humic (like) substance concentrations were higher under aerated conditions. With aeration the over all reaction appears to be oxidative as evidenced by the higher nitrate and nitrite ion concentrations in solution. (author)

  13. Understanding the magnitude of emergent contaminant releases through target screening and metabolite identification using high resolution mass spectrometry: Illicit drugs in raw sewage influents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuett, Nubia V; Batchu, Sudha Rani; Gardinali, Piero R

    2015-01-23

    A QExactive Orbitrap was used for the identification of phase I and II transformation products (TPs) of illicit drugs in raw sewage influents. Two operating modes (targeted MS(2) and Data-dependent screening) were used for data acquisition. Even though, data-dependent scan is a faster route towards the potential identification of metabolites, it suffered from its limitation to provide enough data points across the chromatographic peak during the MS(2) cycle in contrast to targeted MS(2). Therefore, the later technique was implemented as the method of choice in this study for the positive confirmation and quantitation of TPs (n=54). The vast majority of the identified TPs were products of phase I transformation reactions, with the latter being more prevalent in the nature. Estimated mole fractions showed that for a large number of the analytes, TPs must also be monitored in order to fully understand their environmental fate and calculate potential consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  16. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in lettuce grown in peri-urban horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2018-05-14

    Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 μg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 · 10 -5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 μg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  18. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the calculated individual contamination factors, Ni and Zn followed by Cd and Pb posed the highest risk to sewage water contamination. Based on this study, the human health is at risk, since sewage water from the drainage basin has been the source for irrigation water during dry seasons, which might lead to trace ...

  19. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  20. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  2. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  3. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System

  4. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  5. The legacy of sewage sludge disposal in New York bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M.; Casso, M.A. [Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Allison, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., Galveston, TX (United States); Schleel, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    From 1924 until 1987, New York City disposed of sewage sludge by dumping at the 12-mile dumpsite in 20 m of water off the New York-New Jersey coast. Approximately 125 {times} 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} was deposited, peaking in the early 1980`s. The dumpsite is at the head of the Hudson Shelf Valley, a submerged river channel crossing the continental shelf, in a region of sandy sediments that are regularly reworked by wave action. The introduction of the chemically and texturally distinct `sludge` sediment provides a tracer to study how accumulated anthropogenic deposits are dispersed throughout the region or transferred off the shelf. This work, begun in 1992, focuses on the fate of the material in the valley, ``downstream`` from the dumpsite. Geophysical, chemical, and radiological tools were used to delineate the sedimentary processes, the extent of contaminant dispersal, and the longterm fate of the dump spoils. Sediment derived from the sewage sludge has preferentially deposited on the valley floor relative to the surrounding shelf, resulting in unnaturally high accumulation rates in the upper valley. Dark, sludge-derived sediment is being covered by cleaner deposits from 0 to 26 km downvalley from the dumpsite, but ongoing resuspension and transport of the sediment results in a sewage signal in the uppermost sediments up to 80 km from the dumpsite. Both buried and surface ``sludge`` is subject to biological mixing. The patchy occurrence of the black sediment and interbedded sand layers observed downvalley suggest that resuspension and transport occur episodically, probably during major storm events.

  6. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  7. Arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Sewage pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria Nsukka sewage pond was carried out within May and June 2011. The aim was to determine the various arthropod species and its abundance in the sewage pond. The analysis was carried out by two methods, physico-chemical analysis and arthropod faunal studies.

  8. Dosimetry report for the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.T.; McFarland, E.W.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Gamma dose measurements were made at the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. Passive plastic, chemical, and thermoluminescent dosimeters were exposed in the facility under conditions designed to simulate typical plant operation. Absolute dose and dose distribution information were obtained in air, water, compost, fruit, and sewage sludge

  9. Preparation of sewage treatment material PVFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling YANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal operating condition of the sewage treatment material PVFM(polyvinyl formal, the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method are adopted. Single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments are conducted to study the factors including the amount of raw materials, reaction time and reaction temperature influencing the preparation of the material PVFM. The material is characterized by SEM. The properties of the material are explored through the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment. The results show that when PVA mass concentration is 9% (50 mL, cellulose content is 0.4 g, sulfuric acid content is 6 mL, formaldehyde content is 6 mL, SDS content is 0.4 g, carbonate calcium content is 0.8 g, reaction temperature is 30 ℃, the dripping time of sulfuric acid is 9 minutes, the dripping time of formaldehyde is 4 minutes, and the curing time is 8 hours, the material has good physical and chemical property, and the results of the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment show that PVFM has good removal effects on both COD and NH4+-N in simulated sewage. The sewage treatment material PVFM with good properties can be obtained by the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method.

  10. Seasonal changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of sewage sludge incineration residues and their potential for metallic elements and valuable components recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Increasing energy needs, the implementation of the circular economy principles and rising environmental awareness caused that waste management is becoming a major social and economic issue. The EU Member States have committed to a significant reduction in the amount of waste produced and landfilled and to use their inherent energy and raw materials potential. One of the most reasonable option to fulfil these commitments is waste incineration. The aim of the waste incineration is to reduce their volume and toxicity by disinfection and detoxification at high temperatures. Thermal process and reduction of volume allows the recovery of minerals and metallic elements from residues as well as the energy production (waste-to-energy strategy) during incineration. As a result of waste incineration a variety of solid residues (bottom ash, fly ash, air pollution control residues) and technological waste (gas waste, wastewater) are produced. The goal of this study is to characterize fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues formed as a result of municipal sewage sludge incineration in terms of their chemical and mineral composition and their extractive potential. Residues were sampled quarterly to study their seasonal changes in composition. The fly ash was a Si-P-C-Fe-Al dominated material, whereas the APC residues composition was dominated by Na-rich soluble phases. The removal of soluble phase ( 98% of the material) from the APC residues by dissolution in deionised water caused significant mass reduction and concentration of non-soluble elements. The main mineral phases in fly ash were quartz, hematite, Fe-PO4, whitlockite and feldspar, while in APC thenardite, and in lower amount calcite, apatite and quartz were present. The chemical composition of fly ash was practically invariable in different seasons, but significant differences were observed in APC residues. The lowest concentrations of all elements and the highest TOC content were measured in the samples

  11. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  12. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  13. Chemically enhanced mixed region vapor stripping of TCE-contaminated saturated peat and silty clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Cameron, P.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct further testing of MRVS, chemically enhanced with calcium oxide conditioning, on field- contaminated soils collected from beneath the NASA Michoud Rinsewater Impoundment. In this study, residual soil VOC levels as a function of vapor stripping time were measured to quantify VOC removal rates. Physical and chemical soil parameters expected to affect MRVS efficiency were measures. The effects of varying the calcium oxide loadings as well as varying the vapor stripping flow rates on VOC removal were also evaluated. The results of this study will be used to determine whether acceptable removals can be achieved within reasonable treatment times, remediation costs being directly proportional to the latter. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental results of this study, as well as to address issues that were raised after completion of the previous Michoud treatability work

  14. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  15. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  16. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  17. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel', V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu'Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  19. Studies on the remediation of environment contaminated with radioactive pollutants using the chemical separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurotaki, Katsumi; Yonehara, Hidenori; Sahoo, S.K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ishii, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    Remediation of soil and drinking water contaminated with radioactive nuclides is important for the mitigation of radiation exposure. Then we attempted to construct the remediation system including the dose estimation system using the chemical separation technique to remove pollutants from the environment. The information on air dose rate is important for assessment of risk from the radiation exposure. Then we measured the air dose rate and analysed the relationship between air dose rate and the contamination of soil at the area in Russia (Bryansk district) contaminated by Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Moreover, we analysed the soil of Bryansk district on the concentration of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium and on the isotope ratio of strontium. On the other hand, we tried to develop the rapid measurement method of radioactivity of Sr-90 which is one of the dangerous radionuclides, because the method of radioactivity measurement in the literature is too time-consuming. It was reported recently that the molecules containing SH group form the covalent bond with gold atoms at the surface of gold plate and that crown ether compounds have strong affinity to strontium. Then we attempted to synthesize the crown ether containing SH group. In addition, we search the inorganic elements accumulated to special organisms of fishes and other animals in sea in order to find out new reagent for trace elements. Transition metal such as Co, Fe, Ni, Ti, V and Zn were detected from the intracellular granules in the bronchial heart of octopus. (author)

  20. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  1. Bio-chemical remediation of under-ground water contaminated by uranium in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingliang; Li Qian; Zhang Hongcan; Hu Eming; Chen Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    In the process of uranium in-situ leaching, it was serious that strong acid, uranium and heavy metals, and SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- could contaminate underground water. To remedy these pollutants, conventional methods are high-cost and low-efficient, so a bio-chemical remediation method was proposed to cope with the under-ground water pollution in this study. The results showed, in the chemical treatment with Ca(OH)_2 neutralization, pH went up from 2.0 to 7.0, the removal rates of U, Mn"2"+, Zn"2"+, Pb"2"+, SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- were 91.5%, 78.3%, 85.1%, 100%, 71.4% and 2.6% respectively, SO_4"2"- and NO_3"- need to be treated again by bio-method. In the biological process, the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of bioreactor was controlled at 42 h, and 100% NO_3"- and 70% SO_4"2"- in the contaminated water were removed; Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) liquid to H_2S showed better absorption effect, can fully meet the process requirements of H_2S removal. (authors)

  2. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  3. Using proven, cost-effective chemical stabilization to remediate radioactive and heavy metal contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Sogue, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS) has deployed a cost-effective metals stabilization method which can be used to reduce the cost of remediation projects where radioactivity and heavy metals are the contaminants of concern. The Envirobond TM process employs the use of a proprietary chemical process to stabilize metals in many waste forms, and provides an excellent binding system that can easily be compacted to reduce the waste into a shippable brick called Envirobric TM . The advantages of using chemical stabilization are: (1) Low cost, due to the simplicity of the process design and inexpensive reagents. (2) Chemical stabilization is easily deployed in field applications, which limit the amount of shielding and other protective measures. (3) The process does not add volume and bulk to the treated waste; after treatment the materials may be able to remain on-site, or if transportation and disposal is required the cost will be reduced due to lower volumes. (4) No secondary waste. The simplicity of this process creates a safe environment while treating the residues, and the long-term effectiveness of this type of chemical stabilization lowers the risk of future release of hazardous elements associated with the residues. (author)

  4. Review of chemical and electrokinetic remediation of PCBs contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangping; Wang, Yu; Fang, Guodong; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-09-14

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manmade organic compounds, and pollution due to PCBs has been a global environmental problem because of their persistence, long-range atmospheric transport and bioaccumulation. Many physical, chemical and biological technologies have been utilized to remediate PCBs contaminated soils and sediments, and there are some emerging new technologies and combined methods that may provide cost-effective alternatives to the existing remediation practice. This review provides a general overview on the recent developments in chemical treatment and electrokinetic remediation (EK) technologies related to PCBs remediation. In particular, four technologies including photocatalytic degradation of PCBs combined with soil washing, Fe-based reductive dechlorination, advanced oxidation process, and EK/integrated EK technology (e.g., EK coupled with chemical oxidation, nanotechnology and bioremediation) are reviewed in detail. We focus on the fundamental principles and governing factors of chemical technologies, and EK/integrated EK technologies. Comparative analysis of these technologies including their major advantages and disadvantages is summarized. The existing problems and future prospects of these technologies regarding PCBs remediation are further highlighted.

  5. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  6. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

    2007-03-27

    This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching

  8. Sources and contamination rate of port sediments: evidences from dimensional, mineralogical, and chemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Gabriella; Cutroneo, Laura; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Canepa, Giuseppe; Capello, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Ports are complex environments due to their complicated geometry (quays, channels, and piers), the presence of human activities (vessel traffic, yards, industries, and discharges), and natural factors (stream and torrent inputs, sea action, and currents). Due to the many activities that take place in a port, sediments and waters are often contaminated by different kinds of chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, dioxins, pesticides, nutrients, and metals. The contamination rate of a port basin is site specific and depends on the sources of contamination in the nearby urban system as well as the port system itself, such as city discharges and sewers, river intake, vessel traffic, factories (Taylor and Owens, 2009). Moreover, two important sources and vehicles of contaminants are: a) anthropogenic road deposited sediments derived from the runoff of the port and city area, and natural road deposited sediments derived from rivers and torrents, and b) airborne particulate matter and sediments (Taylor and Owens, 2009). The Port of Genoa is situated at the apex of the Ligurian Sea in the north western Mediterranean Sea and is characterised by the presence of several commercial activities that have contributed, over the years, and still contribute today, to the contaminant accumulation in both the water column and the bottom sediments. This port basin includes the mouth of several streams and the mouth of the Bisagno and the Polcevera Torrents, along the banks of which can be found several small towns, quarries, factories, and the suburbs of the city of Genoa, a ferry terminal, different container terminals, marinas, dry docks, the coal power plant of Genoa, and different wastewater treatment plant discharges. Starting from these considerations, we have examined the marine environment of a port from the point of view of the water mass circulation, hydrological characteristics, distribution of the sediment grain size, mineralogical characteristics, and metal concentrations of the

  9. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  10. Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit O'Donovan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although microplastics (MPs are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remains. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE microplastics (11–13 μm, with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene—BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid—PFOS, in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP−16.87 ± 0.22 μg g−1 and PFOS−70.22 ± 12.41 μg g−1 were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L−1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0 and after 3, 7, and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analyzed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels, genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks, and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analyzed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MPs-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed

  11. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a 'haemostatic decontaminant' is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  14. Assessment of an on-line CI-mass spectrometer as a continuous emission monitor for sewage sludge incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.R.; Hallett, D.J.; Resch, R.J.; Villinger, J.; Federer, V.

