WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical-related impact categories

  1. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  2. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  3. The impact of extension category characteristics : on the attitdude towards brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qianqian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is aiming to find out whether extension category characteristics have impact on consumer attitude towards brand extension. In this study, the author focused on three specific extension category characteristics, which are respectively (1) the role of dominant brands in the extension category, (2) the potential for a differentiated brand positioning in the extension category, (3) the consumer attitude towards the extension category. The author conducted an experiment ...

  4. Capacity to create impact forces and execution time according to the weight category in taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Falcó Pérez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taekwondo is a combat sport where the competition is based on weight categories. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact force, the relative impact force, the execution time and the relative execution time, of a roundhouse kick to the chest among three Olympic taekwondo weight categories. Twenty male taekwondo athletes participated in the study, divided in three weight groups: featherweight (n = 7, welterweight (n = 7 and heavyweight (n = 7. ANOVA results showed that there were no differences in impact force between featherweight, welterweight and heavyweight. In contrast, the featherweight group generated more relative impact force than the heavyweight group. The heavyweight group used longer execution time when performing the roundhouse kick than both the other two groups, and had a longer relative execution time than the welterweight group (p Key words: biomechanics, performance, taekwondo, weight, roundhouse kick.

  5. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Affective Category of English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…

  6. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

  7. The impact of brand and category characteristics on consumer stock-out reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Sloot (Laurens); P.C. Verhoef (Peter); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe develop two models to test hypotheses on the specific impact of brand and category characteristics on consumer stock-out responses. Our empirical results show that both characteristics are important determinants. Consumers are more product loyal in hedonic product groups than in utili

  8. The impact of category prices on store price image formation : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Lourenço, C.J.; Gijsbrechts, E.; Paap, R.

    2015-01-01

    The authors empirically explore how consumers update beliefs about a store's overall expensiveness. They estimate a learning model of store price image (SPI) formation with the impact of actual prices linked to category characteristics, on a unique dataset combining store visit and purchase informat

  9. Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.;

    2011-01-01

    economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006......As an optional step of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase in the ISO standards, normalization aims to express the magnitude of the impacts by comparing the characterized results against a common reference situation - the normalization references. In this study, we used inventories of two....... By analysing the most contributing substances, metals turn out to dominate the impacts in both regions. This may be explained by the interim status of the characterization factors (CFs) for metals, which might be overestimated in the current model. Part of the explanation may also lie in the incomplete...

  10. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; 10.1007/s11192-012-0929-9

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and citation behaviour differs largely across disciplines, principal components explain more than 78% of the total variance and the average number of references per paper is not the primary factor explaining the variance in impact factors across categories. The Categories Normalized Impact Factor (CNIF) based on the JCR subject category list is proposed and compared with the IF. This normalization is achieved by considering all the indexing categories of each journal. An empirical application, with one hundred journals in two ...

  11. A Practical Approach to Screening Potential Environmental Hotspots of Different Impact Categories in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakatani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of environmental hotspots becomes a pressing issue for companies pursuing sustainable supply chain management. In particular, excessive dependence on water resources outside the country may put the supply chain at unanticipated risk of water shortage. This article presents a practical approach to screening potential environmental hotspots of different impact categories that occur in the supply chain using environmental input-output analysis. First, the amounts of domestic and foreign potential impacts of global warming, terrestrial acidification, and water resource consumption, induced through supply chains were calculated for 403 sectors of Japanese products. Thereafter, with a focus on potential impacts induced through the import of raw materials, a framework for screening foreign potential hotspots was presented. The results showed that the sectoral potential impacts of water resource consumption had high rates of foreign impacts at deeper tiers of the supply chains for some sectors, which indicated that there exist hidden water hotspots outside the country. In the case study of fiber yarns, impacts on water resource consumption induced as a result of the import of crops, as well as that induced in silviculture as a result of the import of wood chips, were found to be the foreign potential hotspots.

  12. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  13. The short- and long-term impact of an assortment reduction on category sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Laurens M.; Fok, Dennis; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    In a collaborative study with a major Dutch retailer, the authors assess the short- and long-term effects of a 25% item reduction on-category sales. On an aggregate level, a major assortment reduction can lead to substantive short-term category sales losses but only a weak negative long-term categor

  14. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...... they belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view...

  15. Category Accessibility and Recall Accuracy: The Impact of Exposure to Mass Media in Witness Recall Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Ron; And Others

    The R.S. Wyer and T.K. Srull model suggests that when humans process information and store it in memory they create construct categories that are somewhat like storage bins. According to this model, when information is placed in these bins, it is stored in the order that it is received or used, with the most recently processed information always…

  16. Determining the Impacts of Land Cover/use Categories on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT8-OLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Ergene, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  17. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  18. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  19. Quantifying the Impact of Obesity Category on Major Chronic Diseases in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Jiang; Yue Chen; Douglas Manuel; Howard Morrison; Yang Mao; Obesity Working Group

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health effects differ with various levels of obesity, but limited national data existed previously for the Canadian population. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and behavioral factors with obesity levels in Canada, and measured the impact of each level on major chronic diseases. Data were extracted from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. We grouped overweight/obese participants aged 18 years and over into four levels based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): overw...

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Obesity Category on Major Chronic Diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse health effects differ with various levels of obesity, but limited national data existed previously for the Canadian population. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and behavioral factors with obesity levels in Canada, and measured the impact of each level on major chronic diseases. Data were extracted from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. We grouped overweight/obese participants aged 18 years and over into four levels based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m2: overweight (25.0– 29.9, class I obesity (30.0–34.9, class II obesity (35–39.9, and class III obesity (extreme/clinical obesity, BMI ≥ 40.0. We used logistic regression models to identify potential risk factors for the obesity levels and to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs for major chronic diseases related to each level. We calculated population attributable risks (PARs to help understand the impact of obesity levels on these chronic diseases.

  1. Best available practice in life cycle assessment of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photo-oxidant formation, acidification, and eutrophication-Backgrounds on specific impact categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppala J; Risbey J; Meilinger S; Norris G; Lindfors LG; Goedkoop M; Klopffer W; Potting J; ETAC Europe; KMD

    2001-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the SETAC Europe Scientific Task Group on Global And RegionaL Impact Categories (SETAC-Europe/STG-GARLIC) that is installed by the 2nd SETAC Europe working group on life cycle impact assessment (WIA-2). This document is background to a chapter written by the same aut

  2. Category management

    OpenAIRE

    Jan BERAN

    2002-01-01

    Práce popisuje category management, jeho definice a vývoj. Stěžejní část práce se věnuje osmi krokům category management procesu a subjektům, které do tohoto procesu vstupují. Mezi osm kroku patří definování kategorie, analýza kategorie, hodnocení subjektů, stanovení cíle kategorie, taktická rozhodnutí, strategická rozhodnutí, implementace a zpětná vazba. Praktická část je zaměřena na deskripci konkrétního category management projektu a tento projekt je porovnán s teoretickými předpoklady....

  3. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  4. Anal Carcinoma: Impact of TN Category of Disease on Survival, Disease Relapse, and Colostomy Failure in US Gastrointestinal Intergroup RTOG 98-11 Phase 3 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, Leonard L., E-mail: gunderson.leonard@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Moughan, Jennifer [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pedersen, John E. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Al B. [Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Knight Cancer Institute/Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mayer, Robert J. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Rich, Tyvin A. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The long-term update of US GI Intergroup RTOG 98-11 anal cancer trial found that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) with fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin had a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with induction plus concurrent 5-FU plus cisplatin. The intent of the current analysis was to determine the impact of tumor node (TN) category of disease on survival (DFS and OS), colostomy failure (CF), and relapse (local-regional failure [LRF] and distant metastases [DM]) in this patient group. Methods and Materials: DFS and OS were estimated univariately by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and 6 TN categories were compared by the log–rank test (T2N0, T3N0, T4N0, T2N1-3, T3N1-3, and T4N1-3). Time to relapse and colostomy were estimated by the cumulative incidence method, and TN categories were compared using Gray's test. Results: Of 682 patients, 620 were analyzable for outcomes by TN category. All endpoints showed statistically significant differences among the TN categories of disease (OS, P<.0001; DFS, P<.0001; LRF, P<.0001; DM, P=.0011; CF, P=.01). Patients with the poorest OS, DFS, and LRF outcomes were those with T3-4N-positive (+) disease. CF was lowest for T2N0 and T2N+ (11%, 11%, respectively) and worst for the T4N0, T3N+, and T4N+ categories (26%, 27%, 24%, respectively). Conclusions: TN category of disease has a statistically significant impact on OS, DFS, LRF, DM, and CF in patients treated with CCRT and provides excellent prognostic information for outcomes in patients with anal carcinoma. Significant challenges remain for patients with T4N0 and T3-4N+ categories of disease with regard to survival, relapse, and CF and lesser challenges for T2-3N0/T2N+ categories.

  5. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    a low data demand ecotoxicity effect indicator to be used together with a fate indicator, when estimating the potential impact of chemical emissions. The results of the case study document that for LCAs on printed matter, the inclusion of chemical-related impact categories can be decisive...... for the outcome, and it shows that chemical-related impact categories are poorly or not at all included in previous studies. The share for the total environmental impact of for example the printing process in the case study is reduced from 41% to 10%, if the chemical-related impact categories are excluded. So...... associated selection methods EDIP-selection (revised version) and Priofactor. A statistical test of correlation in ranking between EDIP97, Priofactor, CPM and EURAM shows significant correlation in all cases. The main reason for this result is that a common perception of what makes a substance...

  6. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...

  7. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  8. Colourful categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  9. Impact of Service Extension and Services Interaction on B2b Sales: A Temporal Investigation Into Fuels’ Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inacio Severo de Almeida

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of services marketing has a theoretical and empirical gap that refers to the impact of the provision of services on sales. This research opportunity is routinely highlighted in theoretical proposals such as the Augmented Service Offering (ASO, Innovation in Services (IS and Service Dominant Logic (SDL, which require alternative measures of combinations of product and service and the possible effects that these arrangements may cause. This article aims to investigate the impact of the extension and the interaction of services on Business to Business (B2B sales. Three hypotheses were tested with data from the fuel sector. Research was operationalized based on secondary data, ceded by an energy company, which comprise sales of regular and premium gasoline of this company to 19 gas stations along 27 months, totaling 513 observations. The study involved the construction of a generalized linear model with balanced, long and random effects panel structure. The three hypotheses were supported, identifying how the extensive principle of service contributes to the increased performance and conclude the existence of a direct, linear and positive impact of extension and interaction of services on B2B sales.

  10. By-catch impacts in fisheries: utilizing the IUCN red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornborg, Sara; Svensson, Mikael; Nilsson, Per; Ziegler, Friederike

    2013-11-01

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  11. Segal Enriched Categories I

    CERN Document Server

    Bacard, Hugo V

    2010-01-01

    We develop a theory of enriched categories over a (higher) category M equipped with a class W of morphisms called homotopy equivalences. We call them Segal M_W -categories. Our motivation was to generalize the notion of "up-to-homotopy monoids" in a monoidal category M, introduced by Leinster. The formalism adopted generalizes the classical Segal categories and extends the theory of enriched category over a bicategory. In particular we have a linear version of Segal categories which did not exist so far. Our goal in this paper is to present the theory and provide some examples. Applications are reserved for the future.

  12. Categories from scratch

    OpenAIRE

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especially inscrutable to external audiences. More specifically, the common explanatory route to approach categories is usually: "here is a formal specification of what a category is; then look at these kno...

  13. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  14. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Poss

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  15. Category Dynamical Systems and Skew Category Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Öinert, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce category dynamical systems as functors $s$ from a category $G$ to $\\Top^{\\rm op}$ and show that they define what we call skew category algebras $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. We study the connection between topological freeness of $s$ and, on the one hand, ideal properties of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$ and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of $A$ in $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. In particular, we show that if $G$ is a groupoid and for each $e \\in \\ob(G)$ the group of all morphisms $e \\rightarrow e$ is countable and the topological space $s(e)$ is Tychonoff and Baire, then the following statements are equivalent: (i) $s$ is topologically free; (ii) if $I$ is a nonzero ideal of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$, then $I \\cap A \

  16. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  17. Category Theory in Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, Sanjay M

    2007-01-01

    Measures in the context of Category Theory lead to various relations, even differential relations, of categories that are independent of the mathematical structure forming objects of a category. Such relations, which are independent of the mathematical structure that we may represent a physical body or a system of reference with, are, precisely, demanded to be the Laws of Physics by the General Principle of Relativity.

  18. Category Theory In Geography?

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.; Kerski Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribut...

  19. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  20. Blocking in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. The authors tested this hypothesis by conducting three category-learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking…

  1. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  2. Comparing categories among geographic ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Marinos; Kokla, Margarita; Tomai, Eleni

    2005-03-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to generate semantic "mappings" between different ontologies, or create aligned/integrated ones. An essential step towards their success is the ability to compare the categories involved. This paper introduces a systematic methodology for comparing categories met in geographic ontologies. The methodology explores/extracts semantic information provided by categories' definitions. The first step towards this goal is the recognition of syntactic and lexical patterns in definitions, which help to identify (a) semantic properties such as purpose, location, cover, and (b) semantic relations such as hypernym, part of, has-parts, etc. At the second step, a similarity measure among categories is applied, in order to explore how (the) extracted properties and relations interrelate. This framework enables us to (a) better understand the impact of context in cross-ontology "mappings", (b) evaluate the "quality" of definitions as to whether they respect mere ontological aspects (such as unambiguous taxonomies), and (c) deal more effectively with the problem of semantic translation among geographic ontologies.

  3. Category Theory In Geography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinghaus Sandra L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mathematical category theory a unifying tool for geography? Here we look at a few basic category theoretical ideas and interpret them in geographic example. We also offer links to indicate how category theory has been used as such in other disciplines. Finally, we announce the direction of our research program on this topic as a way to facilitate the learning, and maintenance of learning, of GIS software – and in the spirit of Quaestiones Geographicae, invite debate, comment, and contribution to this program in spatial mathematics.

  4. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  5. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  6. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  7. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  8. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  9. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  10. Categories without structures

    CERN Document Server

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history of mathematics and mathematics education.

  11. Sleep enhances category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Djonlagic, Ina; Rosenfeld, Andrew; Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine; Gluck, Mark; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The ability to categorize objects and events in the world around us is a fundamental and critical aspect of human learning. We trained healthy adults on a probabilistic category-learning task in two different training modes. The aim of this study was to see whether either form of probabilistic category learning (feedback or observational) undergoes subsequent enhancement during sleep. Our results suggest that after training, a good night of sleep can lead to improved performance the following...

  12. Clinical Outcome of Breast Conservation Therapy for Breast Cancer in Hong Kong: Prognostic Impact of Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence and 2005 St. Gallen Risk Categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of breast conservation therapy (BCT) for invasive breast cancers in our predominantly Chinese population. Methods and Materials: Clinical outcomes of 412 T1-2 invasive breast cancers treated by wide local excision and external radiotherapy from 1994 to 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 7% lesions were first detected by mammograms. Adjuvant tamoxifen and chemotherapy were added in 74% and 45% patients, respectively. Results: The median follow-up was 5.4 years. The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate, distant failure-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 4%, 92%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. The 5-year distant failure-free survival for the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk categories (2005 St. Gallen) were 98%, 91%, and 80%, respectively (p 0.0003). Cosmetic results were good to excellent in more than 90% of the assessable patients. Grade 3 histology (hazard ratio [HR], 4.461; 95% CI, 1.216-16.360; p = 0.024), age (HR, 0.915; 95% CI, 0.846-0.990; p = 0.027), and close/positive final margins (HR, 3.499; 95% CI, 1.141-10.729; p = 0.028) were significant independent risk factors for IBTR. Both St. Gallen risk categories (p = 0.003) and IBTR (HR, 5.885; 95% CI, 2.494-13.889; p < 0.0005) were independent prognostic factors for distant failure-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the low percentage of mammographically detected lesions, the overall clinical outcome of BCT for invasive breast cancers in the Chinese population is comparable to the Western series. The 2005 St. Gallen risk category is a promising clinical tool, but further validation by large studies is warranted

  13. On braided tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kerler, T

    1994-01-01

    We investigate invertible elements and gradings in braided tensor categories. This leads us to the definition of theta-, product-, subgrading and orbitcategories in order to construct new families of BTC's from given ones. We use the representation theory of Hecke algebras in order to relate the fusionring of a BTC generated by an object $X$ with a two component decomposition of its tensorsquare to the fusionring of quantum groups of type $A$ at roots of unity. We find the condition of "local isomorphie" on a special fusionring morphism implying that a BTC is obtained from the above constructions applied to the semisimplified representation category of a quantum group. This family of BTC's contains new series of twisted categories that do not stem from known Hopf algebras. Using the language of incidence graphs and the balancing structure on a BTC we also find strong constraints on the fusionring morphism. For Temperley Lieb type categories these are sufficient to show local isomorphie. Thus we obtain a class...

  14. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  15. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  16. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  17. Coherence in monoidal track categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guiraud, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We introduce homotopical methods based on rewriting on higher-dimensional categories to prove coherence results in categories with an algebraic structure. We express the coherence problem for (symmetric) monoidal categories as an asphericity problem for a track category and use rewriting methods on polygraphs to solve it. The setting is generalized to more general coherence problems, seen as 3-dimensional word problems in a track category. We prove general results that, in the case of braided monoidal categories, yield the coherence theorem for braided monoidal categories.

  18. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  19. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  20. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, sug...

  1. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  2. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  3. Homotopy colimits of model categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bergner, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Building on a previous definition of homotopy limit of model categories, we give a definition of homotopy colimit of model categories. Using the complete Segal space model for homotopy theories, we verify that this definition corresponds to the model-category-theoretic definition in that setting.

  4. Learning categorial grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Florêncio, C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1967 E. M. Gold published a paper in which the language classes from the Chomsky-hierarchy were analyzed in terms of learnability, in the technical sense of identification in the limit. His results were mostly negative, and perhaps because of this his work had little impact on linguistics. In the

  5. 基质沥青的种类对橡胶沥青的影响研究%THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT THAT THE CATEGORY OF BASE ASPHALT BRING ABOUT TO RUBBERIZED ASPHALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东坡; 李海文

    2011-01-01

    There are plenty of factors that affect the performance of rubberized asphalt, however, this paper mainly consider the impact that the category of base asphalt bring about to waste crumb rubber modified asphalt This paper respectively adopts Da Qing and Panjin AH-90# base asphalt, which are commonly used in Heilongjiang province, with the same preparation technique-the powder content is 18% ; the power mesh is 80 mesh; the mixing temperature is 180 ℃; the mixing time is 60 min. Pene-tration , ductility, softening point, elastic recovery and rotation viscosity had been chosen as the technol-ogy and performance indexes. Test results indicate that the category of base asphalt has minor influence on rubberized asphalt%影响废胶粉改性沥青性能的因素很多,本文主要考虑基质沥青的种类对其性能的影响.分别采用黑龙江省常用的大庆和盘锦AH - 90#基质沥青,采用相同的制备条件:胶粉掺量为18%,胶粉目数为80目,搅拌时间为60min,搅拌温度为180℃,检测废胶粉改性沥青的针入度,延度软化点,弹性恢复,旋转粘度.试验结果表明,基质沥青的种类对废胶粉改性沥青性能的影响不大.

  6. A trace for bimodule categories

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We study a 2-functor that assigns to a bimodule category over a finite k-linear tensor category a k-linear abelian category. This 2-functor can be regarded as a category-valued trace for 1-morphisms in the tricategory of finite tensor categories. It is defined by a universal property that is a categorification of Hochschild homology of bimodules over an algebra. We present several equivalent realizations of this 2-functor and show that it has a coherent cyclic invariance. Our results have applications to categories associated to circles in three-dimensional topological field theories with defects. This is made explicit for the subclass of Dijkgraaf-Witten topological field theories.

  7. Unfolding Grammars in Adhesive Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Baldan, Paolo; Corradini, Andrea; Heindel, Tobias; König, Barbara; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the unfolding semantics, previously developed for concrete formalisms such as Petri nets and graph grammars, to the abstract setting of (single pushout) rewriting over adhesive categories. The unfolding construction is characterized as a coreflection, i.e. the unfolding functor arises as the right adjoint to the embedding of the category of occurrence grammars into the category of grammars.As the unfolding represents potentially infinite computations, we need to work in adhesive...

  8. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  9. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  10. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  11. Simplicial Lusternik-Schnirelmann category

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ternero, Desamparados; Macías-Virgós, Enrique; Minuz, Erika; Vilches, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The simplicial LS-category of a finite abstract simplicial complex is a new invariant of the strong homotopy type, defined in purely combinatorial terms, that generalizes to arbitrary simplicial complexes the well known notion of arboricity of a graph, and that allows to develop all the machinery of algebraic topology which is costumary in the classical theory of Lusternik-Schnirelmann category.

  12. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  13. The Research on Impact Factors of Consumers′Behavior Loyalty to the Lower Category A of Yunyan%低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志平; 赵明元

    2014-01-01

    通过分析影响消费者行为忠诚度的相关研究,找出影响低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素并构建假设,同时应用AMOS20.0统计软件,对模型中的相关因素进行估计和检验.结果表明,吸味是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的首要因素,其中吸味中的吸香、嗅香和烟丝影响最大;消费者个性是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的第二因素,其中消费者个性中的关注健康、关注环保和开放三因素影响最大;吸烟转化成本对于低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度影响很小.%Upon analysis of the literature of the consumers′behavior loyalty,the research introduces impact factors of consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN,and posits three hypotheses.With the application of AMOS20.0 software,the research adopts conceptual framework of factors to be consistent with empirical studies.The results reveal that flavor is the primary factor to affect the consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN of which the smoke flavor,fragrant smell and cut to-bacco have the greatest effects;the consumer′s personality is the second factor,of which attention to health,the environmental protection and opening character are outstanding;smoking conversion cost has the smallest effects on the consumers′behavior loyalty.

