WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical-related impact categories

  1. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... printed matter produced on a fictitious sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe has been identified and shown in Figure 1 (light bars). „Ï The effect of including the chemical related impact categories is substantial as shown in Figure 1, e.g. the importance of paper is reduced from 67% to 31% and....... DRAFT April 2004. Part of the project ¡§Ecolabelling of printed matter¡¨ which is going to be published by the Danish EPA in summer 2004. [2] Wenzel,H., Hauschild, M., & Alting, L. (1997) Environmental Assessment of Products, Vol. 1. First edn. Chapman & Hall [3] Stranddorf, H.K., Hoffmann, L., Schmidt...

  2. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  3. The impact of extension category characteristics : on the attitdude towards brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is aiming to find out whether extension category characteristics have impact on consumer attitude towards brand extension. In this study, the author focused on three specific extension category characteristics, which are respectively (1) the role of dominant brands in the extension category, (2) the potential for a differentiated brand positioning in the extension category, (3) the consumer attitude towards the extension category. The author conducted an experiment ...

  4. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based "and" Information-Integration Category Learning: A Reassessment of Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Roger D.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on…

  5. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

  6. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; 10.1007/s11192-012-0929-9

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and citation behaviour differs largely across disciplines, principal components explain more than 78% of the total variance and the average number of references per paper is not the primary factor explaining the variance in impact factors across categories. The Categories Normalized Impact Factor (CNIF) based on the JCR subject category list is proposed and compared with the IF. This normalization is achieved by considering all the indexing categories of each journal. An empirical application, with one hundred journals in two ...

  7. A Practical Approach to Screening Potential Environmental Hotspots of Different Impact Categories in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakatani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of environmental hotspots becomes a pressing issue for companies pursuing sustainable supply chain management. In particular, excessive dependence on water resources outside the country may put the supply chain at unanticipated risk of water shortage. This article presents a practical approach to screening potential environmental hotspots of different impact categories that occur in the supply chain using environmental input-output analysis. First, the amounts of domestic and foreign potential impacts of global warming, terrestrial acidification, and water resource consumption, induced through supply chains were calculated for 403 sectors of Japanese products. Thereafter, with a focus on potential impacts induced through the import of raw materials, a framework for screening foreign potential hotspots was presented. The results showed that the sectoral potential impacts of water resource consumption had high rates of foreign impacts at deeper tiers of the supply chains for some sectors, which indicated that there exist hidden water hotspots outside the country. In the case study of fiber yarns, impacts on water resource consumption induced as a result of the import of crops, as well as that induced in silviculture as a result of the import of wood chips, were found to be the foreign potential hotspots.

  8. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category they...... belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view, this...

  9. Impact of education on knowledge, attitudes and practices among various categories of health care workers on nosocomial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the different health care workers (HCWs on nosocomial infections. Methods : A total of 150 HCWs, doctors (n=50, nurses (n=50 and ward aides (n=50 were included. A questionnaire was administered to the HCWs to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on nosocomial infections. A scoring system was devised to grade those (KAP score. They were further subjected to a series of similar questionnaires at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 months after an education module. Subjects in each category of staff (n=10 were observed for compliance to hand washing practices in the ward in the post-education period. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results : The study showed an increase in the number of subjects in each category scoring good and excellent in the post-education questionnaire; however this declined with the progress of time. It was observed that the compliance level to hand washing practices differed among the different HCWs. Total compliance was 63.3% and ward aides were most compliant 76.7% (adjusted Wald 95% CI= 58.80-88.48. Conclusions : Education has a positive impact on retention of knowledge, attitudes and practices in all the categories of staff. There is a need to develop a system of continuous education for all the categories of staff. In order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections, compliance with interventions are mandatory.

  10. Determining the Impacts of Land Cover/use Categories on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT8-OLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Ergene, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  11. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to...... rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  12. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to...... rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  13. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino. PMID:26412110

  14. Quantifying the Impact of Obesity Category on Major Chronic Diseases in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Jiang; Yue Chen; Douglas Manuel; Howard Morrison; Yang Mao; Obesity Working Group

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health effects differ with various levels of obesity, but limited national data existed previously for the Canadian population. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and behavioral factors with obesity levels in Canada, and measured the impact of each level on major chronic diseases. Data were extracted from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. We grouped overweight/obese participants aged 18 years and over into four levels based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): overw...

  15. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... regard to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  16. Functional categories and categorial change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , communicative) acts.      A functional category consists of linguistic units (formally expressed as e.g. a clause, a phrase, a word or an affix) that are the products of an interpersonal act, which include SPEECH ACTS (Austin 1962), THETICAL ACTS (Kaltenböck et al. 2011), PROPOSITIONAL ACTS (predicating...... and semantic categories, functional categories (as defined here) have played a rather marginal role in linguistics. In the tentative typology of functional categories proposed below, linguistic forms and constructions are classified on the basis of various kinds of interpersonal (discourse...

  17. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...

  18. Category management

    OpenAIRE

    Jan BERAN

    2002-01-01

    Práce popisuje category management, jeho definice a vývoj. Stěžejní část práce se věnuje osmi krokům category management procesu a subjektům, které do tohoto procesu vstupují. Mezi osm kroku patří definování kategorie, analýza kategorie, hodnocení subjektů, stanovení cíle kategorie, taktická rozhodnutí, strategická rozhodnutí, implementace a zpětná vazba. Praktická část je zaměřena na deskripci konkrétního category management projektu a tento projekt je porovnán s teoretickými předpoklady....

  19. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  20. ELEMENTS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladjana Brajevic

    2012-01-01

    Retail industry is facing changes due to financial crises in 2007., and its impact on consumption and consumer behaviour. The battle for new consumer is changing and is being transferred in to the store. Therefore stores are placed that needs to be considered, but the retailers do not have any change in profit when costumers switch from article A to article B. The new strategy that some consider to be an evolving approach to retail product management is category management. Category managemen...

  1. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, Leonard L., E-mail: gunderson.leonard@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pedersen, John E. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mayer, Robert J. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rich, Tyvin A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  2. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories

  3. Impact of the Number of Response Categories and Anchor Labels on Coefficient Alpha and Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Jen

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1,247 college students participated in this study on the effect of scale format on the reliability of Likert-type rating scales. The number of response categories ranged from 3 to 9. Anchor labels on the scales were provided for each response option or for the end points only. The results indicated that the scales with few response…

  4. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  5. Colourful categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  6. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  7. Impact of Service Extension and Services Interaction on B2b Sales: A Temporal Investigation Into Fuels’ Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inacio Severo de Almeida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of services marketing has a theoretical and empirical gap that refers to the impact of the provision of services on sales. This research opportunity is routinely highlighted in theoretical proposals such as the Augmented Service Offering (ASO, Innovation in Services (IS and Service Dominant Logic (SDL, which require alternative measures of combinations of product and service and the possible effects that these arrangements may cause. This article aims to investigate the impact of the extension and the interaction of services on Business to Business (B2B sales. Three hypotheses were tested with data from the fuel sector. Research was operationalized based on secondary data, ceded by an energy company, which comprise sales of regular and premium gasoline of this company to 19 gas stations along 27 months, totaling 513 observations. The study involved the construction of a generalized linear model with balanced, long and random effects panel structure. The three hypotheses were supported, identifying how the extensive principle of service contributes to the increased performance and conclude the existence of a direct, linear and positive impact of extension and interaction of services on B2B sales.

  8. Fibred Fibration Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    We show that, for a fibred category whose base category is a type-theoretic fibration category, fiberwise and total structures of type-theoretic fibration categories coincide. This gives the notion of fibred type-theoretic fibration categories which includes Shulman's inverse diagrams. Fibred type-theoretic fibration categories give categorical foundation of logical relation for identity types.

  9. By-Catch Impacts in Fisheries: Utilizing the IUCN Red List Categories for Enhanced Product Level Assessment in Seafood LCAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species’ vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  10. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  11. Two-track categories

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 2-dimensional analogue of track categories, called two-track categories, and show that it can be used to model categories enriched in 2-type mapping spaces. We also define a Baues-Wirsching type cohomology theory for track categories, and explain how it can be used to classify two-track extensions of a track category D by a module over D.

  12. Categories from scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especially inscrutable to external audiences. More specifically, the common explanatory route to approach categories is usually: "here is a formal specification of what a category is; then look at these kno...

  13. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Poss

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  14. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  15. Category Theory In Geography?

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.; Kerski Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribut...

  16. Category Theory in Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, Sanjay M

    2007-01-01

    Measures in the context of Category Theory lead to various relations, even differential relations, of categories that are independent of the mathematical structure forming objects of a category. Such relations, which are independent of the mathematical structure that we may represent a physical body or a system of reference with, are, precisely, demanded to be the Laws of Physics by the General Principle of Relativity.

  17. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  18. Geometric Phantom Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gorchinskiy, Sergey; Orlov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a construction of phantom categories, i.e. admissible triangulated subcategories in bounded derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth projective varieties that have trivial Hochschild homology and trivial Grothendieck group. We also prove that these phantom categories are phantoms in a stronger sense, namely, they have trivial K-motives and, hence, all their higher K-groups are trivial too.

  19. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687. ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  20. Blocking in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  1. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein.

  2. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  3. Category Theory In Geography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribution to this program in spatial mathematics.

  4. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  5. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  6. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  7. Sleep enhances category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  8. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  9. Clinical Outcome of Breast Conservation Therapy for Breast Cancer in Hong Kong: Prognostic Impact of Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence and 2005 St. Gallen Risk Categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of breast conservation therapy (BCT) for invasive breast cancers in our predominantly Chinese population. Methods and Materials: Clinical outcomes of 412 T1-2 invasive breast cancers treated by wide local excision and external radiotherapy from 1994 to 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 7% lesions were first detected by mammograms. Adjuvant tamoxifen and chemotherapy were added in 74% and 45% patients, respectively. Results: The median follow-up was 5.4 years. The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate, distant failure-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 4%, 92%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. The 5-year distant failure-free survival for the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk categories (2005 St. Gallen) were 98%, 91%, and 80%, respectively (p 0.0003). Cosmetic results were good to excellent in more than 90% of the assessable patients. Grade 3 histology (hazard ratio [HR], 4.461; 95% CI, 1.216-16.360; p = 0.024), age (HR, 0.915; 95% CI, 0.846-0.990; p = 0.027), and close/positive final margins (HR, 3.499; 95% CI, 1.141-10.729; p = 0.028) were significant independent risk factors for IBTR. Both St. Gallen risk categories (p = 0.003) and IBTR (HR, 5.885; 95% CI, 2.494-13.889; p < 0.0005) were independent prognostic factors for distant failure-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the low percentage of mammographically detected lesions, the overall clinical outcome of BCT for invasive breast cancers in the Chinese population is comparable to the Western series. The 2005 St. Gallen risk category is a promising clinical tool, but further validation by large studies is warranted

  10. Categories. Beginning Course (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratiev, G V

    2008-01-01

    This is a short textbook on Category Theory for Russian speaking students. It consists of three chapters: Categories and Functors, Representable Functors (including Adjoint Functors and (Co)limits) and Tensor Categories.

  11. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  12. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  13. Category Enhanced Word Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chunting; Sun, Chonglin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Lau, Francis C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed word representations have been demonstrated to be effective in capturing semantic and syntactic regularities. Unsupervised representation learning from large unlabeled corpora can learn similar representations for those words that present similar co-occurrence statistics. Besides local occurrence statistics, global topical information is also important knowledge that may help discriminate a word from another. In this paper, we incorporate category information of documents in the l...

  14. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  15. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  16. Coarse categories I: foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Viêt-Trung

    2007-01-01

    Following Roe and others (see, e.g., [MR1451755]), we (re)develop coarse geometry from the foundations, taking a categorical point of view. In this paper, we concentrate on the discrete case in which topology plays no role. Our theory is particularly suited to the development of the Roe (C*-)algebras C*(X) and their K-theory on the analytic side; we also hope that it will be of use in the strictly geometric/algebraic setting of controlled topology and algebra. We leave these topics to future papers. Crucial to our approach are nonunital coarse spaces, for which we introduce locally proper maps. Our coarse category Crs generalizes the usual one: its objects are nonunital coarse spaces and its morphisms (locally proper) coarse maps modulo closeness. Crs is much richer than the usual unital coarse category. As such, it has all nonzero limits and all colimits. We examine various other categorical issues. E.g., Crs does not have a terminal object, so we substitute a termination functor which will be important in t...

  17. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  18. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, sug...

  19. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  20. Semidirect Products of Monoidal Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We introduce semidirect products of monoidal categories as a categorification of semidirect products of monoids (or, perhaps more familiarly, of groups). We also introduce a weakened version of this construction, resulting in some examples of skew monoidal categories. We discuss how this construction interacts with autonomous and closed monoidal categories, and end by producing some examples of monoidal categories which are closed on only one side.

  1. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  2. Homotopy colimits of model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bergner, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Building on a previous definition of homotopy limit of model categories, we give a definition of homotopy colimit of model categories. Using the complete Segal space model for homotopy theories, we verify that this definition corresponds to the model-category-theoretic definition in that setting.

  3. 基质沥青的种类对橡胶沥青的影响研究%THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT THAT THE CATEGORY OF BASE ASPHALT BRING ABOUT TO RUBBERIZED ASPHALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东坡; 李海文

    2011-01-01

    There are plenty of factors that affect the performance of rubberized asphalt, however, this paper mainly consider the impact that the category of base asphalt bring about to waste crumb rubber modified asphalt This paper respectively adopts Da Qing and Panjin AH-90# base asphalt, which are commonly used in Heilongjiang province, with the same preparation technique-the powder content is 18% ; the power mesh is 80 mesh; the mixing temperature is 180 ℃; the mixing time is 60 min. Pene-tration , ductility, softening point, elastic recovery and rotation viscosity had been chosen as the technol-ogy and performance indexes. Test results indicate that the category of base asphalt has minor influence on rubberized asphalt%影响废胶粉改性沥青性能的因素很多,本文主要考虑基质沥青的种类对其性能的影响.分别采用黑龙江省常用的大庆和盘锦AH - 90#基质沥青,采用相同的制备条件:胶粉掺量为18%,胶粉目数为80目,搅拌时间为60min,搅拌温度为180℃,检测废胶粉改性沥青的针入度,延度软化点,弹性恢复,旋转粘度.试验结果表明,基质沥青的种类对废胶粉改性沥青性能的影响不大.

  4. Learning categorial grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Florêncio, C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1967 E. M. Gold published a paper in which the language classes from the Chomsky-hierarchy were analyzed in terms of learnability, in the technical sense of identification in the limit. His results were mostly negative, and perhaps because of this his work had little impact on linguistics. In the

  5. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  6. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis of the...... role of the category manager in purchasing....

  7. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  8. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  9. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  10. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  11. Simplicial Lusternik-Schnirelmann category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ternero, Desamparados; Macías-Virgós, Enrique; Minuz, Erika; Vilches, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The simplicial LS-category of a finite abstract simplicial complex is a new invariant of the strong homotopy type, defined in purely combinatorial terms, that generalizes to arbitrary simplicial complexes the well known notion of arboricity of a graph, and that allows to develop all the machinery of algebraic topology which is costumary in the classical theory of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category.

  12. The Research on Impact Factors of Consumers′Behavior Loyalty to the Lower Category A of Yunyan%低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志平; 赵明元

    2014-01-01

    Upon analysis of the literature of the consumers′behavior loyalty,the research introduces impact factors of consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN,and posits three hypotheses.With the application of AMOS20.0 software,the research adopts conceptual framework of factors to be consistent with empirical studies.The results reveal that flavor is the primary factor to affect the consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN of which the smoke flavor,fragrant smell and cut to-bacco have the greatest effects;the consumer′s personality is the second factor,of which attention to health,the environmental protection and opening character are outstanding;smoking conversion cost has the smallest effects on the consumers′behavior loyalty.%通过分析影响消费者行为忠诚度的相关研究,找出影响低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素并构建假设,同时应用AMOS20.0统计软件,对模型中的相关因素进行估计和检验.结果表明,吸味是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的首要因素,其中吸味中的吸香、嗅香和烟丝影响最大;消费者个性是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的第二因素,其中消费者个性中的关注健康、关注环保和开放三因素影响最大;吸烟转化成本对于低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度影响很小.

  13. Categories for the working mathematician

    CERN Document Server

    MacLane, Saunders

    1971-01-01

    Category Theory has developed rapidly. This book aims to present those ideas and methods which can now be effectively used by Mathe­ maticians working in a variety of other fields of Mathematical research. This occurs at several levels. On the first level, categories provide a convenient conceptual language, based on the notions of category, functor, natural transformation, contravariance, and functor category. These notions are presented, with appropriate examples, in Chapters I and II. Next comes the fundamental idea of an adjoint pair of functors. This appears in many substantially equivalent forms: That of universal construction, that of direct and inverse limit, and that of pairs offunctors with a natural isomorphism between corresponding sets of arrows. All these forms, with their interrelations, are examined in Chapters III to V. The slogan is "Adjoint functors arise everywhere". Alternatively, the fundamental notion of category theory is that of a monoid -a set with a binary operation of multiplicati...

  14. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1996, Evans 2009). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss...... or construction in the process of verbal communication (in the tradition of the Prague School). I will argue that (a) functional categorization is methodologically prior to formal and semantic categorization (functional categories include semantic and formal categories) and (b) functional categories...... give better cross-linguistic ‘coverage’ then formal or semantic categories. Finally it will be shown that functional categories have their own distinct grammatical properties (Rijkhoff 2008, 2009b, forthcoming). References Bulmer, Ralph. 1967. Why is the cassowary not a bird? A problem of zoological...

  15. Distributors on a tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBARA, D.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\cA$ be a tensor category and let $\\cV$ denote the category of vector spaces. A distributor on $\\cA$ is a functor $\\cA^{\\op}\\times \\cA\\to \\cV$. We are concerned with distributors with two-sided $\\cA$-action. Those distributors form a tensor category, which we denoted by ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$. The functor category $\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV)$ is also a tensor category and has the center $\\bZ(\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV))$. We show that if $\\cA$ is rigid, then ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$ and $\\...

  16. The neurobiology of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F Gregory; Spiering, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    Many recent studies have examined the neural basis of category learning. Behavioral neuroscience results suggest that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia play important category-learning roles; neurons that develop category-specific firing properties are found in both regions, and lesions to both areas cause category-learning deficits. Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories. The cognitive neuroscience literature on category learning appears contradictory until the results are partitioned according to the type of category-learning task that was used. Three major tasks can be identified: rule based, information-integration, and prototype-distortion. Recent results are consistent with the hypotheses that (a) learning in rule-based tasks requires working memory and executive attention and is mediated by frontal-striatal circuits, (b) learning in information-integration tasks requires procedural memory and is mediated primarily within the basal ganglia, and (c) learning in prototype-distortion tasks depends on multiple memory systems, including the perceptual representation system. PMID:15537987

  17. Generalized Tambara-Yamagami categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liptrap, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Fusion rules generalize groups by allowing multivalued multiplication. Groups are fusion rules of simple current index 1. We classify nilpotent (in the sense of Gelaki and Nikshych) fusion rules of simple current index 2, and characterize the associated fusion categories.

  18. 'Protestantism' as a historical category.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrie, Alec

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘Protestant’ itself is a historical accident, but the category of western Christians who have separated from Rome since 1517 remains a useful one. The confessionalisation thesis, which has dominated recent Reformation historiography, instead posits the two major Protestant confessions and Tridentine Catholicism as its categories, but this can produce a false parallelism in which the nature of relationship between the confessions is oversimplified. Instead, this paper proposes we thin...

  19. Sulla categoria delle categorie esatte

    OpenAIRE

    Margiocco, Marco; Mora, Fulvio

    1981-01-01

    In questo lavoro si studiano alcune proprietà della categoria ex e, in particolare, si costruisce l’esattizzazione di una sottocategoria di una categoria esatta, caratterizzandola mediante una opportuna proprietà universale. In this work we study some properties of the category ex, and construct the «exactization» of a subcategory of an exact category caracterized by an «universal property».

  20. A Convenient Category of Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of topological domains, whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual ω-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, can be used as the basis for a theory of computability, and provides a model of parametric polymorphism.

  1. A convenient category of domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of "topological domains", whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual $omega$-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, provides a model of parametric polymorphism, and can be used as the basis for a theory of computab...

  2. Neural correlates of colour categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Davidoff, Jules B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an electrophysiological marker of visual detection to investigate adults' processing of colour difference. Event-related potentials were collected from the identical colour (green: G0) presented as the frequent or infrequent stimulus within different colour contexts. Critically, we compared differences within the same colour category (G0 vs. green: G1) to differences between colour categories (G0 vs. blue and G0 vs. red). All differences showed a change-related positivity with...

  3. Rigidification of quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction for rigidifying a quasi-category into a simplicial category, and prove that it is weakly equivalent to the rigidification given by Lurie. Our construction comes from the use of necklaces, which are simplicial sets obtained by stringing simplices together. As an application of these methods, we use our model to reprove some basic facts from Lurie's "Higher Topos Theory" regarding the rigidification process.