    1991-01-01

    ELI Eco Technologies Inc. tested two sewage sludge incinerators using regulator methods and a V and F CIMS-500 chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Correlations between dioxins and dibenzofurans from the regulatory MM5 trains and the continuous readings form the CIMS-500 for chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were noted. As well, correlations between chlorinated organics and other volatile organics were obvious under poor combustion conditions. ELI Eco Technologies Inc. recently completed an extensive survey of organic chemical emissions including VOCs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans from two sewage sludge incinerators. The program was funded by the Municipality of Metro Toronto, Environment Ontario, and Environment Canada. Contaminants were measured by regulatory methods (ASME Modified Method 5) and simultaneously with the continuous mass spectrometer. The purpose of the study was to provide regulatory testing and at the same time evaluate the usefulness of the CIMS-500 mass spectrometer in assessing emissions. This paper describes the evaluation of the usefulness of this mass spectrometer

  15. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL can rapidly (<2 h be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the increase in GAL-activity correlated well with the increase in fecal indicator bacteria. The GAL activity in human feces (n = 14 was high (mean activity 7 × 107 ppb MU/hour and stable (1 LOG10 variation, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci varied by >5 LOG10. Furthermore, the GAL-activity per gram feces from birds, sheep and cattle was 2–3 LOG10 lower than the activity from human feces, indicating that high GAL-activity in water may reflect human fecal pollution more than the total fecal pollution. The rapid method can only be used to quantify high levels of human fecal pollution, corresponding to about 0.1 mg human feces/liter (or 103 E. coli/100 mL, since below this limit GAL-activity from non-fecal environmental sources may interfere.

  16. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  17. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.

    to supply P for the next ca. 80 years. Additionaly, the quality of this raw material has deteriorated due to contamination, which has increased processing costs of mineral P fertilizers. The recovery of nutrients, like P, from secondary resources urges. Sewage sludge (SS) and sewage sludge ash (SSA) from...... waste water treatment plants (WWTP) may contain contaminants or unwanted elements regarding specific applications, but they also contain secondary resources of high value. Using these ash as a P resource, while removing the contaminants, seems a sustainable option. The electrokinetic (EK) process can....... This communication aims to discuss preliminary results of the feasibility of EK process to recover P from WWTP target wastes....

  18. Stabilization of contaminated soil and wastewater with chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed chemically Bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology to stabilize the U.S. Department of Energy's problem mixed waste streams, for which no other stabilization technology is suitable. In this technology, solid waste is mixed with MgO and reacted with aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid or acid phosphates at room temperature to form a slurry that sets in ∼2 h into a hard and dense ceramic waste form. Initial studies involved stabilizing the surrogate waste streams and then testing the waste forms for leaching of contaminants. After achieving satisfactory performance of the waste forms, we next incorporated actual waste streams at bench scale and produced waste forms that were then tested with the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). This presentation deals with stabilization of soil contaminated with Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, Ba, and Hg, and of low-level radioactive wastewater. To enhance the contaminant levels in the soil, we further spiked the soil with additional amounts of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg. Both the soil and the wastewater were incorporated in the same waste form by stabilizing them with the CBPC process. The waste forms had a total waste loading of ∼77 wt.% and were dense with an open porosity of 2.7 vol.% and a density of 2.17 g/cm 3 . Compression strength was 4910 psi. The TCLP results showed excellent immobilization of all the RCRA metals, and radioactive contaminant levels were below the detection limit of 0.2 pCi/mL. Long-term leaching studies using the ANS 16.1 procedure showed that the retention of contaminants is excellent and comparable to or better than most of other stabilization processes. These results demonstrate that the CBPC process is a very superior process for treatment of low level mixed wastes; we therefore conclude that the CBPC process is well suited to the treatment of low-level mixed waste streams with high waste loading

  19. Heavy metal recovery from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching, bioleaching and biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ashes from biomass combustion plants contain plant nutrients which makes their application as fertilizers economically interesting. The possibility of recycling the ash can be looked upon as a contribution to obtain a sustainable energy utilization from biomass. The ash contains heavy metals which have to be removed. The possibility of decontaminating the ash by chemical and biological leaching was investigated. The leaching capacity of commercially available organic and inorganic acids and of citric acid produced by the fungus Penicillium simplicissimus were determined. A process for heavy metal recovery from biomass ashes consisting of four steps was designed. All environmentally relevant heavy metals (except lead) were removed from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching. The heavy metals were recovered and enriched by precipitation and subsequent biosorption. Inactivated bacteria and fungi were used as biosorbents. The overall costs and the washing-out of plant nutrients from the ashes by chemical leaching were drawbacks of the metal recovering process. Biosorption in combination with existing processes of waste water treatment would offer another promising possibility for achieving the low Austrian limiting values for heavy metals in waste water. (author)

  20. Determination of chemical availability of cadmium and zinc in soils using inert soil moisture samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, B P; Chaudri, A M; McGrath, S P; Giller, K E

    1998-01-01

    A rapid method for extracting soil solutions using porous plastic soil-moisture samplers was combined with a cation resin equilibration based speciation technique to look at the chemical availability of metals in soil. Industrially polluted, metal sulphate amended and sewage sludge treated soils were used in our study. Cadmium sulphate amended and industrially contaminated soils all had > 65% of the total soil solution Cd present as free Cd2+. However, increasing total soil Cd concentrations by adding CdSO4 resulted in smaller total soil solution Cd. Consequently, the free Cd2+ concentrations in soil solutions extracted from these soils were smaller than in the same soil contaminated by sewage sludge addition. Amendment with ZnSO4 gave much greater concentrations of free Zn2+ in soil solutions compared with the same soil after long-term Zn contamination via sewage sludge additions. Our results demonstrate the difficulty in comparing total soil solution and free metal ion concentrations for soils from different areas with different physiochemical properties and sources of contamination. However, when comparing the same Woburn soil, Cd was much less available as Cd2+ in soil solution from the CdSO4 amended soils compared with soil contaminated by about 36 years of sewage sludge additions. In contrast, much more Zn was available in soil solution as free Zn2+ in the ZnSO4 amended soils compared with the sewage sludge treated soils.

  1. Innovative Capping Technology To Prevent The Migration of Toxic Chemicals From Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capping is a common strategy for decreasing the risk associated with contaminated sediments in lakes and streams. Historically, caps have been designed to physically isolate contaminated sediments and prevent the transport of contaminants from sediments into the water above them...

  2. Estimates of nitrogen availability of poultry manure and sewage sludge amendments in mined prime farmlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Q.; Barnhisel, R.I.

    1994-01-01

    The application of poultry manure and sewage sludge may speed up the return of productivity of prime farmland following surface mining, as well as for utilizing nutrients in these wastes. However, excessive application may result in nitrate contamination of ground water. This research was carried out under laboratory and field conditions to test this concern. The objective was to examine nitrogen mineralization indices used to evaluate nitrogen availability to wheat (Triticum astivum). Two field experiments were established in fall 1992 in western Kentucky. Sewage sludge was applied to both topsoil and subsoil at one site, and poultry manure was applied to only the topsoil at the second site. Three rates of organic amendments were used in these experiments. Soil available nitrogen was evaluated by both biological mineralization and chemical extraction methods. A 7-day anaerobic incubation method was well correlated with grain yield and was superior to other chemical methods in predicting nitrogen availability. Both sewage sludge and poultry manure application to the topsoil provided a high available nitrogen source for wheat growth, which resulted in a higher yield than that for the unamended control

  3. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  4. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils.

  5. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  6. Effect of Radiation on Microbial Contamination Activity and Chemical Composition of Antimicrobial Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leelapattranuruk, Paveena

    1999-01-01

    The selected herbs which are known to have antimicrobial compounds i.e. garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) fruit rinds, roselle (Hibiscus sabdoriffa Linn.) calyxes, and tea (Camellia sinensis Linn.) leaves were exposed to gamma and ultraviolet (UV) radiations. After being irradiated with 1, 3 and 5 kGy of ionizing radiation from a cobalt-60 source for 5, 15 and 15 minutes and with non-ionizing radiation from ultraviolet source for 30, 60 and 120 minutes, the irradiated herbs were examined for number of contaminants and specified microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp, as well as antimicrobial potency and components and compared to unirradiated herbs. The results showed that unirradiated garlic was most heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The specified microorganisms were not detected in either unirradiated or irradiated samples. In comparison of radiated herbs, the reduction of microorganisms in UV treated herbs was less than that in gamma ray treated ones, especially at the treatment dose of 5 kGy. There was slight reduction of microbial number in UV treated herbs as compared to the untreated herbs. Gamma treatment at 5 kGy reduced the microbe contamination more than other doses and caused complete elimination in tea. The UV and gamma treatments had no effect on antimicrobial potency of herbs except for that of garlic. The preliminary chemical analysis to examine if there was any radiolytic components in these herbs by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that no such compounds were detected in any tested herbs. This study indicated that gamma irradiation treatment was one of the physical methods to decontaminate microbes in herbs

  7. 'Mussel Watch' and chemical contamination of the coasts by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) enter the coastal marine environment from three general categories of sources; pyrogenic, petrogenic (or petroleum), and natural diagenesis. PAH from different sources appear to have differential biological availability related to how the PAH are sorbed, trapped, or chemically bound to particulate matter, including soot. Experience to date with bivalve sentinel organism, or 'Mussel Watch', monitoring programs indicates that these programs can provide a reasonable general assessment of the status and trends of biologically available PAH in coastal ecosystems. As fossil fuel use increases in developing countries, it is important that programs such as the International Mussel Watch Program provide assessments of the status and trends of PAH contamination of coastal ecosystems of these countries. (author)

  8. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  9. Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals on Agricultural Topsoil: Biodegradation, Sorption, and Co-contaminant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Molly C; Borch, Thomas; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-06-07

    Hydraulic fracturing frequently occurs on agricultural land. Yet the extent of sorption, transformation, and interactions among the numerous organic frac fluid and oil and gas wastewater constituents upon environmental release is hardly known. Thus, this study aims to advance our current understanding of processes that control the environmental fate and toxicity of commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants were completely biodegraded in agricultural topsoil within 42-71 days, but their transformation was impeded in the presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde and was completely inhibited by salt at concentrations typical for oil and gas wastewater. At the same time, aqueous glutaraldehyde concentrations decreased due to sorption to soil and were completely biodegraded within 33-57 days. While no aqueous removal of polyacrylamide friction reducer was observed over a period of 6 months, it cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, further lowering the biocide's aqueous concentration. These findings highlight the necessity to consider co-contaminant effects when we evaluate the risk of frac fluid additives and oil and gas wastewater constituents in agricultural soils in order to fully understand their human health impacts, likelihood for crop uptake, and potential for groundwater contamination.

  10. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  11. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  12. The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Quanying [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)], E-mail: cai_quanying@yahoo.com; Mo Cehui [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.cn; Wu Qitang [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Katsoyiannis, Athanasios [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), TP-281, Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 (Italy)], E-mail: athanasios.katsogiannis@jrc.it; Zeng Qiaoyun [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2008-01-25

    This paper summarizes the published scientific data on the soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China. Data has been found for more than 150 organic compounds which were grouped into six classes, namely, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs). An overview of data collected from the literature is presented in this paper. The Chinese regulation and/or other maximum acceptable values for SVOCs were used for the characterization of soils. In general, the compounds that are mostly studied in Chinese soils are OCPs, PAHs and PCBs. According to the studies reviewed here, the most abundant compounds were PAEs and PAHs (up to 46 and 28 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively); PCBs and OCPs occurred generally at concentrations lower than 100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry weight. Nevertheless, quite high concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were observed in contaminated sites (e.g., the sites affected by electronic waste activities). The average concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in soils of North China were higher than those in South China. The principal component analysis demonstrated different distribution patterns for PAH, PCB and PCDD/F congeners and for the various sites/regions examined. The isomer ratios of DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) indicated different sources and residue levels in soils. Finally, this review has highlighted several areas where further research is considered necessary.

  13. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Mehdi [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hempel, Stefan, E-mail: hempel.stefan@googlemail.co [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Biologie, Okologie der Pflanzen, Altensteinstrasse 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Savaghebi, Gholamreza [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buscot, Francois [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  14. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Berard, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Leggett, Rich; Menetrier, Florence; Younes, Ali; Montavon, Gilles; Moisy, Philippe

    2012-08-20

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July, 1898 by P. Curie and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which (210)Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th anniversary of the Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this review is to look at the several aspects of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including (i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; (ii) its main sources and uses; (iii) its physicochemical properties; (iv) its main analytical methods; (v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; (vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion, and wound contamination; (vii) its dosimetry; and (viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  15. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants

  17. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manwar, S.; Iram, S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  18. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Juergen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  19. Results For The Third Quarter 2010 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (i) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (ii) The reported detection limits for 94 Nb, 247 Cm and 249 Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (iii) The reported detection limit for 242m Am is greater than the requested limit from Attachment 8.4 of the WAC. (iv) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (v) The reported concentration of Isopropanol is greater than the limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (vi) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  20. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  1. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  2. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  3. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  4. Survey of chemical contaminants in the Hanalei River, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; May, Thomas W.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Echols, Kathy R.; Steiner, William W.M.; Berg, Carl J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanalei River on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i was designated an American Heritage River in 1998, providing special attention to natural resource protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. Agricultural, urban, and tourism-related activities are potential sources of contamination within the Hanalei River watershed. The objective of this study was to measure certain persistent organic chemicals and elements in the Hanalei River.During a relatively low-flow period in December of 2001, samples of native Akupa sleeper fish (Eleotris sandwicensis), freshwater Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), giant mud crab (Scylla serrata), surface water, and stream bed sediment were collected from a lower estuarine reach of the river near its mouth at Hanalei Bay and from an upper reach at the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge. Samples were analyzed for residues of urban and agricultural chemicals including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and elements (including mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium). Organic contaminants were extracted from the samples with solvent, enriched, and then analyzed by gas chromatographic analysis with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. Samples were acid-digested for semi-quantitative analysis for elements by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in biota, surface water, and bed sediment sampled from the Hanalei River ranged from nondetectable to very low levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls were below detection in all samples. Dieldrin, the only compound detected in the water samples, was present at very low concentrations of 1-2 nanograms per liter. Akupa sleeper fish and giant mud crabs from the lower reach ranged from 1 to 5 nanograms per gram (wet weight