  14. The Research on Impact Factors of Consumers′Behavior Loyalty to the Lower Category A of Yunyan%低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志平; 赵明元

    2014-01-01

    Upon analysis of the literature of the consumers′behavior loyalty,the research introduces impact factors of consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN,and posits three hypotheses.With the application of AMOS20.0 software,the research adopts conceptual framework of factors to be consistent with empirical studies.The results reveal that flavor is the primary factor to affect the consumers′behavior loyalty to the lower category A of YUNYAN of which the smoke flavor,fragrant smell and cut to-bacco have the greatest effects;the consumer′s personality is the second factor,of which attention to health,the environmental protection and opening character are outstanding;smoking conversion cost has the smallest effects on the consumers′behavior loyalty.%通过分析影响消费者行为忠诚度的相关研究,找出影响低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度的影响因素并构建假设,同时应用AMOS20.0统计软件,对模型中的相关因素进行估计和检验.结果表明,吸味是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的首要因素,其中吸味中的吸香、嗅香和烟丝影响最大;消费者个性是影响低一类云烟消费者行为忠诚度的第二因素,其中消费者个性中的关注健康、关注环保和开放三因素影响最大;吸烟转化成本对于低一类云烟的消费者行为忠诚度影响很小.

  15. Distributors on a tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    TAMBARA, D.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\cA$ be a tensor category and let $\\cV$ denote the category of vector spaces. A distributor on $\\cA$ is a functor $\\cA^{\\op}\\times \\cA\\to \\cV$. We are concerned with distributors with two-sided $\\cA$-action. Those distributors form a tensor category, which we denoted by ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$. The functor category $\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV)$ is also a tensor category and has the center $\\bZ(\\Hom(\\cA^{\\op},\\cV))$. We show that if $\\cA$ is rigid, then ${}_{\\cA}\\bD(\\cA,\\cA)_{\\cA}$ and $\\...

  16. The neurobiology of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F Gregory; Spiering, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    Many recent studies have examined the neural basis of category learning. Behavioral neuroscience results suggest that both the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia play important category-learning roles; neurons that develop category-specific firing properties are found in both regions, and lesions to both areas cause category-learning deficits. Similar studies indicate that the inferotemporal cortex does not mediate the learning of new categories. The cognitive neuroscience literature on category learning appears contradictory until the results are partitioned according to the type of category-learning task that was used. Three major tasks can be identified: rule based, information-integration, and prototype-distortion. Recent results are consistent with the hypotheses that (a) learning in rule-based tasks requires working memory and executive attention and is mediated by frontal-striatal circuits, (b) learning in information-integration tasks requires procedural memory and is mediated primarily within the basal ganglia, and (c) learning in prototype-distortion tasks depends on multiple memory systems, including the perceptual representation system. PMID:15537987

  17. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  18. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  19. Generalized Tambara-Yamagami categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liptrap, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    Fusion rules generalize groups by allowing multivalued multiplication. Groups are fusion rules of simple current index 1. We classify nilpotent (in the sense of Gelaki and Nikshych) fusion rules of simple current index 2, and characterize the associated fusion categories.

  20. A Convenient Category of Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of topological domains, whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual ω-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, can be used as the basis for a theory of computability, and provides a model of parametric polymorphism.

  1. A convenient category of domains

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alex

    2007-01-01

    We motivate and define a category of "topological domains", whose objects are certain topological spaces, generalising the usual $omega$-continuous dcppos of domain theory. Our category supports all the standard constructions of domain theory, including the solution of recursive domain equations. It also supports the construction of free algebras for (in)equational theories, provides a model of parametric polymorphism, and can be used as the basis for a theory of computab...

  2. Sulla categoria delle categorie esatte

    OpenAIRE

    Margiocco, Marco; Mora, Fulvio

    1981-01-01

    In questo lavoro si studiano alcune proprietà della categoria ex e, in particolare, si costruisce l’esattizzazione di una sottocategoria di una categoria esatta, caratterizzandola mediante una opportuna proprietà universale. In this work we study some properties of the category ex, and construct the «exactization» of a subcategory of an exact category caracterized by an «universal property».

  3. Neural correlates of colour categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Davidoff, Jules B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an electrophysiological marker of visual detection to investigate adults' processing of colour difference. Event-related potentials were collected from the identical colour (green: G0) presented as the frequent or infrequent stimulus within different colour contexts. Critically, we compared differences within the same colour category (G0 vs. green: G1) to differences between colour categories (G0 vs. blue and G0 vs. red). All differences showed a change-related positivity with...

  4. 'Protestantism' as a historical category.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrie, Alec

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘Protestant’ itself is a historical accident, but the category of western Christians who have separated from Rome since 1517 remains a useful one. The confessionalisation thesis, which has dominated recent Reformation historiography, instead posits the two major Protestant confessions and Tridentine Catholicism as its categories, but this can produce a false parallelism in which the nature of relationship between the confessions is oversimplified. Instead, this paper proposes we thin...

  5. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structur...

  6. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  7. Incremental Interpretation of Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a parser for Categorial Grammar which provides fully word by word incremental interpretation. The parser does not require fragments of sentences to form constituents, and thereby avoids problems of spurious ambiguity. The paper includes a brief discussion of the relationship between basic Categorial Grammar and other formalisms such as HPSG, Dependency Grammar and the Lambek Calculus. It also includes a discussion of some of the issues which arise when parsing lexicalised grammars, and the possibilities for using statistical techniques for tuning to particular languages.

  8. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  9. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effect...

  10. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  11. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  12. Dimethylglycine and chemically related amines tested for mutagenicity under potential nitrosation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, A J

    1989-04-01

    Dimethylglycine (DMG) and the chemically related amino acids glycine, sarcosine (monomethylglycine) and betaine (trimethylglycine) were tested in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 after treatment with sodium nitrite under acidic conditions using a modified Ames Salmonella/microsome assay as reported by Colman et al. (1980). The increase in the number of revertants observed both with and without metabolic activation was also induced in the control mixtures without adding the amines. From the subsequent testing of the individual components of the mixtures, we concluded that non-consumed nitrite was responsible for the mutagenic responses observed in the different reaction mixtures, and not the amines themselves. There were no consistent indications of mutagenic activity of the DMG test mixture as compared to the control mixture which exhibited both consistent mutagenic activity and a toxic effect which was not increased by the addition of DMG. In fact, DMG seemed to decrease the toxicity of the control reaction solution to the Salmonella which was clearly observed at the higher doses. DMG cannot be considered mutagenic under the test conditions employed. The same can be said of the other amino acids as well. PMID:2468082

  13. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Guinea highlands. Man 2-1, 5-25. Evans, Nicholas. 2009. Trelisses of the mind: how language trains thought. Chapter 8 of Dying Words: Endangered Languages and What They Have to Tell Us, 159-181. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Evans, Nicholas and Stephen Levinson. 2009. The myth of language universals......Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... in their attempt to account for cross-linguistic ordering tendencies (Rijkhoff 2009a).       Recent proposals to employ ‘concepts’ as the basis for cross-linguistic comparison (apparently conflating linguistic/semantic and non-linguistic/cognitive categories) have also met with considerable skepticism (Levinson...

  14. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  15. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  16. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  17. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  18. Ego Depletion Interferes with Rule-Defined Category Learning but Not Non-Rule-Defined Category Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul eMinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research on category learning has suggested that many cognitive and environmental factors can have a differential effect on the learning of rule-defined categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. The present study examined whether temporarily reducing participants’ executive functioning via a resource depletion manipulation would differentially impact rule-defined and non-rule-defined category learning. Participants were either asked to write a story with no restrictions (the control condition, or without using two common letters (the ego depletion condition. Participants were then asked to learn either a set of rule-defined categories or a set of non-rule-defined categories. Resource depleted participants performed more poorly than controls on the rule-defined task, but did not differ from controls on the non-rule-defined task, suggesting that self regulatory resources are required for successful rule-defined category learning. These results lend support to multiple systems theories and clarify the role of self-regulatory resources within this theory.

  19. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Patrick; Jesse, Alexandra; Cutler, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment 1, exposure to a visual idiosyncrasy in ambiguous audiovisually presented target words in a lexical decision task indeed resulted in retuning of the visual category boundary based on the disambiguating lexical context. In Experiment 2 it was tested whether lexical information retunes visual categories directly, or indirectly through the generalization from retuned auditory phonetic categories. Here, participants were exposed to auditory-only versions of the same ambiguous target words as in Experiment 1. Auditory phonetic categories were retuned by lexical knowledge, but no shifts were observed for the visual phonetic categories. Lexical knowledge can therefore guide retuning of visual phonetic categories, but lexically guided retuning of auditory phonetic categories is not generalized to visual categories. Rather, listeners adjust auditory and visual phonetic categories to talker idiosyncrasies separately. PMID:23862831

  20. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models

  1. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  2. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Jie; ZHANG; Guanglian; ZHU; Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  3. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  4. Category of Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWan-cai; LIXiao-shen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, category GIFS of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy sets(GIF) is built up. Topoi properties of category GIFS axe studied. Firstly, it is proved that the category GIFS has all topoi properties except that it has no subobject classifiers, Secondly, it is proved that the category GIFS has middle object and consequently GIFS is a weak topos.Thirdly, by the use of theory of weak topos GIFS,the power object of an object in GIFS is studied.

  5. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  6. Abelian crossed modules and strict Picard categories

    OpenAIRE

    Quang, Nguyen Tien; Phung, Che Thi Kim; Tung, Ngo Sy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we state the notion of morphisms in the category of abelian crossed modules and prove that this category is equivalent to the category of strict Picard categories and regular symmetric monoidal functors. The theory of obstructions for symmetric monoidal functors and symmetric cohomology groups are applied to show a treatment of the group extension problem of the type of an abelian crossed module.

  7. Lexically guided retuning of visual phonetic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zande, P.; Jesse, A.; Cutler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners retune the boundaries between phonetic categories to adjust to individual speakers' productions. Lexical information, for example, indicates what an unusual sound is supposed to be, and boundary retuning then enables the speaker's sound to be included in the appropriate auditory phonetic category. In this study, it was investigated whether lexical knowledge that is known to guide the retuning of auditory phonetic categories, can also retune visual phonetic categories. In Experiment ...

  8. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septimiu Crivei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of , called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover.

  9. Client Verbal Response Category System: Preliminary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Augustine; Boivin, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    The Client Verbal Response Category System classifies client responses into Temporal, Directional and Experiential categories. The categories with their subcategories are defined, interjudge reliability data is presented, and the instrument's utility in psychotherapy process research is demonstrated. Initial results indicate that the instrument is…

  10. Cascade category-aware visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen; Rui, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating image classification into image retrieval system brings many attractive advantages. For instance, the search space can be narrowed down by rejecting images in irrelevant categories of the query. The retrieved images can be more consistent in semantics by indexing and returning images in the relevant categories together. However, due to their different goals on recognition accuracy and retrieval scalability, it is hard to efficiently incorporate most image classification works into large-scale image search. To study this problem, we propose cascade category-aware visual search, which utilizes weak category clue to achieve better retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption. To capture the category and visual clues of an image, we first learn category-visual words, which are discriminative and repeatable local features labeled with categories. By identifying category-visual words in database images, we are able to discard noisy local features and extract image visual and category clues, which are hence recorded in a hierarchical index structure. Our retrieval system narrows down the search space by: 1) filtering the noisy local features in query; 2) rejecting irrelevant categories in database; and 3) preforming discriminative visual search in relevant categories. The proposed algorithm is tested on object search, landmark search, and large-scale similar image search on the large-scale LSVRC10 data set. Although the category clue introduced is weak, our algorithm still shows substantial advantages in retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption than the state-of-the-art.

  11. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  12. Detailed mineral and chemical relations in two uranium-vanadium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Robert M.; Larsen, E. S.; Pommer, A.M.; Coleman, R.G.

    1956-01-01

    Channel samples from two mines on the Colorado Plateau have been studied in detail both mineralogically and chemically. A channel sample from the Mineral Joe No. 1 mine, Montrose County, Colo., extends from unmineralized rock on one side, through a zone of variable mineralization, into only weakly mineralized rock. The unmineralized rock is a fairly clean quartz sand cemented with gypsum and contains only minor amounts of clay minerals. One boundary between unmineralized and mineralized rock is quite sharo and is nearly at right angles to the bedding. Vanadium clay minerals, chiefly mixed layered mica-montmorillonite and chlorite-monmorillonite, are abundant throughout the mineralized zone. Except in the dark "eye" of the channel sample, the vanadium clay minerals are accompanied by hewettite, carnotite, tyuyamunite, and probably unidentified vanadates. In the dark "eye," paramontroseite, pyrite, and marcasite are abundant, and bordered on each side by a zone containing abundant corvusite. No recognizable uranium minerals were seen in the paramontroseite zone although uranium is abundant there. Coaly material is recognizable throughout all of the channel but is most abundant in and near the dark "eye." Detailed chemical studies show a general increase in Fe, Al, U, and V, and a decrease in SO4 toward the "eye" of the channel. Reducing capacity studies indicate that V(IV) and Fe(II) are present in the clay mineral throughout the channel, but only in and near the "eye" are other V(IV) minerals present (paramontroseite and corvusite). The uranium is sexivalent, although its state of combination is conjectural where it is associated with paramontroseite. Where the ore boundary is sharp, the boundary of introduced trace elements is equally sharp. Textural and chemical relations leave no doubt that the "eye: is a partially oxidized remnant of a former lower-valence ore, and the remainder of the channel is a much more fully oxidized remnant. A channel sample from the

  13. A Compositional Treatment of Polysemous Arguments in Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Mineur, A M; Mineur, Anne-Marie; Buitelaar, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of {\\em coercion}, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called {\\em qualia structure}. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of {\\em sign-based} Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only two representations are derived: a prosodic one (form) and a logical one (modelling), here we introduce also a more detaled representation of the lexical semantics. This extra knowledge will serve to account for linguistic phenomena like {\\em metonymy\\/}.

  14. Capacity to create impact forces and execution time according to the weight category in taekwondo CAPACIDAD DE GENERACIÓN DE FUERZAS DE GOLPEO Y TIEMPO DE EJECUCIÓN SEGÚN LA CATEGORÍA DE PESO EN TAEKWONDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Molina-García

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Taekwondo is a combat sport where the competition is based on weight categories. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact force, the relative impact force, the execution time and the relative execution time, of a roundhouse kick to the chest among three Olympic taekwondo weight categories. Twenty male taekwondo athletes participated in the study, divided in three weight groups: featherweight (n = 7, welterweight (n = 7 and heavyweight (n = 7. ANOVA results showed that there were no differences in impact force between featherweight, welterweight and heavyweight. In contrast, the featherweight group generated more relative impact force than the heavyweight group. The heavyweight group used longer execution time when performing the roundhouse kick than both the other two groups, and had a longer relative execution time than the welterweight group (p Key words: biomechanics, performance, taekwondo, weight, roundhouse kick.Resumen El taekwondo es un deporte de combate donde se compite por categorías de peso. El presente estudio analiza la fuerza de impacto, la fuerza relativa de golpeo, el tiempo de ejecución y el tiempo relativo de ejecución, de la patada circular al pecho, en tres categorías olímpicas de taekwondo. Veintiún taekwondistas masculinos participaron en el estudio, divididos en tres grupos: pluma (n = 7, superligero (n = 7, y pesado (n = 7. Los resultados del ANOVA no arrojaron diferencias significativas en la fuerza de impacto entre el grupo de pluma, superligero y pesado. En cambio, el grupo pluma genera más fuerza relativa de golpeo que el grupo pesado. El grupo pesado realiza la patada circular en un mayor tiempo de ejecución que el grupo pluma y superligero, y en un mayor tiempo relativo de ejecución que el grupo superligero (p Palabras clave: biomecánica, rendimiento, taekwondo, peso, patada circular.

  15. Effect of olympic weight category on performance in the roundhouse kick to the head in taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevan, Isaac; Falco, Coral; Alvarez, Octavio; Molina-García, Javier

    2012-03-01

    In taekwondo, kick performance is generally measured using impact force and time. This study aimed to analyse performance in the roundhouse kick to the head according to execution distance between and within Olympic weight categories. The participants were 36 male athletes divided into three categories: featherweight (n = 10), welterweight (n = 15) and heavyweight (n = 11). Our results show that taekwondo athletes in all weight categories generate a similar relative impact force. However, the results indicate that weight has a large impact on kick performance, particularly in relation to total response time.

  16. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  17. Fukaya categories as categorical Morse homology

    CERN Document Server

    Nadler, David

    2011-01-01

    The Fukaya category of a Weinstein manifold is an intricate symplectic invariant of high interest in mirror symmetry and geometric representation theory. We show in analogy with Morse homology that the Fukaya category can be obtained by gluing together Fukaya categories of Weinstein cells. Our main technical result is a d\\'evissage pattern for Lagrangian branes parallel to that for constructible sheaves. As an application, we exhibit the Fukaya category as the global sections of a sheaf on the conic topology of the Weinstein manifold. This can be viewed as a symplectic analogue of the well-known algebraic and topological theories of (micro)localization.

  18. Stable Postnikov data of Picard 2-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gurski, Nick; Johnson, Niles; Osorno, Angélica M.; Stephan, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Picard 2-categories are symmetric monoidal 2-categories with invertible 0-, 1-, and 2-cells. The classifying space of a Picard 2-category $\\mathcal{D}$ is an infinite loop space, the zeroth space of the $K$-theory spectrum $K\\mathcal{D}$. This spectrum has stable homotopy groups concentrated in levels 0, 1, and 2. In this paper, we describe part of the Postnikov data of $K\\mathcal{D}$ in terms of categorical structure. We use this to show that there is no strict skeletal Picard 2-category who...

  19. The Grothendieck Construction and Gradings for Enriched Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, Dai

    2009-01-01

    The Grothendieck construction is a process to form a single category from a diagram of small categories. In this paper, we extend the definition of the Grothendieck construction to diagrams of small categories enriched over a symmetric monoidal category satisfying certain conditions. Symmetric monoidal categories satisfying the conditions in this paper include the category of $k$-modules over a commutative ring $k$, the category of chain complexes, the category of simplicial sets, the category of topological spaces, and the category of modern spectra. In particular, we obtain a generalization of the orbit category construction in [math/0312214]. We also extend the notion of graded categories and show that the Grothendieck construction takes values in the category of graded categories. Our definition of graded category does not require any coproduct decompositions and generalizes $k$-linear graded categories indexed by small categories defined by Lowen. There are two popular ways to construct functors from the...

  20. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  1. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  2. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  3. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  4. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  5. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, pweight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  6. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  7. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  8. Whitney categories and the Tangle Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Smyth, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new notion of `n-category with duals', which we call a Whitney n-category. There are two motivations. The first is that Baez and Dolan's Tangle Hypothesis is (almost) tautological when interpreted as a statement about Whitney categories. The second is that we can functorially construct `fundamental Whitney n-categories' from each smooth stratified space X. These are obtained by considering the homotopy theory of smooth maps into X which are transversal to all strata. This makes concrete another idea of Baez and Dolan's which is that a suitable version of homotopy theory for stratified spaces should allow one to generalise the relationship between spaces and groupoids to one between stratified spaces and categories with duals.

  9. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  10. Comparing operadic theories of $n$-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    We give a framework for comparing on the one hand theories of n-categories that are weakly enriched operadically, and on the other hand n-categories given as algebras for a contractible globular operad. Examples of the former are the definition by Trimble and variants (Cheng-Gurski) and examples of the latter are the definition by Batanin and variants (Leinster). We will show how to take a theory of n-categories of the former kind and produce a globular operad whose algebras are the n-categories we started with. We first provide a generalisation of Trimble's original theory that allows for the use of other parametrising operads in a very general way, via the notion of categories weakly enriched in V where the weakness is parametrised by an operad P in the category V. We define weak n-categories by iterating the weak enrichment construction using a series of parametrising operads P_i. We then show how to construct from such a theory an n-dimensional globular operad for each $n \\geq 0$ whose algebras are precis...

  11. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  12. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... of perceptual organization, visual object recognition and category-specificity....

  13. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  14. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  15. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed......A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  16. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  17. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  18. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, peating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  19. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  20. Infinite Index Subfactors and the GICAR Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vaughan F. R.; Penneys, David

    2015-10-01

    Given a II1-subfactor of arbitrary index, we show that the rectangular GICAR category, also called the rectangular planar rook category, faithfully embeds as A - A bimodule maps among the bimodules . As a corollary, we get a lower bound on the dimension of the centralizer algebras for infinite index subfactors, and we also get that is nonabelian for , where is the Jones tower for . We also show that the annular GICAR/planar rook category acts as maps amongst the A-central vectors in , although this action may be degenerate. We prove these results in more generality using bimodules. The embedding of the GICAR category builds on work of Connes and Evans, who originally found GICAR algebras inside Temperley-Lieb algebras with finite modulus.

  1. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  2. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  3. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  4. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  5. Rapid object category adaptation during unlabelled classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, David; Intrator, Nathan; Yovel, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports from electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments provide evidence that repeated exposure to an ordered sequence of morphed stimuli may over time adapt a prelearned object category such that the category may generalise the entire sequence as belonging to the same object. Here, a new protocol that includes a single exposure to a morphing sequence is presented. Subjects exposed to the new protocol replaced a prelearned face with an entirely different face within just 3 days, significantly faster than in previous reports.

  6. Analysis of N Category Privacy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available File sharing becomes popular in social networking and the disclosure of private information without user’s consent can be found easily. Password management becomes increasingly necessary for maintaining privacy policy. Monitoring of violations of a privacy policy is needed to support the confidentiality of information security. This paper extends the analysis of two category confidentiality model to N categories, and illustrates how to use it to monitor the security state transitions in the information security privacy modeling.

  7. Neural responses to category ambiguous words

    OpenAIRE

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ER...