  4. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Liang, E-mail: kong.fan.liang@gmail.com [Institute for Advanced Study (Science Hall), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit) A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  5. Anyon condensation and tensor categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Instead of studying anyon condensation in various concrete models, we take a bootstrap approach by considering an abstract situation, in which an anyon condensation happens in a 2-d topological phase with anyonic excitations given by a modular tensor category C; and the anyons in the condensed phase are given by another modular tensor category D. By a bootstrap analysis, we derive a relation between anyons in D-phase and anyons in C-phase from natural physical requirements. It turns out that the vacuum (or the tensor unit A in D-phase is necessary to be a connected commutative separable algebra in C, and the category D is equivalent to the category of local A-modules as modular tensor categories. This condensation also produces a gapped domain wall with wall excitations given by the category of A-modules in C. A more general situation is also studied in this paper. We will also show how to determine such algebra A from the initial and final data. Multi-condensations and 1-d condensations will also be briefly discussed. Examples will be given in the toric code model, Kitaev quantum double models, Levin–Wen types of lattice models and some chiral topological phases.

  6. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  7. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Mingyue; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then...

  8. Incremental Interpretation of Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a parser for Categorial Grammar which provides fully word by word incremental interpretation. The parser does not require fragments of sentences to form constituents, and thereby avoids problems of spurious ambiguity. The paper includes a brief discussion of the relationship between basic Categorial Grammar and other formalisms such as HPSG, Dependency Grammar and the Lambek Calculus. It also includes a discussion of some of the issues which arise when parsing lexicalised grammars, and the possibilities for using statistical techniques for tuning to particular languages.

  9. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  10. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  11. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  12. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...

  13. Dimethylglycine and chemically related amines tested for mutagenicity under potential nitrosation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, A J

    1989-04-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) and the chemically related amino acids glycine, sarcosine (monomethylglycine) and betaine (trimethylglycine) were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 after treatment with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions using a modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay as reported by Colman et al. (1980). The increase in the number of revertants observed both with and without metabolic activation was also induced in the control mixtures without adding the amines. From the subsequent testing of the individual components of the mixtures, we concluded that non-consumed nitrite was responsible for the mutagenic responses observed in the different reaction mixtures, and not the amines themselves. There were no consistent indications of mutagenic activity of the DMG test mixture as compared to the control mixture which exhibited both consistent mutagenic activity and a toxic effect which was not increased by the addition of DMG. In fact, DMG seemed to decrease the toxicity of the control reaction solution to the Salmonella which was clearly observed at the higher doses. DMG cannot be considered mutagenic under the test conditions employed. The same can be said of the other amino acids as well. PMID:2468082

  14. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  15. Cluster algebras and derived categories

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This is an introductory survey on cluster algebras and their (additive) categorification using derived categories of Ginzburg algebras. After a gentle introduction to cluster combinatorics, we review important examples of coordinate rings admitting a cluster algebra structure. We then present the general definition of a cluster algebra and describe the interplay between cluster variables, coefficients, c-vectors and g-vectors. We show how c-vectors appear in the study of quantum cluster algebras and their links to the quantum dilogarithm. We then present the framework of additive categorification of cluster algebras based on the notion of quiver with potential and on the derived category of the associated Ginzburg algebra. We show how the combinatorics introduced previously lift to the categorical level and how this leads to proofs, for cluster algebras associated with quivers, of some of Fomin-Zelevinsky's fundamental conjectures.

  16. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  17. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  18. Fusion categories and homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Ostrik, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We apply the yoga of classical homotopy theory to classification problems of G-extensions of fusion and braided fusion categories, where G is a finite group. Namely, we reduce such problems to classification (up to homotopy) of maps from BG to classifiying spaces of certain higher groupoids. In particular, to every fusion category C we attach the 3-groupoid BrPic(C) of invertible C-bimodule categories, called the Brauer-Picard groupoid of C, such that equivalence classes of G-extensions of C are in bijection with homotopy classes of maps from BG to the classifying space of BrPic(C). This gives rise to an explicit description of both the obstructions to existence of extensions and the data parametrizing them; we work these out both topologically and algebraically. One of the central results of the paper is that the 2-truncation of BrPic(C) is canonically the 2-groupoid of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center Z(C) of C. In particular, this implies that the Brauer-Picard group BrPic(C) (i.e., the grou...

  19. (Co)homology of Spectral Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we develop the cotangent complex and (co)homology theories for spectral categories. Along the way, we reproduce standard model structures on spectral categories. As applications, we show that the invariants to descend to stable $\\infty$-categories and we prove a stabilization result for spectral categories.

  20. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  1. Mapping spaces in Quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Dwyer-Kan theory of homotopy function complexes in model categories to the study of mapping spaces in quasi-categories. Using this, together with our work on rigidification from [DS1], we give a streamlined proof of the Quillen equivalence between quasi-categories and simplicial categories. Some useful material about relative mapping spaces in quasi-categories is developed along the way.

  2. Regular Functors and Relative Realizability Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Stekelenburg, Wouter Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Relative realizability toposes satisfy a universal property that involves regular functors to other categories. We use this universal property to define what relative realizability categories are, when based on other categories than of the topos of sets. This paper explains the property and gives a construction for relative realizability categories that works for arbitrary base Heyting categories. The universal property shows us some new geometric morphisms to relative realizability toposes too.

  3. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831

  4. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  5. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models

  6. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...... of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of...... the differences, which one also finds between them. The paper ends with an examination of the behavioural consequences of these institutional arrangements, which one also finds elsewehre, i.e. ion Estonia, Iceland, Norway and New Zealand (in the new electoral system currently being implemented there)....

  8. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  9. Locally finitely presented categories and functor rings

    OpenAIRE

    García, J L; Gómez Sánchez, P.L.; J. Martínez Hernández

    2005-01-01

    By using the correspondence between locally finitely presented additive categories and rings with enough idempotents, we study several properties of such rings in terms of the associated categories, and conversely. In particular, it is shown that a ring $R$ (with enough idempotents) is right perfect and the categories of finitely presented right and left $R$-modules are dual to each other if and only if the categories of projective and of injective right $R$-modules are equi...

  10. Abelian crossed modules and strict Picard categories

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen Tien; Phung, Che Thi Kim; Tung, Ngo Sy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we state the notion of morphisms in the category of abelian crossed modules and prove that this category is equivalent to the category of strict Picard categories and regular symmetric monoidal functors. The theory of obstructions for symmetric monoidal functors and symmetric cohomology groups are applied to show a treatment of the group extension problem of the type of an abelian crossed module.

  11. Compact generators in categories of matrix factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dyckerhoff, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We study the category of matrix factorizations associated to the germ of an isolated hypersurface singularity. This category is shown to admit a compact generator which is given by the stabilization of the residue field. We deduce a quasi-equivalence between the category of matrix factorizations and the differential graded (dg) derived category of an explicitly computable dg algebra. Building on this result, we employ a variant of Toën's derived Morita theory to identify continuous functors b...

  12. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  13. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zande, P.; Jesse, A.; Cutler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment ...

  14. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septimiu Crivei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of , called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover.

  15. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  16. The balanced tensor product of module categories

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Christopher L.; Schommer-Pries, Christopher; Snyder, Noah

    2014-01-01

    The balanced tensor product M (x)_A N of two modules over an algebra A is the vector space corepresenting A-balanced bilinear maps out of the product M x N. The balanced tensor product M [x]_C N of two module categories over a monoidal linear category C is the linear category corepresenting C-balanced right-exact bilinear functors out of the product category M x N. We show that the balanced tensor product can be realized as a category of bimodule objects in C, provided the monoidal linear cat...

  17. Structural Consequences of Duplicitous Chemical Relation of Cobalt and Fullerene in Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, 4-7 (2012), s. 328-335. ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA ČR GA106/09/1264; GA ČR GAP107/11/1856 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt * chemical bonding * nanostructure * self- organization Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2012

  18. Approximation in quantale-enriched categories

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Our work is a fundamental study of the notion of approximation in V-categories and in (U,V)-categories, for a quantale V and the ultrafilter monad U. We introduce auxiliary, approximating and Scott-continuous distributors, the way-below distributor, and continuity of V- and (U,V)-categories. We fully characterize continuous V-categories (resp. (U,V)-categories) among all cocomplete V-categories (resp. (U,V)-categories) in the same ways as continuous domains are characterized among all dcpos. By varying the choice of the quantale V and the notion of ideals, and by further allowing the ultrafilter monad to act on the quantale, we obtain a flexible theory of continuity that applies to partial orders and to metric and topological spaces. We demonstrate on examples that our theory unifies some major approaches to quantitative domain theory.

  19. A Compositional Treatment of Polysemous Arguments in Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Mineur, A M; Mineur, Anne-Marie; Buitelaar, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of {\\em coercion}, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called {\\em qualia structure}. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of {\\em sign-based} Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only two representations are derived: a prosodic one (form) and a logical one (modelling), here we introduce also a more detaled representation of the lexical semantics. This extra knowledge will serve to account for linguistic phenomena like {\\em metonymy\\/}.

  20. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  1. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  2. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, that is as deductive systems which take advantage of the linear order of the syntactic categories. In Chapter 4 they are formulated as polynomial parsing algorithms. An important aspect is the formul...

  3. The category demand effects of price promotions.

    OpenAIRE

    Nijs, VR; Dekimpe, Marnik; Steenkamp, J.; Hanssens, DM

    1999-01-01

    Although price promotions have increased in both commercial use and quantity of academic research over the last decade, most of the attention has been focused on their effects on brand choice and brand sales. By contrast, little is known about the conditions under which price promotions expand short-run and long-run category demand, even though the benefits of category expansion can be substantial to manufacturers and retailers alike. This paper studies the category-demand effects of consumer...

  4. Stable Postnikov data of Picard 2-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gurski, Nick; Johnson, Niles; Osorno, Angélica M.; Stephan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Picard 2-categories are symmetric monoidal 2-categories with invertible 0-, 1-, and 2-cells. The classifying space of a Picard 2-category $\\mathcal{D}$ is an infinite loop space, the zeroth space of the $K$-theory spectrum $K\\mathcal{D}$. This spectrum has stable homotopy groups concentrated in levels 0, 1, and 2. In this paper, we describe part of the Postnikov data of $K\\mathcal{D}$ in terms of categorical structure. We use this to show that there is no strict skeletal Picard 2-category who...

  5. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  6. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  7. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  8. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  9. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  10. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  11. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed...

  12. Monoidal category of operad of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Maria Ernestina Chavez

    2011-01-01

    Usually a name of the category is inherited from the name of objects. However more relevant for a category of objects and morphisms is an algebra of morphisms. Therefore we prefer to say a category of graphs if every morphism is a graph. In a monoidal category every morphism can be seen as a graph, and a partial algebra of morphisms possesses a structure of an operad, operad of graphs. We consider a monoidal category of operad of graphs with underlying graphical calculus. If, in particular, there is a single generating objects, then each morphism is a bi-arity graph. The graphical calculus, multi-grafting of morphisms, is developed ab ovo. We interpret algebraic logic and predicate calculus within a monoidal category of operad of graphs, and this leads to the graphical logic. A logic based on a braided monoidal category is said to be the braided logic. We consider a braided monoidal category generated by one object. We are demonstrating how the braided logic is related to implicative algebra and to the Heytin...

  13. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  14. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  15. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  16. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  17. Comparing operadic theories of $n$-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    We give a framework for comparing on the one hand theories of n-categories that are weakly enriched operadically, and on the other hand n-categories given as algebras for a contractible globular operad. Examples of the former are the definition by Trimble and variants (Cheng-Gurski) and examples of the latter are the definition by Batanin and variants (Leinster). We will show how to take a theory of n-categories of the former kind and produce a globular operad whose algebras are the n-categories we started with. We first provide a generalisation of Trimble's original theory that allows for the use of other parametrising operads in a very general way, via the notion of categories weakly enriched in V where the weakness is parametrised by an operad P in the category V. We define weak n-categories by iterating the weak enrichment construction using a series of parametrising operads P_i. We then show how to construct from such a theory an n-dimensional globular operad for each $n \\geq 0$ whose algebras are precis...

  18. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  19. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... of perceptual organization, visual object recognition and category-specificity....

  20. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where the...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  1. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity...... are discussed with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  2. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  3. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied. PMID:27142461

  4. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, peating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  5. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  6. Compactly accessible categories and quantum key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Heunen, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Compact categories have lately seen renewed interest via applications to quantum physics. Being essentially finite-dimensional, they cannot accomodate (co)limit-based constructions. For example, they cannot capture protocols such as quantum key distribution, that rely on the law of large numbers. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of a compactly accessible category, relying on the extra structure of a factorisation system. This notion allows for infinite dimension while retaining key properties of compact categories: the main technical result is that the choice-of-duals functor on the compact part extends canonically to the whole compactly accessible category. As an example, we model a quantum key distribution protocol and prove its correctness categorically.

  7. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    neurologically intact subjects and functional imaging studies, it is argued that PACE can account for category-effects at both behavioural and neural levels in patients and neurologically intact subjects. The theory also accounts for the way in which category-effects are affected by different task parameters...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... (the degree of perceptual differentiation called for), stimulus characteristics (whether stimuli are presented as silhouettes, full line-drawings, or fragmented forms), stimulus presentation (stimulus exposure duration and position) as well as interactions between these parameters....

  9. Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David

    2015-10-01

    Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.

  10. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  11. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Todd

    2004-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology of logically pos...

  12. Social transformation, collective categories and identity change

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Changes in collective categories of identity are at the core of social transformation. The causal linkages between identity change, institutional change and change in modes of practice are, however, complex. Developing and adapting ideas from Pierre Bourdieu’s work, this article shows the coexistence in tension of a plurality of elements – in particular oppositional and non-oppositional elements - within each collective identity category. On this basis, it proposes a typology o...

  13. Modelling the acquisition of syntactic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F.; Pine, J M

    1997-01-01

    This research represents an attempt to model the child’s acquisition of syntactic categories. A computational model, based on the EPAM theory of perception and learning, is developed. The basic assumptions are that (1) syntactic categories are actively constructed by the child using distributional learning abilities; and (2) cognitive constraints in learning rate and memory capacity limit these learning abilities. We present simulations of the syntax acquisition of a single subject, where t...

  14. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    OpenAIRE

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ER...

  15. Analysis of N Category Privacy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available File sharing becomes popular in social networking and the disclosure of private information without user’s consent can be found easily. Password management becomes increasingly necessary for maintaining privacy policy. Monitoring of violations of a privacy policy is needed to support the confidentiality of information security. This paper extends the analysis of two category confidentiality model to N categories, and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transitions in the information security privacy modeling.

  16. Morita homotopy theory of C*-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Ambrogio, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In this article we establish the foundations of the Morita homotopy theory of C*-categories. Concretely, we construct a cofibrantly generated simplicial symmetric monoidal Quillen model structure M_Mor on the category C*cat1 of small unital C*-categories. The weak equivalences are the Morita equivalences and the cofibrations are the *-functors which are injective on objects. As an application, we obtain an elegant description of the Brown-Green-Rieffel Picard group in the associated Morita homotopy category Ho(M_Mor). We then prove that the Morita homotopy category is semi-additive. By group completing the induced abelian monoid structure at each Hom-set we obtain an additive category Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} and a canonical functor C*cat1 {\\to} Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} which is characterized by two simple properties: inversion of Morita equivalences and preservation of all finite products. Finally, we prove that the classical Grothendieck group functor becomes co-represented in Ho(M_Mor)^{-1} by the tensor unit object.

  17. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  18. Impact of TNM classification categories on thyroid gland carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, P.; Vlček, P.; Jirsa, Ladislav; Personová, K.

    Glasgow : BioScientifica, 2006. s. 938-938. ISSN 1470-3947. [European Congress of Endocrinology incorporating the British Endocrine Societies /8./. 01.04.2006-05.04.2006, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100750404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : TNM * thyroid carcinoma * tumor size * misclassification Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  19. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov-Raz Gal; Mashiach-Arazi Yael; Nouriel Ariella; Raz Raanan; Constantini Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided i...

  20. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of capital category. 6.3 Section 6.3... Capital Categories § 6.3 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of...

  1. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  2. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  3. Category analysis: from biochemical mechanics to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the main goals of this report is to bridge the gap between computer modelling and group analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. But we can work with a category of groups rather than a Lie group. In view of the experience of the past development of the relation between mathematics, mechanics and physics, the categorical extension may be justified that one day categoric structures will be as important as groups are today. Also our aim is the application of the same category-theoretic methods in biochemical mechanics and astrophysics. As examples we consider the category analysis of material models for concrete, wood and reinforcing or prestressing steel, on the one hand, and process of the linear and circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation due to the quantum effects of electromagnetic field in anisotropic Bianchi-type cosmological models, on the other hand. (author)

  4. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist....... The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be....

  5. Joins of DGA modules and sectional category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Suárez, Lucía; Ghienne, Pierre; Kahl, Thomas; Vandembroucq, Lucile

    2009-01-01

    We construct an explicit semifree model for the fiber join of two fibrations p: E --> B and p': E' --> B from semifree models of p and p'. Using this model, we introduce a lower bound of the sectional category of a fibration p which can be calculated from any Sullivan model of p and which is closer to the sectional category of p than the classical cohomological lower bound given by the nilpotency of the kernel of p^*: H^*(B;Q) --> H^*(E;Q). In the special case of the evaluation fibration X^I ...

  6. Dewey, Peirce, and the Categories of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcikiewicz, Steven K

    2010-01-01

    John Dewey proposes the “educative” experience as the goal of instruction. Yet, in focusing on the educative experience, Dewey may discount other sorts of learning which occur in school, and indeed in life. This piece proposes a recapitulation of Dewey’s theory through Peirce’s categorical system of experience, leading to three categories of learning. The three proposed categories, “accepting,” “analytical,” and “evaluative,” correspond roughly to learning “what”, learning “how”, and learning...

  7. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  8. Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...

  9. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  10. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  11. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  12. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  13. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  14. Embedded Cobordism Categories and Spaces of Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Galatius, Madsen, Tillmann, and Weiss [7] have identified the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism category with objects (d -1)-dimensional manifolds embedded in R8. In this paper we apply the techniques of spaces of manifolds, as developed by the author and Galatius in [8], to...

  15. Traces on ideals in pivotal categories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Virelizier, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We extend the notion of an ambidextrous trace on an ideal (developed by the first two authors) to the setting of a pivotal category. We show that under some conditions, these traces lead to invariants of colored spherical graphs (and so to modified 6j-symbols).

  16. The Space Category in Medieval Japanese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    GOREGLIAD, Vladislav N.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the fictional space in literary work depends on the correlations between on the one hand the world of ideas and emotions, and on the other hand the world of things, and in the final analysis on the ideological categories of the work.

  17. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  18. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  19. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  20. Learning Object Categories From Internet Image Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Fergus, Rob; Li, Fei-fei; Perona, Pietro; Zisserman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a simple approach to learning models of visual object categories from images gathered from Internet image search engines. The images for a given keyword are typically highly variable, with a large fraction being unrelated to the query term, and thus pose a challenging environment from which to learn. By training our models directly from Internet images, we remove the need to laboriously compile training data sets, required by most other recognition approaches-this o...

  1. A visual category filter for Google images

    OpenAIRE

    Fergus, Robert; Perona, Pietro; Zisserman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    We extend the constellation model to include heterogeneous parts which may represent either the appearance or the geometry of a region of the object. The pans and their spatial configuration are learnt simultaneously and automatically, without supervision, from cluttered images. We describe how this model can be employed for ranking the output of an image search engine when searching for object categories. It is shown that visual consistencies in the output images can be identified, a...

  2. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions tha...

  3. Investor Attention: Overconfidence and Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Wei Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by psychological evidence that attention is a scarce cognitive resource, we model investors' attention allocation in learning and study the effects of this on asset-price dynamics. We show that limited investor attention leads to ``category-learning" behavior, i.e., investors tend to process more market and sector-wide information than firm-specific information. This endogenous structure of information, when combined with investor overconfidence, generates important features observe...

  4. DVE architecture based on message category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; ZHANG Qiang; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2009-01-01

    By importing the idea of P2P, and transmitting messages among clients directly into the client-server architecture, a new hybrid architecture was presented with the help of AOI technology and message category. Theoretical analysis of this architecture was presented in detail. A series of simulation experiments was carried out to verify its effectiveness. Results indicate that the new architecture produces less server message workload than traditional architectures, which can improve the scalability of DVE systems.

  5. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  6. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  7. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals. PMID:20830631

  8. Graded mutation in cluster categories coming from hereditary categories with a tilting object

    OpenAIRE

    Bertani-Økland, Marco Angel; Oppermann, Steffen; Wrålsen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    We present a graded mutation rule for quivers of cluster-tilted algebras. Furthermore, we give a technique to recover a cluster-tilting object from its graded quiver in the cluster category of coh $\\mathbb{X}$.

  9. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of capital category. 208.42 Section 208... Action § 208.42 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the...

  10. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of capital category. 565.3 Section 565.3... § 565.3 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A savings association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI...

  11. The Picard crossed module of a braided tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    Davydov, Alexei; Nikshych, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    For a finite braided tensor category we introduce its Picard crossed module consisting of the group of invertible module categories and the group of braided tensor autoequivalences. We describe the Picard crossed module in terms of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center of the braided tensor category. As an illustration, we compute the Picard crossed module of a braided pointed fusion category.

  12. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  13. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  14. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, R

    1984-01-01

    The first of its kind, this book presents a widely accessible exposition of topos theory, aimed at the philosopher-logician as well as the mathematician. It is suitable for individual study or use in class at the graduate level (it includes 500 exercises). It begins with a fully motivated introduction to category theory itself, moving always from the particular example to the abstract concept. It then introduces the notion of elementary topos, with a wide range of examples and goes on to develop its theory in depth, and to elicit in detail its relationship to Kripke's intuitionistic semantics,

  15. Cluster categories and cluster-tilted algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Torkildsen, Hermund Andre

    2006-01-01

    We have given an introduction to the theory of cluster categories and cluster-tilted algebras, and this was one of our main objectives in this thesis. We have seen that cluster-tilted algebras are relation-extension algebras, and this gave us a way of constructing the quiver of a cluster-tilted algebra from a tilted algebra. A cluster-tilted algebra of finite representation type is determined by its quiver, and this raised questions about the generality of this result. We defined a new class...