  5. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  6. Study of bone microarchitecture abnormalities in mice through microct due to U and Th chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taam, Pedro; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inaya

    2009-01-01

    The di calcium phosphate, widely used to manufacture fertilizers and animal ration, is extracted from rock minerals. Some of these rocks, as fluoroapatite and collophanite, had together with the calcium phosphate, traces of elements as Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Th and U. Most of these elements are considered to be proper additives for fertilizers and animal ration. In the same time, the presence of U and Th is inappropriate and potentially harmful. The risks posed are more than radioactive exposure, it is rather chemical contamination and its biological effects, since U and Th have strong chemical affinity with many substances present in live organisms, specially phosphorus. The effects of U and Th in bone microarchiteture are still unknown. The aim of this work was to study bone microarchiteture changes in mice fed with animal ration enriched with uranyl phosphate and thorium nitrate, both compounds present in the nuclear fuel cycle. At regular intervals(24, 72, 120 and 168 hours after beginning of the enriched feeding) subjects were sacrificed, blood and bone samples were collected and U and Th levels measured through wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF). We present the data of U and Th blood level and microarchiteture evaluation through micro computed tomography (microCT) for each mice studied. The results showed that the intake of U and Th does indeed affect bone porosity. (author)

  7. Study of bone microarchitecture abnormalities in mice through microct due to U and Th chemical contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Pedro; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: taam@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico

    2009-07-01

    The di calcium phosphate, widely used to manufacture fertilizers and animal ration, is extracted from rock minerals. Some of these rocks, as fluoroapatite and collophanite, had together with the calcium phosphate, traces of elements as Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Th and U. Most of these elements are considered to be proper additives for fertilizers and animal ration. In the same time, the presence of U and Th is inappropriate and potentially harmful. The risks posed are more than radioactive exposure, it is rather chemical contamination and its biological effects, since U and Th have strong chemical affinity with many substances present in live organisms, specially phosphorus. The effects of U and Th in bone microarchiteture are still unknown. The aim of this work was to study bone microarchiteture changes in mice fed with animal ration enriched with uranyl phosphate and thorium nitrate, both compounds present in the nuclear fuel cycle. At regular intervals(24, 72, 120 and 168 hours after beginning of the enriched feeding) subjects were sacrificed, blood and bone samples were collected and U and Th levels measured through wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF). We present the data of U and Th blood level and microarchiteture evaluation through micro computed tomography (microCT) for each mice studied. The results showed that the intake of U and Th does indeed affect bone porosity. (author)

  8. Occurrence and Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water in Tunceli, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Demir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze drinking water samples from 21 sites in the city center and seven municipalities of Tunceli, Turkey, in order to determine the presence of nitrate, nitrite, fluoride, bromate, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, trihalomethanes (THMs, and some other chemicals. In all locations, the concentrations of chemicals investigated were below the permissible limits set by local and international organizations for drinking water. Low levels of nitrate (4.79 ± 4.20 mg/L, fluoride (0.11 ± 0.08 mg/L, and THMs (6.63 ± 5.14 μg/L were detected in all locations. A low level of tetra, chloroethane, which is suspected to be a human carcinogen, was also detected in 8 locations in the range of 0.26–0.43 μg/L. These contaminants may pose adverse health effects or minimum hazard due to long-term exposure. In all locations, bromate, benzene, total PAH, 1-2 dichloroethane, vinyl chloride, acrylamide, and epichloridine levels in drinking water samples were under detection limits.

  9. Effects of prevalent freshwater chemical contaminants on in vitro growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, James [USDA-ARS, Bldg 173, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: tarbandu12@juno.com; Hohn, Christina [NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Many surface and ground waters in the continental US are contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants, which are usually present in concentrations in the ppm and ppb range. The effects of these pollutants on coliform bacteria, which are prominent members of the aquatic flora, are poorly understood. Using a microtiter plate assay, isolates of Escherichia coli (from chicken intestine and fresh water), and an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (from bovine milk) were exposed to varying concentrations of common pollutants over a 24 h period. The herbicides/pesticides simazine, atrazine, and diazinon; the VOCs trichloroethene and MTBE; the estrogens estradiol and estrone; and caffeine, all failed to inhibit bacterial growth at ppm levels. Only ethylene glycol, and the herbicide 2,4-D, significantly inhibited bacterial growth compared to controls. These results suggest that the replication of coliform bacteria in fresh waters is not adversely impacted by many common pollutants. - Using a microtiter plate assay, E. coli and Klebsiella bacteria were exposed to a panel of common chemical pollutants of fresh water; only ethylene glycol and 2,4-D inhibited bacterial replication.

  10. studies on the fixation of chemical and radioactive contaminants by natural and artificial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, G.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    the main objective of the work presented in this is to study the adsorption of U(VI), Cr(VI) and Gd (lll) from aqueous medium using modified sorel's cement as artificial adsorbents. the thesis is classified into three chapters; namely ,introduction ,experimental and results and discussion. the first chapter, i ntroduction , includes chemical and radioactive contaminant, some aspects of the properties and aqueous chemistry of uranium, chromium and gadolinium . the separation of different pollutant and their methods of separation based on the types of adsorbents, and the theoretical background of adsorption isotherms, kinetics and ion diffusion as well as literature survey which is related to the present work are given.the second chapter, e xperimental , contains the different materials employed, their chemical purity, and a detailed description for instruments used are given.the third chapter. r esults and discussion i ncludes the experimental results obtained and their interpretation .this chapter is classified into three main parts; namely, characterization, equilibrium and kinetic investigations

  11. Characterization of chemical contaminants generated by a desktop fused deposition modeling 3-dimensional Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; LeBouf, Ryan F; Yi, Jinghai; Ham, Jason; Nurkewicz, Timothy; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Chen, Bean T; Wells, J Raymond; Duling, Matthew G; Lawrence, Robert B; Martin, Stephen B; Johnson, Alyson R; Virji, M Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Printing devices are known to emit chemicals into the indoor atmosphere. Understanding factors that influence release of chemical contaminants from printers is necessary to develop effective exposure assessment and control strategies. In this study, a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-dimensional (3-D) printer using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA) filaments and two monochrome laser printers were evaluated in a 0.5 m 3 chamber. During printing, chamber air was monitored for vapors using a real-time photoionization detector (results expressed as isobutylene equivalents) to measure total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, evacuated canisters to identify specific VOCs by off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and liquid bubblers to identify carbonyl compounds by GC-MS. Airborne particles were collected on filters for off-line analysis using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive x-ray detector to identify elemental constituents. For 3-D printing, TVOC emission rates were influenced by a printer malfunction, filament type, and to a lesser extent, by filament color; however, rates were not influenced by the number of printer nozzles used or the manufacturer's provided cover. TVOC emission rates were significantly lower for the 3-D printer (49-3552 µg h -1 ) compared to the laser printers (5782-7735 µg h -1 ). A total of 14 VOCs were identified during 3-D printing that were not present during laser printing. 3-D printed objects continued to off-gas styrene, indicating potential for continued exposure after the print job is completed. Carbonyl reaction products were likely formed from emissions of the 3-D printer, including 4-oxopentanal. Ultrafine particles generated by the 3-D printer using ABS and a laser printer contained chromium. Consideration of the factors that influenced the release of chemical contaminants (including known and suspected asthmagens such as styrene and

  12. Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Karim, Y; Loro, P

    1989-06-01

    The chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229E as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. A 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. Sixteen disinfectant formulations were selected for this study based on the findings of an earlier investigation with a human rotavirus. After 1 min exposure to 20 microliters of the disinfectant, the virus from the disks was immediately eluted into tryptose phosphate broth and plaque assayed. Using an efficacy criterion of a 3 log10 or greater reduction in virus infectivity titre and irrespective of the virus suspending medium, only the following five disinfectants proved to be effective against all the four viruses tested: (1) 2% glutaraldehyde normally used as an instrument soak, (2) a strongly alkaline mixture of 0.5% sodium o-benzyl-p-chlorophenate and 0.6% sodium lauryl sulphate, generally used as a domestic disinfectant cleaner for hard surfaces, (3) a 0.04% solution of a quaternary ammonium compound containing 7% hydrochloric acid, which is the basis of many toilet bowl cleaners, (4) chloramine T at a minimum free chlorine level of 3000 p.p.m. and (5) sodium hypochlorite at a minimum free chlorine concentration of 5000 p.p.m. Of those chemicals suitable for use as topical antiseptics, 70% ethanol alone or products containing at least 70% ethanol were ineffective only against coxsackievirus B3. These results emphasize the care needed in selecting chemical disinfectants for routine use in infection control.

  13. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolato, L.C.; Berton, R.S.; Coscione, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The liquid sewage sludge (LSS) was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens) uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS) and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil ph, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water) and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  14. Nutrient Availability and Changes on Chemical Attributes of a Paleudult Soil Amended with Liquid Sewage Sludge and Cropped with Surinam Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Ceolato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid sewage sludge (LSS was applied on a field experiment during four years at successive applications to evaluate the changes in soil attributes and on Surinam grass (Brachiaria decumbens uptake of nutrients. A randomized blocks experimental design, with two treatments (with and without LSS and three repetitions, was used. Land application of LSS did not alter soil organic matter and exchangeable K until 40 cm depth. However, it increased soil pH, base saturation, labile P, and available Zn and did not change the concentrations of available B (hot water and Cu, Fe, and Mn (DTPA at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths and LSS was a source of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, and Zn for the grass, but decreased leaf Mn concentration.

  15. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  16. ADAPTIVE MONITORING TO ENHANCE WATER SENSOR CAPABILITIES FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANT DETECTION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optoelectronic and other conventional water quality sensors offer a potential for real-time online detection of chemical and biological contaminants in a drinking water supply and distribution system. The nature of the application requires sensors of detection capabilities at lo...

  17. Prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment plant discharges using chemical: Gene interactions in caged fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene expression changes in exposed fish. Fathead minnows were deployed in cages for 2, 4, or 8 days at three locations near two ...

  18. The pivotal role of mass spectrometry in determining the presence of chemical contaminants in food raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rayane; Guy, Philippe A

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, a rising interest from consumers and various governmental organizations towards the quality of food has continuously been observed. Human intervention across the different stages of the food supply chain can lead to the presence of several types of chemical contaminants in food-based products. On a normal daily consumption basis, some of these chemicals are not harmful; however, for those that present a risk to consumers, legislation rules were established to specify tolerance levels or in some cases the total forbiddance of these specific contaminants. Hence, the use of appropriate analytical tools is recommended to properly identify chemical contaminants. In that context, mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques coupled or not to chromatography offer a vast panel of features such as sensitivity, selectivity, quantification at trace levels, and/or structural elucidation. Because of the complexity of food-based matrices, sample preparation is a crucial step before final detection. In the present manuscript, we review the contribution and the potentialities of MS-based techniques to ensure the absence of chemical contaminants in food-based products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of “listed” chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring – in the absence of site-spe...

  20. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M.; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I.; Hernández, Félix J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; Meent, van de Dik; Brink, van den Paul J.; Gils, van Jos; Wezel, van Annemarie P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Ohe, von der Peter C.; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  1. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton’s

  2. Ultrasound improves chemical reduction of natural contaminant microbiota and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica on strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Peixoto, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; de São José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2017-01-16

    New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica intentionally inoculated onto strawberries were analyzed. Ultrasound increased the effect of all chemical compounds in the reduction of aerobic mesophilic, molds and yeasts. The best treatment for those groups of microorganisms was ultrasound combined with peracetic acid (US+PA) that reduced 1.8 and 2.0logcfu/g during 9days of storage. Bactericidal effect of peracetic acid was also improved by ultrasound inactivation of S. enterica, reaching a decimal reduction of 2.1logcfu/g. Moreover, synergistic effects were observed in contaminant natural microbiota inactivation for all tested compounds during storage, without any major physicochemical or sensory alteration to the strawberries. Therefore, ultrasound treatment can improve the effect of sanitizers that are substitutes of chlorine compounds without altering the quality of strawberries during storage. Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Peracetic acid (PubChem CID: 6585); Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PubChem CID: 18372154). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Organization A Comprehensive System Of Insurance Coverage In The Potential Chemical And Biological Contamination Zone In Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a scientific rationale for an integrated approach to the provision of insurance coverage in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone. The following modern forms of chemical safety in the Russian Federation were considered: state reserve’s system, target program financing, state social insurance. The separate issue tackles the obligatory civil liability insurance for owners of dangerous objects. For improvement of the existing insurance protection system against emergency situations, risks were analyzed (shared on exogenous and endogenous. Among the exogenous risks including natural and climatic conditions of a region, its geographical arrangement, economic specialization, the seismic and terrorist risks were chosen and approaches to its solution were suggested. In endogenous risks’ group, the special focus is on wear and tear and obsolescence of hazardous chemical and biological object’s fixed assets. In case of high risk of an incident, it is suggested to increase in extent of insurance protection through self-insurance, a mutual insurance in the form of the organization of societies of a mutual insurance or the self-regulating organizations, and also development of voluntary insurance of a civil liability, both the owner of hazardous object, and regions of the Russian Federation and municipalities. The model of insurance coverage in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone is based on a differentiated approach to the danger level of the area. A matrix of adequate forms and types of insurance (required for insurance coverage of the population in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone was constructed. Proposed health risk management toolkit in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone will allow to use financial resources for chemical and biological safety in the regions more efficiently.