  8. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  9. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  10. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubnov-Raz Gal; Mashiach-Arazi Yael; Nouriel Ariella; Raz Raanan; Constantini Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided i...

  11. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist....... The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be....

  12. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  13. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  14. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  15. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  16. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories......We examined the neural correlates of visual shape configuration, the binding of local shape characteristics into wholistic object descriptions, by comparing the regional cerebral blood flow associated with recognition of outline drawings and fragmented drawings. We found no areas that responded...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  17. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...

  18. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, the prediction of protein secondary structure has been optimized using essentially one and the same assignment scheme known as DSSP. We present here a different scheme, which is more predictable. This scheme predicts directly the hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the secondary...... structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  19. Finding Categories and Keywords in Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Christian; Gälle, Doris; Mayr, Heinrich C.

    Nowadays web services are a common way to integrate functionality in an information system, but most of the time it is very difficult to find an appropriate service. If users of web service engines do not exactly know what they want, they often browse through categories and search with keywords. This, however, depends on the knowledge of the web service owner and his/her willingness to assign such keywords. This chapter gives a proposal to provide the user with candidates for keywords and categories which are derived directly from the web service specification itself.

  20. Coherent presentations and actions on categories

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussent, Stéphane; Malbos, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We study Deligne's notion of action of a monoid on a category and, in particular, the piece of data that corresponds to the coherence relations that such an action should satisfy. We prove that actions of a monoid are equivalent to 2-functors from a 2-categorical cofibrant replacement of the monoid into the 2-category of categories. One way to compute such a cofibrant replacement is to consider the 2-category presented by a coherent presentation of the monoid: this is a presentation extended with a homotopy basis, that is, a set of relations between the relations that identifies any two proofs of the same equality in the monoid. Using higher-dimensional rewriting, in the polygraphic setting, we combine and extend Squier's theorem and Knuth-Bendix completion procedure into a "reduced homotopical completion" procedure that, when successful, transforms a given presentation into a relatively small coherent presentation. In particular, when used on Deligne's presentation of Artin-Tits groups of spherical type, the...

  1. Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...

  2. Gorensteinness and Tate Cohomology in Exact Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the classical Gorenstein homological theory and structure of Tate cohomology, we develop a theory of Gorenstein projective objects and Tate cohomology in an exact category A with enough projectives. We study some properties of Gorenstein projective objects and establish Tate cohomology of objects with finite Gorenstein projective dimension.

  3. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  4. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  5. The Space Category in Medieval Japanese Literature

    OpenAIRE

    GOREGLIAD, Vladislav N.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the fictional space in literary work depends on the correlations between on the one hand the world of ideas and emotions, and on the other hand the world of things, and in the final analysis on the ideological categories of the work.

  6. Embedded Cobordism Categories and Spaces of Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Galatius, Madsen, Tillmann, and Weiss [7] have identified the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism category with objects (d -1)-dimensional manifolds embedded in R8. In this paper we apply the techniques of spaces of manifolds, as developed by the author and Galatius in [8], to...

  7. Traces on ideals in pivotal categories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Virelizier, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    We extend the notion of an ambidextrous trace on an ideal (developed by the first two authors) to the setting of a pivotal category. We show that under some conditions, these traces lead to invariants of colored spherical graphs (and so to modified 6j-symbols).

  8. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  9. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  10. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  11. Neural responses to category ambiguous words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Category ambiguous words (like hug and swing) have the potential to complicate both learning and processing of language. However, uses of such words may be disambiguated by acoustic differences that depend on the category of use. This article uses an event-related potential (ERP) technique to ask whether adult native speakers of English show neural sensitivity to those differences. The results indicate that noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words produce differences in the amplitude of the ERP response over left anterior sites as early as 100ms following stimulus onset and persisting for over 400ms. Nonsense words extracted from noun and verb contexts do not show such differences. These findings suggest that the acoustic differences between noun and verb tokens of ambiguous words are perceived and processed by adults and may be part of the lexical representation of the word. PMID:25637057

  12. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  13. Investor Attention: Overconfidence and Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Peng; Wei Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by psychological evidence that attention is a scarce cognitive resource, we model investors' attention allocation in learning and study the effects of this on asset-price dynamics. We show that limited investor attention leads to ``category-learning" behavior, i.e., investors tend to process more market and sector-wide information than firm-specific information. This endogenous structure of information, when combined with investor overconfidence, generates important features observe...

  14. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions tha...

  15. DVE architecture based on message category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; ZHANG Qiang; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2009-01-01

    By importing the idea of P2P, and transmitting messages among clients directly into the client-server architecture, a new hybrid architecture was presented with the help of AOI technology and message category. Theoretical analysis of this architecture was presented in detail. A series of simulation experiments was carried out to verify its effectiveness. Results indicate that the new architecture produces less server message workload than traditional architectures, which can improve the scalability of DVE systems.

  16. Listeners retune phoneme categories across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Weber, Andrea; Mitterer, Holger

    2013-02-01

    Native listeners adapt to noncanonically produced speech by retuning phoneme boundaries by means of lexical knowledge. We asked whether a second language lexicon can also guide category retuning and whether perceptual learning transfers from a second language (L2) to the native language (L1). During a Dutch lexical-decision task, German and Dutch listeners were exposed to unusual pronunciation variants in which word-final /f/ or /s/ was replaced by an ambiguous sound. At test, listeners categorized Dutch minimal word pairs ending in sounds along an /f/-/s/ continuum. Dutch L1 and German L2 listeners showed boundary shifts of a similar magnitude. Moreover, following exposure to Dutch-accented English, Dutch listeners also showed comparable effects of category retuning when they heard the same speaker speak her native language (Dutch) during the test. The former result suggests that lexical representations in a second language are specific enough to support lexically guided retuning, and the latter implies that production patterns in a second language are deemed a stable speaker characteristic likely to transfer to the native language; thus retuning of phoneme categories applies across languages.

  17. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  18. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  19. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  20. Graded mutation in cluster categories coming from hereditary categories with a tilting object

    CERN Document Server

    Bertani-Økland, Marco Angel; Wrålsen, Anette

    2010-01-01

    We present a graded mutation rule for quivers of cluster-tilted algebras. Furthermore, we give a technique to recover a cluster-tilting object from its graded quiver in the cluster category of coh $\\mathbb{X}$.

  1. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  2. Cross-category demand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Parreno-Selva, Josefa

    2012-01-01

    Do promotions in a certain category lead to higher revenues in other categories? If so, to what degree? The answers to these questions are highly relevant for retailers that supply products in different categories. Empirical findings in studies that consider a limited number of categories indicate s

  3. The Picard crossed module of a braided tensor category

    OpenAIRE

    Davydov, Alexei; Nikshych, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    For a finite braided tensor category we introduce its Picard crossed module consisting of the group of invertible module categories and the group of braided tensor autoequivalences. We describe the Picard crossed module in terms of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center of the braided tensor category. As an illustration, we compute the Picard crossed module of a braided pointed fusion category.

  4. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  5. The Impact of Consumers’ Self-construal on Brand Evaluations for Domestic and Foreign Brands in the Context of Globalization- The Moderating Effect of Product Category%全球化背景下消费者自我建构对国产与外国品牌评价的影响倡--产品类别的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽叶; 袁登华

    2015-01-01

    Self-construal is how individuals under different cultural environment consider the relationship between themselves and others .With the impact from both Chinese culture and western culture ,Chinese self-construal has gotten new features in the context of globalization .The paper explores the effects of consumers’ self-construal on brand evalu-ations for domestic and foreign brands through an experiment using 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects design .The results show that consumers with different self-construal perceive and deal with the clues of brand origin differently ,and the effects are moderated by product category .The findings provide a new guidance for brand management in the context of globalization .%自我建构是不同文化背景下个体对自我与他人关系的认知。全球化背景下,受中西双重文化影响,中国消费者的自我建构呈现新的特征。文章通过2×2×2的实验设计检验了消费者自我建构对国产与外国品牌评价的影响,发现不同自我建构者对品牌来源地信息的认知和处理不同,受到产品类别的调节。研究结论为全球化背景下的品牌管理提供了新的指引。

  6. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  7. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, R

    1984-01-01

    The first of its kind, this book presents a widely accessible exposition of topos theory, aimed at the philosopher-logician as well as the mathematician. It is suitable for individual study or use in class at the graduate level (it includes 500 exercises). It begins with a fully motivated introduction to category theory itself, moving always from the particular example to the abstract concept. It then introduces the notion of elementary topos, with a wide range of examples and goes on to develop its theory in depth, and to elicit in detail its relationship to Kripke's intuitionistic semantics,

  8. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, S.; Tzevelekos, N.

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included.

  9. CEUS Helps to Rerate Small Breast Tumors of BI-RADS Category 3 and Category 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to explore if classification, whether using the BI-RADS categories based on CEUS or conventional ultrasound, was conducive to the identification of benign and malignant category 3 or 4 small breast lesions. Material and Methods. We evaluated 30 malignant and 77 benign small breast lesions using CEUS. The range of enhancement, type of enhancement strength, intensity of enhancement, and enhancement patterns were independent factors included to assess the BI-RADS categories. Results. Of the nonenhanced breast lesions, 97.8% (44/45 were malignant, while, of the hyperplasic nodules, 96.8% (30/31 showed no enhancement in our study. Category changes of the lesions were made according to the features determined using CEUS. The results showed that these features could improve diagnostic sensitivity (from 70.0 to 80.0, 80.0, 90.0, and 90.0%, reduce the negative likelihood ratio (from 0.33 to 0.22, 0.25, 0.11, and 0.12, and improve the NPV (from 88.8 to 92.2, 91.2, 96.2, and 95.5%. However, this was not conducive to improve diagnostic specificity or the PPV. Conclusion. The vast majority of nonenhanced small breast lesions were malignant and most of the hyperplasic nodules showed no contrast enhancement. As a reference, CEUS was helpful in identifying BI-RADS category 3 or 4 small breast lesions.

  10. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  11. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect. PMID:26106058

  12. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using...... the action we define the Demazure Descent Data on the latter category and prove that the Descent category is equivalent to the derived category of G-equivariant sheaves on X....

  13. Nel's category theory based differential and integral Calculus, or did Newton know category theory ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2005-01-01

    In a series of publications in the early 1990s, L D Nel set up a study of non-normable topological vector spaces based on methods in category theory. One of the important results showed that the classical operations of derivative and integral in Calculus can in fact be obtained by a rather simple construction in categories. Here we present this result in a concise form. It is important to note that the respective differentiation does not lead to any so called generalized derivatives, for inst...

  14. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  15. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Abramsky, Samson

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included. The main prerequisite is a basic familiarity with the elements of discrete mathematics: sets, relations and functions. An Appendix contains a summary of what we will need, and it may be useful to review this first. In addition, some prior exposure to abstract algebra - vector spaces and linear maps, or groups and group homomorphisms - would be helpful.

  16. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  17. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  18. A Category Theoretic Model of RDF Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aliyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ontology languages are used in modelling the semantics of concepts within a particular domain and the relationships between those concepts. The Semantic Web standard provides a number of modelling languages that differ in their level of expressivity and are organized in a Semantic Web Stack in such a way that each language level builds on the expressivity of the other. There are several problems when one attempts to use independently developed ontologies. When existing ontologies are adapted for new purposes it requires that certain operations are performed on them. These operations are currently performed in a semi-automated manner. This paper seeks to model categorically the syntax and semantics of RDF ontology as a step towards the formalization of ontological operations using category theory.

  19. Cohomology of exact categories and (non-)additive sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaledin, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    We use (non-)additive sheaves to introduce an (absolute) notion of Hochschild cohomology for exact categories as Ext's in a suitable bisheaf category. We compare our approach to various definitions present in the literature.

  20. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  1. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  2. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ..., uses and/or different performance specifications. For example, within the product category ``hand... category that have different characteristics or that meet different performance specifications and, where... may know that there are different performance specifications that metal cleaners and corrosion...

  3. Category Labels Induce Boundary-Dependent Perceptual Warping in Learned Speech Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native…

  4. Mere Exposure Alters Category Learning of Novel Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interp...

  5. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    OpenAIRE

    ThomasJPalmeri

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interp...

  6. Category and Perceptual Learning in Subjects with Treated Wilson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Pengjing; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Dosher, Barbara; Zhou, Jiangning; Zhang, Daren; Zhou, Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    To explore the relationship between category and perceptual learning, we examined both category and perceptual learning in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD), whose basal ganglia, known to be important in category learning, were damaged by the disease. We measured their learning rate and accuracy in rule-based and information-integration category learning, and magnitudes of perceptual learning in a wide range of external noise conditions, and compared the results with those of normal...

  7. Weakly globular Tamsamani N-categories and their rigidification

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of higher categorical structures called weakly globular Tamsamani n-categories. These generalize the Tamsamani-Simpson model of higher categories by using the new paradigm of weak globularity to weaken higher categorical structures. We prove this new structure is suitably equivalent to a simpler one previously introduced by the author, called weakly globular n-fold categories.

  8. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  9. Induction from a Single Instance: Formation of a Novel Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Jason F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Preschoolers were shown three objects in a given category. Each object had two attribute dimensions. A target category object with two different attributes was presented. Information provided to the children through verbal labeling or variations in a given category attribute both elicited induction of the defining attribute in the novel target…

  10. 14 CFR 29.59 - Takeoff path: Category A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path: Category A. 29.59 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.59 Takeoff path: Category A. (a) The takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point at...

  11. Creating Temporal Categories for an Ontology of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Beule, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    A mechanism is described that enables a robotic agent to create temporal categories for conceptualizing the world. The creation of a new category is triggered when the agent is unable to temporally distinguish an event from the other events in the context using already adopted categories. This is di

  12. 14 CFR 91.325 - Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary category aircraft: Operating... Flight Operations § 91.325 Primary category aircraft: Operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a primary category aircraft carrying persons or property for compensation or hire. (b) No person may...

  13. The de Rham homotopy theory and differential graded category

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Syunji

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a generalization of arXiv:0810.0808. We develop the de Rham homotopy theory of not necessarily nilpotent spaces, using closed dg-categories and equivariant dg-algebras. We see these two algebraic objects correspond in a certain way. We prove an equivalence between the homotopy category of schematic homotopy types and a homotopy category of closed dg-categories. We give a description of homotopy invariants of spaces in terms of minimal models. The minimal model in this context behaves much like the Sullivan's minimal model. We also provide some examples. We prove an equivalence between fiberwise rationalizations and closed dg-categories with subsidiary data.

  14. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  15. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  16. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. PMID:26193173

  17. Influence of emotionally charged information on category-based induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zhu

    Full Text Available Categories help us make predictions, or inductions, about new objects. However, we cannot always be certain that a novel object belongs to the category we are using to make predictions. In such cases, people should use multiple categories to make inductions. Past research finds that people often use only the most likely category to make inductions, even if it is not certain. In two experiments, subjects read stories and answered questions about items whose categorization was uncertain. In Experiment 1, the less likely category was either emotionally neutral or dangerous (emotionally charged or likely to pose a threat. Subjects used multiple categories in induction when one of the categories was dangerous but not when they were all neutral. In Experiment 2, the most likely category was dangerous. Here, people used multiple categories, but there was also an effect of avoidance, in which people denied that dangerous categories were the most likely. The attention-grabbing power of dangerous categories may be balanced by a higher-level strategy to reject them.

  18. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  19. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  20. Limits of generalization between categories and implications for theories of category specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M; Phillips, W Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed, and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of those previous studies (e.g., Grill-Spector, Knouf, & Kanwisher, 2004). The present study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern-car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars but not of antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features.

  1. What you learn is more than what you see: What can sequencing effects tell us about inductive category learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo F. Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inductive category learning takes place across time. As such, it is not surprising that the sequence in which information is studied has an impact in what is learned and how efficient learning is. In this paper we review research on different learning sequences and how this impacts learning. We analyze different aspects of interleaved (frequent alternation between categories during study and blocked study (infrequent alternation between categories during study that might explain how and when one sequence of study results in improved learning. While these different sequences of study differ in the amount of temporal spacing and temporal juxtaposition between items of different categories, these aspects do not seem to account for the majority of the results available in the literature. However, differences in the type of category being studied and the duration of the retention interval between study and test may play an important role. We conclude that there is no single aspect that is able to account for all the evidence available. Understanding learning as a process of sequential comparisons in time and how different sequences fundamentally alter the statistics of this experience offers a promising framework for understanding sequencing effects in category learning. We use this framework to present novel predictions and hypotheses for future research on sequencing effects in inductive category learning.

  2. The meta as an aesthetic category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trentini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical logic defined a metalanguage as a language about a language. After that, the word “metapicture” was used by Mitchell to identify a picture about a picture. Once we are not dealing with language, we may think that we are not dealing with signification. However, the word “meta” and its aboutness may assume that a picture has to be interpreted and has a meaning. We think that this is not accurate in order to understand the meta. The present article proposes to define the meta as an aesthetic category and not as a logical one. The analysis takes into account viewers’ attention to self-referential works of art so as to propose an embodied aesthetic analysis. We want to show that the experience of meta in art is a reflective experience. A picture is seen as a metapicture relative to the attention that viewers have on it: they can or cannot see it as a metapicture. Obviously, activating the meta quality changes the perception of the picture. One might think that the meta quality is due to paradoxes. In fact, self-reference often leads to paradoxes. We precisely want to show that paradoxes are not a necessary ingredient to induce the meta specific feeling. Why? Probably because the mere work is not reflective; it is not a speech. The reflexivity that is supposed to be in the work is actually the reflexivity of the cognition of spectators projected in the work. Similarly to Kant's definition of the sublime, the structure “meta” lies in the subject, not in the picture. The experience of the metapicture should actually be named as the meta-experience of the picture.

  3. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  4. Category and perceptual learning in subjects with treated Wilson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjing Xu

    Full Text Available To explore the relationship between category and perceptual learning, we examined both category and perceptual learning in patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD, whose basal ganglia, known to be important in category learning, were damaged by the disease. We measured their learning rate and accuracy in rule-based and information-integration category learning, and magnitudes of perceptual learning in a wide range of external noise conditions, and compared the results with those of normal controls. The WD subjects exhibited deficits in both forms of category learning and in perceptual learning in high external noise. However, their perceptual learning in low external noise was relatively spared. There was no significant correlation between the two forms of category learning, nor between perceptual learning in low external noise and either form of category learning. Perceptual learning in high external noise was, however, significantly correlated with information-integration but not with rule-based category learning. The results suggest that there may be a strong link between information-integration category learning and perceptual learning in high external noise. Damage to brain structures that are important for information-integration category learning may lead to poor perceptual learning in high external noise, yet spare perceptual learning in low external noise. Perceptual learning in high and low external noise conditions may involve separate neural substrates.

  5. Algebras of higher operads as enriched categories II

    CERN Document Server

    Batanin, Michael; Weber, Mark

    2009-01-01

    One of the open problems in higher category theory is the systematic construction of the higher dimensional analogues of the Gray tensor product. In this paper we continue the work of [7] to adapt the machinery of globular operads [4] to this task. The resulting theory includes the Gray tensor product of 2-categories and the Crans tensor product [12] of Gray categories. Moreover much of the previous work on the globular approach to higher category theory is simplified by our new foundations, and we illustrate this by giving an expedited account of many aspects of Cheng's analysis [11] of Trimble's definition of weak n-category. By way of application we obtain an "Ekmann-Hilton" result for braided monoidal 2-categories, and give the construction of a tensor product of A-infinity algebras.

  6. The triangulated category of K-motives DK_(k)

    OpenAIRE

    Garkusha, Grigory; Panin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    For any perfect field k a triangulated category of K-motives DK_(k) is constructed in the style of Voevodsky's construction of the category DM_(k). To each smooth k-variety X the K-motive is associated in the category DK_(k). Also, it is shown that K_n(X)=DK_(k)(M_K(X)[n],M_K(pt)), where K(X) is Quillen's K-theory of X.

  7. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  8. Graded self-dual fusion categories of rank $4$

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jingcheng; Zhang, Liangyun; Dai, Li

    2016-01-01

    We classify self-dual spherical fusion categories of rank $4$ with non-trivial universal grading. We prove that they are Grothendieck equivalent to a Deligne's tensor product $\\A\\boxtimes\\B$, where $\\A$ is a non-pointed fusion category of rank $2$, $\\B$ is a pointed fusion category of rank $2$. In particular, if they are braided then they are equivalent to $\\A\\boxtimes\\B$.

  9. The Fukaya category, exotic forms and exotic autoequivalences

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold M together with a choice of a closed non-degenerate two-form. Recent years have seen the importance of associating an A?-category to M, called its Fukaya category, in helping to understand symplectic properties of M and its Lagrangian submanifolds. One of the principles of this construction is that automorphisms of the symplectic manifold should induce autoequivalences of the derived Fukaya category, although precisely what autoequi...

  10. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  11. Multitensor lifting and strictly unital higher category theory

    OpenAIRE

    Batanin, Michael; Cisinski, Denis-Charles; Weber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this article we extend the theory of lax monoidal structures, also known as multitensors, and the monads on categories of enriched graphs that they give rise to. Our first principal result -- the lifting theorem for multitensors -- enables us to see the Gray tensor product of 2-categories and the Crans tensor product of Gray categories as part of this framework. We define weak n-categories with strict units by means of a notion of reduced higher operad, using the theory of algebraic weak f...