  16. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  17. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect. PMID:26106058

  18. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  19. Nel's category theory based differential and integral Calculus, or did Newton know category theory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2005-01-01

    In a series of publications in the early 1990s, L D Nel set up a study of non-normable topological vector spaces based on methods in category theory. One of the important results showed that the classical operations of derivative and integral in Calculus can in fact be obtained by a rather simple construction in categories. Here we present this result in a concise form. It is important to note that the respective differentiation does not lead to any so called generalized derivatives, for inst...

  20. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  1. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...... is a description that can be matched with structural representations of whole objects or object parts stored in visual long-term memory. The process of finding a match between the configured description and stored object representations is thought of as a race among stored object representations that compete...

  2. A Category Theoretic Model of RDF Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aliyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ontology languages are used in modelling the semantics of concepts within a particular domain and the relationships between those concepts. The Semantic Web standard provides a number of modelling languages that differ in their level of expressivity and are organized in a Semantic Web Stack in such a way that each language level builds on the expressivity of the other. There are several problems when one attempts to use independently developed ontologies. When existing ontologies are adapted for new purposes it requires that certain operations are performed on them. These operations are currently performed in a semi-automated manner. This paper seeks to model categorically the syntax and semantics of RDF ontology as a step towards the formalization of ontological operations using category theory.

  3. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  4. CORRELATION OF THE VERB TRANSITIVITY WITH OTHER GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  5. Multinomial Logit Models for Variable Response Categories Ordered

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Chikhi; Thierry Moreau; Michel Chavance

    2012-01-01

    This paper present three type of logits for ordered response to c categories. We interpreted in term of distribution two logistics models: the cumulative and continuation-ratio logit for ordinal response variables to c categories.

  6. Language, Perceptual Categories and their Interaction: Insights from Computational Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belpaeme, Tony; Bleys, Joris

    How do humans acquire perceptual categories? This question is far from being resolved. Specifically the balance between the influence of nature and nurture on perceptual categories remains the topic of heated debate. We present a computational model and take as case study colour categories to study two issues in perceptual category acquisition. The first issue is the effect of linguistic communication on categories during their acquisition: we demonstrate how categories can become coordinated under the influence of language. The second issue concerns the amount of coordination needed between the categories of individuals in order to achieve unambiguous communication. We show that, depending on how strictly linguistic utterances are interpreted, coordination of the individuals' categories is not always a prerequisite for successful communication.

  7. Category Labels Induce Boundary-Dependent Perceptual Warping in Learned Speech Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native…

  8. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION SECURITY AND CATEGORY “INFORMATION SYSTEM” IN CORPOPRATE GOVEMANCE IN CONSTRACTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednychenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the provisions of legal acts, given the definition of the conceptual apparatus of information security. Identified major categories of security in corporate governance (including construction enterprises) and provided suggestions for improving the level of protection of such information.

  9. Braided Tensor Categories and Extensions of Vertex Operator Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kirillov, Alexander; Lepowsky, James

    2015-08-01

    Let V be a vertex operator algebra satisfying suitable conditions such that in particular its module category has a natural vertex tensor category structure, and consequently, a natural braided tensor category structure. We prove that the notions of extension (i.e., enlargement) of V and of commutative associative algebra, with uniqueness of unit and with trivial twist, in the braided tensor category of V-modules are equivalent.

  10. Mere Exposure Alters Category Learning of Novel Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interp...

  11. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    OpenAIRE

    ThomasJPalmeri

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interp...

  12. Category and Perceptual Learning in Subjects with Treated Wilson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Pengjing; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Dosher, Barbara; Zhou, Jiangning; Zhang, Daren; Zhou, Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    To explore the relationship between category and perceptual learning, we examined both category and perceptual learning in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD), whose basal ganglia, known to be important in category learning, were damaged by the disease. We measured their learning rate and accuracy in rule-based and information-integration category learning, and magnitudes of perceptual learning in a wide range of external noise conditions, and compared the results with those of normal...

  13. Deferred Feedback Sharply Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. David; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria; Roeder, Jessica; Church, Barbara A.; Ashby, F Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The controversy over multiple category-learning systems is reminiscent of the controversy over multiple memory systems. Researchers continue to seek paradigms to sharply dissociate explicit category-learning processes (featuring verbalizeable category rules) from implicit category-learning processes (featuring learned stimulus-response associations that lie outside of declarative cognition). We contribute a new dissociative paradigm, adapting from comparative psychology the technique of defer...

  14. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  15. Weakly globular Tamsamani N-categories and their rigidification

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of higher categorical structures called weakly globular Tamsamani n-categories. These generalize the Tamsamani-Simpson model of higher categories by using the new paradigm of weak globularity to weaken higher categorical structures. We prove this new structure is suitably equivalent to a simpler one previously introduced by the author, called weakly globular n-fold categories.

  16. 12 CFR 325.102 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of capital category. 325.102 Section 325... POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Prompt Corrective Action § 325.102 Notice of capital category. (a) Effective date of determination of capital category. A bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital...

  17. Creating Temporal Categories for an Ontology of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Beule, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    A mechanism is described that enables a robotic agent to create temporal categories for conceptualizing the world. The creation of a new category is triggered when the agent is unable to temporally distinguish an event from the other events in the context using already adopted categories. This is di

  18. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  19. Children's Conceptions of Characteristic Features of Category Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Fabio; Bennett, Mark; Agostini, Luisa; Malucchi, Lucilla; Ferguson, Nicola

    2000-01-01

    Investigates children's conceptions of the characteristic features of category members. Hypothesized that (1) children initially perceive category members in terms of individual characteristics and (2) only later do children conceive of category members in terms of shared beliefs and values. Two separate studies confirm the hypotheses. (CMK)

  20. Philosophical and anthropological analysis a category of world outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Pustovalova I. V.

    2011-01-01

    The article claims to investigation a category of world outlook as integrate notion that claims a system of meaning, standard of living, ideals, culture values. A category of world outlook is not enough work out. Many scientists investigate other categories: world view, world sensation, and world feeling.

  1. When Category-based Indices Encounter Non-independent Categories: Solving the Taxonomy Issue in Resource-based Empirical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    HUO Dong; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Category-based measures such as the cosine index, Herfindahl index, entropy index, Euclidean distance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient are widely applied in resource-based studies. However, when adopting these indices in empirical studies with respect to the categories of industry, technology, or knowledge, the inherent relatedness between the categories gives rise to a taxonomy issue, as the categories are not naturally inter-independent (as they are supposed to be in the application o...

  2. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  3. Influence of emotionally charged information on category-based induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zhu

    Full Text Available Categories help us make predictions, or inductions, about new objects. However, we cannot always be certain that a novel object belongs to the category we are using to make predictions. In such cases, people should use multiple categories to make inductions. Past research finds that people often use only the most likely category to make inductions, even if it is not certain. In two experiments, subjects read stories and answered questions about items whose categorization was uncertain. In Experiment 1, the less likely category was either emotionally neutral or dangerous (emotionally charged or likely to pose a threat. Subjects used multiple categories in induction when one of the categories was dangerous but not when they were all neutral. In Experiment 2, the most likely category was dangerous. Here, people used multiple categories, but there was also an effect of avoidance, in which people denied that dangerous categories were the most likely. The attention-grabbing power of dangerous categories may be balanced by a higher-level strategy to reject them.

  4. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  5. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  6. Another look at interpreting risk categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have shown that simple rating scales can accurately rank sex offenders' long-term risk of recidivism. But when using these scales as prediction tools, evaluators often wish to translate categories of risk into probabilities of recidivism. D. M. Doren (2004) has recently suggested that evaluators may use the recidivism percentages published in original studies of the RRASOR and STATIC-99 without regard to differences in populations or base rates. This article explains why Doren's computations should lead to a different conclusion, and describes how simply comparing percentages across studies can mislead researchers and clinicians. Instead, investigators should isolate and examine the detection properties of risk assessment instruments alone, independent of the population- or setting-specific base rate. This article explains this process, using an imaginary study to illustrate how base rates and the properties of risk assessment instruments yield estimated probabilities of recidivism. The article also shows why Doren's results imply that the percentages of recidivism associated with scores on the RRASOR and STATIC-99 scores may vary across study populations. The article offers recommendations for researchers who design and evaluate actuarial methods of assessing risk and for clinicians who interpret results from risk assessment instruments. PMID:16639536

  7. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  8. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  9. PRIMENESS IN CATEGORY OF MODULES AND CATEGORY OF COMODULES OVER CORINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Emilia Wijayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We recall the notion of prie modules and use the analogue technique to define prime comodules and corings. Moreover, the related properties are of interest. We investigate the relation of primeness of C-comodule M and the dual algebra *C of a coring C, the relation to projectivity of a coring in the associated category, the implication of the primeness to the injective hull and product of prime coalgebras.

  10. Limits of generalization between categories and implications for theories of category specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M; Phillips, W Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed, and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of those previous studies (e.g., Grill-Spector, Knouf, & Kanwisher, 2004). The present study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern-car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars but not of antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features. PMID:20952784

  11. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  12. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  13. Algebras of higher operads as enriched categories II

    CERN Document Server

    Batanin, Michael; Weber, Mark

    2009-01-01

    One of the open problems in higher category theory is the systematic construction of the higher dimensional analogues of the Gray tensor product. In this paper we continue the work of [7] to adapt the machinery of globular operads [4] to this task. The resulting theory includes the Gray tensor product of 2-categories and the Crans tensor product [12] of Gray categories. Moreover much of the previous work on the globular approach to higher category theory is simplified by our new foundations, and we illustrate this by giving an expedited account of many aspects of Cheng's analysis [11] of Trimble's definition of weak n-category. By way of application we obtain an "Ekmann-Hilton" result for braided monoidal 2-categories, and give the construction of a tensor product of A-infinity algebras.

  14. The triangulated category of K-motives DK_(k)

    OpenAIRE

    Garkusha, Grigory; Panin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    For any perfect field k a triangulated category of K-motives DK_(k) is constructed in the style of Voevodsky's construction of the category DM_(k). To each smooth k-variety X the K-motive is associated in the category DK_(k). Also, it is shown that K_n(X)=DK_(k)(M_K(X)[n],M_K(pt)), where K(X) is Quillen's K-theory of X.

  15. Neural pattern similarity reveals the inherent intersection of social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolier, Ryan M; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    We provide evidence that neural representations of ostensibly unrelated social categories become bound together by their overlapping stereotype associations. While viewing faces, multi-voxel representations of gender, race, and emotion categories in the fusiform and orbitofrontal cortices were stereotypically biased and correlated with subjective perceptions. The findings suggest that social-conceptual knowledge can systematically alter the representational structure of social categories at multiple levels of cortical processing, reflecting bias in visual perceptions. PMID:27135216

  16. Implications of Natural Categories for Natural Language Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, Ben E.; Nutter, J. Terry

    1989-01-01

    Psychological research has shown that natural taxonomies contain a distinguished or basic level. Adult speakers use the names of these categories most frequently and can list a large number of attributes for them. They typically can list many attributes for superordinate categories and list few additional attributes for subordinate categories. Because natural taxonomies are important to human language, their use in natural language processing systems appears well founded. In the past, however...

  17. The Chinese Text Categorization System with Category Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Chao Keh; Ding-An Chiang; Chih-Cheng Hsu; Hui-Hua Huang

    2010-01-01

    The process of text categorization involves some understanding of the content of the documents and/or some previous knowledge of the categories. For the content of the documents, we use a filtering measure for feature selection in our Chinese text categorization system. We modify the formula of Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) to strengthen important keywords’ weights and weaken unimportant keywords’ weights. For the knowledge of the categories, we use category priority to r...

  18. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  19. Graded self-dual fusion categories of rank $4$

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jingcheng; Zhang, Liangyun; Dai, Li

    2016-01-01

    We classify self-dual spherical fusion categories of rank $4$ with non-trivial universal grading. We prove that they are Grothendieck equivalent to a Deligne's tensor product $\\A\\boxtimes\\B$, where $\\A$ is a non-pointed fusion category of rank $2$, $\\B$ is a pointed fusion category of rank $2$. In particular, if they are braided then they are equivalent to $\\A\\boxtimes\\B$.

  20. The Fukaya category, exotic forms and exotic autoequivalences

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold M together with a choice of a closed non-degenerate two-form. Recent years have seen the importance of associating an A?-category to M, called its Fukaya category, in helping to understand symplectic properties of M and its Lagrangian submanifolds. One of the principles of this construction is that automorphisms of the symplectic manifold should induce autoequivalences of the derived Fukaya category, although precisely what autoequi...

  1. Reflexive and dihedral (cohomology of a pre-additive category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasien Gh. Gouda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The group dihedral homology of an algebra over a field with characteristic zero was introduced by Tsygan (1983. The dihedral homology and cohomology of an algebra with involution over commutative ring with identity, associated with the small category, were studied by Krasauskas et al. (1988, Loday (1987, and Lodder (1993. The aim of this work is concerned with dihedral and reflexive (cohomology of small pre-additive category. We also define the free product of involutive algebras associated with this category and study its dihedral homology group. Finally, following Perelygin (1990, we show that a small pre-additive category is Morita equivalence.

  2. Multitensor lifting and strictly unital higher category theory

    OpenAIRE

    Batanin, Michael; Cisinski, Denis-Charles; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article we extend the theory of lax monoidal structures, also known as multitensors, and the monads on categories of enriched graphs that they give rise to. Our first principal result -- the lifting theorem for multitensors -- enables us to see the Gray tensor product of 2-categories and the Crans tensor product of Gray categories as part of this framework. We define weak n-categories with strict units by means of a notion of reduced higher operad, using the theory of algebraic weak f...

  3. Category learning in the context of co-presented items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Janet K; Livingston, Kenneth R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2011-05-01

    A series of four studies explore how the presentation of multiple items on each trial of a categorization task affects the course of category learning. In a three-category supervised classification task involving multi-dimensionally varying artificial organism-like stimuli, learners are shown a target plus two context items on every trial, with the context items' category membership explicitly identified. These triads vary in whether one, two, or all three categories are represented. This presentation context can support within-category comparison and/or between-category contrast. The most successful learning occurs when all categories are represented in each trial. This pattern occurs across two different underlying category structures and across variations in learners' prior knowledge of the relationship between the target and context items. These results appear to contrast with some other recent findings and make clear the potential importance of context-based inter-item evaluation in human category learning, which has implications for psychological theory and for real-world learning environments. PMID:21080030

  4. Deferred feedback sharply dissociates implicit and explicit category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Roeder, Jessica L; Church, Barbara A; Ashby, F Gregory

    2014-02-01

    The controversy over multiple category-learning systems is reminiscent of the controversy over multiple memory systems. Researchers continue to seek paradigms to sharply dissociate explicit category-learning processes (featuring category rules that can be verbalized) from implicit category-learning processes (featuring learned stimulus-response associations that lie outside declarative cognition). We contribute a new dissociative paradigm, adapting the technique of deferred-rearranged reinforcement from comparative psychology. Participants learned matched category tasks that had either a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a multidimensional, information-integration solution. They received feedback either immediately or after each block of trials, with the feedback organized such that positive outcomes were grouped and negative outcomes were grouped (deferred-rearranged reinforcement). Deferred reinforcement qualitatively eliminated implicit, information-integration category learning. It left intact explicit, rule-based category learning. Moreover, implicit-category learners facing deferred-rearranged reinforcement turned by default and information-processing necessity to rule-based strategies that poorly suited their nominal category task. The results represent one of the strongest explicit-implicit dissociations yet seen in the categorization literature. PMID:24335605

  5. E-Service Brand Extensions: The Role Of Perceived Fit And Category Usage Level On Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrali Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines how differences in consumer traits of self-efficacy and need for service employee interaction impacts perceived fit between core service brand and its e-service extension and adoption by current and prospective customers. Category usage level moderates the impact of self-efficacy on perceived fit and adoption of e-services among current and potential customers. We use data from a store—based service provider that introduced online services. The results of multiple regression analysis show that users with high level of efficacy have higher perceptions of fit and are more likely to adopt e-services and category usage level moderates this effect more for current users than prospective users.

  6. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  7. Seismic analysis of category I crane structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, most safety class crane seismic analyses are done by the equivalent static method, or the response spectra analysis method. In these methods, the crane is considered linear and elastic. These assumptions are considered adequate when the crane is at its 'parked position' with many additional tiedowns. However, at the 'operating position' of the crane, the crane has to stay on the crane rails and the hoist has to maintain its load in the event of an earthquake. This paper presents the analytical study of the impact effects resulting from seismic loadings on the crane structure considering structural nonlinearities. Such nonlinearity comes mainly from the hoist cable that can only resist tension and the gap in the support with seismic hold down mechanism. (orig.)

  8. Redefining risk categories for pneumococcal disease in adults: critical analysis of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curcio

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The ORs for CAP and IPD of patients with two or more comorbidities, with or without smoking, were found to be similar to the ORs for CAP and IPD described in the literature for patients currently classified as high risk. The potential impact of multiple, stacking comorbidities is underestimated and there is a need for the risk categories for pneumococcal disease to be redefined.

  9. Factors Influencing Successful Brand Extension into Related and Unrelated Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwat Afzal

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the study that analyzes the factors influencing successful brand extension. Specifically the study analyze the impact of similarity, brand reputation, perceived risk and consumer innovativeness on the success of brand extension into related or unrelated categories of FMCG products. A set of hypotheses were developed and tested by regression analysis. It investigated the effect of factors such as brand reputation, perceived risk, perceived similarity and consumer innovativ...

  10. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T.; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Notman, Leslie A.; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest. PMID:27252669

  11. Collapsing high-end categories of comorbidity may yield misleading results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Lash

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L LashDepartment of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: Adequate control of comorbidity has long been recognized as a critical challenge in clinical epidemiology. Comorbidity scales reduce information about coexistent disease to a single index that is easy to comprehend and statistically efficient. These are the main advantages of an index over incorporating each disease into an analysis as an individual variable. Many study populations have a low prevalence of subjects with high comorbidity scores, so it is common to combine subjects with some score above a threshold into a single open-ended category. This paper examines the impact of collapsing comorbidity scores into these categories. It shows analytically and by synthetic example that collapsing the high-end categories of a comorbidity scale changes the pattern of effect of comorbidity. Furthermore, collapsing the high-end categories biases analyses that control for comorbidity as a confounder or analyze modification of an exposure’s effect by comorbidity. Each of these results specific to comorbidity scoring derives from more general epidemiologic principles. The appeal of collapsing categories to facilitate interpretation and statistical analysis may be offset by misleading results. Analysts should assure the uniformity of outcome risk in collapsed categories, informed by judgment and possibly statistical testing, or use analytic methods, such as restriction or spline regression, which can achieve similar goals without sacrificing the validity of results. Keywords: epidemiologic factors, comorbidity, epidemiologic factors, bias (epidemiology

  12. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36... Central Office Equipment § 36.126 Circuit equipment—Category 4. (a) For the purpose of this section, the term “Circuit Equipment” encompasses the Radio Systems and Circuit Equipment contained in Accounts...

  13. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  14. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one ...

  15. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), produce paper products from purchased pulp, produce secondary fiber from recycled paper, convert paper... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.270 Definition of source category. (a) The pulp and paper manufacturing source category consists of facilities that produce...

  16. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  17. 40 CFR 98.150 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....150 Section 98.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.150 Definition of the source category. The HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 destruction source category consists...

  18. Rule-Based Category Learning in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. Allyson; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward; Klinger, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Rule-based category learning was examined in youths with Down syndrome (DS), youths with intellectual disability (ID), and typically developing (TD) youths. Two tasks measured category learning: the Modified Card Sort task (MCST) and the Concept Formation test of the Woodcock-Johnson-III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). In regression-based…

  19. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  20. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  1. Simple free star-autonomous categories and full coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dominic

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a simple presentation of the free star-autonomous category over a category, based on Eilenberg-Kelly-MacLane graphs and Trimble rewiring, yielding a full coherence theorem: the commutativity of diagrams of canonical maps is decidable.

  2. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1) Facilities with production process units that capture a CO2 stream for purposes of supplying CO2 for...

  3. Decoding the neural representation of fine-grained conceptual categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Marta; Vaghi, Matilde Maria Serena; Perani, Daniela; Tettamanti, Marco

    2016-05-15

    Neuroscientific research on conceptual knowledge based on the grounded cognition framework has shed light on the organization of concrete concepts into semantic categories that rely on different types of experiential information. Abstract concepts have traditionally been investigated as an undifferentiated whole, and have only recently been addressed in a grounded cognition perspective. The present fMRI study investigated the involvement of brain systems coding for experiential information in the conceptual processing of fine-grained semantic categories along the abstract-concrete continuum. These categories consisted of mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-, mouth action-, hand action-, and leg action-related meanings. Thirty-five sentences for each category were used as stimuli in a 1-back task performed by 36 healthy participants. A univariate analysis failed to reveal category-specific activations. Multivariate pattern analyses, in turn, revealed that fMRI data contained sufficient information to disentangle all six fine-grained semantic categories across participants. However, the category-specific activity patterns showed no overlap with the regions coding for experiential information. These findings demonstrate the possibility of detecting specific patterns of neural representation associated with the processing of fine-grained conceptual categories, crucially including abstract ones, though bearing no anatomical correspondence with regions coding for experiential information as predicted by the grounded cognition hypothesis. PMID:26883065

  4. Closure Operators and Closure Systems on Quantaloid-Enriched Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LIU; Bin ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce the fundamental notions of closure operator and closure system in the framework of quantaloid-enriched category.We mainly discuss the relationship between closure operators and adjunctions and establish the one-to-one correspondence between closure operators and closure systems on quantaloid-enriched categories.