  4. A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.K.; Foley, R.D.; Tiner, P.F.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Uziel, M.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted intermittently from February 1992 through May 1992. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL at the request of the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office and the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program. Results of this investigation indicate that the source of radioactive contamination at the point of the contamination incident is from one of the underground abandoned lines. The contamination in soil is likely the result of residual contamination from years of waste transport and maintenance operations (e.g., replacement of degraded joints, upgrading or replacement of entire pipelines, and associated landscaping activities). However, because (1) there is currently an active LLW line positioned in the same subsurface trench with the abandoned lines and (2) the physical condition of the abandoned lines may be brittle, this inquiry could not determine which abandoned line was responsible for the subsurface contamination. Soil sampling at the location of the contamination incident and along the pipeline route was performed in a manner so as not to damage the active LLW line and abandoned lines. Recommendations for corrective actions are included

  5. In Situ Treatment Train for Remediation of Perfluoroalkyl Contaminated Groundwater: In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Sorbed Contaminants (ISCO SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-18

    viable. Enzymes are employed in natural and engineered systems to overcome reaction energy barriers and thus may be a promising solution. For... Chemical and Engineering Data, 52(4), 1165–1170. http://doi.org/10.1021/je060285g Johnson, R. L., Tratnyek, P. G., & Johnson, R. O. B. (2008...persulfates by carbon nanotubes: Oxidation of organic compounds by nonradical mechanism. Chemical Engineering Journal, 266, 28–33. http://doi.org/10.1016

  6. Chemical Contaminants in the Wadden Sea: sources, transport, fate and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Vethaak, A.D.; Gandrass, J.; Vorkamp, K.; Köhler, A.; Larsen, M.M.; Strand, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wadden Sea receives contaminants from various sources and via various transport routes. The contaminants described in this overview are various metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and various organic contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and lindane

  7. Physicochemical and bacteriological characterization of raw sewage from the Meknes region Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ouallal; Hamzaoui Najia, El; Mohammed, Sbiti; Mohammed, Machkor; Lahcen, Messaoudi; Mohamed, Azrour

    2018-05-01

    The region of Meknes suffers from a significant delay in the water sector, including sewage treatment. The Urban waste water in the region originates from various activities; households, industry, agriculture and hospital. These waters are released in to nature without any treatment, which constitutes a serious risk for the environment. The objective of this research is to characterize the physicochemical and bacteriological pollution of the three sewage collectors of the Meknes region (Aïn Choubbik, Oued Ouislane and Aïn Taoujdate). Indeed, the pollution parameters; biological and chemical oxygen demand are abnormally high, which indicates clearly that waste waters is rich of reducing or oxidizing organic materials. Ammonium, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals concentrations exceed the limit values. So these waters are classified as bad or very bad quality. On the one hand, the presence of a large bacterial load indicates fecal contamination. The total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci levels are high exceeding exceed the values specified the WHO guidelines and the Moroccan standards. This situation is likely to cause serious and irreparable damage to the environment groundwater. To counter this, make the necessary investment in sewage treatment and other remedial measures is key to preventing pollution and its spread.

  8. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  9. Application of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) to monitor emerging contaminants in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Segovia, Elvagris; Loh, Lay Leng; Burger, David F; Eikaas, Hans S; Kelly, Barry C

    2014-06-01

    Tools specifically validated for tropical environments are needed to accurately describe the behavior of chemical contaminants in tropical ecosystems. In the present study, sampling rates (Rs) were determined for the commercial pharmaceutical-type Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) with a 45.8cm(2) exposure surface for 35 Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs) and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), of which eight compounds (albuterol, atorvastatin, diltiazem, dilantin, enalapril, norfluoxetine, risperidone and warfarin) were reported for the first time. These sampling rates were measured in an outdoor laboratory calibration setup to best capture diurnal tropical temperature variations (29±3°C). The effect of stirring and salinity was investigated. For all compounds, the sampling rates were higher under stirred conditions as compared to quiescent conditions. Calibration results in the presence of 30g sodium chloride support that the effects of salinity on POCIS sampling rates are compound-specific. Comparisons between Time-Weight Average (TWA) water concentrations using POCIS and spot sample levels in the field (2 lake and 1 mangrove estuary sites) are presented. Results showed that POCIS TWA concentrations were in agreement with spot sample concentrations for these aquatic systems. Results indicate that POCIS can be used to effectively measure the TWA concentration for a range of PhACs and EDCs in tropical waters. However, based on the results from mass balance and field deployments, POCIS did not appear suitable for compounds with a low mass balance recovery during calibration (e.g. triclosan and linuron in this study). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  11. Chemical inhibition of the contaminant Lactobacillus fermentum from distilleries producing fuel bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Oliva Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of pure or mixed chemicals for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus fermentum in the samples isolated from distilleries with serious bacterial contamination problems. The biocides, which showed the best results were: 3,4,4' trichlorocarbanilide (TCC, tested at pH 4.0 (MIC = 3.12 mg/l, TCC with benzethonium chloride (CBe at pH 6.0 (MIC = 3.12 mg/l and TCC mixed with benzalkonium chloride (CBa at pH 6.0 (MIC = 1.53 mg /l. If CBa was used in sugar cane milling in 1:1 ratio with TCC, a 8 times reduction of CBa was possible. This formulation also should be tested in fermentation steps since it was more difficult for the bacterium to develop resistance to biocide. There was no inhibition of S. cerevisiae and there were only antibiotics as an option to bacterial control of fuel ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae.

  12. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using acid/BOF slag enhanced chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T T; Kao, C M; Wang, J Y

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying acid/H(2)O(2)/basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) and acid/S(2)O(8)(2-)/BOF slag systems to enhance the chemical oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. Results from the bench-scale study indicate that TCE oxidation via the Fenton-like oxidation process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag at low pH (pH=2-5.2) and neutral (pH=7.1) conditions. Because the BOF slag has iron abundant properties (14% of FeO and 6% of Fe(2)O(3)), it can be sustainably reused for the supplement of iron minerals during the Fenton-like or persulfate oxidation processes. Results indicate that higher TCE removal efficiency (84%) was obtained with the addition of inorganic acid for the activation of Fenton-like reaction compared with the experiments with organic acids addition (with efficiency of 10-15% lower) (BOF slag=10gL(-1); initial pH=5.2). This could be due to the fact that organic acids would compete with TCE for available oxidants. Results also indicate that the pH value had a linear correlation with the observed first-order decay constant of TCE, and thus, lower pH caused a higher TCE oxidation rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical Characterization and Identification of Organosilicon Contaminants in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    2015 marked the 15th anniversary of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station. During the past year crew members from Expeditions 42-46, including two participating in a one-year mission, continued to rely on reclaimed water as their primary source of potable water. This paper presents and discusses results from chemical analyses performed on ISS water samples returned in 2015. Since the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA) became operational in 2008, there have been 5 instances of organic contaminants breaking through the treatment process. On each occasion, the breakthrough was signaled by an increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the product water measured by the onboard TOC analyzer (TOCA). Although the most recent TOC rise in 2015 was not unexpected, it was the first time where dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was not the primary compound responsible for the increase. Results from ground analysis of a product water sample collected in June of 2015 and returned on Soyuz 41 showed that DMSD only accounted for 10% of the measured TOC. After considerable laboratory investigation, the compound responsible for the majority of the TOC was identified as monomethysilanetriol (MMST). MMST is a low-toxicity compound that is structurally similar to DMSD.

  14. Chemical and microbiological studies on petroleum contaminated soils after two years of biotreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosecker, K.; Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1993-01-01

    For reclamation of a former refinery area, five batches of 200--300 m 3 of contaminated soil were treated with indigenous or specially selected microorganisms. Partly, the beds were irrigated, nutrients were added or the test sites were heated. After two years of bioremediation soil samples were investigated by chemical and microbiological techniques. Within the period the total concentration of hydrocarbons decreased from 15,000--35,000 mg/kg weight to 3,750--9,400 mg/kg dry weight. The portion of saturated hydrocarbons was reduced by 20--60%. In parallel, the amount of heterocompounds and asphaltenes increased. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were in the range of 16--31 mg/kg dry weight, phenols were 130--170 μg/kg dry weight. Microbiological investigations resulted in a roughly similar distribution pattern of ecophysiological groups in all samples. Among the heterotrophic aerobes which ranged from 1.2 x 10 7 -- 1.2 x 10 8 cfu/ml oil degrading bacteria predominated (up to 9.4 x 10 7 cells/ml) showing high potential for degradation of saturated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions

  15. Availability of heavy metals in contaminated soil evidenced by chemical extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia de Souza Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have been accumulating in Brazilian soils, due to natural processes, such as atmospheric deposition, or human industrial activities. For certain heavy metals, when in high concentrations in the soil, there is no specific extractant to determine the availability of these elements in the soil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the availability of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn for rice and soybeans, using different chemical extractants. In this study we used seven soil samples with different levels of contamination, in completely randomized experimental design with four replications. We determined the available concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn extracted by Mehlich-1, HCl 0.1 mol L-1, DTPA, and organic acid extractants and the contents in rice and soybeans, which extracts were analyzed by ICP-OES. It was observed that Mehlich-1, HCl 0.1 mol L-1 and DTPA extractants were effective to assess the availability of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for rice and soybeans. However, the same was not observed for the organic acid extractant.

  16. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  17. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  18. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  19. Removal of Lead from Wastewater Contaminated with Chemical Synthetic Dye by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel isolated microorganisms have been demonstrated to efficiently remove lead from wastewater contaminated with chemical synthetic dye. In this study, the physical and chemical parameters of wastewater samples (including Pb concentrations were analyzed before and after treatment with microorganisms. The highest Pb concentration detected in wastewater was 0.788 mg/l. Investigations of the Pb tolerance and removal capacities of microorganism strains isolated from the wastewater sediment resulted in the selection of three fungal isolates (F102, F203 and F302. Interestingly, isolate F203 had a Pb tolerance of up to 100 mg/l. Using DNA barcoding and morphological characteristics, fungal isolate F203 was identified as Aspergillus terreus. Wastewater characteristics before treatment included a grayish black color with pH, TDS, BOD, COD and Pb concentrations higher than the Thailand standard values. Wastewater qualities after treatment with A. terreus showed definite improvement; however, the values of certain parameters were still higher than the allowed values based on the Thailand standard. The only improvement that fell within the allowed standard was the Pb concentration. Next, A. terreus was used for Pb adsorption in wastewater with an initial Pb concentration of 0.788 mg/l at time points corresponding to 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h of incubation. The results showed that A. terreus could adsorb and remove higher amounts of Pb from wastewater than the other fungal isolates. Time course adsorption analysis showed the remaining Pb concentrations as 0.788, 0.213, 0.162, 0.117, 0.100, 0.066, 0.042 and 0.032 mg/l, respectively; the percentage of Pb removal could be estimated as 0, 72.97, 79.44, 85.15, 87.31, 91.62, 94.67 and 95.94%, respectively. In conclusion, A. terreus possessed the ability to adsorb up to 96% of Pb from chemical synthetic dye within 168 h. Thus, A. terreus might be suitable for adaptation and use in Pb treatment.

  20. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Bodar and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Batavia) were seasonally surveyed in 4 farm plots in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona. A pristine site, where rain-groundwater is used for irrigation, was selected for background concentrations. The average concentration levels of TEs and CECs in the irrigation water impacted by treated wastewater (TWW) were 3 (35±75μgL -1 ) and 13 (553±1050ngL -1 ) times higher than at the pristine site respectively. Principal component analysis was used to classify the irrigation waters by chemical composition. To assess the impact of the occurrence of these contaminants on agriculture, a seed germination assay (Lactuca sativa L) and real field-scale study of crop productivity (i.e., lettuce and tomato) were used. Although irrigation waters from the peri-urban area exhibited a higher frequency of detection and concentration of the assessed chemical contaminants than those of the pristine site (P1), no significant differences were found in seed phytotoxicity or crop productivity. In fact, the crops impacted by TWW showed higher productivity than the other farm plots studied, which was associated with the higher nutrient availability for plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the potential for in situ treatment of chromate-contaminated groundwater by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Beck, M.A.; Jurgensmeier, C.A.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a series of small-scale batch tests performed to assess the effectiveness of chemical precipitation in the remediation of chromate-contaminated groundwater. These tests involved treatment of chromate solutions with ferrous and sulfide ions. In addition, tests were conducted that involved treatment of mixtures of chromate-contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated soil with the ferrous ion. A combination of ferrous sulfate and sodium sulfide was also tested in the groundwater treatment tests, since this approach has been shown to be an efficient method for treating electroplating wastewaters

  2. Fitoplancton de un río del noroeste argentino contaminado por efluentes azucareros y cloacales Phytoplankton from an ArgentineanNorwestRiver contaminated by sewage and sugarcane effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mirande

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El río Gastona es uno de los tributarios más contaminados del embalse Río Hondo (Tucumán-Santiago del Estero. Presenta en épocas de zafra azucarera (junio-octubre condiciones de anoxia con alteraciones de los componentes nitrogenados y fosforado, entre otros factores. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la calidad del agua de acuerdo a los grupos de especies fitoplanctónicas y sus densidades encontrados en 1998-1999. Se seleccionaron cinco sitios según la zona de descarga de los efluentes domésticos y fabriles, realizándose muestreos mensuales por el término de trece meses, a partir de marzo. Los índices bióticos empleados fueron: Compuesto, Déficit de Especies, Índice de Diatomeas Pampeano, Euglenal, Centrales/Pennales, Chlorophyta/Chrysophyta (diatomeas y Relaciones Abundancia-Especies. Los resultados obtenidos destacaron una mayor sensibilidad de las Chlorophyta a los efectos de la materia orgánica. Los cuatro primeros índices anteriormente nombrados fueron los más efectivos para diferenciar los períodos de no zafra y zafra.Gastona River is one of the tributaries more contaminated from Río Hondo Dam (Tucumán-Santiago del Estero. This river presents in sugarcane activity period (June-October anoxic conditions and alterations of nitrogen and phosphoric components, between others causes. The aim of this paper was to characterize the water quality in agreement to species groups and densities of phytoplankton found in 1998-1999. We were selected five sampling sites along the river in relation to sewage and industry effluents discharge areas. Sampling were realized monthly and during thirteen months. We began the sampling on March. Indices employed were: Composite; Species Deficit; Pampeano Diatom Index; Euglenal; Centrales/Pennales; Chlorophyta/Chrysophyta (diatoms and Density-Species Relations. The results obtained showed that Chlorophyta were the group most sensitive to organic mater effects. The four first indices