  12. Category learning in the context of co-presented items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Janet K; Livingston, Kenneth R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2011-05-01

    A series of four studies explore how the presentation of multiple items on each trial of a categorization task affects the course of category learning. In a three-category supervised classification task involving multi-dimensionally varying artificial organism-like stimuli, learners are shown a target plus two context items on every trial, with the context items' category membership explicitly identified. These triads vary in whether one, two, or all three categories are represented. This presentation context can support within-category comparison and/or between-category contrast. The most successful learning occurs when all categories are represented in each trial. This pattern occurs across two different underlying category structures and across variations in learners' prior knowledge of the relationship between the target and context items. These results appear to contrast with some other recent findings and make clear the potential importance of context-based inter-item evaluation in human category learning, which has implications for psychological theory and for real-world learning environments. PMID:21080030

  13. Deferred feedback sharply dissociates implicit and explicit category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Boomer, Joseph; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Roeder, Jessica L; Church, Barbara A; Ashby, F Gregory

    2014-02-01

    The controversy over multiple category-learning systems is reminiscent of the controversy over multiple memory systems. Researchers continue to seek paradigms to sharply dissociate explicit category-learning processes (featuring category rules that can be verbalized) from implicit category-learning processes (featuring learned stimulus-response associations that lie outside declarative cognition). We contribute a new dissociative paradigm, adapting the technique of deferred-rearranged reinforcement from comparative psychology. Participants learned matched category tasks that had either a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a multidimensional, information-integration solution. They received feedback either immediately or after each block of trials, with the feedback organized such that positive outcomes were grouped and negative outcomes were grouped (deferred-rearranged reinforcement). Deferred reinforcement qualitatively eliminated implicit, information-integration category learning. It left intact explicit, rule-based category learning. Moreover, implicit-category learners facing deferred-rearranged reinforcement turned by default and information-processing necessity to rule-based strategies that poorly suited their nominal category task. The results represent one of the strongest explicit-implicit dissociations yet seen in the categorization literature. PMID:24335605

  14. E-Service Brand Extensions: The Role Of Perceived Fit And Category Usage Level On Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrali Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examines how differences in consumer traits of self-efficacy and need for service employee interaction impacts perceived fit between core service brand and its e-service extension and adoption by current and prospective customers. Category usage level moderates the impact of self-efficacy on perceived fit and adoption of e-services among current and potential customers. We use data from a store—based service provider that introduced online services. The results of multiple regression analysis show that users with high level of efficacy have higher perceptions of fit and are more likely to adopt e-services and category usage level moderates this effect more for current users than prospective users.

  15. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  16. Multilevel induction of categories: venomous snakes hijack the learning of lower category levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Sharon M; Yan, Veronica X; Vendetti, Michael S; Castel, Alan D; Bjork, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    The induction of categories and concepts from examples-which plays an important role in how people come to organize and understand the world-can happen at multiple levels, but how do competing values at these different levels affect learning? Using perceptually rich images of snakes, we asked participants to attend to either the snakes' specific genus or a broader categorization and then tested induction at both levels. We also varied the intrinsic value of the broader categorization (high value: whether the snake was venomous; low value: whether it was tropical). We found an interaction between study instruction and intrinsic value: Participants in the low-value condition were better able to induce the level they were instructed to attend to (i.e., genus or broader category) than to induce the level they were not instructed to attend to, whereas participants in the high-value condition, regardless of the level of categorization they were instructed to attend to, were significantly better at learning the broad categorization (for them, whether the snake was venomous) than were participants in the low-value condition. Our results suggest that intrinsically valuable features can disrupt the intentional learning of other, task-relevant information, but enhance the incidental learning of the same information.

  17. Factors Influencing Successful Brand Extension into Related and Unrelated Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwat Afzal

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the study that analyzes the factors influencing successful brand extension. Specifically the study analyze the impact of similarity, brand reputation, perceived risk and consumer innovativeness on the success of brand extension into related or unrelated categories of FMCG products. A set of hypotheses were developed and tested by regression analysis. It investigated the effect of factors such as brand reputation, perceived risk, perceived similarity and consumer innovativ...

  18. Redefining risk categories for pneumococcal disease in adults: critical analysis of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curcio

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The ORs for CAP and IPD of patients with two or more comorbidities, with or without smoking, were found to be similar to the ORs for CAP and IPD described in the literature for patients currently classified as high risk. The potential impact of multiple, stacking comorbidities is underestimated and there is a need for the risk categories for pneumococcal disease to be redefined.

  19. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  20. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  1. 40 CFR 98.260 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the production unit or units identified by an individual identification number in an operating permit... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.260 Definition of the source category. The phosphoric acid production source category consists of facilities with a...

  2. Semantic categories in the indigenous languages of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld; M.L. Braga; E. de Melo Barbosa; J. Silveira Coriolano; J. Jezuino da Costa; M. de Souza Martins; D. Leite de Oliveira; V. Maciel de Oliveira; L. Gomes Pereira; L. Santana; C.L. do Carmo Santos; V. dos Ramos Soares

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates which semantic categories, as defined in Functional Discourse Grammar, formally manifest themselves in a sample of native languages of Brazil, and the extent to which the distribution of these manifestations across categories can be described systematically in terms of impl

  3. 40 CFR 98.150 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....150 Section 98.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING HCFC-22 Production and HFC-23 Destruction § 98.150 Definition of the source category. The HCFC-22 production and HFC-23 destruction source category consists...

  4. The Quotient Category of a Graded Morita-Takeuchi Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. CASTA(N)O IGLESIAS; C. N(A)ST(A)SESCU

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a graded equivalence between the quotient categories defined by any graded Morita Takeuchi context via certain modifications of the graded cotensor functors. As a consequence, we show a commutative diagram that establish the relation between the closed objects of the categories grC and MC, where C is a graded coalgebra.

  5. 14 CFR 61.67 - Category II pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the applicant's Category II pilot authorization. (2) To be eligible for the practical test for an... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category II pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  6. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one ...

  7. Rule-Based Category Learning in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B. Allyson; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward; Klinger, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Rule-based category learning was examined in youths with Down syndrome (DS), youths with intellectual disability (ID), and typically developing (TD) youths. Two tasks measured category learning: the Modified Card Sort task (MCST) and the Concept Formation test of the Woodcock-Johnson-III (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). In regression-based…

  8. Clustering and classification of music using interval categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Honingh; R. Bod

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to clustering and classification of music, based on the concept of interval categories. Six interval categories exist, each with its own musical character. A piece of music can be represented by six numbers, reflecting the percentages of occurrences of each interval categ

  9. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1) Facilities with production process units that capture a CO2 stream for purposes of supplying CO2 for...

  10. 28 CFR 524.72 - CIM assignment categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Factors to consider in classifying an individual to this assignment include, but are not limited to... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CIM assignment categories. 524.72 Section... assignment categories. CIM cases are classified according to the following assignments: (a) Witness...

  11. Closure Operators and Closure Systems on Quantaloid-Enriched Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LIU; Bin ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce the fundamental notions of closure operator and closure system in the framework of quantaloid-enriched category.We mainly discuss the relationship between closure operators and adjunctions and establish the one-to-one correspondence between closure operators and closure systems on quantaloid-enriched categories.

  12. Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Schalk, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category learning offers a promising avenue to integration. We suggest that this integration would be especially beneficial to advance our understanding of conceptual change essentially, how complex scientific concepts and categories are acquired and developed in educational contexts elaborating or correcting students' prior conceptions. Furthermore, the focus on relational categories allows us to provide an integrative discussion on how recent lines of research on analogy, memory and category learning, and knowledge restructuring relate to and can inform education. In general, this article advocates the complementary nature of cognitive and educational psychology and identifies viable, and potentially synergistic paths for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. On the homotopy type of certain cobordism categories of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Raptis, George

    2010-01-01

    Let $\\mathcal{A}_{g,d}$ be the (topological) cobordism category of orientable surfaces whose connected components are homeomorphic to either $S^1 \\times I$ with one incoming and one outgoing boundary component or the surface $\\Sigma_{g,d}$ of genus $g$ and $d$ boundary components that are all incoming. In this paper, we study the homotopy type of the classifying space of the cobordism categories $\\mathcal{A}_{g,d}$ and the associated (ordinary) cobordism categories of their connected components $\\mathbb{A}_d$. $\\mathcal{A}_{0,2}$ is the cobordism category of complex annuli that was considered by Costello and $\\mathbb{A}_2$ is homotopy equivalent with the positive boundary 1-dimensional embedded cobordism category of Galatius-Madsen-Tillmann-Weiss. We identify their homotopy type with the infinite loop spaces associated with certain Thom spectra.

  14. On the Grothendieck rings of equivariant fusion categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burciu, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.burciu@imar.ro [Institute of Mathematics “Simion Stoilow” of the Romanian Academy, Research Unit 5, P.O. Box 1-764, RO-014700 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a Mackey type decomposition for group actions on abelian categories. This allows us to define new Mackey functors which associates to any subgroup the K-theory of the corresponding equivariantized abelian category. In the case of an action by tensor autoequivalences, the Mackey functor at the level of Grothendieck rings has a Green functor structure. As an application we give a description of the Grothendieck rings of equivariantized fusion categories under group actions by tensor autoequivalences on graded fusion categories. In this settings, a new formula for the tensor product of any two simple objects of an equivariantized fusion category is given, simplifying the fusion formula from Burciu and Natale [J. Math. Phys. 54, 013511 (2013)].

  15. On the Grothendieck rings of equivariant fusion categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a Mackey type decomposition for group actions on abelian categories. This allows us to define new Mackey functors which associates to any subgroup the K-theory of the corresponding equivariantized abelian category. In the case of an action by tensor autoequivalences, the Mackey functor at the level of Grothendieck rings has a Green functor structure. As an application we give a description of the Grothendieck rings of equivariantized fusion categories under group actions by tensor autoequivalences on graded fusion categories. In this settings, a new formula for the tensor product of any two simple objects of an equivariantized fusion category is given, simplifying the fusion formula from Burciu and Natale [J. Math. Phys. 54, 013511 (2013)].

  16. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation......In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social....... Second, the client introduces new categories that are compatible with the demands of the employment system. She contributes by drawing on discursive resources related to the category of ‘active job seeker’ but does this with an own agenda of looking for a suitable job. The analysis elucidates the client’s...

  17. Variation of geometric invariant theory quotients and derived categories

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, Matthew; Katzarkov, Ludmil

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the relationship between bounded derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth global quotient stacks related by variations of the linearization in geometric invariant theory. We extend this framework to cover derived categories of coherent (matrix) factorizations when the stacks are equipped with potentials. Under assumptions on the variation, we provide simple numerical conditions for the derived categories to be related by semi-orthogonal decompositions. We also describe the complementary components in these semi-orthogonal decompositions. The results are applied to obtain a simple inductive description of derived categories of coherent sheaves on smooth and projective toric Deligne-Mumford stacks. We also show how the semi-orthogonal decompositions for derived categories of coherent factorizations fully generalize the commutative case of Orlov's $\\sigma$-model/Landau-Ginzburg theorem. In addition, we present examples to show close ties with Homological Projective Dua...

  18. Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Schalk, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category learning offers a promising avenue to integration. We suggest that this integration would be especially beneficial to advance our understanding of conceptual change essentially, how complex scientific concepts and categories are acquired and developed in educational contexts elaborating or correcting students' prior conceptions. Furthermore, the focus on relational categories allows us to provide an integrative discussion on how recent lines of research on analogy, memory and category learning, and knowledge restructuring relate to and can inform education. In general, this article advocates the complementary nature of cognitive and educational psychology and identifies viable, and potentially synergistic paths for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950007

  19. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue-purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue-purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18-35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue-purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue-purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  20. Talker-specific influences on phonetic category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M; Myers, Emily B; Lomibao, Janice A

    2015-08-01

    A primary goal for models of speech perception is to describe how listeners achieve reliable comprehension given a lack of invariance between the acoustic signal and individual speech sounds. For example, individual talkers differ in how they implement phonetic properties of speech. Research suggests that listeners attain perceptual constancy by processing acoustic variation categorically while maintaining graded internal category structure. Moreover, listeners will use lexical information to modify category boundaries to learn to interpret a talker's ambiguous productions. The current work examines perceptual learning for talker differences that signal well-defined, unambiguous category members. Speech synthesis techniques were used to differentially manipulate talkers' characteristic productions of the stop voicing contrast for two groups of listeners. Following exposure to the talkers, internal category structure and category boundary were examined. The results showed that listeners dynamically adjusted internal category structure to be centered on experience with the talker's voice, but the category boundary remained fixed. These patterns were observed for words presented during training as well as novel lexical items. These findings point to input-driven constraints on functional plasticity within the language architecture, which may help to explain how listeners maintain stability of linguistic knowledge while simultaneously demonstrating flexibility for phonetic representations. PMID:26328722

  1. Response processes in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Brian J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2008-09-01

    Much recent evidence suggests that human category learning is mediated by multiple systems. Evidence suggests that at least one of these depends on procedural learning within the basal ganglia. Information-integration categorization tasks are thought to load heavily on this procedural-learning system. The results of several previous studies were interpreted to suggest that response positions are learned in information-integration tasks. This hypothesis was tested in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that information-integration category learning was slowed but not disrupted when the spatial location of the responses varied randomly across trials. Experiment 2 showed that information-integration learning was impaired if category membership was signaled by responding to a Yes/No question and the category label had no consistent spatial location. These results suggest that information-integration category learning does not require consistent response locations. In these experiments, a consistent association between a category and a response feature was sufficient. The implication of these results for the neurobiology of information-integration category learning is discussed. PMID:18550397

  2. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E; Satpute, Ajay B; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-04-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories--fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness--is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  3. Study on Two Categories of Sudden Stratospheric Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hengde; GAO Shouting; LU Weisong

    2007-01-01

    Invoking 45-yr daily European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data,firstly all the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are selected in these years, which can be classified into two categories: downward-propagating event and non-downward-propagating event. And then, based on potential vorticity distribution on isentropic surfaces (IPV), temperature field, and zonal wind field, a detailed description of the SSW occurring during the winter-spring (December and the following January,February, March) in 2000-01 and 2001-02 is given. Finally, the evolvement of polar vortex during warming process and the impact of warming on troposphere are discussed. It is found that (1) there is inter-decadal variation for stratospheric warming phenomenon; (2) the SSW event lasting from late January till early March in 2001 can propagate downward to troposphere; (3) during this SSW, there is zonal-mean easterly winds in both stratosphere and troposphere; (4) the two warming events during December 2001 and March 2002 cannot propagate downward to troposphere, while zonal easterly winds only appear in stratosphere; and (5) in the process of the two types of warming, a long and narrow high-value IPV "tongue" extends out from main polar vortex, which breaks out the gradient of IPV. Compared with the non-downward-propagating stratospheric warming case, the highest value of IPV departs farther from pole and the "tongue" is longer and narrower during the downward-propagating warming event. Pinched by anticyclone from middle latitude,the stratospheric polar vortex will displace, distort or breakdown. By contrast, the change of polar vortex is greater in the course of downward-propagating warming event. Also, troposphere circulation and polar vortex evolve in different degree, and usually both of them go with blocking, but the above evolvement in the downward-propagating warming is more distinct.

  4. Categories of forests by their functions; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional categorisation proposes differentiation exploitation of forests in accord with principles of sustainability. It is based on Act No. 61/1977 of Coll. in wording of later issued provisions and the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic No. 5/1995 of Coll. on economic arrangement of forests. The prevailing part of forest growths also falls under legal protection in the framework of the protected natural territories or they are part of the zones of hygienic protection of water sources. According to their function, forests are classified into three categories: (1) Protective forests (295,170.02 ha) fulfil the function of protection of soils against erosion and protection of the lower situated growths on unfavourable sites below the upper timberline and in the dwarf pine zone. They are divided into the forests on extra unfavourable sites, high-mountain forests, forests in the dwarf pine zone and other forests with prevailing function of soil protection. (2) Special purpose forests (312,029,41 ha) are the forests with special mission, which is determined by specific social needs. Forests in protective zones of water sources, forests in protected zones of natural medicinal sources and sources of natural mineral table waters, spa forests, and forests existing around the therapeutic and preventive facilities, suburban forests and other forests with recreation functions, forests in recognised game parks and pheasantries, forests in protected territories, parts of forests under the impact of emissions and part of forests destined to research are discerned. (3) Commercial forests (1,242,806.21 ha) serve to production of timber while they also fulfil other functions of forest. (authors)

  5. Frobenius morphisms and stable module categories of repetitive algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let k be the algebraic closure of a finite field F_q and A be a finite dimensional k-algebra with a Frobenius morphism F.In the present paper we establish a relation between the stable module category of the repetitive algebra  of A and that of the repetitive algebra of the fixed-point algebra A~F.As an application,it is shown that the derived category of A~F is equivalent to the subcategory of F-stable objects in the derived category of A when A has a finite global dimension.

  6. Higher-dimensional categories with finite derivation type

    CERN Document Server

    Guiraud, Yves

    2008-01-01

    The finite derivation type property is a homotopical condition on monoids. Craig Squier has proved that a monoid must satisfy it in order to admit a presentation by a finite and convergent rewriting system. We generalise the property to n-categories presented by polygraphs and we recover Squier's theorem when n is 1. However, we prove that this result does not hold anymore for categories of dimension 2 and above. We study several examples of 2-categories presented by finite convergent polygraphs, with or without the property of finite derivation type, in order to illustrate sample cases.

  7. Model category structures \\`a la Thomason on 2-Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    In his paper "Th\\'eories homotopiques des 2-cat\\'egories", Jonathan Chiche studies homotopy theories on 2-Cat, the category of small strict 2-categories, given by classes of weak equivalences which he calls basic localizers of 2-Cat. These basic localizers of 2-Cat are a 2-categorical generalization of the notion of a basic localizer introduced by Grothendieck in "Pursuing stacks". In this paper, we deduce from the results of Jonathan Chiche and results we have obtained with Georges Maltsinio...

  8. The divergent autoencoder (DIVA) model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutrz, Kenneth J

    2007-08-01

    A novel theoretical approach to human category learning is proposed in which categories are represented as coordinated statistical models of the properties of the members. Key elements of the account are learning to recode inputs as task-constrained principle components and evaluating category membership in terms of model fit-that is, the fidelity of the reconstruction after recoding and decoding the stimulus. The approach is implemented as a computational model called DIVA (for DIVergent Autoencoder), an artificial neural network that uses reconstructive learning to solve N-way classification tasks. DIVA shows good qualitative fits to benchmark human learning data and provides a compelling theoretical alternative to established models. PMID:17972718

  9. Hochschild and ordinary cohomology rings of small categories

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    Advances in Mathematics, accepted Let C be a small category and k a field. There are two interesting mathematical subjects: the category algebra kC and the classifying space |C|=BC. We study the ring homomorphism HH^*(kC) ---> H^*(|C|,k) and prove it is split surjective, using the factorization category of Quillen and certain techniques from functor cohomology theory. This generalizes the well-known theorems for groups and posets. Based on this result, we construct a seven-dimensional cate...

  10. Categories of Massless D-Branes and del Pezzo Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Addington, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with the physical concept of a massless D-brane, we define a notion of "Q-masslessness" for objects in the derived category. This is defined in terms of monodromy around singularities in the stringy Kahler moduli space and is relatively easy to study using spherical functors. We consider several examples in which del Pezzo surfaces and other rational surfaces in Calabi-Yau threefolds are contracted. For precisely the del Pezzo surfaces that can be written as hypersurfaces in weighted P3, the category of Q-massless objects is a "fractional Calabi-Yau" category of graded matrix factorizations.

  11. RITUALITY AS A WAY OF ACTUALIZING THE CATEGORY OF OTHERNESS WITHIN THE JUDICIAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomazova Viktoriya Vladimirovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rituality as one of the ways of actualizing the category of otherness within the judicial discourse, in general, and the court session, in particular. The author analyzes the relevant features of rituality in the judicial discourse, reveals the categorical connection between the rituality and otherness, the speech means which actualize their interaction. The author gives examples illustrating the actualization of the concept by means of rituality in the texts of court sessions' records. In addition, the author identifies the main communicative strategies and tactics used by the participants of judicial discourse. They serve as a means of expressing the analyzed categories. It is shown that a convict often uses the communicative strategy of self-defense, a defender and/or lawyer – the communicative strategy of defense or psychological impact, the prosecutor often appeals to the strategy of accusation and psychological impact. The author makes conclusion that the ritual character of judicial communication as a whole contributes to the distinction of discourse participants according to the features of "friend" and "enemy" thus actualizing the category of otherness.

  12. Non-unitary fusion categories and their doubles via endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, David E

    2015-01-01

    We realise non-unitary fusion categories using subfactor-like methods, and compute their quantum doubles and modular data. For concreteness we focus on generalising the Haagerup-Izumi family of Q-systems. For example, we construct endomorphism realisations of the (non-unitary) Yang-Lee model, and non-unitary analogues of one of the even subsystems of the Haagerup subfactor and of the Grossman-Snyder system. We supplement Izumi's equations for identifying the half-braidings, which were incomplete even in his Q-system setting. We conjecture a remarkably simple form for the modular S and T matrices of the doubles of these fusion categories. We would expect all of these doubles to be realised as the category of modules of a rational VOA and conformal net of factors. We expect our approach will also suffice to realise the non-semisimple tensor categories arising in logarithmic conformal field theories.

  13. 33 CFR 151.39 - Operating requirements: Category D NLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Noxious Liquid Substance Pollution... for the operation of oceangoing ships carrying Category D NLSs in 46 CFR 153.901, 153.909,...

  14. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  15. A Study on three categories of college students' FLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    The paper is concerned with an empirical study on three categories of college students' FLA. The aim is to enhance the efficiency of college English teaching and help students to improve English level.

  16. Category theoretic analysis of single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Makoto Naruse Song-Ju; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hori, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Decision making is a vital function in the era of artificial intelligence; however, its physical realizations and their theoretical fundamentals are not yet known. In our former study [Sci. Rep. 5, 513253 (2015)], we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The multi-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. Herein, we present the category theoretic foundation of the single-photon-based decision making, including quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure in triangulated categories provides a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the single-photon decision maker. This is the first demonstration of a category the...

  17. 78 FR 34867 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... development of new technologies, creating business and employment opportunities that enhance local, regional... corrosion removers product category, the subcategories are: stainless steel cleaners; other metal cleaners.... These are: Composite Panels--Countertops, Metal Cleaners and Corrosion Removers--Stainless...