  5. Variation of geometric invariant theory quotients and derived categories

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, Matthew; Katzarkov, Ludmil

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the relationship between bounded derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth global quotient stacks related by variations of the linearization in geometric invariant theory. We extend this framework to cover derived categories of coherent (matrix) factorizations when the stacks are equipped with potentials. Under assumptions on the variation, we provide simple numerical conditions for the derived categories to be related by semi-orthogonal decompositions. We also describe the complementary components in these semi-orthogonal decompositions. The results are applied to obtain a simple inductive description of derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth and projective toric Deligne-Mumford stacks. We also show how the semi-orthogonal decompositions for derived categories of coherent factorizations fully generalize the commutative case of Orlov's $\\sigma$-model/Landau-Ginzburg theorem. In addition, we present examples to show close ties with Homological Projective Dua...

  6. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...... worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation....... Second, the client introduces new categories that are compatible with the demands of the employment system. She contributes by drawing on discursive resources related to the category of ‘active job seeker’ but does this with an own agenda of looking for a suitable job. The analysis elucidates the client’s...

  7. On the homotopy type of certain cobordism categories of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Raptis, George

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\mathcal{A}_{g,d}$ be the (topological) cobordism category of orientable surfaces whose connected components are homeomorphic to either $S^1 \\times I$ with one incoming and one outgoing boundary component or the surface $\\Sigma_{g,d}$ of genus $g$ and $d$ boundary components that are all incoming. In this paper, we study the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism categories $\\mathcal{A}_{g,d}$ and the associated (ordinary) cobordism categories of their connected components $\\mathbb{A}_d$. $\\mathcal{A}_{0,2}$ is the cobordism category of complex annuli that was considered by Costello and $\\mathbb{A}_2$ is homotopy equivalent with the positive boundary 1-dimensional embedded cobordism category of Galatius-Madsen-Tillmann-Weiss. We identify their homotopy type with the infinite loop spaces associated with certain Thom spectra.

  8. On the Grothendieck rings of equivariant fusion categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burciu, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.burciu@imar.ro [Institute of Mathematics “Simion Stoilow” of the Romanian Academy, Research Unit 5, P.O. Box 1-764, RO-014700 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a Mackey type decomposition for group actions on abelian categories. This allows us to define new Mackey functors which associates to any subgroup the K-theory of the corresponding equivariantized abelian category. In the case of an action by tensor autoequivalences, the Mackey functor at the level of Grothendieck rings has a Green functor structure. As an application we give a description of the Grothendieck rings of equivariantized fusion categories under group actions by tensor autoequivalences on graded fusion categories. In this settings, a new formula for the tensor product of any two simple objects of an equivariantized fusion category is given, simplifying the fusion formula from Burciu and Natale [J. Math. Phys. 54, 013511 (2013)].

  9. On the Grothendieck rings of equivariant fusion categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a Mackey type decomposition for group actions on abelian categories. This allows us to define new Mackey functors which associates to any subgroup the K-theory of the corresponding equivariantized abelian category. In the case of an action by tensor autoequivalences, the Mackey functor at the level of Grothendieck rings has a Green functor structure. As an application we give a description of the Grothendieck rings of equivariantized fusion categories under group actions by tensor autoequivalences on graded fusion categories. In this settings, a new formula for the tensor product of any two simple objects of an equivariantized fusion category is given, simplifying the fusion formula from Burciu and Natale [J. Math. Phys. 54, 013511 (2013)].

  10. Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Schalk, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category learning offers a promising avenue to integration. We suggest that this integration would be especially beneficial to advance our understanding of conceptual change essentially, how complex scientific concepts and categories are acquired and developed in educational contexts elaborating or correcting students' prior conceptions. Furthermore, the focus on relational categories allows us to provide an integrative discussion on how recent lines of research on analogy, memory and category learning, and knowledge restructuring relate to and can inform education. In general, this article advocates the complementary nature of cognitive and educational psychology and identifies viable, and potentially synergistic paths for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950007

  11. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue-purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue-purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18-35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue-purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue-purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  12. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E; Satpute, Ajay B; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-04-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories--fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness--is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  13. Response processes in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Brian J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Much recent evidence suggests that human category learning is mediated by multiple systems. Evidence suggests that at least one of these depends on procedural learning within the basal ganglia. Information-integration categorization tasks are thought to load heavily on this procedural-learning system. The results of several previous studies were interpreted to suggest that response positions are learned in information-integration tasks. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that information-integration category learning was slowed but not disrupted when the spatial location of the responses varied randomly across trials. Experiment 2 showed that information-integration learning was impaired if category membership was signaled by responding to a Yes/No question and the category label had no consistent spatial location. These results suggest that information-integration category learning does not require consistent response locations. In these experiments, a consistent association between a category and a response feature was sufficient. The implication of these results for the neurobiology of information-integration category learning is discussed. PMID:18550397

  14. Talker-specific influences on phonetic category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M; Myers, Emily B; Lomibao, Janice A

    2015-08-01

    A primary goal for models of speech perception is to describe how listeners achieve reliable comprehension given a lack of invariance between the acoustic signal and individual speech sounds. For example, individual talkers differ in how they implement phonetic properties of speech. Research suggests that listeners attain perceptual constancy by processing acoustic variation categorically while maintaining graded internal category structure. Moreover, listeners will use lexical information to modify category boundaries to learn to interpret a talker's ambiguous productions. The current work examines perceptual learning for talker differences that signal well-defined, unambiguous category members. Speech synthesis techniques were used to differentially manipulate talkers' characteristic productions of the stop voicing contrast for two groups of listeners. Following exposure to the talkers, internal category structure and category boundary were examined. The results showed that listeners dynamically adjusted internal category structure to be centered on experience with the talker's voice, but the category boundary remained fixed. These patterns were observed for words presented during training as well as novel lexical items. These findings point to input-driven constraints on functional plasticity within the language architecture, which may help to explain how listeners maintain stability of linguistic knowledge while simultaneously demonstrating flexibility for phonetic representations. PMID:26328722

  15. Study on Two Categories of Sudden Stratospheric Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hengde; GAO Shouting; LU Weisong

    2007-01-01

    Invoking 45-yr daily European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data,firstly all the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are selected in these years, which can be classified into two categories: downward-propagating event and non-downward-propagating event. And then, based on potential vorticity distribution on isentropic surfaces (IPV), temperature field, and zonal wind field, a detailed description of the SSW occurring during the winter-spring (December and the following January,February, March) in 2000-01 and 2001-02 is given. Finally, the evolvement of polar vortex during warming process and the impact of warming on troposphere are discussed. It is found that (1) there is inter-decadal variation for stratospheric warming phenomenon; (2) the SSW event lasting from late January till early March in 2001 can propagate downward to troposphere; (3) during this SSW, there is zonal-mean easterly winds in both stratosphere and troposphere; (4) the two warming events during December 2001 and March 2002 cannot propagate downward to troposphere, while zonal easterly winds only appear in stratosphere; and (5) in the process of the two types of warming, a long and narrow high-value IPV "tongue" extends out from main polar vortex, which breaks out the gradient of IPV. Compared with the non-downward-propagating stratospheric warming case, the highest value of IPV departs farther from pole and the "tongue" is longer and narrower during the downward-propagating warming event. Pinched by anticyclone from middle latitude,the stratospheric polar vortex will displace, distort or breakdown. By contrast, the change of polar vortex is greater in the course of downward-propagating warming event. Also, troposphere circulation and polar vortex evolve in different degree, and usually both of them go with blocking, but the above evolvement in the downward-propagating warming is more distinct.

  16. Categories of forests by their functions; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional categorisation proposes differentiation exploitation of forests in accord with principles of sustainability. It is based on Act No. 61/1977 of Coll. in wording of later issued provisions and the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic No. 5/1995 of Coll. on economic arrangement of forests. The prevailing part of forest growths also falls under legal protection in the framework of the protected natural territories or they are part of the zones of hygienic protection of water sources. According to their function, forests are classified into three categories: (1) Protective forests (295,170.02 ha) fulfil the function of protection of soils against erosion and protection of the lower situated growths on unfavourable sites below the upper timberline and in the dwarf pine zone. They are divided into the forests on extra unfavourable sites, high-mountain forests, forests in the dwarf pine zone and other forests with prevailing function of soil protection. (2) Special purpose forests (312,029,41 ha) are the forests with special mission, which is determined by specific social needs. Forests in protective zones of water sources, forests in protected zones of natural medicinal sources and sources of natural mineral table waters, spa forests, and forests existing around the therapeutic and preventive facilities, suburban forests and other forests with recreation functions, forests in recognised game parks and pheasantries, forests in protected territories, parts of forests under the impact of emissions and part of forests destined to research are discerned. (3) Commercial forests (1,242,806.21 ha) serve to production of timber while they also fulfil other functions of forest. (authors)

  17. Hochschild and ordinary cohomology rings of small categories

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Advances in Mathematics, accepted Let C be a small category and k a field. There are two interesting mathematical subjects: the category algebra kC and the classifying space |C|=BC. We study the ring homomorphism HH^*(kC) ---> H^*(|C|,k) and prove it is split surjective, using the factorization category of Quillen and certain techniques from functor cohomology theory. This generalizes the well-known theorems for groups and posets. Based on this result, we construct a seven-dimensional cate...

  18. Basis for category B designation for K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes

  19. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian

    2004-01-01

    from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where the...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  20. A note on completeness of the category of real functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we construct a category ζ(R) whose objects are real functions with any domain in ζ (category of sets) and whose morphisms are the set functions in ζ which satisfy a certain condition. We study some properties of ζ(R) with the help of a functor K:ζ(R)→ζ and obtain that it is complete and co-complete in the finite sense. The notation and basic concepts of category theory used in this article are all well known. 5 refs

  1. The divergent autoencoder (DIVA) model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutrz, Kenneth J

    2007-08-01

    A novel theoretical approach to human category learning is proposed in which categories are represented as coordinated statistical models of the properties of the members. Key elements of the account are learning to recode inputs as task-constrained principle components and evaluating category membership in terms of model fit-that is, the fidelity of the reconstruction after recoding and decoding the stimulus. The approach is implemented as a computational model called DIVA (for DIVergent Autoencoder), an artificial neural network that uses reconstructive learning to solve N-way classification tasks. DIVA shows good qualitative fits to benchmark human learning data and provides a compelling theoretical alternative to established models. PMID:17972718

  2. Non-connective K-theory of relative exact categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to propose a definition of non-connective K-theory for a wide class of relative exact categories which, in general, do not satisfy the factorization axiom and confirm that it agrees with the non-connective K-theory for exact categories and complicial exact categories with weak equivalences. The main application is to study the topological filtrations of non-connective K-theory of a noetherian commutative ring with unit in terms of Koszul cubes.

  3. Model category structures \\`a la Thomason on 2-Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    In his paper "Th\\'eories homotopiques des 2-cat\\'egories", Jonathan Chiche studies homotopy theories on 2-Cat, the category of small strict 2-categories, given by classes of weak equivalences which he calls basic localizers of 2-Cat. These basic localizers of 2-Cat are a 2-categorical generalization of the notion of a basic localizer introduced by Grothendieck in "Pursuing stacks". In this paper, we deduce from the results of Jonathan Chiche and results we have obtained with Georges Maltsinio...

  4. A KIF Formalization for the IFF Category Theory Ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins the discussion of how the Information Flow Framework can be used to provide a principled foundation for the metalevel (or structural level) of the Standard Upper Ontology (SUO). This SUO structural level can be used as a logical framework for manipulating collections of ontologies in the object level of the SUO or other middle level or domain ontologies. From the Information Flow perspective, the SUO structural level resolves into several metalevel ontologies. This paper discusses a KIF formalization for one of those metalevel categories, the Category Theory Ontology. In particular, it discusses its category and colimit sub-namespaces.

  5. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  6. Slot-Filler and Conventional Category Organisation in Young Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Younoak; Nelson, Katherine

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments, five year olds produced more instances in slot-filler categories than taxonomic categories, and eight year olds produced more instances in taxonomic categories than slot-filler categories; for five year olds, slot-filler categories led to superior recall and shorter response latencies than did taxonomic categories. (BB)

  7. RITUALITY AS A WAY OF ACTUALIZING THE CATEGORY OF OTHERNESS WITHIN THE JUDICIAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomazova Viktoriya Vladimirovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rituality as one of the ways of actualizing the category of otherness within the judicial discourse, in general, and the court session, in particular. The author analyzes the relevant features of rituality in the judicial discourse, reveals the categorical connection between the rituality and otherness, the speech means which actualize their interaction. The author gives examples illustrating the actualization of the concept by means of rituality in the texts of court sessions' records. In addition, the author identifies the main communicative strategies and tactics used by the participants of judicial discourse. They serve as a means of expressing the analyzed categories. It is shown that a convict often uses the communicative strategy of self-defense, a defender and/or lawyer – the communicative strategy of defense or psychological impact, the prosecutor often appeals to the strategy of accusation and psychological impact. The author makes conclusion that the ritual character of judicial communication as a whole contributes to the distinction of discourse participants according to the features of "friend" and "enemy" thus actualizing the category of otherness.

  8. 76 FR 12141 - New Postal Product and New Price Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to add Competitive Ancillary Services to the competitive product list. The Postal Service also states that it has established a new price category under that...

  9. 49 CFR 173.199 - Category B infectious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in paragraph (a)(9) of this section, a Category B infectious substance meeting the definition of a... maximum temperatures, changes in humidity and pressure, and shocks, loadings and vibrations...

  10. The influence of category representations on exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Moyun; Xie, Liuqing

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the influence of category representations on exemplar generation, which has been neglected in previous category research. An experiment on college students manipulated the category representation of insects in three conditions (prototypes, exemplars, and the hybrid of prototypes and exemplars). Participants were asked to generate as many exemplars as possible. The results demonstrate that category representations affect and constrain exemplar generation. The new findings are as follows. In the prototype and hybrid conditions with the prototype representation, people tend to generate more valid exemplars by using the prototype mutation mechanism, and exemplar generation conforms to the family resemblance structure. Exemplar generation in the hybrid condition is additionally constrained by known exemplars. In the exemplar condition, people tend to generate fewer valid exemplars by using miscellaneous strategies, and their exemplar generation may not conform to the family resemblance structure. PMID:26275023

  11. A Study on three categories of college students' FLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    The paper is concerned with an empirical study on three categories of college students' FLA. The aim is to enhance the efficiency of college English teaching and help students to improve English level.

  12. Cultural route to the emergence of linguistic categories

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, A; Loreto, V; Baronchelli, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Puglisi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Categories provide a coarse grained description of the world. A fundamental question is whether categories simply mirror an underlying structure of nature, or instead come from the complex interactions of human beings among themselves and with the environment. Here we address this question by modelling a population of individuals who co-evolve their own system of symbols and meanings by playing elementary language games. The central result is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success. Remarkably, the number of linguistic categories turns out to be finite and small, as observed in natural languages.

  13. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  14. The Chinese Text Categorization System with Category Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Chao Keh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of text categorization involves some understanding of the content of the documents and/or some previous knowledge of the categories. For the content of the documents, we use a filtering measure for feature selection in our Chinese text categorization system. We modify the formula of Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF to strengthen important keywords’ weights and weaken unimportant keywords’ weights. For the knowledge of the categories, we use category priority to represent the relationship between two different categories. Consequently, the experimental results show that our method can effectively not only decrease noise text but also increase the accuracy rate and recall rate of text categorization.

  15. “Expenses” and “costs” as accounting categories

    OpenAIRE

    Еременко, Татьяна Викторовна

    2015-01-01

    Semantic difference of the categories “expenses” and “costs” taking into consideration the semantics, that is determined by the balance sheet conceptions and accounting principles connected with them, has been presented.

  16. Category theoretic analysis of single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Makoto Naruse Song-Ju; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hori, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Decision making is a vital function in the era of artificial intelligence; however, its physical realizations and their theoretical fundamentals are not yet known. In our former study [Sci. Rep. 5, 513253 (2015)], we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The multi-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. Herein, we present the category theoretic foundation of the single-photon-based decision making, including quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure in triangulated categories provides a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the single-photon decision maker. This is the first demonstration of a category the...

  17. Pathological examination for cases showing mammography findings above category 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the present state of pathological examination since we introduced Mammotome in November 2003 to clarify the accuracy of mammography findings. We performed mammography in 1,259 cases between November 2003 and March 2005 in our hospital. There were 207 patients showing classified finding as category 3 or above. Pathological examination was performed in 52 cases. Patients diagnosed as having breast cancer comprised 3/16 (19%) in category 3, 10/20 (50%) in category 4 and 14/16 (88%) in category 5. The first choice for pathological examination was fine needle aspiration (FNA). When FNA was unable to diagnose the lesion, core needle biopsy, surgical biopsy or Mammotome was performed. In 10 cases, Stereotactic Mammotome was used. Of these cases, 50% demonstrated breast cancer. (author)

  18. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following m...

  19. Mapping Criminal Law: Blackstone and the Categories of English Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, David

    2002-01-01

    "Mapping Criminal Law" examines attempts by 18th-century common lawyers to identify and delineate criminal law as a discrete and specific component of the legal order, distinguishing the legal categories of 'criminal' from 'civil' and, in this setting, the related distinction between 'public' and 'private'. The discussion focuses on Blackstone's treatment of these matters in the Commentaries: examining the native and foreign legal materials he utilized to assemble a category of law covering w...

  20. The genus and the Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category of preimages

    CERN Document Server

    Karasev, R N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper some axiomatic generalization (function of open subsets) of the relative Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category is considered, incorporating the sectional category and the Schwarz genus as well. For this function and a given continuous map of the underlying space to a finite-dimensional metric space some lower bounds on the value of this function on the (neighborhood of) preimage of some point are given.

  1. Tangent mappings and convergent sequences in the lipschitz category

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    The standard definition of a derivative in linear spaces is extended to a definition of tangency in the Lipschitz category, without any assumed algebraic structure on the underlying spaces.  Tangency is characterized topologically, that is, solely in terms of continuity, without using any algebraic concepts or other analytical concepts. The mappings in the Lipschitz category are characterized as the class of functions that preserve topologically convergent sequences of finite variation.

  2. On generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ for a quiver variety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a method for relating the generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ defined by the author and collaborators to explicit finitely presented algebras, and apply this to quiver varieties. This allows us to describe combinatorially not just the structure of these category $\\mathcal{O}$'s but also how certain interesting families of derived equivalences, the shuffling and twisting functors, act on them. In the case of Nakajima quiver varieties, the algebras that appear are weighted...

  3. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa; Carolina Teixeira Costa Silva; Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli; Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo; Raimundo Vicente de Sousa; Cesar Augusto Pospissil Garbossa; Níkolas de Oliveira Amaral; Walmes Marques Zeviani

    2012-01-01

    Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg) were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine), totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per e...

  4. Complicial structures in the nerves of omega-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, R.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that strict omega-categories are equivalent through the nerve functor to complicial sets and to sets with complicial identities. It follows that complicial sets are equivalent to sets with complicial identities. We discuss these equivalences. In particular we give a conceptual proof that the nerves of omega-categories are complicial sets, and a direct proof that complicial sets are sets with complicial identities.

  5. Investigating Consumer Purchase Behavior in Related Technology Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sriram; Chintagunta, Pradeep K.; Agarwal, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework of durable goods purchasing behavior in related technology product categories that incorporates the following aspects unique to technology product purchases. First, it accounts for consumers' anticipation of declining prices (or increasing quality) over time. Second, the durable nature of technology products implies that even if two categories are related as complements, consumers may stagger their purchases over several periods. Third, the forward-looking consumer deci...

  6. Metrology and Standards Needs for Some Categories of Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chiao, J. C.; Goldman, Julian M.; Heck, David A.; Kazanzides, Peter; Peine, William J.; Stiehl, James B.; Yen, Dwight; Dagalakis, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    With rapid advances in meso-, micro- and nano-scale technology devices and electronics, a new generation of advanced medical devices is emerging, which promises medical treatment that is less invasive and more accurate, automated, and effective. We examined the technological and economic status of five categories of medical devices. A set of metrology needs is identified for each of these categories and suggestions are made to address them.

  7. Threat Identification Parameters for a Stolen Category 1 Radioactive Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussery, Larry Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Winkler, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Radioactive sources are used very widely for research and practical applications across medicine, industry, government, universities, and agriculture. The risks associated with these sources vary widely depending on the specific radionuclide used to make the source, source activity, and its chemical and physical form. Sources are categorized by a variety of classification schemes according to the specific risk they pose to the public. This report specifically addresses sources that are classified in the highest category for health risk (category 1). Exposure to an unshielded or lightly shielded category 1 source is extremely dangerous to life and health and can be fatal in relatively short exposure times measured in seconds to minutes. A Category 1 source packaged according to the guidelines dictated by the NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation will typically be surrounded by a large amount of dense shielding material, but will still exhibit a significant dose rate in close proximity. Detection ranges for Category 1 gamma ray sources can extend beyond 5000 ft, but will depend mostly on the source isotope and activity, and the level of shielding around the source. Category 1 sources are easy to detect, but difficult to localize. Dose rates in proximity to an unshielded Category 1 source are extraordinarily high. At distances of a few hundred feet, the functionality of many commonly used handheld instruments will be extremely limited for both the localization and identification of the source. Radiation emitted from a Category 1 source will scatter off of both solid material (ground and buildings) and the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as skyshine. This scattering affects the ability to easily localize and find the source.