  3. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Lyons, Brett P.; Thain, John E.; Law, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed ‘legacy contaminants’; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however, the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  4. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  5. Intensification of sewage treatment processes from harmful substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Intensive development of power, chemical, oil, machine-building and other industries results in increase of industrial toxic emissions. Local pollutions as a result of emissions of the industrial enterprises in many cases surpass the maximum permissible sanitary norms. E.g. works connected to an oil recovery, have led to pollution of huge territories of the Azerbaijan Republic, including Caspian Sea. Development of scientific bases of optimization of operating practices of industrial sewage treatment will allow to liquidate the harmful impurities. It is necessary for preservation of the environment to increase the clearing and sewage quality degree. During modeling a real process of sewage treatment from polluting impurities we need to build more and more complex models. It demands in return the application of applied mathematics methods for process of clearing of liquids. General theory and technology of sewage treatment, in particular, from heavy metals, radioactive nuclides now are absent. Achievement of an object provides for solution of the following problems: a) Research of laws of influence of various technological and physical and chemical parameters on efficiency of waste treatment from heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; b) Development of the effective reagents, allowing to remove from sewage cations of toxic heavy metals and radioactive nuclides; c) Construction of statistical models of an experimental material on clearing concrete sewage; d) Modeling of searches of optimum modes of sewage treatment processes from heavy metals ions; e) Development of optimum processes of sewage treatment from toxic heavy metals ions. The mentioned above problems are scantily studied both in experimental, and in the theoretical point of view. Expected scientific novelty of the offered project can be made in the following: Technological modes of carrying out of deep clearing processes of real sewage from toxic impurities, in particular from heavy metals ions

  6. Assessment Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils to Petroleum Compounds and Role of Chemical Fertilizers in the Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parvizi Mosaed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today oil removal from contaminated soil by new methods such as bioremediation is necessary.  In this paper, the effect of chemical fertilizers and aeration on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil has been investigated. Also the control group, (bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil without treatment by chemical fertilizers and aeration treatment was examined. The condition of experiment is as following: those were treated 70 days in glass columns (30×30×30cm dimensions, ambient temperature (25-30 0C, relative humidity 70%, aeration operation with flow 0.7 lit/min.  The total number of heterotrophic bacteria of break down oil and the total of petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography analysis. all experiments were replicated three times. The microbial population results for control soil, treated soil by aeration and treated soil by aeration and chemical fertilizers columns are 2.3×105, 1.04×1010, and 1.14×1011 CFU/gr, respectively. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons of remaining are 46965, 38124, and 22187 mg kg-1respectively. The obtained results show that the aeration operation and chemical fertilizers have effective role on degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon by oil degrading bacteria from soil.

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as an Antibody Substitution in Pseudo-immunoassays for Chemical Contaminants in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Luo, Jiaxun; Li, Chenglong; Ma, Mingfang; Yu, Wenbo; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2018-03-21

    The chemical contaminants in food and the environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate, and cheap detection can effectively control the potential risks derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on the specific interaction of antibody-analyte is one of the most widely used techniques in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in the immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in an unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymers with specific molecular recognition abilities, which are highly robust, showing excellent operational stability under a wide variety of conditions. Recently, MIPs have been used in biomimetic immunoassays for chemical contaminants as an antibody substitute in food and the environment. Here, we reviewed these applications of MIPs incorporated in different analytical platforms, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemical immunoassay, microfluidic paper-based immunoassay, and homogeneous immunoassay, and discussed current challenges and future trends in the use of MIPs in biomimetic immunoassays.

  8. CASCADE - Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain. A network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.

  9. Assessing the risks of nuclear and chemical contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.

    1996-01-01

    scientists, policy makers, and members of NGO groups to pursue in future project involving nuclear and chemical contamination in the newly independent states. 9 figs., 12 tabs., 22 refs

  10. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Breitwieser

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  11. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  12. Disinfection of sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the liquids in the agriculture or its disposal like sea nutrient

  13. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  14. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  15. Impact of partially treated sewage effluent on the water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key Words: Malaysian Water Quality Index, Sewage, Wastewater treatment plant, Epie Creek, Fallout point,. Class IV water ..... thereby reducing the ability of algae to produce food .... contamination from fecal coliforms on a specific scale.

  16. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  17. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  19. Brominated flame retardants in U.S. biosolids from the EPA national sewage sludge survey and chemical persistence in outdoor soil mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    We determined national baseline levels and release inventories of 77 traditional and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in biosolids composites (prepared from 110 samples) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2001 national sewage sludge survey (NSSS). Additionally, analyses were performed on archived samples from a 3-year outdoor mesocosm study to determine the environmental persistence of BFRs in biosolids-amended soil. The total polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) concentration detected in biosolids composites was 9,400±960 μg/kg dry weight, of which deca-BDE constituted 57% followed by nona- and penta-BDE at 18 and 13%, respectively. The annual mean loading rate estimated from the detected concentrations and approximate annual biosolids production and disposal numbers in the U.S., of the sum of PBDEs and non-BDE BFRs was calculated to be 47,900–60,100 and 12,900–16,200 kg/year, of which 24,000–36,000 and 6,400–9,700 kg/year are applied on land, respectively. Mean concentration of PBDEs were higher in the 2001 samples compared to levels reported in EPA’s 2006/7 Targeted NSSS, reflecting on-going efforts in phasing-out PBDEs in the U.S. In outdoor soil mesocosms, >99% of the initial BFRs mass in the biosolids/soil mixtures (1:2) persisted over the monitoring duration of three years. Estimates of environmental releases may be refined in the future by analyzing individual rather than composited samples, and by integrating currently unavailable data on disposal of biosolids on a plant-specific basis. This study informs the risk assessment of BFRs by furnishing national inventories of BFR occurrence and environmental release via biosolids application on land. PMID:24607311

  20. A new chemical formulation for control of dental unit water line contamination: An 'in vitro' and clinical 'study'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci Giovanni

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water delivered by dental units during routine dental practice is highly contaminated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new chemical solution flushed through Dental Unit Water Lines (DUWL for the control of contamination inside dental units. Materials and methods Six old dental units equipped with a device designed to automatically flush disinfecting solutions through the water system (Castellini Autosteril were selected. Water samples from DUWL effluents were collected in each dental unit for 10 randomly selected days, before and after a 5 minute DUWL disinfecting cycle with TetraAcetylEthileneDiamine (TAED and persalt (Ster4spray produced by Farmec spa, and distributed by Castellini spa. Water samples were plated in R2A Agar and cultured at room temperature for 7 days, and the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms counted and expressed in Log10 CFU/mL A general linear model was fitted and multiple regression ANOVA for repeated measures was used for the statistical analysis. Results The mean contamination in DUWL effluent at baseline was 5.45 ± 0.35 CFU/mL (range 4.79 to 5.93 CFU/mL. When water samples were tested "in vitro" against the chemical, no growth of heterotrophic bacteria was detected after a 5 minute contact in any of the water samples tested. After undergoing a 5 minute disinfecting cycle with the chemical, DUWL mean contamination in water effluents was 2.01 ± 0.32 CFU/mL (range 1.30 to 2.74 CFU/mL (significant difference with respect to baseline. Conclusions An inbetween patient disinfecting procedure consisting of flushing DUWL with TAED and persalt equivalent to 0.26% peracetic acid could be useful in routine dental practice for cross-contamination control.

  1. Identification of chemical contamination in an aqueous sample using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry during 2nd NATO mixed samples laboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusova, K.; Tkac, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and radiological screening was conducted to determine the type of biological and radiological contamination for a sample and the reference sample. Biological screening confirmed the presence of biological contamination. Radiological screening confirmed the presence of 235 U. Preliminary chemical screening military confirmed the presence of volatile chemicals (chemical warfare agents, CWA), but refute the presence of non-volatile CWA and their degradation products and precursors (1,2,3 directory Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OPCW). To carry out further analysis it was necessary to adjust the aqueous sample so that it minimizes the possibility of radiological contamination, while maintaining chemical contamination. To remove 235 U from the water sample for selective extraction of chemical contamination SCX cartridges (strong cation exchange) by solid phase extraction were used. To identify chemical contamination (from the list of substances 1, 2, 3 OPCW) GC-MS and LC-MS were used. LC-ESI-MS analysis has demonstrated the presence of unknown substance designated as Chemical A in an aqueous sample. LC-ESI-MS chromatograms of the reference sample, water sample and standard were compared. Unknown substance was identified on the basis of the correlation of retention times and MS spectra of unknown substance Chemical A and standard such as triethanolamine (TEA, a breakdown product of nitrogen mustard - HN 3 fabric from the list 3B17Y OPCW).

  2. Identification of chemical contamination in an aqueous sample using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry during 2nd NATO mixed samples laboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusova, K.; Tkac, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and radiological screening was conducted on a sample and reference sample to determine the type of biological and radiological contamination. Biological screening confirmed the presence of biological contamination. Radiological screening confirmed the presence of 235 U. Preliminary chemical military screening confirmed the presence of volatile chemicals (chemical warfare agents, CWA), but refute the presence of non-volatile CWA and their degradation products and precursors (1,2,3 directory Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OPCW). To carry out further analysis it was necessary to adjust aqueous sample so that it minimizes the possibility of radiological contamination, while maintaining chemical contamination. To remove of 235 U from the water sample for selective extraction of chemical contamination by solid phase extraction (solid phase extraction - SPE) using SCX (strong cation exchange) cartridges were used. To identify chemical contamination (from the list of substances 1, 2, 3 OPCW) GC-MS and LC-MS were used. LC-ESI-MS analysis has demonstrated the presence of an unknown substance designated as Chemical A in an aqueous sample. LC-ESI-MS chromatograms of the reference sample, water sample and standard were compared. Unknown substance has been identified on the basis of the correlation of retention times and MS spectra of unknown substances - chemical A and standard such as triethanolamine (TEA, a breakdown product of nitrogen mustard - HN 3 fabric from the list 3B17Y OPCW).

  3. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  4. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  5. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, T.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application, it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge to plants and soil. In bean- and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated one. In the field experiments there were nearly no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna in the performed field trials indicate influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there is a decrease of the number of Collemboles and Mites on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There is a remarkable high decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Physical and chemical studies indicated, depending on the soil type, an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, while there were sometimes the best effects with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (orig./MG) [de

  6. [Cancer in the population under 19 years of age caused by chemical contamination in drinking water: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller-Arlandis, Vanessa; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the association between exposure to the main chemical contaminants in drinking water and the rise in cancer cases among the population under age 19. A systematic review was undertaken of the scientific literature compiled in the MEDLINE (via PubMed©), EMBASE©, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS), SCOPUS, and SCIRUS databases. The descriptors used were "neoplasms" and "water pollution, chemical," limited to studies that included people under age 19. Articles selected were of any type in any language, from the inception of the indexing of the primary source until March of 2011. The search generated 266 articles, from which 20 were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Drinking water contaminants analyzed were arsenic, disinfection byproducts, nitrogen compounds, petroleum derivatives, agricultural pesticides, radionuclides, and others of industrial origin. The majority of the studies did not find a significant link between exposure to drinking water contaminants and the increase in cancer cases in the under-19 population segment. In some of the studied populations a significant dose-response relationship was observed. Taking into account that the articles located were insufficiently up-to-date, more studies are required in order to know the effect of drinking water contamination on cancer rates, in particular among children and youths, who are more susceptible.

  7. Assessment of chemical and material contamination in waste wood fuels--A case study ranging over nine years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Björn, Erik; Persson, Per-Erik; Jansson, Stina

    2016-03-01

    The increased demand for waste wood (WW) as fuel in Swedish co-combustion facilities during the last years has increased the import of this material. Each country has different laws governing the use of chemicals and therefore the composition of the fuel will likely change when combining WW from different origins. To cope with this, enhanced knowledge is needed on WW composition and the performance of pre-treatment techniques for reduction of its contaminants. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of 500 WW samples collected at a co-combustion facility in Sweden between 2004 and 2013 were investigated to determine the variation of contaminant content over time. Multivariate data analysis was used for the interpretation of the data. The concentrations of all the studied contaminants varied widely between sampling occasions, demonstrating the highly variable composition of WW fuels. The efficiency of sieving as a pre-treatment measure to reduce the levels of contaminants was not sufficient, revealing that sieving should be used in combination with other pre-treatment methods. The results from this case study provide knowledge on waste wood composition that may benefit its management. This knowledge can be applied for selection of the most suitable pre-treatments to obtain high quality sustainable WW fuels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Legacy of a Chemical Factory Site: Contaminated Groundwater Impacts Stream Macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2016-01-01

    data for many of the compounds occurring at contaminated sites. We studied the potential impact of a contaminated site, characterised by chlorinated solvents, sulfonamides, and barbiturates, on benthic macroinvertebrates in a receiving stream. Most of these compounds are characterised by low or unknown...

  9. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION: ANALYSIS OF UROBILIN AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough...