  18. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...... in each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can...

  19. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...... interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large...

  20. Categorization and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of the structural and semantic stages of visual object recognition and to see whether any effects of category could be found at these stages, we compared the rCBF associated with two categorization tasks (subjects decided whether pictures represented artefacts...... or natural objects), and two object decision tasks (subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or nonobjects). The categorization tasks differed from each other in that the items presented in the critical scan window were drawn primarily from the category of artefacts in the one task and from...... the category of natural objects in the other. The same was true for the object decision tasks. The experiment thus comprised a two-by-two factorial design. The factors were Task Type with two levels (object decision vs. categorization) and Category also with two levels (natural objects vs. artefacts...

  1. “Expenses” and “costs” as accounting categories

    OpenAIRE

    Еременко, Татьяна Викторовна

    2015-01-01

    Semantic difference of the categories “expenses” and “costs” taking into consideration the semantics, that is determined by the balance sheet conceptions and accounting principles connected with them, has been presented.

  2. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following m...

  3. Threat Identification Parameters for a Stolen Category 1 Radioactive Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussery, Larry Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Winkler, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Radioactive sources are used very widely for research and practical applications across medicine, industry, government, universities, and agriculture. The risks associated with these sources vary widely depending on the specific radionuclide used to make the source, source activity, and its chemical and physical form. Sources are categorized by a variety of classification schemes according to the specific risk they pose to the public. This report specifically addresses sources that are classified in the highest category for health risk (category 1). Exposure to an unshielded or lightly shielded category 1 source is extremely dangerous to life and health and can be fatal in relatively short exposure times measured in seconds to minutes. A Category 1 source packaged according to the guidelines dictated by the NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation will typically be surrounded by a large amount of dense shielding material, but will still exhibit a significant dose rate in close proximity. Detection ranges for Category 1 gamma ray sources can extend beyond 5000 ft, but will depend mostly on the source isotope and activity, and the level of shielding around the source. Category 1 sources are easy to detect, but difficult to localize. Dose rates in proximity to an unshielded Category 1 source are extraordinarily high. At distances of a few hundred feet, the functionality of many commonly used handheld instruments will be extremely limited for both the localization and identification of the source. Radiation emitted from a Category 1 source will scatter off of both solid material (ground and buildings) and the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as skyshine. This scattering affects the ability to easily localize and find the source.

  4. On generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ for a quiver variety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a method for relating the generalized category $\\mathcal{O}$ defined by the author and collaborators to explicit finitely presented algebras, and apply this to quiver varieties. This allows us to describe combinatorially not just the structure of these category $\\mathcal{O}$'s but also how certain interesting families of derived equivalences, the shuffling and twisting functors, act on them. In the case of Nakajima quiver varieties, the algebras that appear are weighted...

  5. The genus and the Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category of preimages

    CERN Document Server

    Karasev, R N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper some axiomatic generalization (function of open subsets) of the relative Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category is considered, incorporating the sectional category and the Schwarz genus as well. For this function and a given continuous map of the underlying space to a finite-dimensional metric space some lower bounds on the value of this function on the (neighborhood of) preimage of some point are given.

  6. Mapping Criminal Law: Blackstone and the Categories of English Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, David

    2002-01-01

    "Mapping Criminal Law" examines attempts by 18th-century common lawyers to identify and delineate criminal law as a discrete and specific component of the legal order, distinguishing the legal categories of 'criminal' from 'civil' and, in this setting, the related distinction between 'public' and 'private'. The discussion focuses on Blackstone's treatment of these matters in the Commentaries: examining the native and foreign legal materials he utilized to assemble a category of law covering w...

  7. Cross-linguistic categories in morphosyntactic typology: Problems and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a new, transparent method to construe morphosyntactic categories for cross-linguistic research. It avoids the problem of categorial confusion attested in major post-Greenbergian studies in morphosyntactic typology, in particular in probabilistic typological investigations, which...... tend to mix up semantic and formal criteria and marginalize ‘statistically insignificant’ morphosyntactic variants. These and other problems are avoided by using functional criteria as the starting point in identifying comparable forms and constructions in different languages. Subsequently formal...

  8. Investigating Consumer Purchase Behavior in Related Technology Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sriram; Chintagunta, Pradeep K.; Agarwal, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework of durable goods purchasing behavior in related technology product categories that incorporates the following aspects unique to technology product purchases. First, it accounts for consumers' anticipation of declining prices (or increasing quality) over time. Second, the durable nature of technology products implies that even if two categories are related as complements, consumers may stagger their purchases over several periods. Third, the forward-looking consumer deci...

  9. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-01-01

    Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color ...

  10. Weak Tensor Category and Related Generalized Hopf Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang LI; Gong Xiang LIU

    2006-01-01

    There are at least two kinds of generalization of Hopf algebra, i.e. pre-Hopf algebra and weak Hopf algebra. Correspondingly, we have two kinds of generalized bialgebras, almost bialgebra and weak bialgebra. Let (t) - ((t), (×), I,a,l, r) be a tensor category. By giving up I,l, r and keeping (×), a in (t), the first author got so-called pre-tensor category (t) = ((t),(×), a) and used it to characterize almost bialgebra and pre-Hopf algebra in Comm. in Algebra, 32(2): 397-441 (2004). Our aim in this paper is to generalize tensor category (t) = ((t),(×),I,a,l,r) by weakening the natural isomorphisms l,r,i.e. exchanging the natural isomorphism ll-l = rr-l = id into regular natural transformations (lll) = l, (rrr) = r with some other conditions and get so-called weak tensor category so as to characterize weak bialgebra and weak Hopf algebra. The relations between these generalized (bialgebras) Hopf algebras and two kinds generalized tensor categories will be described by using of diagrams. Moreover, some related concepts and properties about weak tensor category will be discussed.

  11. Drinfeld Center and Representation Theory for Monoidal Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshveyev, Sergey; Yamashita, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the relation between the Drinfeld double and central property (T) for quantum groups, given a rigid C*-tensor category {mathcal{C}} and a unitary half-braiding on an ind-object, we construct a *-representation of the fusion algebra of {mathcal{C}}. This allows us to present an alternative approach to recent results of Popa and Vaes, who defined C*-algebras of monoidal categories and introduced property (T) for them. As an example we analyze categories {mathcal{C}} of Hilbert bimodules over a II1-factor. We show that in this case the Drinfeld center is monoidally equivalent to a category of Hilbert bimodules over another II1-factor obtained by the Longo-Rehren construction. As an application, we obtain an alternative proof of the result of Popa and Vaes stating that property (T) for the category defined by an extremal finite index subfactor {N subset M} is equivalent to Popa's property (T) for the corresponding SE-inclusion of II1-factors. In the last part of the paper we study Müger's notion of weakly monoidally Morita equivalent categories and analyze the behavior of our constructions under the equivalence of the corresponding Drinfeld centers established by Schauenburg. In particular, we prove that property (T) is invariant under weak monoidal Morita equivalence.

  12. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed.

  13. 类别标签与典型性程度对类别特征推理的影响%The Effect of Category Label and Typical Level on Category-based Feature Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤英; 姚志刚; 李红

    2011-01-01

    study phase, that is, to estimate the probability that each test item had the typical feature of the given category in the unknown feature dimension. In this study a 2 (matching type of category label: matching and non-matching) × 2 (typical level: high and low) experimental design were adopted. The results of the experiment showed that: (1) Matching types of category label did affect the category-based feature inference task. The inference score for the test items with matching labels was significantly higher than the ones with non-matching labels. (2) Typical levels also bad effects on the category-based feature inference task. The items with a high typical level got higher scores than the ones with a low typical level. (3) The interaction between matching types of category label and typical levels was significant. The effect of matching types of category labels on the category-based feature inference task in the high typical level condition was stronger than the one in the tow typical level condition. Additionally, the effect of typical levels on the category-based feature inference task in the matching category label condition was stronger than the one in the non-matching category label condition. The results from this study sbowed that both category label and typical level influenced the category-based feature inference task, and more importantly, this study had new findings that there was significant interaction between category label and typical level. Neither of the two factors played roles independently and they had impact on each other. In conclusion the information from two sides was taken into account in making feature inference.

  14. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  15. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  16. Effect of explicit dimensional instruction on speech category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E; Maddox, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    Learning nonnative speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is underweighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height, resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension.

  17. The Influence of Task-Irrelevant Flankers Depends on the Composition of Emotion Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Holthausen, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Turetsky, Bruce I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition usually takes place in a social context, where faces are surrounded by other stimuli. These can act as distracting flankers which impair recognition. Previous work has suggested that flankers expressing negative emotions distract more than positive ones. However, the various negative emotions differ in their relative impact and it is unclear whether all negative emotions are equally distracting. We investigated the impact of three negative (angry, fearful, sad) and one positive (happy) facial flanker conditions on target recognition in an emotion discrimination task. We examined the effect of the receiver's gender, and the impact of two different temporal delays between flanker and target onset, as stimulus onset asynchrony is assumed to affect distractor strength. Participants identified and rated the emotional intensity of target faces surrounded by either face (emotional and neutral) or non-face flankers. Target faces were presented either simultaneously with the flankers, or delayed by 300 ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, negative flankers did not exert stronger distraction effects than positive or neutral flankers. However, happy flankers reduced recognition performance. Results of a follow-up experiment with a balanced number of emotion categories (one positive, one negative and one neutral flanker condition) suggest that the distraction effect of emotional flankers depends on the composition of the emotion categories. Additionally, congruency effects were found to be valence-specific and overruled by threat stimuli. Females responded more quickly and rated targets in happy flankers as less intense. This indicates a gender difference in emotion processing, with greater sensitivity to facial flankers in women. Targets were rated as more intense when they were presented without a temporal delay, possibly due to a stronger flanker contrast. These three experiments show that an exceptional processing of threat-related flanker stimuli depends on

  18. DB Category: Denotational Semantics for View-based Database Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Majkic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    We present a categorical denotational semantics for a database mapping, based on views, in the most general framework of a database integration/exchange. Developed database category DB, for databases (objects) and view-based mappings (morphisms) between them, is different from Set category: the morphisms (based on a set of complex query computations) are not functions, while the objects are database instances (sets of relations). The logic based schema mappings between databases, usually written in a highly expressive logical language (ex. LAV, GAV, GLAV mappings, or tuple generating dependency) may be functorially translated into this "computation" category DB. A new approach is adopted, based on the behavioral point of view for databases, and behavioral equivalences for databases and their mappings are established. By introduction of view-based observations for databases, which are computations without side-effects, we define a fundamental (Universal algebra) monad with a power-view endofunctor T. The resul...

  19. Quantum field theories on categories fibered in groupoids

    CERN Document Server

    Benini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an abstract concept of quantum field theory on categories fibered in groupoids over the category of spacetimes. This provides us with a general and flexible framework to study quantum field theories defined on spacetimes with extra geometric structures such as bundles, connections and spin structures. Using right Kan extensions, we can assign to any such theory an ordinary quantum field theory defined on the category of spacetimes and we shall clarify under which conditions it satisfies the axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory. The same constructions can be performed in a homotopy theoretic framework by using homotopy right Kan extensions, which allows us to obtain first examples of homotopical quantum field theories resembling some aspects of gauge theories.

  20. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  1. Parsing Combinatory Categorial Grammar with Answer Set Programming: Preliminary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lierler, Yuliya

    2011-01-01

    Combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) is a grammar formalism used for natural language parsing. CCG assigns structured lexical categories to words and uses a small set of combinatory rules to combine these categories to parse a sentence. In this work we propose and implement a new approach to CCG parsing that relies on a prominent knowledge representation formalism, answer set programming (ASP) - a declarative programming paradigm. We formulate the task of CCG parsing as a planning problem and use an ASP computational tool to compute solutions that correspond to valid parses. Compared to other approaches, there is no need to implement a specific parsing algorithm using such a declarative method. Our approach aims at producing all semantically distinct parse trees for a given sentence. From this goal, normalization and efficiency issues arise, and we deal with them by combining and extending existing strategies. We have implemented a CCG parsing tool kit - AspCcgTk - that uses ASP as its main computational mean...

  2. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric, while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation. To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation. Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  3. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  4. On the loop space of a 2-category

    CERN Document Server

    del Hoyo, Matias L

    2010-01-01

    Every small category $C$ has a classifying space $BC$ associated in a natural way. This construction can be extended to other contexts and set up a fruitful interaction between categorical structures and homotopy types. In this paper we study the classifying space $B_2C$ of a 2-category $C$ and prove that, under certain conditions, the loop space $\\Omega_c B_2C$ can be recovered up to homotopy from the endomorphisms of a given object. We also present several subsidiary results that we develop to prove our main theorem.

  5. The Hall module of an exact category with duality

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We construct from a finitary exact category with duality a module over its Hall algebra, called the Hall module, encoding the first order self-dual extension structure of the category. We study in detail Hall modules arising from the representation theory of a quiver with involution. In this case we show that the Hall module is naturally a module over the specialized reduced sigma-analogue of the quantum Kac-Moody algebra attached to the quiver. For finite type quivers, we explicitly determin...

  6. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... nephron-sparing approach to complex renal cysts. TEACHING POINTS : • The Bosniak classification is used to categorise complex renal cystic masses • BIIF cysts behave mostly as benign lesions • Radiological progression in complexity occurs in only 16 % of cases • BIIF category seems promising for clinical...

  7. On Self-Predicative Universals in Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ellerman, David

    2014-01-01

    1. This paper shows how the universals of category theory in mathematics provide a model (in the Platonic Heaven of mathematics) for the self-predicative strand of Plato's Theory of Forms as well as for the idea of a "concrete universal" in Hegel and similar ideas of paradigmatic exemplars in ordinary thought. 2. The paper also shows how the always-self-predicative universals of category theory provide the "opposite bookend" to the never-self-predicative universals of iterative set theory and...

  8. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  9. Mutating loops and 2-cycles in 2-CY triangulated categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bertani-Økland, Marco Angel

    2010-01-01

    We derive an algorithm for mutating quivers of 2-CY tilted algebras that have loops and 2-cycles, under certain specific conditions. Further, we give the classification of the 2-CY tilted algebras coming from standard algebraic 2-CY triangulated categories with a finite number of indecomposables. These form a class of algebras that satisfy the setup for our mutation algorithm.

  10. Improving Classification Performance with Single-category Concept Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Discarding more and more complicated algorithms, this paper presents a new classification algorithm with singlecategory concept match. It also introduces the method to find such concepts, which is important to the algorithm. Experiment results show that it can improve classification precision and accelerate classification speed to some extent.

  11. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Expenses Cable Plant Maintenance, Support and Operations Expense Programming Production and Acquisition... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.924 Allocation to service cost categories. (a) Applicability. The requirements of this section are applicable to cable operators for...

  12. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... fertilizer formulas that will improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the chemicals, including... in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 12 product categories for the preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies (referred to hereafter in this FR notice...

  13. Effects of contrasting category, conjoint frequency and typicality on categorization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether (a) experience with a contrasting category, (b) conjoint frequency of dimensional values, (c) range of typicality of values, and (d) type of information administered during learning influenced subsequent test performance. Each experiment began wi

  14. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A review of 20 functional imaging studies that compared visual processing of natural objects and artefacts in normal subjects is presented. The studies included fulfilled three criteria: (i) they used pictures as stimuli, (ii) they were based on direct contrasts between categories, and (iii) they...

  15. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  16. Restructuring Partitioned Knowledge: The Role of Recoordination in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge restructuring refers to changes in the strategy with which people solve a given problem. Two types of knowledge restructuring are supported by existing category learning models. The first is a relearning process, which involves incremental updating of knowledge as learning progresses. The second is a recoordination process, which…

  17. Frequency of Co-Teaching in Different Teacher Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo; Takala, Marjatta

    2010-01-01

    Co-teaching--or the use of more than one teacher in a classroom--has been commonly recommended as a means to promote inclusive education. The aim of the present study was to survey the actual frequency of co-teaching among different teacher categories in the comprehensive school level in one Finnish city. The data were collected through a…

  18. The formation of rhythmic categories and metric priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desain, Peter; Honing, Henkjan

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments on categorical rhythm perception are reported, the object of which was to investigate how listeners perceive discrete rhythmic categories while listening to rhythms performed on a continuous time scale. This is studied by considering the space of all temporal patterns (all possible rhythms made up of three intervals) and how they, in perception, are partitioned into categories, ie where the boundaries of these categories are located. This process of categorisation is formalised as the mapping from the continuous space of a series of time intervals to a discrete, symbolic domain of integer-ratio sequences. The methodological framework uses concepts from mathematics and psychology (eg convexity and entropy) that allow precise characterisations of the empirical results. In the first experiment, twenty-nine participants performed an identification task with 66 rhythmic stimuli (a systematic sampling of the performance space). The results show that listeners do not just perceive the time intervals between onsets of sounds as placed in a homogeneous continuum. Instead, they can reliably identify rhythmic categories, as a chronotopic time clumping map reveals. In a second experiment, the effect of metric priming was studied by presenting the same stimuli but preceded with a duple or triple metre subdivision. It is shown that presenting patterns in the context of a metre has a large effect on rhythmic categorisation: the presence of a specific musical metre primes the perception of specific rhythmic patterns. PMID:12729384

  19. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... in 40 CFR 63.7081(a)(1). (b) This source category includes all LMPs unless the LMP is located at...

  20. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight time as pilot in command. (c) Practical test requirements. (1) A practical test must be passed by... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category III pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS...

  1. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  2. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lead-bearing scrap materials (including but not limited to, lead-acid batteries) are recycled by... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source...

  3. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems for cattle and swine, manure composting, and aerobic treatment. (c) This source category does not... anaerobic lagoons, liquid/slurry systems with and without crust covers (including but not limited to ponds... manure management activities located off site from a livestock facility or off-site manure...

  4. Completeness of †-categories and the complex numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex numbers are an important part of quantum theory, but are difficult to motivate from a theoretical perspective. We describe a simple formal framework for theories of physics, and show that if a theory of physics presented in this manner satisfies certain completeness properties, then it necessarily includes the complex numbers as a mathematical ingredient. Central to our approach are the techniques of category theory, and we introduce a new category-theoretical tool, called the †-limit, which governs the way in which systems can be combined to form larger systems. These †-limits can be used to characterize the properties of the †-functor on the category of finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and so can be used as an equivalent definition of the inner product. One of our main results is that in a nontrivial monoidal †-category with finite †-limits and a simple tensor unit, the semiring of scalars embeds into an involutive field of characteristic 0 and orderable fixed field.

  5. 12 CFR 325.102 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart as of the date the bank is notified of, or... section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart or that the bank's capital category has changed as provided...

  6. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FDI Act and this part as of the date the bank is notified of, or is deemed to have notice of, its... the OCC to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part...

  7. 50 CFR 229.5 - Requirements for Category III fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Category III fisheries. 229.5 Section 229.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES...

  8. Effects of Task and Category Membership on Representation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Audrey; Urdapilleta, Isabel; Houix, Olivier; Manetta, Celine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products). We hypothesized that (1) the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the…

  9. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norm

  10. CATEGORIES AND PROTOTYPES: FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY TO CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVOKINA MAYYA ALEXANDROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two approaches to category studies: a classical or logical one pronciples of which were formulated by Aristotle, and a contemporary or cognitive one that deals with such concepts as fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, prototype, family resemblance.

  11. Developmental Changes in Infants' and Toddlers' Attention to Gender Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristen E.; Bittinger, Kathleen; Smith, Amy; Madole, Kelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Three studies examined the emergence of attention to gender categories in toddlers. Results suggested that 18-month-olds showed little attention to gender on a sequential touching task. The possibility that they could not discriminate the dolls used in the task by gender was ruled out. There was a sharp increase in attention to gender between 18…

  12. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  13. 42 CFR 493.5 - Categories of tests by complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Categories of tests by complexity. 493.5 Section... tests by complexity. (a) Laboratory tests are categorized as one of the following: (1) Waived tests. (2) Tests of moderate complexity, including the subcategory of PPM procedures. (3) Tests of high...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 356 - Bidder Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... club. This category does not include any person or entity acting in a fiduciary or investment... of such ownership is to seek a return on investment and not to engage in the business of the entity... does not exercise any control over investment decisions of the entity regarding U.S....

  15. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  16. Category-theoretic models of linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Lerchedahl Petersen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a sound and complete category-theoretic notion of models for Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic [Birkedal et al., 2006], a logic suitable for reasoning about parametricity in combination with recursion. A subclass of these called parametric LAPL structures can be seen...

  17. Security of Category 1 Sources in Medical Facilities Throughout Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive substances are commonly used in teletherapy for the treatment of malignant diseases and for blood irradiation. The issue of physical protection of these sources has been a concern due to several incidents relating to radioactive materials originating from medical use. The paper sets out the implementation of physical protection system for Category 1 radioactive sources in medical facilities throughout Malaysia. (author)

  18. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  19. Individual differences in perceptual adaptability of foreign sound categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Jessamyn; Cho, Taehong; Lotto, Andrew; Warner, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Listeners possess a remarkable ability to adapt to acoustic variability in the realization of speech sound categories (e.g., different accents). The current work tests whether non-native listeners adapt their use of acoustic cues in phonetic categorization when they are confronted with changes in the distribution of cues in the input, as native listeners do, and examines to what extent these adaptation patterns are influenced by individual cue-weighting strategies. In line with previous work, native English listeners, who use voice onset time (VOT) as a primary cue to the stop voicing contrast (e.g., 'pa' vs. 'ba'), adjusted their use of f0 (a secondary cue to the contrast) when confronted with a noncanonical "accent" in which the two cues gave conflicting information about category membership. Native Korean listeners' adaptation strategies, while variable, were predictable based on their initial cue weighting strategies. In particular, listeners who used f0 as the primary cue to category membership adjusted their use of VOT (their secondary cue) in response to the noncanonical accent, mirroring the native pattern of "downweighting" a secondary cue. Results suggest that non-native listeners show native-like sensitivity to distributional information in the input and use this information to adjust categorization, just as native listeners do, with the specific trajectory of category adaptation governed by initial cue-weighting strategies. PMID:26404530

  20. 5 CFR 575.304 - Ineligible categories of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.304 Ineligible categories of employees. An agency may not pay a retention incentive to an employee in— (a) A position to which an individual is appointed by the...