  8. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-01-01

    Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color ...

  9. On the axioms for adhesive and quasiadhesive categories

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A category is adhesive if it has all pullbacks, all pushouts along monomorphisms, and all exactness conditions between pullbacks and pushouts along monomorphisms which hold in a topos. This condition can be modified by considering only pushouts along regular monomorphisms, or by asking only for the exactness conditions which hold in a quasitopos. We prove four characterization theorems dealing with adhesive categories and their variants.

  10. Weak Tensor Category and Related Generalized Hopf Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang LI; Gong Xiang LIU

    2006-01-01

    There are at least two kinds of generalization of Hopf algebra, i.e. pre-Hopf algebra and weak Hopf algebra. Correspondingly, we have two kinds of generalized bialgebras, almost bialgebra and weak bialgebra. Let (t) - ((t), (×), I,a,l, r) be a tensor category. By giving up I,l, r and keeping (×), a in (t), the first author got so-called pre-tensor category (t) = ((t),(×), a) and used it to characterize almost bialgebra and pre-Hopf algebra in Comm. in Algebra, 32(2): 397-441 (2004). Our aim in this paper is to generalize tensor category (t) = ((t),(×),I,a,l,r) by weakening the natural isomorphisms l,r,i.e. exchanging the natural isomorphism ll-l = rr-l = id into regular natural transformations (lll) = l, (rrr) = r with some other conditions and get so-called weak tensor category so as to characterize weak bialgebra and weak Hopf algebra. The relations between these generalized (bialgebras) Hopf algebras and two kinds generalized tensor categories will be described by using of diagrams. Moreover, some related concepts and properties about weak tensor category will be discussed.

  11. Drinfeld Center and Representation Theory for Monoidal Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshveyev, Sergey; Yamashita, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the relation between the Drinfeld double and central property (T) for quantum groups, given a rigid C*-tensor category {{C}} and a unitary half-braiding on an ind-object, we construct a *-representation of the fusion algebra of {{C}}. This allows us to present an alternative approach to recent results of Popa and Vaes, who defined C*-algebras of monoidal categories and introduced property (T) for them. As an example we analyze categories {{C}} of Hilbert bimodules over a II1-factor. We show that in this case the Drinfeld center is monoidally equivalent to a category of Hilbert bimodules over another II1-factor obtained by the Longo-Rehren construction. As an application, we obtain an alternative proof of the result of Popa and Vaes stating that property (T) for the category defined by an extremal finite index subfactor {N subset M} is equivalent to Popa's property (T) for the corresponding SE-inclusion of II1-factors. In the last part of the paper we study Müger's notion of weakly monoidally Morita equivalent categories and analyze the behavior of our constructions under the equivalence of the corresponding Drinfeld centers established by Schauenburg. In particular, we prove that property (T) is invariant under weak monoidal Morita equivalence.

  12. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  13. 类别标签与典型性程度对类别特征推理的影响%The Effect of Category Label and Typical Level on Category-based Feature Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤英; 姚志刚; 李红

    2011-01-01

    study phase, that is, to estimate the probability that each test item had the typical feature of the given category in the unknown feature dimension. In this study a 2 (matching type of category label: matching and non-matching) × 2 (typical level: high and low) experimental design were adopted. The results of the experiment showed that: (1) Matching types of category label did affect the category-based feature inference task. The inference score for the test items with matching labels was significantly higher than the ones with non-matching labels. (2) Typical levels also bad effects on the category-based feature inference task. The items with a high typical level got higher scores than the ones with a low typical level. (3) The interaction between matching types of category label and typical levels was significant. The effect of matching types of category labels on the category-based feature inference task in the high typical level condition was stronger than the one in the tow typical level condition. Additionally, the effect of typical levels on the category-based feature inference task in the matching category label condition was stronger than the one in the non-matching category label condition. The results from this study sbowed that both category label and typical level influenced the category-based feature inference task, and more importantly, this study had new findings that there was significant interaction between category label and typical level. Neither of the two factors played roles independently and they had impact on each other. In conclusion the information from two sides was taken into account in making feature inference.

  14. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  15. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique da Trindade Barbosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance and carcass and cut yield of finishing pigs of three sexual categories fed diets with different levels of ractopamine were studied. Forty-eight hybrid animals (initial weight of 92.1±2.4 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (three sexual categories: surgically castrated males, two females and immunologically castrated males - with or without 10 ppm of ractopamine, totalling six treatments and eight repetitions with one animal per experimental plot during 28 days. Ractopamine improved weight gain and feed conversion of all sexual categories. The best results were obtained with immunologically castrated males, which, in turn, had lower carcass yield and backfat thickness in the belly. In the absence of ractopamine, depth and loin eye area were higher in females but no differences in these variables were observed between categories when this additive was used. Ractopamine increased the sirloin yield in all sexual categories. There was no difference in bonus index. Ractopamine improves the performance of pigs of 92 to 125 kg. Immunologically castrated males have the best performance responses to ractopamine, but with losses in carcass yield, loin characteristics and backfat thickness of the belly.

  16. The Influence of Task-Irrelevant Flankers Depends on the Composition of Emotion Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Holthausen, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition usually takes place in a social context, where faces are surrounded by other stimuli. These can act as distracting flankers which impair recognition. Previous work has suggested that flankers expressing negative emotions distract more than positive ones. However, the various negative emotions differ in their relative impact and it is unclear whether all negative emotions are equally distracting. We investigated the impact of three negative (angry, fearful, sad) and one positive (happy) facial flanker conditions on target recognition in an emotion discrimination task. We examined the effect of the receiver’s gender, and the impact of two different temporal delays between flanker and target onset, as stimulus onset asynchrony is assumed to affect distractor strength. Participants identified and rated the emotional intensity of target faces surrounded by either face (emotional and neutral) or non-face flankers. Target faces were presented either simultaneously with the flankers, or delayed by 300 ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, negative flankers did not exert stronger distraction effects than positive or neutral flankers. However, happy flankers reduced recognition performance. Results of a follow-up experiment with a balanced number of emotion categories (one positive, one negative and one neutral flanker condition) suggest that the distraction effect of emotional flankers depends on the composition of the emotion categories. Additionally, congruency effects were found to be valence-specific and overruled by threat stimuli. Females responded more quickly and rated targets in happy flankers as less intense. This indicates a gender difference in emotion processing, with greater sensitivity to facial flankers in women. Targets were rated as more intense when they were presented without a temporal delay, possibly due to a stronger flanker contrast. These three experiments show that an exceptional processing of threat-related flanker stimuli depends on

  17. The Influence of Task-Irrelevant Flankers Depends on the Composition of Emotion Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Holthausen, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Turetsky, Bruce I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition usually takes place in a social context, where faces are surrounded by other stimuli. These can act as distracting flankers which impair recognition. Previous work has suggested that flankers expressing negative emotions distract more than positive ones. However, the various negative emotions differ in their relative impact and it is unclear whether all negative emotions are equally distracting. We investigated the impact of three negative (angry, fearful, sad) and one positive (happy) facial flanker conditions on target recognition in an emotion discrimination task. We examined the effect of the receiver's gender, and the impact of two different temporal delays between flanker and target onset, as stimulus onset asynchrony is assumed to affect distractor strength. Participants identified and rated the emotional intensity of target faces surrounded by either face (emotional and neutral) or non-face flankers. Target faces were presented either simultaneously with the flankers, or delayed by 300 ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, negative flankers did not exert stronger distraction effects than positive or neutral flankers. However, happy flankers reduced recognition performance. Results of a follow-up experiment with a balanced number of emotion categories (one positive, one negative and one neutral flanker condition) suggest that the distraction effect of emotional flankers depends on the composition of the emotion categories. Additionally, congruency effects were found to be valence-specific and overruled by threat stimuli. Females responded more quickly and rated targets in happy flankers as less intense. This indicates a gender difference in emotion processing, with greater sensitivity to facial flankers in women. Targets were rated as more intense when they were presented without a temporal delay, possibly due to a stronger flanker contrast. These three experiments show that an exceptional processing of threat-related flanker stimuli depends on

  18. Iridoids from Scutellaria goulimyi Rech. f., Lamiaceae. Morphological and chemical relations with Scutellaria albida L. ssp albida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    Scutellaria goulimyi is a plant of the Lamiaceae family, endemic of the W Aegean island of Evvia (Trigas and Iatrou, 2006). With a chromosome number of 34, it can be found in Northern Evvia at an altitude of 250–700 m, growing equally well on both serpentine and limestone substrate. The influence...... of serpentines in speciation processes in plants is well known (Kruckeberg, 1951, 1954, 1967; Proctor and Woodell, 1975). The endemism related to ultramafic substrate on Evvia, exhibits a mixture of evolutionary recent and older taxa, which can be grouped into certain categories with respect to their...

  19. Category Management v obchodním řetězci

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This master thesis characterizes a process of the Category Management and its benefits. Furthermore, it describes the use of the Category Management in a selected retail chain and a process of creating Category Business Plans. The master thesis ends by an application of the Category Management and Category Business Plans theory on an illustrative case of a Beer Business Plan.

  20. Fukaya categories of the torus and Dehn surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Lekili, Yanki

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a companion to the authors' forthcoming work extending Heegaard Floer theory from closed 3-manifolds to compact 3-manifolds with two boundary components via quilted Floer cohomology. We describe the first interesting case of this theory: the invariants of 3-manifolds bounding S^2 union T^2, regarded as modules over the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus. We extract a short proof of exactness of the Dehn surgery triangle in Heegaard Floer homology. We show that A_\\infty-structures on the graded algebra A formed by the cohomology of two basic objects in the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus are governed by just two parameters (m^6,m^8), extracted from the Hochschild cohomology of A. For the Fukaya category itself, m^6 is nonzero.

  1. DB Category: Denotational Semantics for View-based Database Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Majkic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    We present a categorical denotational semantics for a database mapping, based on views, in the most general framework of a database integration/exchange. Developed database category DB, for databases (objects) and view-based mappings (morphisms) between them, is different from Set category: the morphisms (based on a set of complex query computations) are not functions, while the objects are database instances (sets of relations). The logic based schema mappings between databases, usually written in a highly expressive logical language (ex. LAV, GAV, GLAV mappings, or tuple generating dependency) may be functorially translated into this "computation" category DB. A new approach is adopted, based on the behavioral point of view for databases, and behavioral equivalences for databases and their mappings are established. By introduction of view-based observations for databases, which are computations without side-effects, we define a fundamental (Universal algebra) monad with a power-view endofunctor T. The resul...

  2. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  3. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric, while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation. To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation. Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  4. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. PMID:26119748

  5. Factors Influencing Successful Brand Extension into Related and Unrelated Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Afzal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the study that analyzes the factors influencing successful brand extension. Specifically the study analyze the impact of similarity, brand reputation, perceived risk and consumer innovativeness on the success of brand extension into related or unrelated categories of FMCG products. A set of hypotheses were developed and tested by regression analysis. It investigated the effect of factors such as brand reputation, perceived risk, perceived similarity and consumer innovativeness on successful brand extension in FMCG. This study provides support for two out of the four hypotheses of Hem & Charnatony's model. Parent brand reputations, and consumer innovativeness, have powerful positive effect on consumers' mind-set towards the brand extension in related and unrelated product category. The third hypothesis i.e. interaction of perceived similarity is positive and significant in related FMCG product category and hence hypothesis 1 is partially supported. However the fourth hypothesis i.e. perceived risk in preparing the extension with customers' attitude regarding brand extension could not be supported. The result of this study suggests a number of implications for product extensions in our country. Implications have been discussed for the organization of consumer information and effect across related and unrelated product class and for understanding earlier research results on brand extension.

  6. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine...... time interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is...

  7. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can be...

  8. On the loop space of a 2-category

    CERN Document Server

    del Hoyo, Matias L

    2010-01-01

    Every small category $C$ has a classifying space $BC$ associated in a natural way. This construction can be extended to other contexts and set up a fruitful interaction between categorical structures and homotopy types. In this paper we study the classifying space $B_2C$ of a 2-category $C$ and prove that, under certain conditions, the loop space $\\Omega_c B_2C$ can be recovered up to homotopy from the endomorphisms of a given object. We also present several subsidiary results that we develop to prove our main theorem.

  9. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives of the...... the same time collaboratively produces insights into how we as individuals participate in the productions of oppressive relations in relation to powerful social categories. The question, which propelled the two stories analysed was: Describe a situation where you for the first time became aware of...

  10. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... complex cystic lesions in the kidney (n = 550 in the same number of patients) were reclassified according to the Bosniak classification by two radiologists in consensus. If a patient had more than one lesion, only the highest Bosniak category was recorded. All Bosniak IIF lesions with ≥2-year follow...

  11. On Self-Predicative Universals in Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ellerman, David

    2014-01-01

    1. This paper shows how the universals of category theory in mathematics provide a model (in the Platonic Heaven of mathematics) for the self-predicative strand of Plato's Theory of Forms as well as for the idea of a "concrete universal" in Hegel and similar ideas of paradigmatic exemplars in ordinary thought. 2. The paper also shows how the always-self-predicative universals of category theory provide the "opposite bookend" to the never-self-predicative universals of iterative set theory and...

  12. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  13. Is Expressive Language Disorder an Accurate Diagnostic Category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To propose that the diagnostic category of "expressive language disorder" as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Method: Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language…

  14. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... masking perspiration and other body odors and that are often combined with an antiperspirant. (b) Minimum... in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 12 product categories for the preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies (referred to hereafter in this FR notice...

  15. 32 CFR 651.11 - Environmental review categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... categories into which a proposed action may fall for environmental review: (a) Exemption by law. The law must... procedures of NEPA (40 CFR 1506.11). While some aspects of Army decision-making may be exempted from NEPA... effects of the emergency. Other actions remain subject to NEPA review (40 CFR 1506.11). A public...

  16. 40 CFR 98.220 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.220 Definition of source category. A nitric acid production facility uses one or more trains to produce weak nitric acid (30 to 70 percent in strength). A nitric acid train produces weak nitric acid through the catalytic oxidation...

  17. The social-psychological analysis of the category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shterc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on the socio-psychological analysis of the category of "life." The paper reveals the concept of "life" from the viewpoint of social-psychological approaches discussed, value and communication components. The author reports the results of an empirical study of the value and communicative component lifestyle managers.

  18. 78 FR 19393 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... published, on December 5, 2012, a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating... this FR notice as the ``preferred procurement program''). This proposed rule can be found at 77 FR...: countertops to the composite panels category; and wheel bearing and chassis grease to the greases...

  19. Prediction of human protein function according to Gene Ontology categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    developed a method for prediction of protein function for a subset of classes from the Gene Ontology classification scheme. This subset includes several pharmaceutically interesting categories-transcription factors, receptors, ion channels, stress and immune response proteins, hormones and growth factors...

  20. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... economic and technological feasibility of using those products, including the life-cycle costs of the... examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its life-cycle cost...

  1. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering a product's availability, USDA uses several... feasibility, USDA examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its...

  2. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... those products, including the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering an item's availability... life-cycle costs of product categories proposed for designation, USDA has obtained the necessary input... documented availability, benefits, and life-cycle costs of even a very small percentage of all products...

  3. Effects of Task and Category Membership on Representation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Audrey; Urdapilleta, Isabel; Houix, Olivier; Manetta, Celine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products). We hypothesized that (1) the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the…

  4. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  5. Optimum Response Categories for the Religious Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraska, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Likert response scales are widely used in the social sciences, typically to measure attitudes and personality. This study seeks to understand the optimal number of categories to include in a Likert scale measuring attitudes. Therefore, the author examined four versions of an attitude measure, the Religious Motivation Scale, ranging from a 4- to…

  6. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... in 40 CFR 63.7081(a)(1). (b) This source category includes all LMPs unless the LMP is located at...

  7. Statistical Learning of Phonetic Categories: Insights from a Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Aslin, Richard N.; Toscano, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence (Maye, Werker & Gerken, 2002) suggests that statistical learning may be an important mechanism for the acquisition of phonetic categories in the infant's native language. We examined the sufficiency of this hypothesis and its implications for development by implementing a statistical learning mechanism in a computational model…

  8. 50 CFR 229.5 - Requirements for Category III fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Certificate. (b) Reporting. Vessel owners engaged in a Category III fishery must comply with the reporting... fishery must comply with the observer requirements specified under § 229.7(d). (e) Deterrence. When necessary to deter a marine mammal from damaging fishing gear, catch, or other private property, or...

  9. 40 CFR 98.30 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources § 98.30 Definition of the source category. (a) Stationary fuel combustion sources are devices that combust solid, liquid..., boilers, simple and combined-cycle combustion turbines, engines, incinerators, and process heaters....

  10. Developmental Changes in Infants' and Toddlers' Attention to Gender Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristen E.; Bittinger, Kathleen; Smith, Amy; Madole, Kelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Three studies examined the emergence of attention to gender categories in toddlers. Results suggested that 18-month-olds showed little attention to gender on a sequential touching task. The possibility that they could not discriminate the dolls used in the task by gender was ruled out. There was a sharp increase in attention to gender between 18…

  11. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  12. Future Time Perspective and Motivational Categories in Argentinean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; Rapetti, Maria Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of 332 Argentinean teenagers in their last year of secondary school. In the context of the relational theory of motivation, an attempt is made to determine the motivational categories best predicting Future Time Perspective (FTP) extension. The influence of the sex, locus of control, social class, and school ethos…

  13. 42 CFR 493.5 - Categories of tests by complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Categories of tests by complexity. 493.5 Section... tests by complexity. (a) Laboratory tests are categorized as one of the following: (1) Waived tests. (2) Tests of moderate complexity, including the subcategory of PPM procedures. (3) Tests of high...

  14. Mutating loops and 2-cycles in 2-CY triangulated categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bertani-Økland, Marco Angel

    2010-01-01

    We derive an algorithm for mutating quivers of 2-CY tilted algebras that have loops and 2-cycles, under certain specific conditions. Further, we give the classification of the 2-CY tilted algebras coming from standard algebraic 2-CY triangulated categories with a finite number of indecomposables. These form a class of algebras that satisfy the setup for our mutation algorithm.

  15. Categorization and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A; Paulson, O B

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of the structural and semantic stages of visual object recognition and to see whether any effects of category could be found at these stages, we compared the rCBF associated with two categorization tasks (subjects decided whether pictures represented artefacts...

  16. Security of Category 1 Sources in Medical Facilities Throughout Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive substances are commonly used in teletherapy for the treatment of malignant diseases and for blood irradiation. The issue of physical protection of these sources has been a concern due to several incidents relating to radioactive materials originating from medical use. The paper sets out the implementation of physical protection system for Category 1 radioactive sources in medical facilities throughout Malaysia. (author)

  17. Completeness of †-categories and the complex numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex numbers are an important part of quantum theory, but are difficult to motivate from a theoretical perspective. We describe a simple formal framework for theories of physics, and show that if a theory of physics presented in this manner satisfies certain completeness properties, then it necessarily includes the complex numbers as a mathematical ingredient. Central to our approach are the techniques of category theory, and we introduce a new category-theoretical tool, called the †-limit, which governs the way in which systems can be combined to form larger systems. These †-limits can be used to characterize the properties of the †-functor on the category of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and so can be used as an equivalent definition of the inner product. One of our main results is that in a nontrivial monoidal †-category with finite †-limits and a simple tensor unit, the semiring of scalars embeds into an involutive field of characteristic 0 and orderable fixed field.

  18. Slot-Filler Categories as Memory Organizers for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan; Nelson, Katherine

    1985-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that scripts (event schemas) provide a basis for categorical structures in semantic memory. Significantly better memory and organization were achieved on slot-filler lists than on either taxonomic or complementary lists, suggesting that slot-filler categories are more available in preschoolers' semantic…

  19. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Table JJ-1 do not need to report under this rule. A facility with an annual animal population that... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source...

  20. Improving Classification Performance with Single-category Concept Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Discarding more and more complicated algorithms, this paper presents a new classification algorithm with singlecategory concept match. It also introduces the method to find such concepts, which is important to the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can improve classification precision and accelerate classification speed to some extent.

  1. Restructuring Partitioned Knowledge: The Role of Recoordination in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge restructuring refers to changes in the strategy with which people solve a given problem. Two types of knowledge restructuring are supported by existing category learning models. The first is a relearning process, which involves incremental updating of knowledge as learning progresses. The second is a recoordination process, which…

  2. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A review of 20 functional imaging studies that compared visual processing of natural objects and artefacts in normal subjects is presented. The studies included fulfilled three criteria: (i) they used pictures as stimuli, (ii) they were based on direct contrasts between categories, and (iii) they...

  3. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norm

  4. The correct relatively stable category for idempotent modules

    OpenAIRE

    Grime, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We answer a question posed by Carlson, Peng, and Wheeler, and demonstrate that in general Rickard modules in relatively stable categories are not idempotent modules even if one localizes with respect to a tensor ideal subcategory. We also show that there is a modification one can make so as to recover the idempotent behaviour.

  5. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  6. On the derived category of $\\bar{M}_{0,n}$

    OpenAIRE

    Manin, Yu.; Smirnov, M

    2011-01-01

    Using Keel's presentation and Orlov's theorem, we give an inductive description of the derived category of moduli spaces of $n$--pointed stable curves of genus zero and some full exceptional collections in it. The detailed calculations are given for $\\bar{M}_{0,6}$.