  10. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%, biochemical oxygen demand (BODT (93.98%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (95.59%, total suspended solid (TSS (95.98%, ammonia (80.68%, nitrite (79.71%, nitrate (71.16%, phosphorous (44.77%, total coliform (TC (99.9%, and fecal coliform (FC (99.9% was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  11. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  12. Demonstration of the SOLTECR technology for the in situ physico-chemical treatment of a site contaminated by diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, P.; Tellier, J.G.; Michaud, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of a diesel oil spill at one of the Alcan plants was discussed. The hydrocarbon spill affected the groundwater in an area of more than 6,000 m 2 . Only an in-situ treatment for remediation was practical because the residual contaminated soil was located mainly under buildings and represented a volume of 3,000 m 3 . Alcan proposed the development and demonstration of the SOLTEC R in-situ physico-chemical treatment technology which consists of injecting chemicals into the soil. The chemicals are a mixture of calcium based solids with liquid and gaseous oxidizing agents. The degradation of the hydrocarbons is by oxidation and is completed in the soil in less than 24 hours after injection. Monitoring of the groundwater was conducted for one year after the completion of the soil treatment. It was concluded that the SOLTEC R process decreased and even eliminated the toxicity and geotoxicity of the diesel-contaminated soils. A volume of 3,000 m 3 of contaminated soil was treated within three months. The efficiency of hydrocarbon destruction was more than 95 per cent. 3 refs., 1 tab

  13. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Results on the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, Th.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil. In bean and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that the treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions, that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated sludge, while the heat-treated sewage sludge indicates always a decrease, especially with the increase of applied amounts (respiration, protease and nitrification). In the field experiments there were almost no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge, whereas there was always a smaller microbial activity after application of heat-treated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna (especially on Collemboles and Oribatidae) in the field trials indicate the influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there was a decrease in the number of Collemboles and mites (in comparison with a normal fertilized plot) on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There was a remarkably large decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Depending on the soil type, physical and chemical studies indicated an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, and sometimes the best effects occurred with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed (6-2, 6-5 mm diameter) in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (author)

  14. Closed substance cycle and substance cycling management: Compilation and evaluation of data for the assessment of priority organic contaminants in secondary raw-material fertilisers (slightly polluted sewage sludge from rural areas and compost) and organic farm fertilisers (liquid manure and slurry) for a risk assessment; Kreislaufwirtschaft - Stoffstrommanagement: Ermittlung und Auswertung von Daten zur Beurteilung prioritaerer organischer Schadstoffe in Abfallduengern (niedrig belastete Klaerschlaemme aus laendlichen Regionen und Kompost) sowie in organischen Wirtschaftsduengern (Guelle und Jauche) fuer eine Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A.; Klein, M.

    2003-07-31

    In the scope of the presently discussed closed substance cycle management and the resulting substance cycling management the agricultural use of animal wastes, sewage sludges and composts as fertilisers and soil improvers, respectively, plays an important role. The aim of the present project was the scientific preparation of deliberations aiming to find out which concentrations of selected contaminants occurring in secondary raw-material fertilisers (sewage sludge and compost) and farm fertilisers can still be tolerated, which do not have harmful effects on the environment. Information on the occurrence in sewage sludges and soils and their effects on soil organisms were compiled and evaluated for the following substances: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), tributyltin (TBT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEPH) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition, respective data were searched for polyacrylamide (PAM), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic musk compounds. The impact of composts by organic contaminants was described giving examples for diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concerning the farm fertiliser slurry, information about organic pollutants stemming from cleaning agents or disinfectants, NP, LAS and quartenary ammonium compounds were collected. LAS, NP, TBT and DEHP were detected in most of the sewage sludge samples. DBP occurred less frequently and in lower concentrations than DEHP. Single exceedings of the respective limit-values of the 3{sup rd} Draft of the EU-Sewage Sludge Directive (LAS, NP, DEHP) or other expert groups (BaP) were observed. In compliance with the respective regulations, there seems to be no risk potential for terrestrial organisms. To derive reliable environmental standards for TBT, there is a need for more data. In compost, content of organic contaminants is generally dependent on impurities. Compost made of &apos

  15. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  16. Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Tahir Azeem and Sajida Perveen1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk soil sample collected from the vicinity of PSM (Premier Sugar Mill Mardan was amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP, triple super phosphate (TSP, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and poultry manure (PM in 1.5 kg soil in a 2 L plastic pot. Both DAP and TSP were added at 230 mg kg 1 (460 kg ha 1 soil whereas the organic amendments (FYM and PM were added at the rate of 10% by weight of soil. The air dried samples in pots were brought to field moisture content (0.33 bar water content by the addition of either HIE (Hayatabad Industrial Estate or PSM in two separate sets of experiments. The experimental pots were arranged in randomized complete design with three replicates under laboratory conditions during March to May (Temperature varying between 25 to 30 °C. Treated and control pots were incubated for 90 days al 0.33 bar ca 25% moisture and the moisture deficit during the incubation time was adjusted by adding PSM and HIE effluents in their respective set of experimental pots. Soil samples were collected after 15, 30, 45 and 90 d to determine the effect of amendments on AB-DTPA extractable metals. The results showed that AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Or, Cu, Ni and Cd increased significantly with lime and the maximum values were noted after 90 days incubation whereas the Fe, Mn and Zn content in soil increased with time but the increase was not significant. It was further noted that the increase over time in metal was not pronounced when supplied with amendments indicating their ability to chemically stabilize it compared to unamended soils. Higher values of all the heavy metals were noted in unamended soil. By comparing the different amendments, it was observed that FYM was effective in reducing the extractability/phytoavailability of all the metals under study except Pb whereby DAP was most effective as a stabilizing agent in the soil. It was concluded that in calcareous soil, FYM and DAP can be used to reduce the risk of phytotoxicity of heavy metals in

  17. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on the availability of PAHs for successive chemical oxidation in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Chaudhary, A; Biache, C; Faure, P; Hanna, K

    2016-01-01

    This is the premier study designed to evaluate the impact of thermal pre-treatment on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for successive removal by chemical oxidation. Experiments were conducted in two soils having different PAH distribution originating from former coking plant sites (Homécourt, H, and Neuves Maisons, NM) located in northeast of France. Soil samples were pre-heated at 60, 100, and 150 °C for 1 week under inert atmosphere (N2). Pre-heating resulted in slight removal of PAHs (soil samples were subjected to Fenton-like oxidation (H2O2 and magnetite) at room temperature. Chemical oxidation in soil without any pre-treatment showed almost no PAH degradation underscoring the unavailability of PAHs. However, chemical oxidation in pre-heated soils showed significant PAH degradation (19, 29, and 43% in NM soil and 31, 36, and 47% in H soil pre-treated at 60, 100, and 150 °C, respectively). No preferential removal of PAHs was observed after chemical oxidation in both soils. These results indicated the significant impact of pre-heating temperature on the availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and therefore may have strong implications in the remediation of contaminated soils especially where pollutant availability is a limiting factor.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  20. Investigations on chemical-physical conditioning of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge to deposit on surface landfill site; Untersuchungen zur Chemisch-Physikalischen Behandlung von Klaerschlammverbrennungsasche zur Ablagerung auf oberirdischen Deponien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, O.; Becker, A. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Fachgebiet Bodenmechanik und Grundbau; Scherer, G. [TERRAG Service und Vertrieb GmbH, Homburg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Depositing of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge on landfill is possible after conditioning or within appropriate boxes. The partial high content of chromate- and dichromate- (chrome VI) concentration in the eluate of these slags can cause some difficulties. Presently, disposal of such slags is accomplished in underground spaces. Taking into account the provisions of national laws, possibility is limited. Therefore investigations on deposing of conditioned slags on surface landfills are of growing importance. The binders added to condition the incineration slags were chosen to assess the chemical change of hexavalent chrome (chrome VI) to indissoluble chrome (chrome III). Cement, SAV-residues as well as fly ash were taken as binders. The investigations presented refer to results on mechanical behaviour of conditioned slags. Emphasis is placed on the time-dependent behaviour of strength as well as on water permeability. Several cylindrical samples made by different compounds were tested within a period of about 112 days. Requirements with respect to strength were met within a few days. Demands on the eluate-criteria need additional investigations. (orig.)

  1. Redox oscillation impact on natural and engineered biogeochemical systems: chemical resilience and implications for contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlet, Laurent [ISTerre, University of Grenoble, B.P. 53X, 38041 Grenoble (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Markelova, Ekaterina [ISTerre, University of Grenoble, B.P. 53X, 38041 Grenoble (France); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1 4 (Canada); Parsons, Chris; Couture, Raoul-Marie [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1 4 (Canada); Made, Benoit [Andra / DRD-TR, Direction Recherche et Developpement, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    Many geochemical systems fluctuate regularly from oxic to anoxic conditions (flooded soils and nuclear waste surface repositories, for instance). In these conditions many inorganic contaminants including Sb, Se, Cr, As, and U are highly sensitive to changes in redox conditions. These oscillations may result in changes to their speciation, toxicity, and mobility. We demonstrate through the combination of redox-stat batch-reactor experiments that periodic and cumulative changes to matrix mineralogy, contaminant speciation, and mineral surface properties occur following periodic cycles of reduction and oxidation. These changes result in both short-term (intra-cycle) and long-term (inter-cycle) changes to K{sub d} values for a range of redox sensitive contaminants. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring redox oscillations may result in long-term immobilization of contaminants in the solid phase in addition to short-term variations in mobility. (authors)

  2. Combined effects of microplastics and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of zebrafish ( Danio rerio )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rainieri, Sandra; Conlledo, Nadia; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2018-01-01

    3 weeks of exposure fish were dissected and liver, intestine, muscular tissue and brain were extracted. After visual observation, evaluation of differential gene expression of some selected biomarker genes in liver, intestine and brain were carried out. Additionally, quantification of perfluorinated...... compounds in liver, brain, muscular tissue and intestine of some selected samples were performed. The feed supplemented with microplastics with sorbed contaminants produced the most evident effects especially on the liver. The results indicate that microplastics alone does not produce relevant effects......-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood. To address this, we have subjected...

  3. Chemical and Toxicological Characterization of Slurry Reactor Biotreatment of Explosives-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griest, W

    1998-01-01

    .... The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA...

  4. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  5. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  6. Combined effects of microplastics and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainieri, Sandra; Conlledo, Nadia; Larsen, Bodil K; Granby, Kit; Barranco, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood. To address this, we have subjected zebrafish to four different feeds: A) untreated feed; B) feed supplemented with microplastics (LD-PE 125-250µm of diameter); C) feed supplemented with 2% microplastics to which a mixture of PCBs, BFRs, PFCs and methylmercury were sorbed; and D) feed supplemented with the mixture of contaminants only. After 3 weeks of exposure fish were dissected and liver, intestine, muscular tissue and brain were extracted. After visual observation, evaluation of differential gene expression of some selected biomarker genes in liver, intestine and brain were carried out. Additionally, quantification of perfluorinated compounds in liver, brain, muscular tissue and intestine of some selected samples were performed. The feed supplemented with microplastics with sorbed contaminants produced the most evident effects especially on the liver. The results indicate that microplastics alone does not produce relevant effects on zebrafish in the experimental conditions tested; on the contrary, the combined effect of microplastics and sorbed contaminants altered significantly their organs homeostasis in a greater manner than the contaminants alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Addition of biochar to sewage sludge decreases freely dissolved PAHs content and toxicity of sewage sludge-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-11-01

    Due to an increased content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently found in sewage sludges, it is necessary to find solutions that will reduce the environmental hazard associated with their presence. The aim of this study was to determine changes of total and freely dissolved concentration of PAHs in sewage sludge-biochar-amended soil. Two different sewage sludges and biochars with varying properties were tested. Biochars (BC) were produced from biogas residues at 400 °C or 600 °C and from willow at 600 °C. The freely dissolved PAH concentration was determined by means of passive sampling using polyoxymethylene (POM). Total and freely dissolved PAH concentration was monitored at the beginning of the experiment and after 90 days of aging of the sewage sludge with the biochar and soil. Apart from chemical evaluation, the effect of biochar addition on the toxicity of the tested materials on bacteria - Vibrio fischeri (Microtox ® ), plants - Lepidium sativum (Phytotestkit F, Phytotoxkit F), and Collembola - Folsomia candida (Collembolan test) was evaluated. The addition of biochar to the sewage sludges decreased the content of C free PAHs. A reduction from 11 to 43% of sewage sludge toxicity or positive effects on plants expressed by root growth stimulation from 6 to 25% to the control was also found. The range of reduction of C free PAHs and toxicity was dependent on the type of biochar. After 90 days of incubation of the biochars with the sewage sludge in the soil, C free PAHs and toxicity were found to further decrease compared to the soil with sewage sludge alone. The obtained results show that the addition of biochar to sewage sludges may significantly reduce the risk associated with their environmental use both in terms of PAH content and toxicity of the materials tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan

    Monitoring and remediation of environmental contaminants (biological and chemical) form the crux of global water resource management. There is an extant need to develop point-of-use, low-power, low-cost tools that can address this problem effectively with minimal environmental impact. Nanotechnology and microfluidics have made enormous advances during the past decade in the area of biosensing and environmental remediation. The "marriage" of these two technologies can effectively address some of the above-mentioned needs. In this dissertation, nanomaterials were used in conjunction with microfluidic techniques to detect and degrade biological and chemical pollutants. In the first project, a point-of-use sensor was developed for detection of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. A self-organizing nanotubular titanium dioxide (TNA) synthesized by electrochemical anodization and functionalized with photocatalytically deposited platinum (Pt/TNA) was applied to the detection. The morphology and crystallinity of the Pt/TNA sensor was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dis- persive x-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor could detect TCE in the concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ppm. The room-temperature operation capability of the sensor makes it less power intensive and can potentially be incorporated into a field-based sensor. In the second part, TNA synthesized on a foil was incorporated into a flow-based microfluidic format and applied to degradation of a model pollutant, methylene blue. The system was demonstrated to have enhanced photocatalytic performance at higher flow rates (50-200 muL/min) over the same microfluidic format with TiO2 nanoparticulate (commercial P25) catalyst. The microfluidic format with TNA catalyst was able to achieve 82% fractional conversion of 18 mM methylene blue in comparison to 55% in the case of the TiO2 nanoparticulate layer at a flow rate of 200 L/min. The microfluidic device was

  9. Assessment of the use of selected chemical and microbiological constituents as indicators of wastewater in curtain drains from home sewage-treatment systems in Medina County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.