  1. Category Cued Recall Evokes a Generate-Recognize Retrieval Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Toth, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to replicate and extend McCabe, Roediger, and Karpicke's (2011) finding that retrieval in category cued recall involves both controlled and automatic processes. The extension entailed identifying whether distinctive encoding affected 1 or both of these 2 processes. The first experiment successfully…

  2. On $2$-star-permutability in regular multi-pointed categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, Marino; Rodelo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    $2$-star-permutable categories were introduced in a joint work with Z. Janelidze and A. Ursini as a common generalisation of regular Mal'tsev categories and of normal subtractive categories. In the present article we first characterise these categories in terms of what we call star-regular pushouts. We then show that the $3 \\times 3$ Lemma characterising normal subtractive categories and the Cuboid Lemma characterising regular Mal'tsev categories are special instances of a more general homolo...

  3. Tea category classification using morphological characteristics and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. L.; He, Y.; Qiu, Z. J.; Bao, Y. D.

    2008-11-01

    Tea categories classification is an importance task for quality inspection. And traditional way for doing this by human is time-consuming, requirement of too much manual labor. This study proposed a method for discriminating green tea categories based on multi-spectral images technique. Four tea categories were selected for this study, and total of 243 multi-spectral images were collected using a common-aperture multi-spectral charged coupled device camera with three channels (550, 660 and 800 nm). A compound image which has the clearest outline of samples was process by combination of the three monochrome images (550, 660 and 800 nm). After image preprocessing, 18 morphometry parameters were obtained for each samples. The 18 parameters used including area, perimeter, centroid and eccentricity et al. To better understanding these parameters, principal component analysis was conducted on them, and score plot of the first three independent components was obtained. The first three components accounted for 99.02% of the variation of original 18 parameters. It can be found that the four tea categories were distributed in dense clusters respectively in score plot. But the boundaries among them were not clear, so a further discrimination must be developed. Three algorithms including support vector machines, artificial neural network and linear discriminant analysis were adopted for developed classification models based on the optimized 9 features. Wonderful result was obtained by support vector machines model with accuracy of 93.75% for prediction unknown samples in testing set. It can be concluded that it is an effective method to classification tea categories based on computer vision, and support vector machines is very specialized for development of classification model.

  4. Stratification of mammographic computerized analysis by BI-RADS categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, Richard [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem (Israel); Leichter, Isaac [Department of Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Buchbinder, Shalom [Department of Radiology of The Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Novak, Boris [Department of Applied Mathematics, Jerusalem College of Technology, P.O.B. 16031, Jerusalem 91160 (Israel); Bamberger, Philippe [Department of Electronics, Jerusalem College of Technology, POB 16031, Jerusalem (Israel); Fields, Scott [Department of Radiology, Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) was implemented to standardize characterization of mammographic findings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate in which BI-RADS categories the changes recommended by computerized mammographic analysis are most beneficial. Archival cases including, 170 masses (101 malignant, 69 benign) and 63 clusters of microcalcifications (MCs; 36 malignant, 27 benign), were evaluated retrospectively, using the BI-RADS categories, by several radiologists, blinded to the pathology results. A computerized system then automatically extracted from the digitized mammogram features characterizing mammographic lesions, which were used to classify the lesions. The results of the computerized classification scheme were compared, by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, to the conventional interpretation. In the ''low probability of malignancy group'' (excluding BI-RADS categories 4 and 5), computerized analysis improved the A{sub z}of the ROC curve significantly, from 0.57 to 0.89. In the ''high probability of malignancy group'' (mostly category 5) the computerized analysis yielded an ROC curve with an A {sub z}of 0.99. In the ''intermediate probability of malignancy group'' computerized analysis improved the A {sub z}significantly, from 0.66 for to 0.83. Pair-wise analysis showed that in the latter group the modifications resulting from computerized analysis were correct in 83% of cases. Computerized analysis has the ability to improve the performance of the radiologists exactly in the BI-RADS categories with the greatest difficulties in arriving at a correct diagnosis. It increased the performance significantly in the problematic group of ''intermediate probability of malignancy'' and pinpointed all the cases with missed cancers in the ''low probability'' group. (orig.)

  5. The cobordism category and Waldhausen's K-theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bökstedt, M.; Madsen, Ib

    This paper examines the category C^k_{d,n} whose morphisms are d-dimensional smooth manifolds that are properly embedded in the product of a k-dimensional cube with an (d+n-k)-dimensional Euclidean space. There are k directions to compose k-dimensional cubes, so C^k_{d,n} is a (strict) k-tuple ca......-tuple category. The geometric realization of the k-dimensional multi-nerve is the classifying space BC^k_{d,n}. At the end of the paper we construct an infinite loop map to Waldhausens K-theory. \\Omega BC^1_{d,n}-> A(BO(d)), We believe that the map factors through \\Omega...

  6. Building phonetic categories: an argument for the role of sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sayako Earle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current review provides specific predictions for the role of sleep-mediated memory consolidation in the formation of new speech sound representations. Specifically, this discussion will highlight selected literature on the different ideas concerning category representation in speech, followed by a broad overview of memory consolidation and how it relates to human behavior, as relevant to speech/perceptual learning. In combining behavioral and physiological accounts from animal models with insights from the human consolidation literature on auditory skill/word learning, we are in the early stages of understanding how the transfer of experiential information between brain structures during sleep manifests in changes to online perception. Arriving at the conclusion that this process is crucial in perceptual learning and the formation of novel categories, further speculation yields the adjacent claim that the habitual disruption in this process leads to impoverished quality in the representation of speech sounds.

  7. [The medical rationale category and a new epistemology in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marilene Cabral; de Barros, Nelson Filice; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2013-12-01

    This article is an analytical report on the 20-year trajectory of the 'medical rationale' category that emerged in the early 1990s in the area of Social and Human Sciences in Health in the field of Public Health. Its objective was to study complex and therapeutic medical systems and traditional, complementary and alternative medicines. Based on a critical review of the literature, it presents some aspects of the cultural, political, institutional and social context of its emergence, as well as its main contributions and developments on a theoretical level and on social policies and practices in health. The southern epistemology concept of Boaventura de Sousa Santos is used to reflect upon the contribution of the 'medical rationale' category to the critique of the post-modern scientific rationale and to the creation of a new epistemology in health.

  8. Development of RoboSot category soccer robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the RoboSot category, no central station or over-head camera is allowed. Therefore several issues such as sensors, mechanisms and CPU boards must be taken into consideration before building an autonomous and intelligent system for this category. Each robot must have appropriate sensors and must be able to communi cate with other robots to have timely information concerning the ball and robot position in the field. Computing power also becomes and improtant factor in implementing intelligence and autonomy onboard. These issues are discussed. Then the robot structure of the Dreams Come True(DCT)from KAIST is introduced. Each robot has a Pentium-Ⅱ single board computer, and Ethernet card, and USB camera and an omni-directional mobile mech anism.

  9. On category O for cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Iain

    2011-01-01

    We study equivalences for category O_p of the rational Cherednik algebras H_p of type G_l(n) = \\mu_l^n\\rtimes S_n: a highest weight equivalence between O_p and O_{\\sigma(p)} for \\sigma\\in S_l and an action of S_l on a non-empty Zariski open set of parameters p; a derived equivalence between O_p and O_{p'} whenever p and p' have integral difference; a highest weight equivalence between O_p and a parabolic category O for the general linear group, under a non-rationality assumption on the parameter p. As a consequence, we confirm special cases of conjectures of Etingof and of Rouquier.

  10. Newmark design spectra considering earthquake magnitudes and site categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Newmark design spectra have been implemented in many building codes, especially in building codes for critical structures. Previous studies show that Newmark design spectra exhibit lower amplitudes at high frequencies and larger amplitudes at low frequencies in comparison with spectra developed by statistical methods. To resolve this problem, this study considers three suites of ground motions recorded at three types of sites. Using these ground motions, influences of the shear-wave velocity, earthquake magnitudes, source-to-site distances on the ratios of ground motion parameters are studied, and spectrum amplification factors are statistically calculated. Spectral bounds for combinations of three site categories and two cases of earthquake magnitudes are estimated. Site design spectrum coefficients for the three site categories considering earthquake magnitudes are established. The problems of Newmark design spectra could be resolved by using the site design spectrum coefficients to modify the spectral values of Newmark design spectra in the acceleration sensitive, velocity sensitive, and displacement sensitive regions.

  11. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require an additional property of traces, called *normality*. We describe a modest model of network computation, based on partially ordered multisets (pomsets), where basic network interactions arise from the monoidal trace structure, and a normal trace structure arises from an iterative, i.e. coalgebraic structure over terms and messages used in computation and communication. The correspondence is established using a convenient monadic description of normally traced monoidal categories.

  12. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  13. Store brands: shelf space in different categories and retail chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES ROZANO SUPLET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses if the shelf space occupied by store brands in the points of sale is excessive confirming the national brands manufacturers’ opinions. Data were collected from 40 product categories in 55 retail stores. We draw conclusions about the existence of differences among product categories and chains. We also observe if the distribution companies hare arrived a maximum shelf space point and if the space occupied by their brands has a correspondence with their market share. The results allow us to understand retailers’ behaviour in their outlets. We point out some marketing actions that retailers and manufacturers could follow in order to get a better management of their own brands.

  14. Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinà, Giovanni

    The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either of the two languages. This paper explores the interplay of the two formalisms in the peculiar context of Quantum Theory. After a review of some influential abstract frameworks, we show how different modal logic frames can be extracted from the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, connecting the Categorical Quantum Mechanics approach to some modal logics that have been proposed for Quantum Computing. We then apply a general version of the same technique to two other categorical frameworks, the `topos approach' of Doering and Isham and the sheaf-theoretic work on contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger, suggesting how some key features can be expressed with modal languages.

  15. Duality Theorem and Drinfeld Double in Braided Tensor Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouchuan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Let (C, ( ), I, C) be a braided tensor category. For a finite Hopf algebra H in c with CH, H = C-1 H,H, the duality theorem is shown, i.e.,(R#H)#H^* ≌ R( ) (H-( )H^*)as algebras in C. Also, it is proved that the Drinfeld double (D(H), [b]) is a quasi-triangular Hopf algebra in c.

  16. THE TWO FUNCTORS IN THE FUZZY MODULAR CATEGORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘福铮

    2001-01-01

    After defining Hom(xA,ηB) and xA ηB in the fuzzy modular category Fm, the sufficient conditions of the existence for exact Hom functors Hom(gM, ), and Hom(, δM), as well as exact Tensor functors δM and δM are given in this paper. Fi-nally the weak isomorphisms relations between Hom functors and Tensor functors are displayed.

  17. Labels Direct Infants’ Attention to Commonalities during Novel Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Althaus; Denis Mareschal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that labeling can influence the outcome of infants’ visual categorization. However, what exactly happens during learning remains unclear. Using eye-tracking, we examined infants’ attention to object parts during learning. Our analysis of looking behaviors during learning provide insights going beyond merely observing the learning outcome. Both labeling and non-labeling phrases facilitated category formation in 12-month-olds but not 8-month-olds (Experimen...

  18. When Do Price Thresholds Matter in Retail Categories?

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan; Philip Hans Franses

    2007-01-01

    Marketing literature has long recognized that brand price elasticity need not be monotonic and symmetric, but has yet to provide generalizable market-level insights on threshold-based price elasticity, asymmetric thresholds, and the sign and magnitude of elasticity transitions. This paper introduces smooth transition regression models to study threshold-based price elasticity of the top 4 brands across 20 fast-moving consumer good categories. Threshold-based price elasticity is found for 76% ...

  19. Category Learning Research in the Interactive Online Environment Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jan; Livingston, Ken; Sturm, Joshua; Bliss, Daniel; Hawthorne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The interactive online environment Second Life allows users to create novel three-dimensional stimuli that can be manipulated in a meaningful yet controlled environment. These features suggest Second Life's utility as a powerful tool for investigating how people learn concepts for unfamiliar objects. The first of two studies was designed to establish that cognitive processes elicited in this virtual world are comparable to those tapped in conventional settings by attempting to replicate the established finding that category learning systematically influences perceived similarity . From the perspective of an avatar, participants navigated a course of unfamiliar three-dimensional stimuli and were trained to classify them into two labeled categories based on two visual features. Participants then gave similarity ratings for pairs of stimuli and their responses were compared to those of control participants who did not learn the categories. Results indicated significant compression, whereby objects classified together were judged to be more similar by learning than control participants, thus supporting the validity of using Second Life as a laboratory for studying human cognition. A second study used Second Life to test the novel hypothesis that effects of learning on perceived similarity do not depend on the presence of verbal labels for categories. We presented the same stimuli but participants classified them by selecting between two complex visual patterns designed to be extremely difficult to label. While learning was more challenging in this condition , those who did learn without labels showed a compression effect identical to that found in the first study using verbal labels. Together these studies establish that at least some forms of human learning in Second Life parallel learning in the actual world and thus open the door to future studies that will make greater use of the enriched variety of objects and interactions possible in simulated environments

  20. RETIN AL: An Active Learning Strategy for Image Category Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2004-01-01

    International audience Active learning methods have been considered with an increasing interest in the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) community. In this article, we propose an effi- cient method based on active learning strategy to retrieve large image categories. At each feedback step, the system optimizes the image set presented to the user in order to speed up the retrieval. Experimental tests on COREL photo database have been carried out.

  1. Category of Development in the Context of Modern Psychotechnics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelyabin A.V.,

    2015-01-01

    We show the historical conditions of origins of psychotechnics as direction in psychology, consider the evolution of psychotechnical approach in the context of Russian cultural-historical psychology. We described the characteristic of modern psychotechnical approach, essential for the formulation of the category of its development. The attention of modern psychotechnics is attracted to the term "combined subject", its importance is proved for context of psychotechnical practice, as well as fo...

  2. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anna; Hermann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/...

  3. Compal Essencial brand extension : the new category of fruit portions

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Maria Margarida Pintado

    2013-01-01

    Compal was a well-known Portuguese company in the industry of soft drinks. It launched Compal Essencial in 2006, which introduced consumers to a new category of fruit portions. Essencial was equivalent to a fruit portion and aimed to improve people’s fruit consumption habits by providing a quality and convenient product. This dissertation provides an overview of how Compal Essencial’s development process led to its success, translated in high sales levels, penetration rates and market shar...

  4. The Stabilization and Idempotent Completion of a Left Triangulated Category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin XIN; Yixin FU

    2012-01-01

    Let ((ψ),Ω,△) be a left triangulated category with a fully faithful endofunctor Ω.We show a triangle-equivalence (S((ψ)),(Ω),(△)) ≌ (S((ψ)),(Ω),(△)),where (S((ψ)),(Ω),(△)) denotes the stabilization of the idempotent completion of ((ψ),Ω,△) and (S((ψ)),(Ω),(△)) denotes the idempotent completion of the stabilization of ((ψ),Ω,△).

  5. A Brief Analysis on Empty Categories in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief analysis on the Empty Categories in Chinese. It will first illustrate Chomsky ’s classifica-tion of EC as well as the constraints the subject to briefly, then basing on this classification the author will state some of Chinese scholars’study and research including Xu Liejiong , Huang Zhengde and Hu Jianjun. Finally, the author will compare these clas-sic frameworks and attempt to.

  6. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni; Matheus Alberto Consoli; Jonny Mateus Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Category management (CM) is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context...

  7. THE ENTERPRISE COMPETITIVE STATUS IN THE SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC CATEGORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Terovanesova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the conceptual apparatus which is connected with the formation of the enterprise competitive status by establishing a logical relationship between the basic categories, which was expanded the theoretical and methodological basis of researches. The essence of the concept of “effective competitive advantage”, “competitive opportunities”, “competitive position”, is defined. The approach in determining of the enterprice competitive status for displaying assess of the adequacy...

  8. The universality of categories and meaning: a Coserian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Studies in linguistic typology have challenged the idea that languages can be analyzed in terms of a set of preestablished universal categories. Each language should instead be described “in its own terms,” a view consistent with the ‘old’ structuralist paradigm in linguistics. The renewed orientation toward differences between languages raises two questions: (i) How do we identify the meanings which are assumed to be crosslinguistically comparable? (ii) What is t...

  9. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Vlagsma-Brangule, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norms, environmental variables (environmental concern, green behavior, and perceived consumer effectiveness) as main antecedents of the choice and share of categoryrequirements of bio-meat. We also con...

  10. A category approach for reproductive effects of phthalates.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabjan, Evelin; Hulzebos, Etje; Mennes, W.; Piersma, Aldert H

    2006-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the experimental assessment of reproductive toxicity is one of the most costly endpoints to perform. Categorizing chemicals is an approach that can be used to reduce animal tests in risk assessments of chemicals, for example, via REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals). The category approach was tested for reproductive toxicity with a group of 10 ortho-phthalate esters, with different side chain lengths. Three ortho-phthalates were used for t...

  11. THE VALUE OF MARKETING AS A SCIENTIFIC CATEGORY

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have tried to overcome the structural and semantic complexity in the specification the term "value" in marketing. Blurring the severity definitions of "value" lead to violations of the integrity and completeness of scientific knowledge in marketing theory. Desk research allowed to define the term "value" in marketing, as a category of marketing theory. The basis for our findings served as the analysis of the definition of "value" in the disciplines within the multidisciplinar...

  12. Dopaminergic Genetic Polymorphisms Predict Rule-based Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kaileigh A; Davis, Tyler; Worthy, Darrell A

    2016-07-01

    Dopaminergic genes play an important role in cognitive function. DRD2 and DARPP-32 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms affect striatal dopamine binding potential, and the Val158Met single-nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates dopamine availability in the pFC. Our study assesses the role of these gene polymorphisms on performance in two rule-based category learning tasks. Participants completed unidimensional and conjunctive rule-based tasks. In the unidimensional task, a rule along a single stimulus dimension can be used to distinguish category members. In contrast, a conjunctive rule utilizes a combination of two dimensions to distinguish category members. DRD2 C957T TT homozygotes outperformed C allele carriers on both tasks, and DARPP-32 AA homozygotes outperformed G allele carriers on both tasks. However, we found an interaction between COMT and task type where Met allele carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in the conjunctive rule task, but both groups performed equally well in the unidimensional task. Thus, striatal dopamine binding may play a critical role in both types of rule-based tasks, whereas prefrontal dopamine binding is important for learning more complex conjunctive rule tasks. Modeling results suggest that striatal dopaminergic genes influence selective attention processes whereas cortical genes mediate the ability to update complex rule representations. PMID:26918585

  13. A financial perspective: categories of higher education institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Min-xuan

    2006-01-01

    From a financial perspective,the criteria for category distinction of higher education institutions should be based on the ownership of institution property and income for recurrent expenditure.The development of modern higher education witnessed the period wherein higher education institutions have both private property and private payment for recurrent expenditure.The development also saw the period wherein all the institution properties were owned by the state and all the recurrent expenditure were paid by the government. Accordingly,universities could be divided into two categories of "public" and "private" institutions until the 1970s.However,things have been changing greatly over the past 20 years.Property ownership and payment for recurrent expenditure have been separated.The public institutions appeal to more and more individuals sharing recurrent expenditure,while private institutions ask for more and more public financial support.Therefore,some financially mixed institutions came into being and "three categories with sub-groups" has become a new phenomenon.

  14. Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B. Goldwater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Markman & Stilwell (2001 argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems, and so they are role-governed categories. This view predicts instantiating a novel relational structure licenses the creation of novel role-governed categories. This paper supports this claim and helps to specify the mechanisms underlying this licensing. Event-related potentials (ERP’s were recorded while participants read passages of text. Participants instantiated novel relational representations by interpreting novel verbs derived from nouns during reading. Sentences later, comprehension of novel role terms derived from the novel verb was facilitated relative to a control condition where the novel verb was paraphrased using the root noun in its familiar form. This comprehension facilitation was marked by a reduced negativity elicited from the role term in the Novel Verb condition relative to the Paraphrase from 400-500 ms post-stimulus-onset. This relative difference in negativity is consistent with both the N400, which is a marker of semantic integration, and the Nref effect, which reflects the working memory load required to resolve reference. Additionally, because this increased negativity persisted until 670 ms post-stimulus-onset, and not that the Paraphrase condition elicited an increased positivity (i.e., the P600, we ruled out that the licensing effect is rooted in morphosyntactic processes.

  15. Development of telerehabilitation application with designated consultation categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Kiong Tan, PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Telerehabilitation (TR is getting ever more popular because it is effective in bringing rehabilitation services to rural populations by means of audiovisual systems and its initial implementation studies presented encouraging results. TR is proven to be helpful, with benefits in terms of reduced travel time, cost, and availability of specialists’ support in local communities. However, TR systems that are usable under low-bandwidth network environments are rare. This article introduces the development of a TR system with customized consultation categories for users to choose from, depending on requirements. Each category, with its preset parameter values, is discussed in detail by demonstrating relevant rehabilitation exercises. A novel bandwidth adaptation algorithm is also presented for optimal utilization of the dynamic network conditions, which ensures the system functionality even under narrow-bandwidth environments. Experiment results show that the system is able to perform effectively in each consultation category while the rehabilitation exercises are being performed. The proposed algorithm is also verified for its ability to adapt the content quality and effectively utilize the network under constrained conditions. A survey conducted on the video quality of the system under low-bandwidth conditions shows encouraging results for a large-scale deployment of the application.