  7. Research of essence of the category “organizational culture”

    OpenAIRE

    Харчишина, Олена Володимирівна

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent research of national and foreign scientists on essence of the category “organizational culture” have been generalized. Author’s own classification of existing determinations of the organizational culture has been presented as well as the determination of the organizational culture has been grounded

  8. Comparison Promotes Learning and Transfer of Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Kenneth J.; Boukrina, Olga; Gentner, Dedre

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of co-presenting training items during supervised classification learning of novel relational categories. Strong evidence exists that comparison induces a structural alignment process that renders common relational structure more salient. We hypothesized that comparisons between exemplars would facilitate learning and…

  9. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  10. Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Jessamyn; Cho, Taehong; Lotto, Andrew; Warner, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Listeners possess a remarkable ability to adapt to acoustic variability in the realization of speech sound categories (e.g., different accents). The current work tests whether non-native listeners adapt their use of acoustic cues in phonetic categorization when they are confronted with changes in the distribution of cues in the input, as native listeners do, and examines to what extent these adaptation patterns are influenced by individual cue-weighting strategies. In line with previous work, native English listeners, who use voice onset time (VOT) as a primary cue to the stop voicing contrast (e.g., 'pa' vs. 'ba'), adjusted their use of f0 (a secondary cue to the contrast) when confronted with a noncanonical "accent" in which the two cues gave conflicting information about category membership. Native Korean listeners' adaptation strategies, while variable, were predictable based on their initial cue weighting strategies. In particular, listeners who used f0 as the primary cue to category membership adjusted their use of VOT (their secondary cue) in response to the noncanonical accent, mirroring the native pattern of "downweighting" a secondary cue. Results suggest that non-native listeners show native-like sensitivity to distributional information in the input and use this information to adjust categorization, just as native listeners do, with the specific trajectory of category adaptation governed by initial cue-weighting strategies. PMID:26404530

  11. 30 CFR 57.22003 - Mine category or subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the potential to liberate methane based on the history of the mine or the geological area in which the... on the history of the mine or geological area in which the mine is located and in which— (A) A...). (2) Category II applies to domal salt mines where the history of the mine or geological...

  12. On $2$-star-permutability in regular multi-pointed categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, Marino; Rodelo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    $2$-star-permutable categories were introduced in a joint work with Z. Janelidze and A. Ursini as a common generalisation of regular Mal'tsev categories and of normal subtractive categories. In the present article we first characterise these categories in terms of what we call star-regular pushouts. We then show that the $3 \\times 3$ Lemma characterising normal subtractive categories and the Cuboid Lemma characterising regular Mal'tsev categories are special instances of a more general homolo...

  13. The cobordism category and Waldhausen's K-theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bökstedt, M.; Madsen, Ib

    This paper examines the category C^k_{d,n} whose morphisms are d-dimensional smooth manifolds that are properly embedded in the product of a k-dimensional cube with an (d+n-k)-dimensional Euclidean space. There are k directions to compose k-dimensional cubes, so C^k_{d,n} is a (strict) k......-tuple category. The geometric realization of the k-dimensional multi-nerve is the classifying space BC^k_{d,n}. At the end of the paper we construct an infinite loop map to Waldhausens K-theory. \\Omega BC^1_{d,n}-> A(BO(d)), We believe that the map factors through \\Omega^\\infty\\Sigma^\\infty(BO(d)_+) and that the...

  14. Development of RoboSot category soccer robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the RoboSot category, no central station or over-head camera is allowed. Therefore several issues such as sensors, mechanisms and CPU boards must be taken into consideration before building an autonomous and intelligent system for this category. Each robot must have appropriate sensors and must be able to communi cate with other robots to have timely information concerning the ball and robot position in the field. Computing power also becomes and improtant factor in implementing intelligence and autonomy onboard. These issues are discussed. Then the robot structure of the Dreams Come True(DCT)from KAIST is introduced. Each robot has a Pentium-Ⅱ single board computer, and Ethernet card, and USB camera and an omni-directional mobile mech anism.

  15. Event categories in the EDELWEISS WIMP search experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Benoît, A; Broniatowski, A; Chambon, B; Chapellier, M; Chardin, G; Charvin, P; De Jésus, M; Stefano, P D; Drain, D; Dumoulin, L; Garoche, P; Gascon, J; Goldbach, C; Gros, M H; Juillard, A; de Lesquen, A; L'Hôte, D; Mallet, L; Mangin, J F; Marnieros, S; Mirabolfathi, N; Miramonti, L; Mosca, L; Navick, X F; Nollez, G; Pari, P; Pécourt, S; Simon, E; Stern, M; Torre, J P

    2000-01-01

    Four categories of events have been identified in the EDELWEISS-I dark matterexperiment using germanium cryogenic detectors measuring simultaneously chargeand heat signals. These categories of events are interpreted as electron andnuclear interactions occurring in the volume of the detector, and electron andnuclear interactions occurring close to the surface of the detectors(10-20 mu-mof the surface). We discuss the hypothesis that low energy surface nuclearrecoils,which seem to have been unnoticed by previous WIMP searches, mayprovide an interpretation of the anomalous events recorded by the UKDMC andSaclay NaI experiments. The present analysis points to the necessity of takinginto account surface nuclear and electron recoil interactions for a reliableestimate of background rejection factors.

  16. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not. PMID:23559513

  17. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a patient is ill, age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle serve as contextualization cues, often including widespread results from epidemiological research about groups of patients at higher or lower risk for cardiac disease. These categories work as shortcut reasoning to nudge interpretations in a certain direction, legitimize decisions, and strengthen arguments. In general, studying the descriptions of patients/clients/students provides an entrance to professional methods of reasoning, including their implicit moral assumptions.

  18. Category-theoretic models of algebraic computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer system is said to be algebraic if it contains nodes that implement unconventional computation paradigms based on universal algebra. A category-based approach to modeling such systems that provides a theoretical basis for mapping tasks to these systems' architecture is proposed. The construction of algebraic models of general-purpose computations involving conditional statements and overflow control is formally described by a reflector in an appropriate category of algebras. It is proved that this reflector takes the modulo ring whose operations are implemented in the conventional arithmetic processors to the Łukasiewicz logic matrix. Enrichments of the set of ring operations that form bases in the Łukasiewicz logic matrix are found.

  19. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require an additional property of traces, called *normality*. We describe a modest model of network computation, based on partially ordered multisets (pomsets), where basic network interactions arise from the monoidal trace structure, and a normal trace structure arises from an iterative, i.e. coalgebraic structure over terms and messages used in computation and communication. The correspondence is established using a convenient monadic description of normally traced monoidal categories.

  20. Buying groceries in brick and click stores: category allocation decisions and the moderating effect of online buying experience

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPO, Katia; Breugelmans, Els

    2015-01-01

    The large majority of online grocery shoppers are multichannel shoppers, who keep visiting offline grocery stores to combine convenience advantages of online shopping with self-service advantages of offline stores. An important retail management question, therefore, is how these consumers divide grocery purchases across the retailer’s online and offline channel. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of category characteristics on the allocation pattern of multichannel grocery shop...

  1. THE TWO FUNCTORS IN THE FUZZY MODULAR CATEGORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘福铮

    2001-01-01

    After defining Hom(xA,ηB) and xA ηB in the fuzzy modular category Fm, the sufficient conditions of the existence for exact Hom functors Hom(gM, ), and Hom(, δM), as well as exact Tensor functors δM and δM are given in this paper. Fi-nally the weak isomorphisms relations between Hom functors and Tensor functors are displayed.

  2. THE ENTERPRISE COMPETITIVE STATUS IN THE SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC CATEGORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Terovanesova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the conceptual apparatus which is connected with the formation of the enterprise competitive status by establishing a logical relationship between the basic categories, which was expanded the theoretical and methodological basis of researches. The essence of the concept of “effective competitive advantage”, “competitive opportunities”, “competitive position”, is defined. The approach in determining of the enterprice competitive status for displaying assess of the adequacy...

  3. When Do Price Thresholds Matter in Retail Categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan; Philip Hans Franses

    2007-01-01

    Marketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is found for 76% ...

  4. Labels Direct Infants’ Attention to Commonalities during Novel Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Althaus; Denis Mareschal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that labeling can influence the outcome of infants’ visual categorization. However, what exactly happens during learning remains unclear. Using eye-tracking, we examined infants’ attention to object parts during learning. Our analysis of looking behaviors during learning provide insights going beyond merely observing the learning outcome. Both labeling and non-labeling phrases facilitated category formation in 12-month-olds but not 8-month-olds (Experimen...

  5. Partitioning heritability by functional category using GWAS summary statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Hilary K.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Gusev, Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that some functional categories of the genome contribute disproportionately to the heritability of complex diseases. Here we analyze a broad set of functional elements, including cell type–specific elements, to estimate their polygenic contributions to heritability in...... type–specific enrichments, including significant enrichment of central nervous system cell types in the heritability of body mass index, age at menarche, educational attainment and smoking behavior....

  6. Sleep may not benefit learning new phonological categories

    OpenAIRE

    PhilippePeigneux; GregoryCollet

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sleep participates in memory consolidation processes. However, results obtained in the auditory domain are inconsistent. Here we aimed at investigating the role of post-training sleep in auditory training and learning new phonological categories, a fundamental process in speech processing. Adult French-speakers were trained to identify two synthetic speech variants of the syllable /də/ during two 1-hour training sessions. The 12-hours interval between the two sessions either ...

  7. Categories of Emotion names in Web retrieved texts

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Sergey; Fontanari, Jose F.; Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2012-01-01

    The categorization of emotion names, i.e., the grouping of emotion words that have similar emotional connotations together, is a key tool of Social Psychology used to explore people's knowledge about emotions. Without exception, the studies following that research line were based on the gauging of the perceived similarity between emotion names by the participants of the experiments. Here we propose and examine a new approach to study the categories of emotion names - the similarities between ...

  8. Design guide for category V reactors transient reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of Category V reactor structures, components, and systems

  9. Toward a Category Theory Design of Ontological Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Glazunov, Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    I discuss (ontologies_and_ontological_knowledge_bases / formal_methods_and_theories) duality and its category theory extensions as a step toward a solution to Knowledge-Based Systems Theory. In particular I focus on the example of the design of elements of ontologies and ontological knowledge bases of next three electronic courses: Foundations of Research Activities, Virtual Modeling of Complex Systems and Introduction to String Theory.

  10. Testing a Dynamic Neural Field model of children's category labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Katherine; Horst, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Dynamic Neural Field models have shed light on the flexible and dynamic processes underlying young children’s emergent categorisation and word learning (DNF; e.g., Spencer & Schöner [1]). DNF models are a distinct class of neural network in which perceptual features can be represented topologically and time continuously, complementing existing connectionist models of cognitive development by building category representations that are available for inspection at any given stage in l...

  11. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anna; Hermann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/...

  12. Category Learning Research in the Interactive Online Environment Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jan; Livingston, Ken; Sturm, Joshua; Bliss, Daniel; Hawthorne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The interactive online environment Second Life allows users to create novel three-dimensional stimuli that can be manipulated in a meaningful yet controlled environment. These features suggest Second Life's utility as a powerful tool for investigating how people learn concepts for unfamiliar objects. The first of two studies was designed to establish that cognitive processes elicited in this virtual world are comparable to those tapped in conventional settings by attempting to replicate the established finding that category learning systematically influences perceived similarity . From the perspective of an avatar, participants navigated a course of unfamiliar three-dimensional stimuli and were trained to classify them into two labeled categories based on two visual features. Participants then gave similarity ratings for pairs of stimuli and their responses were compared to those of control participants who did not learn the categories. Results indicated significant compression, whereby objects classified together were judged to be more similar by learning than control participants, thus supporting the validity of using Second Life as a laboratory for studying human cognition. A second study used Second Life to test the novel hypothesis that effects of learning on perceived similarity do not depend on the presence of verbal labels for categories. We presented the same stimuli but participants classified them by selecting between two complex visual patterns designed to be extremely difficult to label. While learning was more challenging in this condition , those who did learn without labels showed a compression effect identical to that found in the first study using verbal labels. Together these studies establish that at least some forms of human learning in Second Life parallel learning in the actual world and thus open the door to future studies that will make greater use of the enriched variety of objects and interactions possible in simulated environments

  13. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Vlagsma-Brangule, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norms, environmental variables (environmental concern, green behavior, and perceived consumer effectiveness) as main antecedents of the choice and share of categoryrequirements of bio-meat. We also con...

  14. Building phonetic categories: an argument for the role of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Earle, F. Sayako; Myers, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    The current review provides specific predictions for the role of sleep-mediated memory consolidation in the formation of new speech sound representations. Specifically, this discussion will highlight selected literature on the different ideas concerning category representation in speech, followed by a broad overview of memory consolidation and how it relates to human behavior, as relevant to speech/perceptual learning. In combining behavioral and physiological accounts from animal models with...

  15. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W.; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals). The category approach was tested for reproductive toxicity with a group of 10 ortho-phthalate esters, with different side chain lengths. Three ortho-phthalates were used for t...

  16. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni; Matheus Alberto Consoli; Jonny Mateus Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Category management (CM) is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context...

  17. RETIN AL: An Active Learning Strategy for Image Category Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2004-01-01

    International audience Active learning methods have been considered with an increasing interest in the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) community. In this article, we propose an effi- cient method based on active learning strategy to retrieve large image categories. At each feedback step, the system optimizes the image set presented to the user in order to speed up the retrieval. Experimental tests on COREL photo database have been carried out.

  18. A Brief Analysis on Empty Categories in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief analysis on the Empty Categories in Chinese. It will first illustrate Chomsky ’s classifica-tion of EC as well as the constraints the subject to briefly, then basing on this classification the author will state some of Chinese scholars’study and research including Xu Liejiong , Huang Zhengde and Hu Jianjun. Finally, the author will compare these clas-sic frameworks and attempt to.

  19. G-algebras, twistings, and equivalences of graded categories

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Given Z-graded rings A and B, we study when the categories gr-A and gr-B are equivalent. We relate the Morita-type results of Ahn-Marki and del Rio to the twisting systems introduced by Zhang. Using Z-algebras, we obtain a simple proof of Zhang's main result. This makes the definition of a Zhang twist extremely natural and extends Zhang's results.

  20. Category of Development in the Context of Modern Psychotechnics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyabin A.V.,

    2015-01-01

    We show the historical conditions of origins of psychotechnics as direction in psychology, consider the evolution of psychotechnical approach in the context of Russian cultural-historical psychology. We described the characteristic of modern psychotechnical approach, essential for the formulation of the category of its development. The attention of modern psychotechnics is attracted to the term "combined subject", its importance is proved for context of psychotechnical practice, as well as fo...

  1. THE VALUE OF MARKETING AS A SCIENTIFIC CATEGORY

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have tried to overcome the structural and semantic complexity in the specification the term "value" in marketing. Blurring the severity definitions of "value" lead to violations of the integrity and completeness of scientific knowledge in marketing theory. Desk research allowed to define the term "value" in marketing, as a category of marketing theory. The basis for our findings served as the analysis of the definition of "value" in the disciplines within the multidisciplinar...

  2. Duality Theorem and Drinfeld Double in Braided Tensor Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouchuan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Let (C, ( ), I, C) be a braided tensor category. For a finite Hopf algebra H in c with CH, H = C-1 H,H, the duality theorem is shown, i.e.,(R#H)#H^* ≌ R( ) (H-( )H^*)as algebras in C. Also, it is proved that the Drinfeld double (D(H), [b]) is a quasi-triangular Hopf algebra in c.

  3. Compal Essencial brand extension : the new category of fruit portions

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Maria Margarida Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Compal was a well-known Portuguese company in the industry of soft drinks. It launched Compal Essencial in 2006, which introduced consumers to a new category of fruit portions. Essencial was equivalent to a fruit portion and aimed to improve people’s fruit consumption habits by providing a quality and convenient product. This dissertation provides an overview of how Compal Essencial’s development process led to its success, translated in high sales levels, penetration rates and market shar...

  4. CERN to introduce new Local Staff employment category

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the June meeting of CERN Council, a new Local Staff employment category was approved. This will cover some 250-300 people in technical and administrative positions between now and 2010, satisfying an urgent need for manpower over the coming years. This article explains the main features of this new category. The Local Staff employment category is an important building block in CERN's new Human Resources Plan, and is essential in the run-up to the LHC. In the immediate future, it will allow some Industrial Services activities to be insourced - corresponding to about 150 additional CERN staff positions. In the longer run, it will allow the Organization to replace more retiring staff members than formerly foreseen - corresponding to 100-150 staff positions. The activities that will lead to Local Staff vacancies were identified at last year's resources planning exercise (the "Morges-III" meetings) as those which could not be outsourced in a Field Support Unit or other type of result-oriented Industrial Serv...

  5. Sparseness of vowel category structure: Evidence from English dialect comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Idsardi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current models of speech perception tend to emphasize either fine-grained acoustic properties or coarse-grained abstract characteristics of speech sounds. We argue for a particular kind of 'sparse' vowel representations and provide new evidence that these representations account for the successful access of the corresponding categories. In an auditory semantic priming experiment, American English listeners made lexical decisions on targets (e.g. load) preceded by semantically related primes (e.g. pack). Changes of the prime vowel that crossed a vowel-category boundary (e.g. peck) were not treated as a tolerable variation, as assessed by a lack of priming, although the phonetic categories of the two different vowels considerably overlap in American English. Compared to the outcome of the same experiment with New Zealand English listeners, where such prime variations were tolerated, our experiment supports the view that phonological representations are important in guiding the mapping process from the acoustic signal to an abstract mental representation. Our findings are discussed with regard to current models of speech perception and recent findings from brain imaging research. PMID:24653528

  6. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  7. Dopaminergic Genetic Polymorphisms Predict Rule-based Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kaileigh A; Davis, Tyler; Worthy, Darrell A

    2016-07-01

    Dopaminergic genes play an important role in cognitive function. DRD2 and DARPP-32 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms affect striatal dopamine binding potential, and the Val158Met single-nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates dopamine availability in the pFC. Our study assesses the role of these gene polymorphisms on performance in two rule-based category learning tasks. Participants completed unidimensional and conjunctive rule-based tasks. In the unidimensional task, a rule along a single stimulus dimension can be used to distinguish category members. In contrast, a conjunctive rule utilizes a combination of two dimensions to distinguish category members. DRD2 C957T TT homozygotes outperformed C allele carriers on both tasks, and DARPP-32 AA homozygotes outperformed G allele carriers on both tasks. However, we found an interaction between COMT and task type where Met allele carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in the conjunctive rule task, but both groups performed equally well in the unidimensional task. Thus, striatal dopamine binding may play a critical role in both types of rule-based tasks, whereas prefrontal dopamine binding is important for learning more complex conjunctive rule tasks. Modeling results suggest that striatal dopaminergic genes influence selective attention processes whereas cortical genes mediate the ability to update complex rule representations. PMID:26918585

  8. A financial perspective: categories of higher education institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-xuan

    2006-01-01

    From a financial perspective,the criteria for category distinction of higher education institutions should be based on the ownership of institution property and income for recurrent expenditure.The development of modern higher education witnessed the period wherein higher education institutions have both private property and private payment for recurrent expenditure.The development also saw the period wherein all the institution properties were owned by the state and all the recurrent expenditure were paid by the government. Accordingly,universities could be divided into two categories of "public" and "private" institutions until the 1970s.However,things have been changing greatly over the past 20 years.Property ownership and payment for recurrent expenditure have been separated.The public institutions appeal to more and more individuals sharing recurrent expenditure,while private institutions ask for more and more public financial support.Therefore,some financially mixed institutions came into being and "three categories with sub-groups" has become a new phenomenon.

  9. The wrapped Fukaya category of a negative line bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Alexander F

    2012-01-01

    Let B be a closed monotone symplectic manifold with divisible first Chern class c_1(B) = Kc. Let E be the total space of the monotone negative line bundle over B with first Chern class kc for 0 < k < K. We prove that if the open-closed string map from the Hochschild homology of the Fukaya category of B to its quantum cohomology hits an invertible element, then the wrapped Fukaya category of E is split-generated by closed Lagrangians, hence is cohomologically finite. The proof combines quilt-maps on Hochschild homology, Abouzaid's generation criterion (which we extend from exact to monotone convex manifolds), and the quantum cohomology module structure of the open-closed string map. As illustrations, we show that when B is toric Fano, the wrapped category of E is split-generated by toric fibres (and is usually non-empty, in particular E contains a non-displaceable monotone Lagrangian torus), and we outline a proof (contingent upon forthcoming work of Ganatra and Abouzaid-Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono) that the Jaco...

  10. [Prolonged grief disorder: towards a new diagnostic category].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiambretto, P

    2008-01-01

    The grief in response to loss of a significant is a normal, inevitable, experience of life. Nevertheless some people, even after a couple of months, do not succeed in integrating this experience in their daily life and remain stuck in a state of suffering condition that seriously extended in the time is functionally impairing. For long time psychology has focused on bereavement subsequent to the loss and the complications that can derive from the missing elaboration. The condition of prolonged grief has been object of a large debate in the past years, up to the individualization of a specific set of symptoms identified in a new diagnostic category: the Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). The PGD is featured as a condition of emotional distress and physical distress by the loss, not for the death, of a significant only, with daily involvement in all function areas. Our work given a short and non exhaustive overview of the cultural and scientific run that has brought to the collection of the evidences to insert the PGD as new diagnostic category in the DSM V and a comparison between the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) for better underlining similes, but above all differences among categories that subtend clinical conditions that can appear sometimes overlaps. PMID:19288776

  11. Development of telerehabilitation application with designated consultation categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Kiong Tan, PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation (TR is getting ever more popular because it is effective in bringing rehabilitation services to rural populations by means of audiovisual systems and its initial implementation studies presented encouraging results. TR is proven to be helpful, with benefits in terms of reduced travel time, cost, and availability of specialists’ support in local communities. However, TR systems that are usable under low-bandwidth network environments are rare. This article introduces the development of a TR system with customized consultation categories for users to choose from, depending on requirements. Each category, with its preset parameter values, is discussed in detail by demonstrating relevant rehabilitation exercises. A novel bandwidth adaptation algorithm is also presented for optimal utilization of the dynamic network conditions, which ensures the system functionality even under narrow-bandwidth environments. Experiment results show that the system is able to perform effectively in each consultation category while the rehabilitation exercises are being performed. The proposed algorithm is also verified for its ability to adapt the content quality and effectively utilize the network under constrained conditions. A survey conducted on the video quality of the system under low-bandwidth conditions shows encouraging results for a large-scale deployment of the application.