    2006-01-01

    Many home sewage-treatment systems (HSTS) in Ohio use curtain or perimeter drains to depress the level of the subsurface water in and around the systems. These drains could possibly intercept partially untreated wastewater and release potential pathogens to ground-water and surface-water bodies. The quality of water in curtain drains from two different HSTS designs in Medina County, Ohio, was investigated using several methods. Six evaporation-transpiration-absorption (ETA) and five leach-line (LL) systems were investigated by determining nutrient concentrations, chloride/bromide ratios (Cl/Br), Escherichia coli (E. coli ) concentrations, coliphage genotyping, and genetic fingerprinting of E. coli. Water samples were collected at 11 sites and included samples from curtain drains, septic tanks, and residential water wells. Nitrate concentrations in the curtain drains ranged from 0.03 to 3.53 mg/L (milligrams per liter), as N. Concentrations of chloride in 10 of the 11 curtain drains ranged from 5.5 to 21 mg/L; the chloride concentration in the eleventh curtain drain was 340 mg/L. Bromide concentrations in 11 curtain drains ranged from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L. Cl/Br ratios ranged from 86 to 2,000. F-specific coliphage were not found in any curtain-drain samples. Concentrations of E. coli in the curtain drains ranged from 1 to 760 colonies per 100 milliliters. The curtain-drain water-quality data were evaluated to determine whether HSTS-derived water was present in the curtain drains. Nutrient concentrations were too low to be of use in the determination. The Cl/Br ratios appear promising. Coliphage was not detected in the curtain drains, so genotyping could not be attempted. E. coli concentrations in the curtain drains were all less than those from the corresponding HSTS; only one sample exceeded the Ohio secondary-contact water-quality standard. The genetic fingerprinting data were inconclusive because multiple links between unrelated sites were found. Although the

  10. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  11. Chemical resilience of clay rich barrier materials to redox-oscillating conditions and implications for contaminant mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Chris; Rossetto, Lionel; Charlet, Laurent; Made, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    nitrate and sulphate in addition to the reductive dissolution of manganese and iron oxide minerals and an increase in CO 2 partial pressure. Whilst some authors demonstrate that such cyclic redox conditions may alter the properties of clay barrier materials due to illitisation of smectite clays (6, 7), the dynamic chemical conditions occurring during redox cycling may also result in the dissolution and re-precipitation of metal oxides, sulphides and carbonates. The balance of these minerals, even if present at sub-per cent levels as impurities has the potential to dramatically alter contaminant mobility. Many inorganic contaminants often associated with LL-LLW including Sb, Cr, As, Hg and U are also highly sensitive to changes in redox conditions which may result in changes to their speciation, toxicity and mobility (8, 9). We demonstrate through the combination of redox-stat batch-reactor experiments and thermodynamic modelling that periodic and cumulative changes to matrix mineralogy, contaminant speciation and mineral surface properties occur following periodic cycles of reduction and oxidation. These changes result in both short term (intra-cycle) and long-term (inter-cycle) changes to K d values for a range of redox sensitive contaminants associated with LL-LLW including arsenic, chromium, selenium, mercury and uranium (Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2). During a series of laboratory experiments argillaceous substrates were subjected to successive cycles of oxidising and reducing conditions with Eh oscillating between -215 and +340 mV induced via both abiotic and microbial methods. Chemically induced cycles of oxidation and reduction were achieved via a combination of gas sparging (nitrogen vs compressed air) and the addition of a synthetic reduced humic substance analogue (AH 2 DS 2- ). Microbially induced cycles of oxidation and reduction were achieved using gas sparging (nitrogen vs compressed air) to stimulate different metabolic pathways of a natively present

  12. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Götze, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper......Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending....... However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both...

  13. Sewage sludge: guidelines and its use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and forest substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pessanha Siqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is a residue generated after treatment of sewage, being a growing environmental issue due to the increase in wastewater collection and treatment networks. The disposal of these wastes to agricultural land has been presented as the most appropriate, with positive effects indicated by research. However, there are criteria and procedures to be followed  for the sewage sludge legal management. The main guidelines for sewage sludge use in agriculture are presented, as well as its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and its performance as a forest substrate, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore......, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater...... and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels...

  15. Isolation and characterization of Bacteroides host strain HB-73 used to detect sewage specific phages in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavel, Kannappan; Fujioka, Roger; Ebdon, James; Taylor, Huw

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that Escherichia coli and enterococci are unreliable indicators of fecal contamination in Hawaii because of their ability to multiply in environmental soils. In this study, the method of detecting Bacteroides phages as specific markers of sewage contamination in Hawaii's recreational waters was evaluated because these sewage specific phages cannot multiply under environmental conditions. Bacteroides hosts (GB-124, GA-17), were recovered from sewage samples in Europe and were reported to be effective in detecting phages from sewage samples obtained in certain geographical areas. However, GB-124 and GA-17 hosts were ineffective in detecting phages from sewage samples obtained in Hawaii. Bacteroides host HB-73 was isolated from a sewage sample in Hawaii, confirmed as a Bacteroides sp. and shown to recover phages from multiple sources of sewage produced in Hawaii at high concentrations (5.2-7.3 x 10(5) PFU/100 mL). These Bacteroides phages were considered as potential markers of sewage because they also survived for three days in fresh stream water and two days in marine water. Water samples from Hawaii's coastal swimming beaches and harbors, which were known to be contaminated with discharges from streams, were shown to contain moderate (20-187 CFU/100 mL) to elevated (173-816 CFU/100 mL) concentrations of enterococci. These same samples contained undetectable levels (Hawaii and the most likely source of these enterococci is from environmental soil rather than from sewage. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Regional features of food standards and health risks associated with chemical contamination of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikov, O V; Khatuaev, R O; Istomin, A V; Rumyantseva, L A

    In the article there are presented results of a study of the balance of food consumption by the population of the Voronezh region, the assessment of the level of contamination of food products and both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic and public health risk caused by this contamination. There was evaluated the level of nutrition-dependent diseases. A special feature of this study is a comparative analysis of data obtained during the two five-year periods of 1995-1999 and 2010-2014, that permitted to reveal changes in food consumption, the dynamics of morbidity rate associated with the nutritional factor.

  17. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Duce, Caroline E.

    2005-01-01

    Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5β-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated ∼ 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify pathways and accumulation sites for contaminants in coastal waters

  19. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perf...

  20. Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglayeva, Ganna

    The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and

  1. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  2. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  3. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  4. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  5. Framework to determine the effectiveness of dietary exposure mitigation to chemical contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Edwards, S.; Kennedy, M.; O'Hagan, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Scholz, G.; Steinberg, P.; Tennant, D.; Chiodini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the food safety, risk managers may implement measures to reduce human exposure to contaminants via food consumption. The evaluation of the effect of a measure is often an overlooked step in risk analysis process. The aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for

  6. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SOURCE WATERS: A SIMPLIFIED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give pub...

  7. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

  8. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5β(H)-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5α-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  9. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Hidalgo Lasso, D.; Zaan, van der B.M.; Gaans, van P.; Maphosa, F.; Smidt, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in

  10. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  11. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, And Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  12. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the

  13. Sewage treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  14. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    estuaries, Goa, India are described in this chapter. Raw sewage disposal into the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries has been a common practice in the history of the estuaries. With increasing population, the amount of sewage dumped in the estuary has also...

  15. Urban Sewage Sludge, Sustainability, and Transition for Eco-City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Chan, Felix T. S.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of urban sewage sludge is of vital importance for mitigating the risks of environmental contaminations, and the negative effects on human health. However, there are usually various different technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge; thus, it is difficult for decision......-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology among multiple alternatives. This study aims at developing a generic multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainability assessment of the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge. A generic criteria system including both hard and soft criteria...... in economic, environmental, social and technological aspects was developed for sustainability assessment. The improved analytic hierarchy process method, namely Best-Worst method, was employed to determine the weights of the criteria and the relative priorities of the technologies with respect to the soft...

  16. Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point.

  17. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  18. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celary, Piotr, E-mail: pcelary@is.pcz.czest.pl; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta, E-mail: jszoltysek@is.pcz.czest.pl

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  19. Effect of pre-heating on the chemical oxidation efficiency: implications for the PAH availability measurement in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Andriatsihoarana, Sitraka; Colombano, Stéfan; Faure, Pierre

    2015-04-09

    Three chemical oxidation treatments (KMnO4, H2O2 and Fenton-like) were applied on three PAH-contaminated soils presenting different properties to determine the potential use of these treatments to evaluate the available PAH fraction. In order to increase the available fraction, a pre-heating (100 °C under N2 for one week) was also applied on the samples prior oxidant addition. PAH and extractable organic matter contents were determined before and after treatment applications. KMnO4 was efficient to degrade PAHs in all the soil samples and the pre-heating slightly improved its efficiency. H2O2 and Fenton-like treatments presented low efficiency to degrade PAH in the soil presenting poor PAH availability, however, the PAH degradation rates were improved with the pre-heating. Consequently H2O2-based treatments (including Fenton-like) are highly sensitive to contaminant availability and seem to be valid methods to estimate the available PAH fraction in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical speciation and contamination assessment of Pb and V by sequential extraction in surface sediment off Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The total concentrations of metals were ranged (22.8–41.3 μg g−1 for Pb and (66.6–142.5 μg g−1 for V. The chemical speciation in most sampling stations was in the order of Residual > acid-reducible > oxidizable-organic > exchangeable for Pb and in the order of Residual > oxidizable-organic > exchangeable > acid-reducible for V. The results showed that the Pb in surface sediments off Nile River Delta existed in the nonresistant fractions while vanadium existed in the resistant fractions. The degree of surface sediments contamination was determined for individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. The result of ICF and GCF values showed that those stations located in the vicinity of municipal area (especially Lake Burullus outlet had high potential risk to fauna and flora of study area. Risk assessment code (RAC analysis indicated that although Pb presented a moderate overall risk to the aquatic environment, vanadium showed a low risk (RAC < 10% at six sites.

  1. Soil science basis and the effect of oil contamination on chemical properties of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Miehlich, G.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in soil chemistry properties due to oil contamination and decontamination are examined. One main point of the work is the determination of the effect of oil on the availability of nutrients in the soil. Nutrients are not only present dissolved in the soil solution, but are for the most part reversibly adsorbed by exchangers on loaded surfaces. The clay minerals, the organic substance and iron and manganese oxide act as exchangers. Knowledge on surface structure and reactions in soils contaminated by oil is to be obtained via examination of the exchange behaviour of different bio-elements. The results supply the basis for the cleaning up technique, the judgement of cleaned materials and their reusability. (orig.) [de

  2. Chemical stabilization of metals and arsenic in contaminated soils using oxides – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komárek, Michael; Vaněk, Aleš; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Oxides and their precursors have been extensively studied, either singly or in combination with other amendments promoting sorption, for in situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils. This remediation option aims at reducing the available fraction of metal(loid)s, notably in the root zone, and thus lowering the risks associated with their leaching, ecotoxicity, plant uptake and human exposure. This review summarizes literature data on mechanisms involved in the immobilization process and presents results from laboratory and field experiments, including the subsequent influence on higher plants and aided phytostabilization. Despite the partial successes in the field, recent knowledge highlights the importance of long-term and large-scale field studies evaluating the stability of the oxide-based amendments in the treated soils and their efficiency in the long-term. - In situ stabilization of metals and As in contaminated soils using oxides combined with phytostabilization is a potential alternative to conventional remediation techniques.

  3. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schäfer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, François

    2010-08-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

    2014-07-01

    Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ∼50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ∼0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ∼1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment.

  5. Examination of gutta-percha cones for microbial contamination during chemical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Kayaoglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of microbial contamination in packaged gutta-percha cones before and during use in clinical conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sealed packages of #15-40 gutta-percha cones were opened under aseptic laboratory conditions. Two gutta-percha cones from each size were randomly drawn and added to tubes containing glass beads and 750 µL of saline. The tubes were vortexed, serially diluted and samples of 250 µL were cultured on agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37ºC for 3 days and colonies were counted. The initially sampled packages were distributed to 12 final year dental students. The packages were collected at the end of the first and the third clinical practice days and sampled as described above. RESULTS: Baseline microbial counts did not exceed 3 CFU. At the end of the first and the third day, additional contamination was found in five and three of the packages, respectively. The ratio of contaminated packages at the first day and the third day was not significantly different (z-test; p > 0.05. The numbers of microorganisms cultured at the first day (8 ± 9.9 CFU and the third day (4.5 ± 8.3 CFU were not significantly different (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p > 0.05. No significant correlation was found between the number of filled root canals and cultured microorganisms at either the first day (Spearman's rho; r = 0.481, p = 0.113 or the third day (r = -0.034, p = 0.917. CONCLUSIONS: Gutta-percha cones taken directly from manufacturer's sealed package harbored microorganisms. Clinical use of the packages has been found to be associated with additional contamination of the gutta-percha cones. The counts of cultured microorganisms did not correlate well with the number of filled root canals.

  6. Study on Contaminant Transportation of a Typical Chemical Industry Park Based on GMS Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, LinXian; Liu, GuoZhen; Xing, LiTing; Liu, BenHua; Xu, ZhengHe; Yang, LiZhi; Zhu, HebgHua

    2018-03-01

    The groundwater solute transport model can effectively simulated the transport path, the transport scope, and the concentration of contaminant which can provide quantitative data for groundwater pollution repair and groundwater resource management. In this study, we selected biological modern technology research base of Shandong province as research objective and simulated the pollution characteristic of typicalcontaminant cis-1, 3-dichloropropene under different operating conditions by using GMS software.

  7. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  8. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  9. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  10. 2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

  11. Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, A. M.; Homer, M. L.; Ksendzov, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  12. Intregrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor for detection of air contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; Homer, Margie L.; Manfreda, Allison M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a silicon nitride-based ring resonator chemical sensor with sensing polymer coating. Its sensitivity to isopropanol in air is at least 50 ppm - well under the permissible exposure level of 400 ppm.