  16. CERN to introduce new Local Staff employment category

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the June meeting of CERN Council, a new Local Staff employment category was approved. This will cover some 250-300 people in technical and administrative positions between now and 2010, satisfying an urgent need for manpower over the coming years. This article explains the main features of this new category. The Local Staff employment category is an important building block in CERN's new Human Resources Plan, and is essential in the run-up to the LHC. In the immediate future, it will allow some Industrial Services activities to be insourced - corresponding to about 150 additional CERN staff positions. In the longer run, it will allow the Organization to replace more retiring staff members than formerly foreseen - corresponding to 100-150 staff positions. The activities that will lead to Local Staff vacancies were identified at last year's resources planning exercise (the "Morges-III" meetings) as those which could not be outsourced in a Field Support Unit or other type of result-oriented Industrial Serv...

  17. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  18. 12 CFR 565.4 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for any rating category (other than in a rating category specifically addressing capital adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital measures and capital category... PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.4 Capital measures and capital category definitions. (a) Capital...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coating Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart E of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings... Coating Category Coating category Category code a Reactivity limit Clear Coatings CCP 1.50 Flat...

  20. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane...

  1. On facing the God-question in a pastoral theology of compassion: From imperialistic omni-categories to theopaschitic pathos-categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars in the 20th century warned against static, ontological and metaphysicalschemata of interpretation, stemming from Hellenistic thinking with its impact on God images in Christian reflection. Against the background of new spiritual and philosophica lphenomena like apatheism and anatheism, the question regarding the appropriateness o fexisting categories for God within the framework of pastoral theology surfaces. A paradigm shift from omni-categories to pathos-categories is proposed in order to deal with issues like human suffering, dignity and justice. In this regard, theopaschitic theology can play adecisive role in the reframing of existing static God-images stemming predominantly from the Roman-Greco world. The notion of a ‘sustainable God’ is introduced in order to reframe God’s compassionate presence (ta splanchna in terms of a continuum of infinitive interventions (infiniscience and the pneumatology of to-be-with.Die dinamika van die God-vraagstuk in ’n pastorale teologie van medelye en omgee: Vanafimperialistiese omni-kategorieë na teopasgitiese patos-kategorieë. Navorsers het telkemale in die twintigste eeu teen die impak van statiese, ontologiese en metafisiese skemas van interpretasie gewaarsku. Teïstiese denke is grootliks deur Hellenistiese denkkategorieë bepaal. Teen die agtergrond van nuwe filosofiese verskynsels soos apateïsme en anateïsme en die invloed daarvan op die verskillende vorms van spiritualiteitsdenke, duik die vraag op na die toepaslikheid en relevansie van bestaande, geykte denkkategorië vir die Christelike verstaan van God. Die vraagstuk van lyding, menswaardigheid en geregtigheid stel nuwe eise aan ’n pastorale teologie wat met kontekstuele lewensvraagstukke erns maak. In die lig hiervan word ’n paradigmaskuif in teologisering, vanaf omni-kategorieë na patos-kategorieë voorgestel. Dit word beredeneer dat ’n teopasgitiese teologie ’n belangrike bydrae kan lewer om statiese

  2. The toxicological effects of heavy fuel oil category substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Reitman, Fred; Schreiner, Ceinwen; White, Russell; Charlap, Jeffrey H; O'Neill, Thomas P; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky

    2014-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) category substances are used to manufacture HFO, a product used in industrial boilers and marine diesel engines. Commercial HFOs and blending stream components are substances of complex and variable composition, composed of C20 to >C50 hydrocarbons, although lower molecular weight material may be added to reduce viscosity and improve flow characteristics. An HFO blending stream (catalytically cracked clarified oil [CCCO]) was tested for target organ and developmental toxicity in rats following repeated dermal administration at doses of 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/d. In the repeated dose study, there was evidence of increased liver weights, reduced thymus weights, and reductions in hematological parameters with an overall no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg/d. In the developmental toxicity test, there were significant reductions in fetal survival, significant increases in resorption frequency, and significantly reduced fetal weights with an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/d. These target organ and developmental effects are associated with the types and levels of aromatic constituents in these substances. Among HFO blending streams, CCCOs have the highest levels of aromatics and, because they produce the characteristic toxicological effects at the lowest levels, are considered as "reasonable worst-case examples" for this group of substances. Other HFO category members with lower levels of aromatics produce similar effects but have higher NOAELs. The potential for target organ and developmental effects of other HFO category members can be predicted from information on the types and levels of the aromatic constituents present in these substances.

  3. Iterative development and the scope for plasticity: contrasts among trait categories in an adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S A; Wund, M A; Graham, M A; Earley, R L; Gardiner, R; Kearns, T; Baker, J A

    2015-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can influence evolutionary change in a lineage, ranging from facilitation of population persistence in a novel environment to directing the patterns of evolutionary change. As the specific nature of plasticity can impact evolutionary consequences, it is essential to consider how plasticity is manifested if we are to understand the contribution of plasticity to phenotypic evolution. Most morphological traits are developmentally plastic, irreversible, and generally considered to be costly, at least when the resultant phenotype is mis-matched to the environment. At the other extreme, behavioral phenotypes are typically activational (modifiable on very short time scales), and not immediately costly as they are produced by constitutive neural networks. Although patterns of morphological and behavioral plasticity are often compared, patterns of plasticity of life history phenotypes are rarely considered. Here we review patterns of plasticity in these trait categories within and among populations, comprising the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish Gasterosteus aculeatus. We immediately found it necessary to consider the possibility of iterated development, the concept that behavioral and life history trajectories can be repeatedly reset on activational (usually behavior) or developmental (usually life history) time frames, offering fine tuning of the response to environmental context. Morphology in stickleback is primarily reset only in that developmental trajectories can be altered as environments change over the course of development. As anticipated, the boundaries between the trait categories are not clear and are likely to be linked by shared, underlying physiological and genetic systems. PMID:26243135

  4. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require...

  5. Tracing the man in the middle in monoidal categories

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pattinson, D.; Schroeder, L.

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens in the middle. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require a...

  6. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    it at the same time collaboratively produces insights into how we as individuals participate in the productions of oppressive relations in relation to powerful social categories. The question, which propelled the two stories analysed was: Describe a situation where you for the first time became aware of yourself...... and consequently widen and/or diminish possibilities for legitimate belonging to society (Anthias, 2005:17). Each memory becomes an opportunity to collectively critically deconstruct naturalised processes of interpretation. It invites the participants to explore human dialogues, mediated by texts, as a way...

  7. Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.

  8. Improvement in pain severity category in clinical trials of pregabalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Bruce; Argoff, Charles E; Clair, Andrew; Emir, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregabalin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury (SCI). Approval was based on clinical trial data demonstrating statistically significant differences in pain scores versus placebo. However, statistically significant pain relief may not always equate to clinically meaningful pain relief. To further characterize the clinical benefit of pregabalin, this analysis examined shifts in pain severity categories in patients with FM, DPN/PHN (pooled in this analysis), and SCI treated with pregabalin. Methods Data were pooled from 23 placebo-controlled trials in patients with FM (1,623 treated with pregabalin, 937 placebo), DPN/PHN (2,867 pregabalin, 1,532 placebo), or SCI (181 pregabalin, 175 placebo). Pain scores were assessed on an 11-point numeric rating scale and categorized as mild (0 to <4), moderate (4 to <7), or severe (7 to 10). Only patients with mean score ≥4 at baseline were randomized to treatment. The percentage of patients shifting pain category from baseline to endpoint for pregabalin and placebo was analyzed using a modified ridit transformation with the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel procedure. Results A higher proportion of patients shifted to a less severe pain category at endpoint with pregabalin compared with placebo. With flexible-dose pregabalin, the percentage of patients improving from: severe to mild (pregabalin versus placebo) was 15.8 versus 13.4 in FM patients, 36.0 versus 16.6 in DPN/PHN patients, 14.3 versus 7.7 in SCI patients; severe to moderate was 28.7 versus 28.2 in FM patients, 32.5 versus 28.2 in DPN/PHN patients, 35.7 versus 28.2 in SCI patients; and moderate to mild was 38.3 versus 26.4 in FM patients, 59.5 versus 41.4 in DPN/PHN patients, 38.6 versus 27.2 in SCI patients. Conclusion Compared with placebo, pregabalin is more often associated with clinically

  9. Role of Metonymy in Unmarked Change of Word Category

    OpenAIRE

    Ingunn Högnadóttir 1982

    2010-01-01

    Unmarked change of word category, e.g. when the verb kiss becomes the noun kiss, is one of the most productive ways for coining new words in English. Traditionally the process has been seen as conversion or zero-derivation, neither of which fully explains the phenomenon. Recently, scholars from the field of cognitive linguistics have made attempts to explain the process with the help of metonymy – with some interesting results. In this essay, a cognitive approach to conversion, the metonymy t...

  10. Enhancing semantic congruity effects with category-contingent comparative judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Leth-Steensen, Craig; Petrusic, William M.; Shaki, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In each of two experiments the direction of a binary comparison was contingent on the category of the stimulus pair. In one experiment, participants had to compare the size of animals from memory. On congruent trials, they had to select the smaller animal if both were small and the larger if both were large and on incongruent trials they selected the larger if both were small and the smaller if both were large. In a second experiment, participants had to compare visual extents and the directi...

  11. Generalized Homotopy theory in Categories with a Natural Cone

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    In proper homotopy theory, the original concept of point used in the classical homotopy theory of topological spaces is generalized in order to obtain homotopy groups that study the infinite of the spaces. This idea: "Using any arbitrary object as base point" and even "any morphism as zero morphism" can be developed in most of the algebraic homotopy theories. In particular, categories with a natural cone have a generalized homotopy theory obtained through the relative homotopy relation. Generalized homotopy groups and exact sequences of them are built so that respective classical pointed ones are a particular case of these.

  12. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: The case of politics.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, A. R.; Garrido, M. V.; Semin, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Converging Modalities Ground Abstract Categories: The Case of Politics Ana Rita Farias1,2, Margarida V. Garrido1,2, Gu¨ n R. Semin3,4* 1 Instituto Universita´rio de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Cis-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal, 2 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 3 Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4 College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Koc¸ University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstrac...

  13. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...

  14. Stories, descriptions and essays as categories for talking and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, Beatriz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the meaning of the main textual modes (narration, description and exposition in a writing task performed at school. These modes are thought as typical discursive genres in school that are constituted as participants’ categories in this arena. From this point of view, we analyze conversations between student pairs planning a text about a photograph. Each pair planned a text in a different discursive mode depending on the condition they were assigned. Results show that these discursive modes appear in conversations as procedures and resources designed by participants in the conversational process, in order to construct knowledge about the picture, rather than as static schemas.

  15. [Some Approaches to Activation of Antitumor Resistance Mechanisms and Functional Analogs in Categories of Synergetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, G v; Shikhliarova, A I; Soldatov, A V; Barteneva, T A; Petrosian, V I; Gudtskova, T N; Bragina, M I; Polozhentsev, O E; Sheiko, E A; Maschenko, N M; Shirnina, E A; Zlatnik, E Yu; Kurkina, T A

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the ways of activation of the antitumor resistance mechanisms developed on the basis of the concept of the periodic system of general nonspecific adaptational reactions of the body. The principles of the formation of effective influences by electromagnetic radiation using biologically active substances are described. A comparison of the criteria and conceptions of the theory of adaptational reactions to some concepts and categories of synergetics is made. The features of dynamics of the studied parameters upon effective influences are considered. Antistress nature of the systemic effects of ferromagnetic nanoparticles on tumor bearing animals is shown. The, possible mechanisms of regression of large tumor under the influence of two different factors--modulated electromagnetic radiation and magnetite nanoparticles--are discussed. The cases of a change of the order parameter in connection with the development of antistress areactivity and regression of experimental tumors under the influence of the combined electromagnetic impact are analyzed. PMID:27192840

  16. The Challenge of Comparing Fluid Categories: Race and Class in Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Jackson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Race and class are two of the most significant factors associated with educational inequality within and across societies. However, their definitions and significance vary over time, and from one place to another. As subjective factors related to identity, they also impact on one another in their effects on educational access and equity. These issues create challenges for conducting comparative educational research that effectively explores one or both of these factors. This essay examines challenges employing race and class in comparative educational research. Race and class are analysed separately, illustrating that ethical and political issues, not just conceptual miscommunications, are at stake in defining and using these categories. The geographical and political complexity of using race and class are also reflected on more generally, and the argument is put forward that analytic and self-reflexive understanding of diversity is needed for the development of fruitful understanding of the relationship between race and class and educational equity and justice.

  17. Children without parental care as a vulnerable category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvrgić Svetlana T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health protection and health promotion are the primary goals of modern medicine. Since children's health is the cornerstone of adult's health, it must be in the center of all social and health care strategies. Vulnerability concept Vulnerability means exposure to harmful influences, risks or stress, which increases disease probability. The most vulnerable are categories that are exposed to influence of many harmful factors, which have minimal chances for survival and lowest quality of life. Vulnerability of children without parental care Vulnerability of children without parental care is caused by lack and/or inadequate family environment. These children are usually emotionally unstable; they frequently develop conduct disorders and have low self-esteem. As adolescents, these children have tendency to risky behavior, which greatly decreases their health potentials. Health status and quality of life All three components of health are endangered with children without parental care. These children present with physical, psycho-motoric and intellectual impairments. There are no studies about quality of life regarding these children, but we can assume that their quality of life is lower than in children who experience protective family environment, since quality of psychosocial factors and family environment are very important predictors of quality of life. Conclusion Children without parental care are an extremely vulnerable category, because they are subjected to various risk factors. Therefore, in order to improve health potentials and quality of life, special measures are required in health care, psychological care and social welfare.

  18. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  19. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  20. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference.

  1. Temporal characteristics of overt attentional behavior during category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Blair, Mark R; Watson, Marcus R; Wood, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Many theories of category learning incorporate mechanisms for selective attention, typically implemented as attention weights that change on a trial-by-trial basis. This is because there is relatively little data on within-trial changes in attention. We used eye tracking and mouse tracking as fine-grained measures of attention in three complex visual categorization tasks to investigate temporal patterns in overt attentional behavior within individual categorization decisions. In Experiments 1 and 2, we recorded participants' eye movements while they performed three different categorization tasks. We extended previous research by demonstrating that not only are participants less likely to fixate irrelevant features, but also, when they do, these fixations are shorter than fixations to relevant features. We also found that participants' fixation patterns show increasingly consistent temporal patterns. Participants were faster, although no more accurate, when their fixation sequences followed a consistent temporal structure. In Experiment 3, we replicated these findings in a task where participants used mouse movements to uncover features. Overall, we showed that there are important temporal regularities in information sampling during category learning that cannot be accounted for by existing models. These can be used to supplement extant models for richer predictions of how information is attended to during the buildup to a categorization decision. PMID:23151960

  2. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Spivak, David I; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we review an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other ologs. We consider a simple example of an alpha-helical and an amyloid-like protein filament subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog f...

  3. The labour category analitical centrality for the Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Herold Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to discuss the need of getting the Labour centrality back to the physical education analysis. With the arising of new production technologies based on micro-electronics, the trend for questioning this category centrality has increased causing reactions on both the Labour Sociology (ANTUNES, 2000, 2002 and the Labour and Education fields with FRIGOTTO(1997,1998,2001 and KUENZER’s (1998 analyses. Supported by these studies and other ones as well, a historical approach on the labour and physical education relation was performed, and, in the second part of this study, a current analysis of this relation was also carried out. The study showed that the Labour category should play a certain role in the analytical repertory of physical education teachers in order to allow them not to use their analysis to emphasise certain social relations that make any concern about a society and an education which effectively regards men in all aspects impossible.

  4. Efficient Normal-Form Parsing for Combinatory Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, J

    1996-01-01

    Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple n-word sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normal-form parsing technique. The parser is proved to find exactly one parse in each semantic equivalence class of allowable parses; that is, spurious ambiguity (as carefully defined) is shown to be both safely and completely eliminated. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Mon Nov 1 11:08 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (newmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.94]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id LAA23068 for ; Mon, 1 Nov 1999 11:08:23 +0100 (MET) Received: from uuu.lanl.gov (root@uuu.lanl.gov [204.121.6.59]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id LAA02515 for ; Mon, 1 Nov 1999 11:08:21 +0100 (MET) Received: from xxx.lanl...

  5. Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthew J; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The idea that similarity might be an engine of inductive inference dates back at least as far as David Hume. However, Hume's thesis is difficult to test without begging the question, since judgments of similarity may be infected by inferential processes. We present a one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items. The prediction is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items. To test Hume's thesis, we collected brain activation from various regions of the ventral visual stream during a categorization task that did not invite comparison of categories. We then calculated the similarity of those activation patterns using a simple measure of vectorwise similarity and supplied those similarities to the model. The model's outputs correlated well with subjects' judgments of conditional probability. Our results represent a promising first step toward confirming Hume's thesis; similarity, assessed without reference to induction, may well drive inductive inference. PMID:24254747

  6. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  7. The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cooper-Pye, Elisa; Dine, Clare; Hauk, Olaf; Nestor, Peter J; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-09-01

    It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented. PMID:19722916

  8. The subjective nature of Linnaean categories and its impact in evolutionary biology and biodiversity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Absolute (Linnaean) ranks are essential to rank-based nomenclature (RN), which has been used by the vast majority of systematists for the last 150 years. They are widely recognized as being subjective among taxonomists, but not necessarily in other fields. For this reason, phylogenetic nomenclature

  9. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systemat...

  10. IS CATEGORY MANAGEMENT IN SMALL SUPERMARKETS WORTH THE EFFORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Category management (CM is an important tool to strengthen the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. This process has been associated with large corporate retailers; however, some recent researches show that CM is open to companies of any type or size. This possibility is important in emerging markets, where neighborhood supermarkets are still representative and are often considered an alternative for manufacturers to achieve higher margins compared to big chains. In this context, the aim of this research was to analyze the results of a CM initiative in small neighborhood supermarkets from a manufacturer perspective. Data for the study comes from a food manufacturer in Brazil that implemented a CM process with 180 small retailers. A quantitative analysis was conducted in order to analyze the effect of the program on the food manufacturer’s sales and market share. Our analysis suggests an overall positive effect of the program on both, sales and market share

  11. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  12. Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Murphy, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research.

  13. Categories of Emotion names in Web retrieved texts

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Sergey; Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2012-01-01

    The categorization of emotion names, i.e., the grouping of emotion words that have similar emotional connotations together, is a key tool of Social Psychology used to explore people's knowledge about emotions. Without exception, the studies following that research line were based on the gauging of the perceived similarity between emotion names by the participants of the experiments. Here we propose and examine a new approach to study the categories of emotion names - the similarities between target emotion names are obtained by comparing the contexts in which they appear in texts retrieved from the World Wide Web. This comparison does not account for any explicit semantic information; it simply counts the number of common words or lexical items used in the contexts. This procedure allows us to write the entries of the similarity matrix as dot products in a linear vector space of contexts. The properties of this matrix were then explored using Multidimensional Scaling Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering. Our ...

  14. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  15. A model theoretic Baire category theorem for simple theories

    CERN Document Server

    Shami, Ziv

    2009-01-01

    We define the class of $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets. This is a class of type-definable sets defined in terms of forking by low formulas. We prove a model theoretic Baire category theorem for $\\tilde\\tau_{low}^f$-sets in a countable simple theory in which the extension property is first-order and show some of its applications. A typical application is the following. Let $T$ be a countable theory with the wnfcp (weak nonfinite cover property) and assume for every non-algebraic $a$ there exists a non-algebraic $a'\\acl(a)$ such that $SU(a')<\\omega$. Then there exists a weakly-minimal formula with parameters.

  16. Prediction of human protein function according to Gene Ontology categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    Motivation: The human genome project has led to the discovery of many human protein coding genes which were previously unknown. As a large fraction of these are functionally uncharacterized, it is of interest to develop methods for predicting their molecular function from sequence.Results: We have...... calculated from the amino acid composition. This allows for prediction of the function for orphan proteins where no homologs can be found. Using this method we propose two novel receptors in the human genome, and further demonstrate chromosomal clustering of related proteins....... developed a method for prediction of protein function for a subset of classes from the Gene Ontology classification scheme. This subset includes several pharmaceutically interesting categories-transcription factors, receptors, ion channels, stress and immune response proteins, hormones and growth factors...

  17. Modeling patient safety incidents knowledge with the Categorial Structure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Bousquet, Cédric; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    Following the WHO initiative named World Alliance for Patient Safety (PS) launched in 2004 a conceptual framework developed by PS national reporting experts has summarized the knowledge available. As a second step, the Department of Public Health of the University of Saint Etienne team elaborated a Categorial Structure (a semi formal structure not related to an upper level ontology) identifying the elements of the semantic structure underpinning the broad concepts contained in the framework for patient safety. This knowledge engineering method has been developed to enable modeling patient safety information as a prerequisite for subsequent full ontology development. The present article describes the semantic dissection of the concepts, the elicitation of the ontology requirements and the domain constraints of the conceptual framework. This ontology includes 134 concepts and 25 distinct relations and will serve as basis for an Information Model for Patient Safety.

  18. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A;

    1999-01-01

    tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... of task difficulty was found in both the behavioural and in the PET data. In the PET data, the increase in task difficulty was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus and in the anterior part of the right fusiform gyrus. This may...... on artefacts in the difficult object decision tasks. Natural objects also recruited larger parts of the right inferior temporal and anterior fusiform gyri compared with artefacts as task difficulty increased. Differences in the amount of activation in these regions may reflect the greater perceptual...

  19. Fuzzy Document Clustering Approach using WordNet Lexical Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Tarek F.; Fouad, Mohammed M.; Aref, Mostafa M.

    Text mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text. This area is growing rapidly mainly because of the strong need for analysing the huge and large amount of textual data that reside on internal file systems and the Web. Text document clustering provides an effective navigation mechanism to organize this large amount of data by grouping their documents into a small number of meaningful classes. In this paper we proposed a fuzzy text document clustering approach using WordNet lexical categories and Fuzzy c-Means algorithm. Some experiments are performed to compare efficiency of the proposed approach with the recently reported approaches. Experimental results show that Fuzzy clustering leads to great performance results. Fuzzy c-means algorithm overcomes other classical clustering algorithms like k-means and bisecting k-means in both clustering quality and running time efficiency.