  12. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coating Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings... Coating Category Coating category Category code a Reactivity limit Clear Coatings CCP 1.50 Flat...

  14. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  15. Accounting Profits Versus Marketing Profits: A Relevant Metric for Category Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Chen; James D. Hess; Ronald T. Wilcox; Z. John Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Retailers have long recognized that some categories are more important than others in consumers' store choice decisions. The overall profitability of a store requires careful category-level merchandising decisions to draw the most desirable consumers into the store. However, the traditional accounting measure of category profits offers imperfect help making these decisions since it does not take into account the effect of merchandising one category on the profits of other categories in the st...

  16. On facing the God-question in a pastoral theology of compassion: From imperialistic omni-categories to theopaschitic pathos-categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars in the 20th century warned against static, ontological and metaphysicalschemata of interpretation, stemming from Hellenistic thinking with its impact on God images in Christian reflection. Against the background of new spiritual and philosophica lphenomena like apatheism and anatheism, the question regarding the appropriateness o fexisting categories for God within the framework of pastoral theology surfaces. A paradigm shift from omni-categories to pathos-categories is proposed in order to deal with issues like human suffering, dignity and justice. In this regard, theopaschitic theology can play adecisive role in the reframing of existing static God-images stemming predominantly from the Roman-Greco world. The notion of a ‘sustainable God’ is introduced in order to reframe God’s compassionate presence (ta splanchna in terms of a continuum of infinitive interventions (infiniscience and the pneumatology of to-be-with.Die dinamika van die God-vraagstuk in ’n pastorale teologie van medelye en omgee: Vanafimperialistiese omni-kategorieë na teopasgitiese patos-kategorieë. Navorsers het telkemale in die twintigste eeu teen die impak van statiese, ontologiese en metafisiese skemas van interpretasie gewaarsku. Teïstiese denke is grootliks deur Hellenistiese denkkategorieë bepaal. Teen die agtergrond van nuwe filosofiese verskynsels soos apateïsme en anateïsme en die invloed daarvan op die verskillende vorms van spiritualiteitsdenke, duik die vraag op na die toepaslikheid en relevansie van bestaande, geykte denkkategorië vir die Christelike verstaan van God. Die vraagstuk van lyding, menswaardigheid en geregtigheid stel nuwe eise aan ’n pastorale teologie wat met kontekstuele lewensvraagstukke erns maak. In die lig hiervan word ’n paradigmaskuif in teologisering, vanaf omni-kategorieë na patos-kategorieë voorgestel. Dit word beredeneer dat ’n teopasgitiese teologie ’n belangrike bydrae kan lewer om statiese

  17. A methodology for the transfer of probabilities between accident severity categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the radiological risks of accidents involving vehicles transporting radioactive materials requires consideration of both accident probability and consequences. The probability that an accident will occur may be estimated from historical accident data for the given mode of transport. In addition to an overall accident rate, information regarding accident severity and the resulting package environments across the range of all credible accidents is needed to determine the potential for a release of radioactive material from the package or for an increase in direct radiation from the package caused by damage to packaging shielding. This information is usually obtained from a variety of sources such as historical data, experimental data, analyses of accident and package environments, and expert opinion. The consequences of an accident depend on a number of factors including the type, quantity, and physical form of radioactive material being transported; the response of the package to accident environments; the fraction of material released from the package; and the dispersion of any released material. One approach for the classification and treatment of transportation accidents in risk analysis divides the complete range of critical accident environments resulting from all credible accidents into some number of accident-severity categories. The types of accident environments that a package may be subjected to in transportation are often classified into the following five groups: impact, fire, crush, puncture, and immersion. A open-quotes criticalclose quotes accident environment is one of a type that could present a plausible threat to a package. Each severity category represents a portion of all credible accidents, and the total of all severity categories covers the complete range of critical accident environments. This approach is used in the risk assessment codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser and Kanipe 1992) and INTERTRAN (Ericsson and Elert 1983)

  18. Researcher-participant positioning and the discursive work of categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    encountered in the fieldwork were indicative of discursive norms within the mental health services. It is argued that the multiple ways the researcher was positioned by participants revealed that the categories “patient” and “staff” were produced as polarized binaries with little leverage for negotiating...... positions in between. At the same time, it is shown that the patients find ways to resist the objectifying practices of the researcher as well as of the mental health services. The conclusions are discussed against recent attempts within the mental health services to promote a more patient-centered approach...

  19. Category-theoretic models of linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Lerchedahl Petersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a sound and complete category-theoretic notion of models for Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic [Birkedal et al., 2006], a logic suitable for reasoning about parametricity in combination with recursion. A subclass of these called parametric LAPL structures can be seen as an...... axiomatization of domain theoretic models of parametric polymorphism, and we show how to solve general (nested) recursive domain equations in these. parametric LAPL structures constitute a general notion of model of parametricity in a setting with recursion. In future papers we will demonstrate this by showing...

  20. Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.

  1. Enhancing semantic congruity effects with category-contingent comparative judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Petrusic, William M.; Shaki, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In each of two experiments the direction of a binary comparison was contingent on the category of the stimulus pair. In one experiment, participants had to compare the size of animals from memory. On congruent trials, they had to select the smaller animal if both were small and the larger if both were large and on incongruent trials they selected the larger if both were small and the smaller if both were large. In a second experiment, participants had to compare visual extents and the directi...

  2. Design guide for category IV reactors: liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of liquid metal cooled fast reactor (Category IV reactor) structures, components, and systems

  3. Role of Metonymy in Unmarked Change of Word Category

    OpenAIRE

    Ingunn Högnadóttir 1982

    2010-01-01

    Unmarked change of word category, e.g. when the verb kiss becomes the noun kiss, is one of the most productive ways for coining new words in English. Traditionally the process has been seen as conversion or zero-derivation, neither of which fully explains the phenomenon. Recently, scholars from the field of cognitive linguistics have made attempts to explain the process with the help of metonymy – with some interesting results. In this essay, a cognitive approach to conversion, the metonymy t...

  4. Tangential LS-category of K(pi,1)-foliations

    OpenAIRE

    Singhof, Wilhelm; Vogt, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    A K(pi,1)-foliation is one for which the universal covers of all leaves are contractible (thus all leaves are K(pi,1)'s for some pi). In the first part of the paper we show that the tangential Lusternik--Schnirelmann category cat F of a K(pi,1)-foliation F on a manifold M is bounded from below by t-codim F for any t with H_t(M;A) nonzero for some coefficient group A. Since for any C^2-foliation F one has cat F

  5. Modeling Individual Differences in Learning Hierarchically Organised Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Verheyen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that exemplar models have difficulty accounting for more accurate classification of items at the lower level of a nested hierarchy than classification of these items at a more general level. We identified groups of similarly performing participants in an experiment where such a hierarchically organised category structure had to be mastered and fitted a differently parameterised version of the ALCOVE exemplar model to each of these groups. The exemplar model had no difficulty predicting better performance at the lower level of the hierarchy than at a more general level for those groups of participants that actually displayed the supposedly challenging behavioural pattern.

  6. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: The case of politics.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, A. R.; Garrido, M. V.; Semin, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Converging Modalities Ground Abstract Categories: The Case of Politics Ana Rita Farias1,2, Margarida V. Garrido1,2, Gu¨ n R. Semin3,4* 1 Instituto Universita´rio de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Cis-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal, 2 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 3 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4 College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Koc¸ University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstrac...

  7. A Categorial Framework for Composition in Multiple Linguistic Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Bozsahin, C; Bozsahin, Cem; Gocmen, Elvan

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a computational framework for a grammar architecture in which different linguistic domains such as morphology, syntax, and semantics are treated not as separate components but compositional domains. Word and phrase formation are modeled as uniform processes contributing to the derivation of the semantic form. The morpheme, as well as the lexeme, has lexical representation in the form of semantic content, tactical constraints, and phonological realization. The motivation for this work is to handle morphology-syntax interaction (e.g., valency change in causatives, subcategorization imposed by case-marking affixes) in an incremental way. The model is based on Combinatory Categorial Grammars.

  8. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require...

  9. Tracing the man in the middle in monoidal categories

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pattinson, D.; Schroeder, L.

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens in the middle. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require a...

  10. Iterative development and the scope for plasticity: contrasts among trait categories in an adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S A; Wund, M A; Graham, M A; Earley, R L; Gardiner, R; Kearns, T; Baker, J A

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can influence evolutionary change in a lineage, ranging from facilitation of population persistence in a novel environment to directing the patterns of evolutionary change. As the specific nature of plasticity can impact evolutionary consequences, it is essential to consider how plasticity is manifested if we are to understand the contribution of plasticity to phenotypic evolution. Most morphological traits are developmentally plastic, irreversible, and generally considered to be costly, at least when the resultant phenotype is mis-matched to the environment. At the other extreme, behavioral phenotypes are typically activational (modifiable on very short time scales), and not immediately costly as they are produced by constitutive neural networks. Although patterns of morphological and behavioral plasticity are often compared, patterns of plasticity of life history phenotypes are rarely considered. Here we review patterns of plasticity in these trait categories within and among populations, comprising the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. We immediately found it necessary to consider the possibility of iterated development, the concept that behavioral and life history trajectories can be repeatedly reset on activational (usually behavior) or developmental (usually life history) time frames, offering fine tuning of the response to environmental context. Morphology in stickleback is primarily reset only in that developmental trajectories can be altered as environments change over the course of development. As anticipated, the boundaries between the trait categories are not clear and are likely to be linked by shared, underlying physiological and genetic systems. PMID:26243135

  11. IMPACT 2002+, ReCiPe 2008 and ILCD’s recommended practice for characterization modelling in life cycle impact assessment: a case study-based comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis; Bjørn, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    the compared options. Despite this general agreement in ranking, differences in impact scores are above 3 orders of magnitude for human health impacts from ionizing radiation and ecosystem impacts from land use, and they lie between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude for metal depletion and for toxicityrelated impact...... categories. The differences are somewhat smaller (within 1 order of magnitude) for the impact categories respiratory inorganics and photochemical ozone formation, and are within a factor of 3 for the remaining impact categories. The differences in impact scores in our case study are brought about...

  12. [Some Approaches to Activation of Antitumor Resistance Mechanisms and Functional Analogs in Categories of Synergetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, G v; Shikhliarova, A I; Soldatov, A V; Barteneva, T A; Petrosian, V I; Gudtskova, T N; Bragina, M I; Polozhentsev, O E; Sheiko, E A; Maschenko, N M; Shirnina, E A; Zlatnik, E Yu; Kurkina, T A

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the ways of activation of the antitumor resistance mechanisms developed on the basis of the concept of the periodic system of general nonspecific adaptational reactions of the body. The principles of the formation of effective influences by electromagnetic radiation using biologically active substances are described. A comparison of the criteria and conceptions of the theory of adaptational reactions to some concepts and categories of synergetics is made. The features of dynamics of the studied parameters upon effective influences are considered. Antistress nature of the systemic effects of ferromagnetic nanoparticles on tumor bearing animals is shown. The, possible mechanisms of regression of large tumor under the influence of two different factors--modulated electromagnetic radiation and magnetite nanoparticles--are discussed. The cases of a change of the order parameter in connection with the development of antistress areactivity and regression of experimental tumors under the influence of the combined electromagnetic impact are analyzed. PMID:27192840

  13. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference. PMID:24254747

  14. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, David I; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we review an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other ologs. We consider a simple example of an alpha-helical and an amyloid-like protein filament subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog f...

  15. DOMINANT CATEGORIES OF WORKPLACE STRESS IN THE MACEDONIAN INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIEVSKI A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Workplace stress is probably the most common problem in today’s living and is becoming a characteristic of the modern life. Nowadays we are witnessing a paradoxical situation, the physical working conditions are significantly improved, but the psychological conditions are getting worse and the work is getting more stressful. The stress is getting a dimension of a modern epidemic. The quality of work life is influencing the quality of emotional life and the socio-emotional balance, which some individuals manage to obtain and some don’t. Considering the amount of time people spend at work, it is important to develop an awareness of the implications and consequences it has on their lives. The ability to adapt is becoming increasingly important for the survival and further development of an organization and how organizations will cope with stress in the future will become one of the major strategic factor in global competition. The purpose of this research is to confirm the emergence of the workplace stress and to detect the dominant categories of stressors in the Macedonian institutions. The results gave us a picture of the dominant categories of stressors in state institutions and shows that every second employee in the institutions is experiencing the phenomenon of workplace stress. This is a very serious condition that seeks attention, more deeper research and concrete measures for its reduction.

  16. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  17. The labour category analitical centrality for the Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Herold Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to discuss the need of getting the Labour centrality back to the physical education analysis. With the arising of new production technologies based on micro-electronics, the trend for questioning this category centrality has increased causing reactions on both the Labour Sociology (ANTUNES, 2000, 2002 and the Labour and Education fields with FRIGOTTO(1997,1998,2001 and KUENZER’s (1998 analyses. Supported by these studies and other ones as well, a historical approach on the labour and physical education relation was performed, and, in the second part of this study, a current analysis of this relation was also carried out. The study showed that the Labour category should play a certain role in the analytical repertory of physical education teachers in order to allow them not to use their analysis to emphasise certain social relations that make any concern about a society and an education which effectively regards men in all aspects impossible.

  18. Efficient Normal-Form Parsing for Combinatory Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, J

    1996-01-01

    Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple n-word sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normal-form parsing technique. The parser is proved to find exactly one parse in each semantic equivalence class of allowable parses; that is, spurious ambiguity (as carefully defined) is shown to be both safely and completely eliminated. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Mon Nov 1 11:08 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id LAA23068 for ; Mon, 1 Nov 1999 11:08:23 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (root@uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id LAA02515 for ; Mon, 1 Nov 1999 11:08:21 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl...

  19. Sleep may not benefit learning new phonological categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhilippePeigneux

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep participates in memory consolidation processes. However, results obtained in the auditory domain are inconsistent. Here we aimed at investigating the role of post-training sleep in auditory training and learning new phonological categories, a fundamental process in speech processing. Adult French-speakers were trained to identify two synthetic speech variants of the syllable /də/ during two 1-hour training sessions. The 12-hours interval between the two sessions either did (8 p.m. to 8 a.m. ± 1h or did not (8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ± 1h included a sleep period. In both groups, identification performance dramatically improved over the first training session, to slightly decrease over the 12h offline interval, although remaining above chance levels. Still, reaction times were slowed down after sleep suggesting higher attention devoted to the learned, novel phonological contrast. Notwithstanding, our results essentially suggest that post-training sleep does not benefit more than wakefulness to the consolidation or stabilization of new phonological categories.

  20. The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cooper-Pye, Elisa; Dine, Clare; Hauk, Olaf; Nestor, Peter J; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-09-01

    It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented. PMID:19722916

  1. Incorporation of all hazard categories into U.S. NRC PRA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    discusses the technical approach used to develop new SPAR-AHZ models; key challenges encountered; and insights obtained from incorporation of event sequences from different hazard categories into the SPAR-AHZ models. Although this paper does not discuss plant specific details or results, it does highlight a number of issues associated with creating SPARAHZ models. While the challenges can be significant in term of technical issues and resources needed, the incorporation of more realistic external hazard modeling allows better characterization of the plant core damage frequency risk profile and integration of key risk drivers and sequences beyond internal events. It is expected that over time, sustained usage of the SPAR-AHZ models, combined with feedback from plant licensees, will continue to calibrate the modeling of different hazard categories, especially for those scenarios for which detailed, up-to-date information may be more difficult to obtain. Development of additional SPAR-AHZ models that include fire and external hazards is the subject of continuing focus at the NRC. The inclusion of external hazards and fires results in a more complete and integrated risk assessment for operational events and conditions and can improve the realism of reactor oversight processes such as the SDP and ASP programs. Although SPAR-AHZ models have somewhat limited validation compared to the internal events SPAR models, we expect that user feedback from increased use will further improve the maturity of technical quality for these models. Two additional activities being pursued currently at the US NRC may further improve the completeness of agency SPAR-AHZ models: 1. A better process to evaluate, and, if appropriate, include in a PRA model the impact of multiple and concurrent events, with emphasis on seismically induced fire and flooding events. 2. A level 3 PRA model study that includes multi-unit, multi-source events (e.g. spent fuel pool and storage casks, in addition to the reactor

  2. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systemat...

  3. Effects of accessibility and subjective relevance on the use of piecemeal and category information in impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpetz, Catalina; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2008-05-01

    Three studies investigated the process by which categorical and individuating information impacts impression formation. The authors assumed that (a) both types of information are functionally equivalent in serving as evidence for interpersonal judgments and (b) their use is determined by their accessibility and perceived applicability to the impression's target. The first study constituted an extended replication of Pavelchak's experiment, and it showed that its results, initially interpreted to suggest the primacy in impression formation of category over trait information, may have been prompted by differential accessibility of the category versus trait information in some experimental conditions of the original research. Studies 2 and 3 additionally explored the role of informational accessibility manipulated in different ways. Study 3 demonstrated also that the effect of accessibility is qualified by the information's apparent relevance to the judgmental target. PMID:18308925

  4. A model theoretic Baire category theorem for simple theories

    CERN Document Server

    Shami, Ziv

    2009-01-01

    We define the class of $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets. This is a class of type-definable sets defined in terms of forking by low formulas. We prove a model theoretic Baire category theorem for $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets in a countable simple theory in which the extension property is first-order and show some of its applications. A typical application is the following. Let $T$ be a countable theory with the wnfcp (weak nonfinite cover property) and assume for every non-algebraic $a$ there exists a non-algebraic $a'\\acl(a)$ such that $SU(a')<\\omega$. Then there exists a weakly-minimal formula with parameters.

  5. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2004-01-01

    differentially affected by structural similarity in that high structural similarity may be beneficial for the integration of stored features into integral units, thus explaining the greater activation found with articles of clothing, whereas it may be harmful for the selection process proper because a greater...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...... matching of visual forms to memory incorporates two operations: (i) the integration of stored object features into whole object representations (integral units), and (ii) the competition between activated integral units for selection (i.e. identification). In addition, we suggest that these operations are...

  6. The Seismic Category I Structures Program results for FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplishments of the Seismic Category I Structures Program for FY 1987 are summarized. These accomplishments include the quasi-static load cycle testing of large shear wall elements, an extensive analysis of previous data to determine if equivalent linear analytical models can predict the response of damaged shear wall structures, and code committee activities. In addition, previous testing and results that led to the FY 1987 program plan are discussed and all previous data relating to shear wall stiffness are summarized. Because separate reports have already summarized the experimental and analytical work in FY 1987, this report will briefly highlight this work and the appropriate reports will be references for a more detailed discussion. 12 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Categories of Emotion names in Web retrieved texts

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Sergey; Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2012-01-01

    The categorization of emotion names, i.e., the grouping of emotion words that have similar emotional connotations together, is a key tool of Social Psychology used to explore people's knowledge about emotions. Without exception, the studies following that research line were based on the gauging of the perceived similarity between emotion names by the participants of the experiments. Here we propose and examine a new approach to study the categories of emotion names - the similarities between target emotion names are obtained by comparing the contexts in which they appear in texts retrieved from the World Wide Web. This comparison does not account for any explicit semantic information; it simply counts the number of common words or lexical items used in the contexts. This procedure allows us to write the entries of the similarity matrix as dot products in a linear vector space of contexts. The properties of this matrix were then explored using Multidimensional Scaling Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering. Our ...

  8. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems

  9. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  10. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  11. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval, and...... high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD was...... taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88%) with...

  12. Fuzzy Document Clustering Approach using WordNet Lexical Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Tarek F.; Fouad, Mohammed M.; Aref, Mostafa M.

    Text mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. This area is growing rapidly mainly because of the strong need for analysing the huge and large amount of textual data that reside on internal file systems and the Web. Text document clustering provides an effective navigation mechanism to organize this large amount of data by grouping their documents into a small number of meaningful classes. In this paper we proposed a fuzzy text document clustering approach using WordNet lexical categories and Fuzzy c-Means algorithm. Some experiments are performed to compare efficiency of the proposed approach with the recently reported approaches. Experimental results show that Fuzzy clustering leads to great performance results. Fuzzy c-means algorithm overcomes other classical clustering algorithms like k-means and bisecting k-means in both clustering quality and running time efficiency.

  13. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  14. Prefrontal activity predicts monkeys' decisions during an auditory category task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates that relate auditory categorization to aspects of goal-directed behavior, such as decision-making, are not well understood. Since the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function and the categorization of auditory objects, we hypothesized that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC should predict an animal's behavioral reports (decisions during a category task. To test this hypothesis, we tested PFC activity that was recorded while monkeys categorized human spoken words (Russ et al., 2008b. We found that activity in the ventrolateral PFC, on average, correlated best with the monkeys' choices than with the auditory stimuli. This finding demonstrates a direct link between PFC activity and behavioral choices during a non-spatial auditory task.