  13. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Miao, Ling-Zhan; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl2, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to be released from its solid phase, but may also be applied to evaluate the abnormal growth of the plants. PMID:27314376

  14. The Combination of DGT Technique and Traditional Chemical Methods for Evaluation of Cadmium Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils with Organic Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu; Sun, Qin; Wang, Chao; Wang, Pei-Fang; Miao, Ling-Zhan; Ding, Shi-Ming

    2016-06-15

    Organic amendments have been proposed as a means of remediation for Cd-contaminated soils. However, understanding the inhibitory effects of organic materials on metal immobilization requires further research. In this study colza cake, a typical organic amendment material, was investigated in order to elucidate the ability of this material to reduce toxicity of Cd-contaminated soil. Available concentrations of Cd in soils were measured using an in situ diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique in combination with traditional chemical methods, such as HOAc (aqua regia), EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), NaOAc (sodium acetate), CaCl₂, and labile Cd in pore water. These results were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability after the addition of colza cake to Cd-contaminated soil. Two commonly grown cash crops, wheat and maize, were selected for Cd accumulation studies, and were found to be sensitive to Cd bioavailability. Results showed that the addition of colza cake may inhibit the growth of wheat and maize. Furthermore, the addition of increasing colza cake doses led to decreasing shoot and root biomass accumulation. However, increasing colza cake doses did lead to the reduction of Cd accumulation in plant tissues, as indicated by the decreasing Cd concentrations in shoots and roots. The labile concentration of Cd obtained by DGT measurements and the traditional chemical extraction methods, showed the clear decrease of Cd with the addition of increasing colza cake doses. All indicators showed significant positive correlations (p soil solution decreased with increasing colza cake doses. This was reflected by the decreases in the ratio (R) value of CDGT to Csol. Our study suggests that the sharp decrease in R values could not only reflect the extremely low capability of labile Cd to be released from its solid phase, but may also be applied to evaluate the abnormal growth of the plants.

  15. Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Fungal Species Associated with Oil Contaminated Soil from Selected Automobile Garage in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Muhammad Maishanu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with a view to evaluating the physicochemical and mycological properties of different oil contaminated soils collected from three different automobile garages in Sokoto Metropolis, and uncontaminated soil from the temporary site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (UDUS was used as the control. The pH was determined using pH meter model Hanna (H1991301, quantity of mineral elements was evaluated in accordance with Murphy and Fungi were isolated from the three oil contaminated samples (A, B. and C and the uncontaminated (sample D as control, this was done by standard procedure using the method of P. Ren, T. Jankun & B. Leaderer. The physical, chemical, and mineral elements from the oil-contaminated soils of the three automobile garages and control. The results of particle soil analysis revealed the high content of sandy soil (96.2 to 87.3 and silt is the lowest with (2.5–0.6. Magnesium had the highest concentration of studied minerals, ranging from 193 to 649.2 mg/kg. while PH result revealed that the soil samples were pH value ranged from (16.85–16.20 in oil Contaminated samples, while the control had 15.90, and electrical conductivity ranged from 12.8–13.8 % and 28 % in control, four fungal isolates Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Mucor sp. and Sporobolomyces sp. were identified based on colonial, sexual and morphological characteristics. These fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

  16. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  17. Energetic assessment of air-steam gasification of sewage sludge and of the integration of sewage sludge pyrolysis and air-steam gasification of char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lalaguna, N.; Sánchez, J.L.; Murillo, M.B.; Atienza-Martínez, M.; Gea, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge is an interesting option for recovering energy and/or valuable products from this waste. This work presents an energetic assessment of pyrolysis and gasification of sewage sludge, also considering the prior sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification of the char derived from the pyrolysis stage. Experimental data obtained from pyrolysis of sewage sludge, gasification of sewage sludge and gasification of char (all of these performed in a lab-scale fluidized reactor) were used for the energetic calculations. The results show that the energy contained in the product gases from pyrolysis and char gasification is not enough to cover the high energy consumption for thermal drying of sewage sludge. Additional energy could be obtained from the calorific value of the pyrolysis liquid, but some of its properties must be improved facing towards its use as fuel. On the other hand, the energy contained in the product gas of sewage sludge gasification is enough to cover the energy demand for both the sewage sludge thermal drying and the gasification process itself. Furthermore, a theoretical study included in this work shows that the gasification efficiency is improved when the chemical equilibrium is reached in the process. - Highlights: • 4 MJ kg −1 for thermal drying of sewage sludge (SS) from 65 to 6.5 wt.% of moisture. • 0.15 MJ kg −1 for thermal decomposition of sewage sludge during fast pyrolysis. • Not enough energy in gases from SS pyrolysis and char gasification for thermal drying. • Enough energy in SS gasification gas for thermal drying and gasification process. • Gasification efficiency improves when equilibrium is reached in the process

  18. Characterization study on secondary sewage sludge for replacement in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.

  19. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport of sewage molecular markers through saturated soil column and effect of easily biodegradable primary substrate on their removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Ong, Say Leong; Hu, Jiangyong

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) are emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in the aquatic environment. The presence of PPCPs and ASs in water bodies has an ecologic potential risk and health concern. Therefore, it is needed to detect the pollution sources by understanding the transport behavior of sewage molecular markers in a subsurface area. The aim of this study was to evaluate transport of nine selected molecular markers through saturated soil column experiments. The selected sewage molecular markers in this study were six PPCPs including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET), salicylic acid (SA) and three ASs including acesulfame (ACF), cyclamate (CYC), and saccharine (SAC). Results confirmed that ACF, CBZ, CTMT, CYC and SAC were suitable to be used as sewage molecular markers since they were almost stable against sorption and biodegradation process during soil column experiments. In contrast, transport of ACT, CF and DEET were limited by both sorption and biodegradation processes and 100% removal efficiency was achieved in the biotic column. Moreover, in this study the effect of different acetate concentration (0-100mg/L) as an easily biodegradable primary substrate on a removal of PPCPs and ASs was also studied. Results showed a negative correlation (r(2)>0.75) between the removal of some selected sewage chemical markers including ACF, CF, ACT, CYC, SAC and acetate concentration. CTMT also decreased with the addition of acetate, but increasing acetate concentration did not affect on its removal. CBZ and DEET removal were not dependent on the presence of acetate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury Speciation in Contaminated Soils from Old Mining Activities in Mexico Using a Chemical Selective Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gavilán-García, Irma; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Tovar-Gálvez, Luis R.; Gavilán-García, Arturo; Suárez, Sara; Olmos, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Amalgamation was heavily used in mining since 1557 in Spanish Colonies. In Mexico and other parts of Latin-America, this process generated tailings which were left aside in the mine backyards. In the valley of Zacatecas, tailings were carried out of the mines due to the run-off from the mountains and contaminated most of the Zacatecan Valley which most important economic activity is agricultural (crop and livestock raising). The main concern in this area is the high level of total mercury fou...

  2. Chemical and microbiological investigations on mineral-oil contaminated soils following on-site regeneration measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, A.; Teschner, M.; Bosecker, K.; Wehner, H.; Kassner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In the site of a former petroleum refinery, where bombing during the second World War has caused in part deep-down contamination of the ground with petroleum and its products, a pilot study with five on-site biological treatment beds was carried through by different firms with the aim to reduce the hydrocarbon content of the soil to 1 gramme per kilogramme of dry weight. Thus, good comparability of the different regeneration measures was given. Sampling was done at the end of the regeneration experiments by obtaining an average sample. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of Sewage Discharge on Polychaete Communities in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed to the discharge of sewage and two control assemblages. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and. Ecology 189: 103-122. Chareonpanich C, Montani S, Tsutsumi H,. Matsuoka S (1993) Modification of chemical characteristics of organically enriched sediment by Capitella sp. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 375- ...

  4. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  5. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  6. Molecular Design of Nanofiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Thong, Zhiwei

    2016-08-24

    With the rapid depletion of mineral phosphorus, the recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge becomes increasingly important. However, the presence of various contaminants such as heavy metals in sewage sludge complicates the issue. One must separate phosphorus from the heavy metals in order to produce fertilizers of high quality. Among various available methods, nanofiltration (NF) has been demonstrated to be a feasible and promising option when the sewage sludge undergoes acidic dissolution and the operating pH is around 2. Because the performance of commercially available thin film composite (TFC) NF membranes reported thus far has great room for improvement, the development of highly permeable positively charged NF membranes is recommended. To this aim, a NF membrane that is desirable for phosphorus recovery was fabricated via interfacial polymerization of polyethylenimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on a porous poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane substrate. Through an optimization of the interfacial polymerization process, which involves varying the molecular weight of PEI and the concentration of TMC, the resultant membrane displays a low molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 170 Da with a reasonably high pure water permeability (A) of 6.4 LMH/bar. The newly developed NF membrane can effectively reject a wide variety of heavy metal ions such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni (>93%) while demonstrating a low phosphorus rejection of 19.6% at 10 bar using a feed solution of pH 2. Thus, up to 90% of the feed phosphorus may be recovered using this newly developed NF membrane at a permeate recovery of 90%. This is a highly competitive value for the recovery of phosphorus. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Identification of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Explosives Used in Road Construction: Isotopic, Chemical, and Hydrologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R; Böhlke, J K; Pelham, Krystle; Langlais, David M; Walsh, Gregory J

    2016-01-19

    Explosives used in construction have been implicated as sources of NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, but direct forensic evidence is limited. Identification of blasting-related NO3(-) can be complicated by other NO3(-) sources, including agriculture and wastewater disposal, and by hydrogeologic factors affecting NO3(-) transport and stability. Here we describe a study that used hydrogeology, chemistry, stable isotopes, and mass balance calculations to evaluate groundwater NO3(-) sources and transport in areas surrounding a highway construction site with documented blasting in New Hampshire. Results indicate various groundwater responses to contamination: (1) rapid breakthrough and flushing of synthetic NO3(-) (low δ(15)N, high δ(18)O) from dissolution of unexploded NH4NO3 blasting agents in oxic groundwater; (2) delayed and reduced breakthrough of synthetic NO3(-) subjected to partial denitrification (high δ(15)N, high δ(18)O); (3) relatively persistent concentrations of blasting-related biogenic NO3(-) derived from nitrification of NH4(+) (low δ(15)N, low δ(18)O); and (4) stable but spatially variable biogenic NO3(-) concentrations, consistent with recharge from septic systems (high δ(15)N, low δ(18)O), variably affected by denitrification. Source characteristics of denitrified samples were reconstructed from dissolved-gas data (Ar, N2) and isotopic fractionation trends associated with denitrification (Δδ(15)N/Δδ(18)O ≈ 1.31). Methods and data from this study are expected to be applicable in studies of other aquifers affected by explosives used in construction.

  8. Expanded target-chemical analysis reveals extensive mixed-organic-contaminant exposure in USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Romanok, Kristin; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jones, Daniel K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66–84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L–1 to greater than 10 μg L–1, with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L–1 and 10 ng L–1, respectively. Cumulative detections and concentrations ranged 4–161 compounds (median 70) and 8.5–102 847 ng L–1, respectively, and correlated significantly with wastewater discharge, watershed development, and toxic release inventory metrics. Log10 concentrations of widely monitored HHCB, triclosan, and carbamazepine explained 71–82% of the variability in the total number of compounds detected (linear regression; p-values: environment application (pesticides), designed-bioactive organics (median 41 per site at μg L–1 cumulative concentrations) in developed watersheds present aquatic health concerns, given their acknowledged potential for sublethal effects to sensitive species and lifecycle stages at low ng L–1.

  9. An investigation of selected chemical contaminants in commercial pet foods in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; El Sharkawy, Nabela I; Moustafa, Gihan G

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the levels of various contaminants in both wet and dry commercial pet foods in Egypt. A total of 20 local and imported pet food products (3 samples each) were screened for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for nitrate and nitrite levels by nitrate-nitrite spectrophotometry. Cat food, on average, had greater concentrations of the metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and tin than dog food. Of the investigated metals, only tin concentration exceeded the safe level compared with the standards of the National Research Council and the European Commission for the dog and cat. According to the guidelines of the Association of American Feed Control Officials for canned pet foods, the nitrate and nitrite contents of examined foods greatly exceeded the recommended level. No total aflatoxins were detected in the surveyed samples. None of the samples analyzed had levels above international limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for ochratoxin, and only 1 sample exceeded the level for aflatoxin B1. Of the 20 samples analyzed for zearalenone, 4 samples had higher levels than the FAO maximum tolerable levels. These results indicate that pet foods marketed in Egypt, especially cat foods, occasionally contain contaminants that could result in adverse effects in pets. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Yates, C.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  11. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A REVIEW ON SEWAGE TREATMENT AND POLISHING USING MOVING BED BIOREACTOR (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMAL ALI KAWAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluent treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs are advanced technique in biological treatment operations become increasing widely and popular use all over the world to treat various types of effluents with very different operating status. It is a combination of two separate processes suspended and attached growth systems for the treatment in order to minimize the concentrations of the contaminated parameters at the required level for reuse or final destination. The MBBR has been proved to be effective in great removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD with nutrients (N and P from the effluent stream simultaneously. It provides additional capacity of wastewater treatment technology with high treatment efficiency; low capital, operational, maintenance and replacement cost; single reliable and robust operation procedure. This process can be used for new sewage treatment works or for modifying (upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants as it is efficient, compact and easy to operate. The efficiency of MBBR depends on the filling percent of biofilm carriers to be provided inside the tank, surface area of the biocarrier, diffused aeration supply and the organic loading. The aim of this paper is reviewing the sewage treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactor MBB technology as an alternative and successful method. It presents the advantages of the MBBR compared to conventional waste water treatment. The review also includes many relevant researches carried out at the laboratory andpilot scales plants that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs.

  13. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

  14. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  15. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  16. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A., E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  17. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A.; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha −1 sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha −1 triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg −1 PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms

  18. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPARα and γ activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resis...

  19. Chemical identification of contaminants in paper and board food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda

    Paper and board are used for a variety of food contact materials, such as baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and packaging for cereals as well as fast foods. Despite this extensive use, there are currently large data gaps about the chemical composition of different paper and board food contact...