  15. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety. PMID:22195191

  16. The Information Flow Framework: A Descriptive Category Metatheory

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The Information Flow Framework (IFF) is a descriptive category metatheory. It is an experiment in foundations, which follows a bottom-up approach to logical description. The IFF forms the structural aspect of the IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project. The categorical approach of the IFF provides a principled framework for the modular design of object-level ontologies. The IFF represents meta-logic, and as such operates at the structural level of ontologies. In the IFF, there is a precise boundary between the metalevel and the object level. The modular architecture of the IFF consists of metalevels, namespaces and meta-ontologies. Each metalevel services the levels below by providing a metalanguage used to declare and axiomatize those levels. Corresponding to the metalevels are nested metalanguages, where each metalanguage axiomatization includes specialization of the one immediately above. Within each metalevel, the terminology is partitioned into namespaces, and various namespaces are collected ...

  17. Topos Theoretical Reference Frames on the Category of Quantum Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiris, E

    2002-01-01

    An observable effects a schematization of the Quantum event structure by correlating Boolean algebras picked by measurements with the Borel algebra of the real line. In a well-defined sense Boolean observables play the role of coordinatizing objects in the Quantum world, by picking Boolean figures and subsequently opening Boolean windows for the perception of the latter, interpreted as local measurement charts. A mathematical scheme for the implementation of this thesis is being proposed based on Category theoretical methods. The scheme leads to a manifold representation of Quantum structure in terms of topos-theoretical Boolean reference frames. The coordinatizing objects give rise to structure preserving maps with the modeling objects as their domains, effecting finally an isomorphism between quantum event algebra objects and Boolean localization systems for the masurement of observables.

  18. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  19. The categories of cutaneous mosaicism: A proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Mosaic disorders can most easily be studied in the skin. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different forms of cutaneous mosaicism. Major categories are genomic versus epigenetic mosaicism and nonsegmental versus segmental mosaicism. The class of nonsegmental mosaics includes single point mosaicism as exemplified by solitary benign or malignant skin tumors; disseminated mosaicism as noted in autosomal dominant tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1; and patchy mosaicism without midline separation as found in giant melanocytic nevus. The class of segmental mosaics includes segmental manifestation of lethal genes surviving by mosaicism as noted in Proteus syndrome; type 1 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting heterozygosity for a postzygotic new mutation; type 2 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting loss of heterozygosity that occurred at an early developmental stage in a heterozygous embryo; and isolated or superimposed segmental mosaicism of common polygenic skin disorders such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. A particular form of genomic mosaicism is didymosis (twin spotting). Revertant mosaicism is recognizable as one or more areas of healthy skin in patients with epidermolysis bullosa or other serious genodermatoses. The category of epigenetic mosaicism includes several X-linked, male lethal disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, and the patterns of lyonization as noted in X-linked non-lethal disorders such as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type. An interesting field of future research will be the concept of epigenetic autosomal mosaicism that may explain some unusual cases of autosomal transmission of linear hypo- or hypermelanosis. PMID:26494396

  20. Dissociation of Category-Learning Systems via Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (i.e., Gabor patches that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit rule-based process and the other an implicit information-integration process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG while each participant (1 passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions, (2 categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, one week later, (3 categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in rule-based and information-integration categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150 - 250 ms, likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked late positive complex associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the rule-based, but not the information-integration task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the rule-based, but not the information-integration condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting rule-based versus implicit information-integration category learning and use.

  1. The meaning of a legal category of “sanction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al’bina Sergeyevna Panova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal category of sanction. Methods dialectical systematic and logical methods of analysis synthesis. Results the study of the legal category of quotsanctionquot has shown that a sanction can be applied on a regulatory or contractual basis if stipulated by a civil agreement and as the measures of liability and protection. One of the promising directions of its use is the motivating one ndash sanctions can provide the legal consequences favorable for those who observe the behavior stipulated by the law. The following is offered as the direction of development of domestic legislation on sanctions verification of compliance of the sanctions amount and terms with the offences gravity introduction of previously nonexistent sanctions for example speculation on food and currency markets the use of discretionary sanctions as a means of positive legal stimulation of the economy. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the nature of the sanctions it is proved that the sanction is a legal means the use of which enables the victim to protect their violated challenged rights provided for by the legislation and or the agreement and implies adverse consequences of property and or organizational nature for the offender. The sanctions application has its own peculiarities. Their use is aimed at curbing the illegal actions of the offender debtor to stimulate them to the proper performance of statutory or contractual duties often sanctions are aimed at compensating for damage caused to the creditor. A peculiar feature of the sanctions is that they are a necessary component of the legal system. Practical value the results obtained can be used to conduct economic and legal research relating to the economics and entrepreneurship in treaty practice in teaching the disciplines of Civil Law Business Law Commercial Law etc. nbsp

  2. Category learning in older adulthood: A study of the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul

    2016-03-01

    Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) examined the categorization abilities of younger adults using tasks involving single-dimensional rule learning, disjunctive rule learning, and family resemblance learning. The current study examined category learning in older adults using this well-known category set. Older adults, like younger adults, found category tasks with a single relevant dimension the easiest to learn. In contrast to younger adults, older adults found complex disjunctive rule-based categories harder to learn than family resemblance based categories. Disjunctive rule-based category learning appeared to be the most difficult for older adults to learn because this category set placed the heaviest demands on working memory, which is known to be a cognitive function that declines with normal aging. The authors discuss why complex rule-based category learning is considered more difficult for older adults to learn relative to younger adults, drawing parallels to developmental research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26765750

  3. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  4. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  5. Habitat Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and California (August 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sage-Grouse habitat areas divided into proposed management categories within Nevada and California project study boundaries.HABITAT CATEGORY DETERMINATIONThe...

  6. Software for Computing, Archiving, and Querying Semisimple Braided Monoidal Category Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-04

    This software package collects various open source and freely available codes and algorithms to compute and archive the categorical data for certain semisimple braided monoidal categories. In particular, it computes the data for of group theoretical categories for academic research.

  7. Management Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and California (August 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sage-Grouse habitat areas divided into proposed management categories within Nevada and California project study boundaries.MANAGEMENT CATEGORY DETERMINATION The...

  8. Composite Management Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents proposed management categories (Core, Priority, General, and Non-Habitat) derived from the intersection of habitat suitability categories...

  9. On M\\"{u}ger's centralizer for a certain class of braided fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a general formula for Mueger's centralizer of any fusion subcategory of a braided fusion category containing a tannakian subcategory. This entails a description for Mueger's centralizer of all fusion subcategories of a group theoretical braided fusion category.

  10. Various categories of changes in the inducement of change blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Šikl, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2013), s. 83-94. ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : change blindness * scene perception * flicker paradigm * attention allocation * attention Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2013

  11. The Learning of Exclusive-Or Categories by Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Justin J. Couchman

    2011-01-01

    A central question in categorization research concerns the categories that animals and humans learn naturally and well. Here, the authors examined monkeys’ and humans’ learning of the important class of exclusive-or (XOR) categories. Both species exhibited—through a sustained level of ongoing errors—substantial difficulty learning XOR category tasks at three stimulus dimensionalities. Clearly, both species brought a linear-separability constraint to XOR category learning. This constraint illu...

  12. RedundancyMiner: De-replication of redundant GO categories in microarray and proteomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold William; Larionov Vladimir L; Brooks Brian P; Brown Jacob D; Bonner Robert F; Rajapakse Vinodh N; Ehler Martin; Kahn Ari B; Liu Hongfang; Zeeberg Barry R; Weinstein John N; Pommier Yves G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium organizes genes into hierarchical categories based on biological process, molecular function and subcellular localization. Tools such as GoMiner can leverage GO to perform ontological analysis of microarray and proteomics studies, typically generating a list of significant functional categories. Two or more of the categories are often redundant, in the sense that identical or nearly-identical sets of genes map to the categories. The redund...

  13. Differences in the formalization of the semantic category of definiteness / indefiniteness

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Roszko; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the formalization of the semantic category of definiteness / indefinitenessBasing on theoretical contrastive studies guidelines, the article defines the semantic category of definiteness/indefiniteness where two basic opposition meanings are being ascribed to. It also distinguishes crucial sub-meanings for this category. The category established like this constitutes a characteristic interlanguage typical of theoretical contrastive studies, which is here used as tertium compara...

  14. Effect of between-category similarity on basic-level superiority in pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Lazareva, Olga F.; Fabián A. Soto; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Children categorize stimuli at the basic level faster than at the superordinate level. We hypothesized that between-category similarity may affect this basic-level superiority effect. Dissimilar categories may be easy to distinguish at the basic level but be difficult to group at the superordinate level, whereas similar categories may be easy to group at the superordinate level but be difficult to distinguish at the basic level. Consequently, similar basic-level categories may produce a super...

  15. Category training induces cross-modal object representations in the adult human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Marieke; van Turennout, Miranda; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    The formation of cross-modal object representations was investigated using a novel paradigm that was previously successful in establishing unimodal visual category learning in monkeys and humans. The stimulus set consisted of six categories of bird shapes and sounds that were morphed to create different exemplars of each category. Subjects learned new cross-modal bird categories using a one-back task. Over time, the subjects became faster and more accurate in categorizing the birds. After 3 d...

  16. Testing the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo with People Using Facial Affect Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring how people represent natural categories is a key step toward developing a better understanding of how people learn, form memories, and make decisions. Much research on categorization has focused on artificial categories that are created in the laboratory, since studying natural categories defined on high-dimensional stimuli such as…

  17. Categorical Lagrangian Grassmannians and Brauer-Picard groups of pointed fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Nikshych, Dmitri; Riepel, Brianna

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the action of the Brauer-Picard group of a pointed fusion category on the set of Lagrangian subcategories of its center. Using this action we compute the Brauer-Picard groups of pointed fusion categories associated to several classical finite groups. As an application, we construct new examples of weakly group-theoretical fusion categories.

  18. Category Organization in Children's Recall: A Critique of Past and Present Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Garrett

    This paper examines several recent lines of research concerning category clustering and describes an alternative to the standard category clustering procedure used to study recall organization in younger children. The specific issue considered is the age at which children first show evidence of spontaneous category clustering in their free-recall.…

  19. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 21.7 - Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... improvements for transport category airplanes. 21.7 Section 21.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... § 21.7 Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes. (a) On or... subchapter. (b) For new transport category airplanes manufactured under the authority of the FAA, the...

  1. Deformation theory of objects in homotopy and derived categories I: general theory

    OpenAIRE

    Efimov, Alexander I.; Lunts, Valery A.; Orlov, Dmitri O.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first paper in a series. We develop a general deformation theory of objects in homotopy and derived categories of DG categories. Namely, for a DG module $E$ over a DG category we define four deformation functors $\\Def ^{\\h}(E)$, $\\coDef ^{\\h}(E)$, $\\Def (E)$, $\\coDef (E)$. The first two functors describe the deformations (and co-deformations) of $E$ in the homotopy category, and the last two - in the derived category. We study their properties and relations. These functors are def...

  2. African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

    2010-01-01

    We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

  3. [Palliative care: an approach based on the professional health categories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Hélida Ribeiro; Lamarca, Isabel Cristina Arruda

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care has emerged as a humanitarian philosophy of caring for terminally ill patients, alleviating their pain and suffering. This care involves the action of an interdisciplinary team, in which all the professional recognize the limits of their performance will help the terminally ill patient to die with dignity. This article deals with the issue of death and dying, both from the traditional and the contemporary standpoint, and how palliative care have been treated in the job categories of medicine, social work, psychology and nursing. The methodology of this study consists of a literature review of articles in the SciELO database, electronic journals and technical books related to the topic. Analysis of the articles revealed a shortage of subjects that deal with the theme of death in professional curricula, as well as few palliative care services in Brazilian society and barriers faced by this new approach to the terminal patient. This research aims to broaden the discussion of palliative care in public health, and provide information for future studies that will address the theme. PMID:23989564

  4. Categories in the pigeon brain: A reverse engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Charlotte; Pusch, Roland; Bröker, Franziska; Thiele, Samuel; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons are well known for their visual capabilities as well as their ability to categorize visual stimuli at both the basic and superordinate level. We adopt a reverse engineering approach to study categorization learning: Instead of training pigeons on predefined categories, we simply present stimuli and analyze neural output in search of categorical clustering on a solely neural level. We presented artificial stimuli, pictorial and grating stimuli, to pigeons without the need of any differential behavioral responding while recording from the nidopallium frontolaterale (NFL), a higher visual area in the avian brain. The pictorial stimuli differed in color and shape; the gratings differed in spatial frequency and amplitude. We computed representational dissimilarity matrices to reveal categorical clustering based on both neural data and pecking behavior. Based on neural output of the NFL, pictorial and grating stimuli were differentially represented in the brain. Pecking behavior showed a similar pattern, but to a lesser extent. A further subclustering within pictorial stimuli according to color and shape, and within gratings according to frequency and amplitude, was not present. Our study gives proof-of-concept that this reverse engineering approach-namely reading out categorical information from neural data-can be quite helpful in understanding the neural underpinnings of categorization learning. PMID:26615363

  5. Organic food category research among leading food retailers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest in organic agriculture has grown both within the scientific community and among general public. Organic agriculture is a new agricultural production system that tries to fully utilize farming potential and to satisfy all the social and economic needs while preserving the natural ecosystem and ensuring environmental protection. This paper gives a short overview of organic agriculture and organic food market development as well as an overview of the distribution channels for organic food in specific countries. The second part of the paper describes the research of the organic food category that was conducted on a sample of leading food retailers in the Republic of Croatia. Based on the methodology applied, it is determined that organic food is sold in Croatian supermarkets and hypermarkets. However, leading food retailers keep mostly imported organic food products. The results of the research imply that both the organic food sales volume and sales income grew in 2008 in respect to the previous year. Despite its limitations (primarily the small sample, the research is the first of its kind to have been conducted in Croatia and lays the groundwork for future research of the organic food and for a possible deeper analysis of this market.

  6. The cost of business credit by firm category

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, F.; D-B.Nguyen.

    2011-01-01

    SMEs have a different bank financing structure from that of large companies and thus do not enjoy the same financing conditions. This article examines the main factors that explain the interest rates on loans to SMEs and highlights the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on credit pricing policies.

  7. Local sources of global climate forcing from different categories of land use activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Identifying and quantifying the sources of climate impacts from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is necessary to optimize policies regarding LULCC for climate change mitigation. These climate impacts are typically defined relative to emissions of CO2, or sometimes emissions of other long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we use previously published estimates of the radiative forcing (RF) of LULCC that include the short-lived forcing agents O3 and aerosols, in addition to long-lived greenhouse gases and land albedo change, for six projections of LULCC as a metric for quantifying climate impacts. The LULCC RF is attributed to three categories of LULCC activities: direct modifications to land cover, agriculture, and wildfire response, and sources of the forcing are ascribed to individual grid points for each sector. Results for the year 2010 show substantial positive forcings from the direct modifications and agriculture sectors, particularly from south and southeast Asia, and a smaller magnitude negative forcing response from wildfires. The spatial distribution of future sources of LULCC RF is highly scenario-dependent, but we show that future forest area change can be used as a predictor of the future RF from direct modification activities, especially in the tropics, suggesting that deforestation-prevention policies that value land based on its C-content may be particularly effective at mitigating climate forcing originating in the tropics from this sector. However, the response of wildfire RF to tropical land cover changes is not as easily scalable and yet imposes a non-trivial feedback onto the total LULCC RF.

  8. OPEN PUBLIC SPACE ATTRIBUTES AND CATEGORIES – COMPLEXITY AND MEASURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čavić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of architectural and urban research, this work addresses the complexity of contemporary public space, both in a conceptual and concrete sense. It aims at systematizing spatial attributes and their categories and discussing spatial complexity and measurability, all this in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding, description and analysis of public space. Our aim is to improve everyday usage of open public space and we acknowledged users as its crucial factor. There are numerous investigations on the complex urban and architectural reality of public space that recognise importance of users. However, we did not find any that would holistically account for what users find essential in public space. Based on the incompleteness of existing approaches on open public space and the importance of users for their success, this paper proposes a user-orientated approach. Through an initial survey directed to users, we collected the most important aspects of public spaces in the way that contemporary humans see them. The gathered data is analysed and coded into spatial attributes from which their role in the complexity of open public space and measurability are discussed. The work results in an inventory of attributes that users find salient in public spaces. It does not discuss their qualitative values or contribution in generating spatial realities. It aims to define them clearly so that any further logical argumentation on open space concerning users may be solidly constructed. Finally, through categorisation of attributes it proposes the disciplinary levels necessary for the analysis of complex urban-architectural reality

  9. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  10. The near centre of Doi-Hopf module category _AM (H)~C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚海斌; 许永华

    1999-01-01

    It is known that any strict tensor category ( C, (?), I) determines a braided tensor category Z(C), the centre of C. When A is a finite dimension Hopf algebra, Drinfel’d has proved that Z(AM) is equivalent to ((D(A))M as a braided tensor category, where AM is the left A-module category and D (A) is the Drinfel’d double of A. For a braided tensor category C, the braid CU, V is a natural isomorphism for any pair of object (U, V) in C. If weakening the natural isomorphism of the braid CU, V to a natural transformation, then CU, V is a prebraid and the category C with a prebraid is called a prebraided tensor category. Similarly it can be proved that any strict tensor category C determines a prebraided tensor category Z’ (C), the near centre of C. An interesting prebraided tensor structure of the Yetter-Drinfel’d category C#AYDC#A is given, where C # A is the smash product bialgebra of C and A. And it is proved that the near centre of Doi-Hopf module AM(H)C is equivalent to the Yetter-Dri

  11. Assessing the Benefits of NASA Category 3, Low Cost Class C/D Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Steven A.; Mahr, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Category 3, Class C/D missions have the benefit of delivering worthwhile science at minimal cost which is increasingly important in NASA's constrained budget environment. Although higher cost Category 1 and 2 missions are necessary to achieve NASA's science objectives, Category 3 missions are shown to be an effective way to provide significant science return at a low cost. Category 3 missions, however, are often reviewed the same as the more risk averse Category 1 and 2 missions. Acknowledging that reviews are not the only aspect of a total engineering effort, reviews are still a significant concern for NASA programs. This can unnecessarily increase the cost and schedule of Category 3 missions. This paper quantifies the benefit and performance of Category 3 missions by looking at the cost vs. capability relative to Category 1 and 2 missions. Lessons learned from successful organizations that develop low cost Category 3, Class C/D missions are also investigated to help provide the basis for suggestions to streamline the review of NASA Category 3 missions.

  12. Assessment of urgent impacts of greenhouse gas emissions—the climate tipping potential (CTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on climate change receives much focus today. This impact is however often considered only in terms of global warming potential (GWP), which does not take into account the need for staying below climatic target levels, in order to avoid...... climate tipping potential (CTP) of GHG emissions relative to a climatic target level. The climate tipping impact category should be seen as complementary to the global warming impact category.The CTP of a GHG emission is expressed as the emission’s impact divided by the ‘capacity’ of the atmosphere for...... climate tipping impact category for assessing climate change impacts in LCA, complimentary to the global warming impact category which shall still represent the long-term climate change impacts, is considered to improve the value of LCA as a tool for decision support for climate change mitigation....

  13. Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benoît Norris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined.

  14. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  15. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  16. Memory for category information is idealized through contrast with competing options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2010-02-01

    We suggest that human category formation relies on contrastive learning mechanisms that seek to reduce prediction error. In keeping with this view, manipulating category contrast leads to systematic distortions in people's memory for category information. Simply by changing the basis of comparison (i.e., the available response options), we can systematically distort people's perceptions of novel, energy-source, and political categories. Our proposal explains perceived variations in category members' typicality, including cases in which average items are judged as highly typical and cases in which extreme or ideal members are judged as highly typical of the category. Although straightforward, our account spans findings from studies in goal-derived, cross-cultural, and object-based categorization and suggests ways in which society's perception of key issues is distorted by political discourse. PMID:20424052

  17. The Role of Internal Reference Points in the Category Purchase Decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David R.; Randolph E. Bucklin

    1999-01-01

    The authors study the role that reference effects play in the category purchase decision for consumer nondurable products. Category purchase behavior is represented by a nested logit model that is estimated on purchase records of shoppers in two Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner panels. A series of hypotheses are developed, modeled, and tested regarding the effects that internal reference points for product category attractiveness are likely to have on the decision to buy in a product cate...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  19. Post-error slowing predicts rule-based but not information-integration category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Helen; Maddox, W. Todd; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether error monitoring, operationalized as the degree to which individuals slow down after committing an error (i.e, post-error slowing), is differentially important in the learning of rule-based vs. information-integration category structures. Rule-based categories are most efficiently solved through the application of an explicit verbal strategy (e.g. sort by color). In contrast, information-integration categories are believed to be learned in a trial-by-trial associative manne...

  20. Fragment-Based Learning of Visual Object Categories in Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kromrey; Matthew Maestri; Karin Hauffen; Evgeniy Bart; Jay Hegdé

    2010-01-01

    When we perceive a visual object, we implicitly or explicitly associate it with an object category we know. Recent research has shown that the visual system can use local, informative image fragments of a given object, rather than the whole object, to classify it into a familiar category. We have previously reported, using human psychophysical studies, that when subjects learn new object categories using whole objects, they incidentally learn informative fragments, even when not required to d...