  20. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  1. The Information Flow Framework: A Descriptive Category Metatheory

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The Information Flow Framework (IFF) is a descriptive category metatheory. It is an experiment in foundations, which follows a bottom-up approach to logical description. The IFF forms the structural aspect of the IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project. The categorical approach of the IFF provides a principled framework for the modular design of object-level ontologies. The IFF represents meta-logic, and as such operates at the structural level of ontologies. In the IFF, there is a precise boundary between the metalevel and the object level. The modular architecture of the IFF consists of metalevels, namespaces and meta-ontologies. Each metalevel services the levels below by providing a metalanguage used to declare and axiomatize those levels. Corresponding to the metalevels are nested metalanguages, where each metalanguage axiomatization includes specialization of the one immediately above. Within each metalevel, the terminology is partitioned into namespaces, and various namespaces are collected ...

  2. Topos Theoretical Reference Frames on the Category of Quantum Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiris, E

    2002-01-01

    An observable effects a schematization of the Quantum event structure by correlating Boolean algebras picked by measurements with the Borel algebra of the real line. In a well-defined sense Boolean observables play the role of coordinatizing objects in the Quantum world, by picking Boolean figures and subsequently opening Boolean windows for the perception of the latter, interpreted as local measurement charts. A mathematical scheme for the implementation of this thesis is being proposed based on Category theoretical methods. The scheme leads to a manifold representation of Quantum structure in terms of topos-theoretical Boolean reference frames. The coordinatizing objects give rise to structure preserving maps with the modeling objects as their domains, effecting finally an isomorphism between quantum event algebra objects and Boolean localization systems for the masurement of observables.

  3. The meaning of a legal category of “sanction”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al’bina Sergeyevna Panova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal category of sanction. Methods dialectical systematic and logical methods of analysis synthesis. Results the study of the legal category of quotsanctionquot has shown that a sanction can be applied on a regulatory or contractual basis if stipulated by a civil agreement and as the measures of liability and protection. One of the promising directions of its use is the motivating one ndash sanctions can provide the legal consequences favorable for those who observe the behavior stipulated by the law. The following is offered as the direction of development of domestic legislation on sanctions verification of compliance of the sanctions amount and terms with the offences gravity introduction of previously nonexistent sanctions for example speculation on food and currency markets the use of discretionary sanctions as a means of positive legal stimulation of the economy. Scientific novelty the conclusion is made about the nature of the sanctions it is proved that the sanction is a legal means the use of which enables the victim to protect their violated challenged rights provided for by the legislation and or the agreement and implies adverse consequences of property and or organizational nature for the offender. The sanctions application has its own peculiarities. Their use is aimed at curbing the illegal actions of the offender debtor to stimulate them to the proper performance of statutory or contractual duties often sanctions are aimed at compensating for damage caused to the creditor. A peculiar feature of the sanctions is that they are a necessary component of the legal system. Practical value the results obtained can be used to conduct economic and legal research relating to the economics and entrepreneurship in treaty practice in teaching the disciplines of Civil Law Business Law Commercial Law etc. nbsp

  4. The categories of cutaneous mosaicism: A proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Mosaic disorders can most easily be studied in the skin. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different forms of cutaneous mosaicism. Major categories are genomic versus epigenetic mosaicism and nonsegmental versus segmental mosaicism. The class of nonsegmental mosaics includes single point mosaicism as exemplified by solitary benign or malignant skin tumors; disseminated mosaicism as noted in autosomal dominant tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1; and patchy mosaicism without midline separation as found in giant melanocytic nevus. The class of segmental mosaics includes segmental manifestation of lethal genes surviving by mosaicism as noted in Proteus syndrome; type 1 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting heterozygosity for a postzygotic new mutation; type 2 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting loss of heterozygosity that occurred at an early developmental stage in a heterozygous embryo; and isolated or superimposed segmental mosaicism of common polygenic skin disorders such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. A particular form of genomic mosaicism is didymosis (twin spotting). Revertant mosaicism is recognizable as one or more areas of healthy skin in patients with epidermolysis bullosa or other serious genodermatoses. The category of epigenetic mosaicism includes several X-linked, male lethal disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, and the patterns of lyonization as noted in X-linked non-lethal disorders such as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type. An interesting field of future research will be the concept of epigenetic autosomal mosaicism that may explain some unusual cases of autosomal transmission of linear hypo- or hypermelanosis. PMID:26494396

  5. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  6. Dissociation of Category-Learning Systems via Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Morrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence has suggested that categories can often be learned via either an explicit rule-based mechanism critically dependent on medial temporal and prefrontal brain regions, or via an implicit information-integration mechanism relying on the basal ganglia. In this study, participants viewed sine-wave gratings (i.e., Gabor patches that varied on two dimensions and learned to categorize them via trial-by-trial feedback. Two different stimulus distributions were used; one was intended to encourage an explicit rule-based process and the other an implicit information-integration process. We monitored brain activity with scalp electroencephalography (EEG while each participant (1 passively observed stimuli represented of both distributions, (2 categorized stimuli from one distribution, and, one week later, (3 categorized stimuli from the other distribution. Categorization accuracy was similar for the two distributions. Subtractions of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs for correct and incorrect trials were used to identify neural differences in rule-based and information-integration categorization processes. We identified an occipital brain potential that was differentially modulated by categorization condition accuracy at an early latency (150 - 250 ms, likely reflecting the degree of holistic processing. A stimulus-locked late positive complex associated with explicit memory updating was modulated by accuracy in the rule-based, but not the information-integration task. Likewise, a feedback-locked P300 ERP associated with expectancy was correlated with performance only in the rule-based, but not the information-integration condition. These results provide additional evidence for distinct brain mechanisms supporting rule-based versus implicit information-integration category learning and use.

  7. Habitat Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and California (August 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sage-Grouse habitat areas divided into proposed management categories within Nevada and California project study boundaries.HABITAT CATEGORY DETERMINATIONThe...

  8. Composite Management Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and northeastern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents proposed management categories (Core, Priority, General, and Non-Habitat) derived from the intersection of habitat suitability categories...

  9. Management Categories for Greater Sage-grouse in Nevada and California (August 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sage-Grouse habitat areas divided into proposed management categories within Nevada and California project study boundaries.MANAGEMENT CATEGORY DETERMINATION The...

  10. Software for Computing, Archiving, and Querying Semisimple Braided Monoidal Category Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-04

    This software package collects various open source and freely available codes and algorithms to compute and archive the categorical data for certain semisimple braided monoidal categories. In particular, it computes the data for of group theoretical categories for academic research.

  11. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  12. 78 FR 8476 - Seaway Regulations and Rules: Periodic Update, Various Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION 33 CFR Part 401 Seaway Regulations and Rules: Periodic Update, Various Categories.... Lawrence Seaway Regulations and Rules (Practices and Procedures in Canada) in their respective... Seaway Regulations and Rules in various categories. The proposed changes will update the...

  13. Category learning in older adulthood: A study of the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul

    2016-03-01

    Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) examined the categorization abilities of younger adults using tasks involving single-dimensional rule learning, disjunctive rule learning, and family resemblance learning. The current study examined category learning in older adults using this well-known category set. Older adults, like younger adults, found category tasks with a single relevant dimension the easiest to learn. In contrast to younger adults, older adults found complex disjunctive rule-based categories harder to learn than family resemblance based categories. Disjunctive rule-based category learning appeared to be the most difficult for older adults to learn because this category set placed the heaviest demands on working memory, which is known to be a cognitive function that declines with normal aging. The authors discuss why complex rule-based category learning is considered more difficult for older adults to learn relative to younger adults, drawing parallels to developmental research.

  14. On M\\"{u}ger's centralizer for a certain class of braided fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a general formula for Mueger's centralizer of any fusion subcategory of a braided fusion category containing a tannakian subcategory. This entails a description for Mueger's centralizer of all fusion subcategories of a group theoretical braided fusion category.

  15. RedundancyMiner: De-replication of redundant GO categories in microarray and proteomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold William; Larionov Vladimir L; Brooks Brian P; Brown Jacob D; Bonner Robert F; Rajapakse Vinodh N; Ehler Martin; Kahn Ari B; Liu Hongfang; Zeeberg Barry R; Weinstein John N; Pommier Yves G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium organizes genes into hierarchical categories based on biological process, molecular function and subcellular localization. Tools such as GoMiner can leverage GO to perform ontological analysis of microarray and proteomics studies, typically generating a list of significant functional categories. Two or more of the categories are often redundant, in the sense that identical or nearly-identical sets of genes map to the categories. The redund...

  16. Differences in the formalization of the semantic category of definiteness / indefiniteness

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Roszko; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the formalization of the semantic category of definiteness / indefinitenessBasing on theoretical contrastive studies guidelines, the article defines the semantic category of definiteness/indefiniteness where two basic opposition meanings are being ascribed to. It also distinguishes crucial sub-meanings for this category. The category established like this constitutes a characteristic interlanguage typical of theoretical contrastive studies, which is here used as tertium compara...

  17. Effect of between-category similarity on basic-level superiority in pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Lazareva, Olga F.; Fabián A. Soto; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Children categorize stimuli at the basic level faster than at the superordinate level. We hypothesized that between-category similarity may affect this basic-level superiority effect. Dissimilar categories may be easy to distinguish at the basic level but be difficult to group at the superordinate level, whereas similar categories may be easy to group at the superordinate level but be difficult to distinguish at the basic level. Consequently, similar basic-level categories may produce a super...

  18. The Development of Sex Category Representation in Infancy: Matching of Faces and Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Alyson; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a significant social category, and adults derive information about it from both faces and bodies. Research indicates that young infants process sex category information in faces. However, no prior study has examined whether infants derive sex categories from bodies and match faces and bodies in terms of sex. In the current study,…

  19. 12 CFR 792.20 - What are the charges for each fee category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the charges for each fee category? 792... of Information Act Fees § 792.20 What are the charges for each fee category? The fee category... or secondary school, an institution of undergraduate higher education, an institution of...

  20. Preschool Ontology: The Role of Beliefs about Category Boundaries in Early Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Karuza, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    These studies examined the role of ontological beliefs about category boundaries in early categorization. Study 1 found that preschool-age children (N = 48, aged 3-4 years old) have domain-specific beliefs about the meaning of category boundaries; children judged the boundaries of natural kind categories (animal species, human gender) as discrete…

  1. 21 CFR 1401.12 - Fees to be charged-categories of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees to be charged-categories of requesters. 1401.12 Section 1401.12 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.12 Fees to be charged—categories of requesters. (a) There are four categories of...

  2. Categorical Lagrangian Grassmannians and Brauer-Picard groups of pointed fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Nikshych, Dmitri; Riepel, Brianna

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the action of the Brauer-Picard group of a pointed fusion category on the set of Lagrangian subcategories of its center. Using this action we compute the Brauer-Picard groups of pointed fusion categories associated to several classical finite groups. As an application, we construct new examples of weakly group-theoretical fusion categories.

  3. Clinical characteristics of patients with Rutherford category IV, compared with V and VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketsugu Tsuchiya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients categorized Rutherford category IV might have different characteristics compared with Rutherford category V and VI. Our study aims were to estimate the clinical differences between Rutherford category IV and Rutherford category V and VI, for those underwent endovascular therapy for isolated infrapopliteal disease, and also to find risk factors for endovascular therapy in Rutherford category IV. Methods: Based on the Japanese multi-center registry data, 1091 patients with 1332 limbs (Rutherford category IV: 226 patients with 315 limbs, Rutherford category V and VI: 865 patients with 1017 limbs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Patients’ backgrounds and lesions’ characteristics had significant differences. Both freedom rate from major adverse limb event with perioperative death and amputation-free survival rate at 1 year were better in Rutherford category IV than Rutherford category V and VI (93.6% vs 78.3%, 87.7% vs 66.7% and those maintained to 3 years (p  3.0 mg/dL, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and coronary artery disease in Rutherford category IV. Conclusion: From the present results, Rutherford category IV should be recognized to have quite different backgrounds and better outcome from Rutherford category V and VI.

  4. Testing the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo with People Using Facial Affect Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring how people represent natural categories is a key step toward developing a better understanding of how people learn, form memories, and make decisions. Much research on categorization has focused on artificial categories that are created in the laboratory, since studying natural categories defined on high-dimensional stimuli such as…

  5. Modeling category-level purchase timing with brand-level marketing variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurchase timing of households is usually modeled at the category level. Marketing efforts are however only available at the brand level. Hence, to describe category-level interpurchase times using marketing efforts one has to construct a category-level measure of marketing efforts from t

  6. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  7. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on...

  8. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category...

  9. Energy Globe Award Upper Austria: Silver for Lenzing in the Category "Earth"%Energy Globe Award Upper Austria: Silver for Lenzing in the Category "Earth"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Once again the Lenzing Group was honored for its sustainability efforts. At the Energy Globe Award Upper Austria 2012, Lenzing placed second in the category "Earth". This category distinguishes a prudent and sustainable approach to dealing with our planet and its resources as well as all related measures.

  10. African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

    2010-01-01

    We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

  11. Organic food category research among leading food retailers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest in organic agriculture has grown both within the scientific community and among general public. Organic agriculture is a new agricultural production system that tries to fully utilize farming potential and to satisfy all the social and economic needs while preserving the natural ecosystem and ensuring environmental protection. This paper gives a short overview of organic agriculture and organic food market development as well as an overview of the distribution channels for organic food in specific countries. The second part of the paper describes the research of the organic food category that was conducted on a sample of leading food retailers in the Republic of Croatia. Based on the methodology applied, it is determined that organic food is sold in Croatian supermarkets and hypermarkets. However, leading food retailers keep mostly imported organic food products. The results of the research imply that both the organic food sales volume and sales income grew in 2008 in respect to the previous year. Despite its limitations (primarily the small sample, the research is the first of its kind to have been conducted in Croatia and lays the groundwork for future research of the organic food and for a possible deeper analysis of this market.

  12. Categories of Supply Chain Performance Indicators: an Overview of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Leończuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of supply chains, whose structure is changing from a linear to network form creates the need to track a growing amount of information allowing the evaluation of the functioning of the entire supply chain. Developing a system for measuring the performance of the supply chain requires the proper selection of indicators. Performance measurement should be done in a particular context, the analysed dimensions of indicators resulting from the purpose and focus of the survey should be determined. The article reviews Polish and foreign literature in terms of the proposed framework and methods for measuring the performance of the supply chain and the indicated categories (dimensions of indicators. The authors approach the subject of evaluation of the performance of the supply chain in very different ways. Indicators are divided according to the level of the decision-making process: strategic, tactical, and operational. They are also divided into cost and non-cost or financial and non-financial ones. There are also approaches using the already well established methods and models. An example of this is the selection of perspectives according to the Balanced Scorecard (BSC and the SCOR model.

  13. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. PMID:26173995

  14. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/30, E/F: 60/40. Upon making their choice, negative and positive feedback was conveyed using angry and happy faces, respectively. The highly socially anxious group showed a strong tendency to be more accurate at learning the probability contingency associated with the most ambiguous stimulus pair (E/F: 60/40. Moreover, when pairing the most positively reinforced stimulus or the most negatively reinforced stimulus with all the other stimuli in a test phase, the highly socially anxious group avoided the most negatively reinforced stimulus significantly more than the control group. The results are discussed with reference to avoidance learning and hypersensitivity to negative social evaluative information associated with social anxiety.

  15. Categories in the pigeon brain: A reverse engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Charlotte; Pusch, Roland; Bröker, Franziska; Thiele, Samuel; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons are well known for their visual capabilities as well as their ability to categorize visual stimuli at both the basic and superordinate level. We adopt a reverse engineering approach to study categorization learning: Instead of training pigeons on predefined categories, we simply present stimuli and analyze neural output in search of categorical clustering on a solely neural level. We presented artificial stimuli, pictorial and grating stimuli, to pigeons without the need of any differential behavioral responding while recording from the nidopallium frontolaterale (NFL), a higher visual area in the avian brain. The pictorial stimuli differed in color and shape; the gratings differed in spatial frequency and amplitude. We computed representational dissimilarity matrices to reveal categorical clustering based on both neural data and pecking behavior. Based on neural output of the NFL, pictorial and grating stimuli were differentially represented in the brain. Pecking behavior showed a similar pattern, but to a lesser extent. A further subclustering within pictorial stimuli according to color and shape, and within gratings according to frequency and amplitude, was not present. Our study gives proof-of-concept that this reverse engineering approach-namely reading out categorical information from neural data--can be quite helpful in understanding the neural underpinnings of categorization learning.

  16. [ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS IN MUSEUMS A SPECIAL CATEGORY OF CULTURAL HERITAGE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monza, Francesca; Licata, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The international debate on the issue of human remains in museums and on the ethical issues related to their exhibition stimulates reflection on the Italian anatomical collections and on their preparations. A definition of human remains or of anatomical preparation does not exist in the Italian legislation. The anatomical specimens in museums are protected by the laws of Cultural Heritage as part of public collections, but their status is not well defined. By their nature of human material they would in fact be considered as a special category of Cultural Heritage. Because they are part of a cadaver they can be regarded as res nullius, but since treated with special techniques they could also change their meaning and being considered a species nova. Finally, it reflects on the possibility of creating a museum in Italy composed by new anatomical preparations. The article outline the contours of a museological issue that deserves to be investigated in order to better identify the anatomical preparations and their management in museums.

  17. The cost of business credit by firm category

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, F.; D-B.Nguyen.

    2011-01-01

    SMEs have a different bank financing structure from that of large companies and thus do not enjoy the same financing conditions. This article examines the main factors that explain the interest rates on loans to SMEs and highlights the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on credit pricing policies.

  18. Local sources of global climate forcing from different categories of land use activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Identifying and quantifying the sources of climate impacts from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is necessary to optimize policies regarding LULCC for climate change mitigation. These climate impacts are typically defined relative to emissions of CO2, or sometimes emissions of other long-lived greenhouse gases. Here we use previously published estimates of the radiative forcing (RF) of LULCC that include the short-lived forcing agents O3 and aerosols, in addition to long-lived greenhouse gases and land albedo change, for six projections of LULCC as a metric for quantifying climate impacts. The LULCC RF is attributed to three categories of LULCC activities: direct modifications to land cover, agriculture, and wildfire response, and sources of the forcing are ascribed to individual grid points for each sector. Results for the year 2010 show substantial positive forcings from the direct modifications and agriculture sectors, particularly from south and southeast Asia, and a smaller magnitude negative forcing response from wildfires. The spatial distribution of future sources of LULCC RF is highly scenario-dependent, but we show that future forest area change can be used as a predictor of the future RF from direct modification activities, especially in the tropics, suggesting that deforestation-prevention policies that value land based on its C-content may be particularly effective at mitigating climate forcing originating in the tropics from this sector. However, the response of wildfire RF to tropical land cover changes is not as easily scalable and yet imposes a non-trivial feedback onto the total LULCC RF.

  19. [Personality traits in patients with chronic migraine: a categorial and dimensional study in a series of 30 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Domínguez, Elena; Hernández, Marta S; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Isidro, Guillermo; Mayor-Toranzo, Eduardo; Sotelo, Eva M; Molina, Vicente; Uribe, Fernando; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El papel patogenico de la personalidad en la migraña no esta definido. Para su estudio se pueden utilizar instrumentos de medida dimensional o categorial, sin que haya tampoco acuerdo acerca del abordaje mas adecuado. Objetivo. Analizar la personalidad de pacientes con migraña cronica desde el punto de vista dimensional y categorial. Pacientes y metodos. Como test categorial utilizamos el cuestionario Salamanca, y, como dimensional, el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Evaluamos trastornos del animo con la escala de ansiedad y depresion hospitalaria y el impacto de la migraña mediante el Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Resultados. Incluimos 30 pacientes (26 mujeres), con una edad media de 40,7 ± 9,6 años. Un caso (3,3%) presentaba criterios de depresion, y 4 (13,3%), de ansiedad. En el test Salamanca, los rasgos de personalidad mas frecuentes fueron los integrados en el cluster C: anancastico (n = 28; 93,3%), ansioso (n = 18; 60%) y dependiente (n = 7; 23,3%). En el MMPI-2, 16 pacientes (53,3%) cumplian criterios de hipocondria; 7 (23,3%), de depresion, y 10 (33,3%), de histeria, rasgos integrados en la triada neurotica. Se objetivo una configuracion denominada 'conversiva V'. No hallamos correlacion entre los rasgos de personalidad y el tiempo de migraña cronica, la intensidad medida por el HIT-6 o el uso excesivo de medicacion sintomatica. Conclusiones. En el analisis de la personalidad en la migraña cronica destaca, desde el punto de vista dimensional, el neuroticismo, y respecto al categorial, el rasgo obsesivo-compulsivo o anancastico. Es necesario el estudio de series mas extensas y la comparacion con pacientes con migraña episodica y poblacion control.

  20. OPEN PUBLIC SPACE ATTRIBUTES AND CATEGORIES – COMPLEXITY AND MEASURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čavić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of architectural and urban research, this work addresses the complexity of contemporary public space, both in a conceptual and concrete sense. It aims at systematizing spatial attributes and their categories and discussing spatial complexity and measurability, all this in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding, description and analysis of public space. Our aim is to improve everyday usage of open public space and we acknowledged users as its crucial factor. There are numerous investigations on the complex urban and architectural reality of public space that recognise importance of users. However, we did not find any that would holistically account for what users find essential in public space. Based on the incompleteness of existing approaches on open public space and the importance of users for their success, this paper proposes a user-orientated approach. Through an initial survey directed to users, we collected the most important aspects of public spaces in the way that contemporary humans see them. The gathered data is analysed and coded into spatial attributes from which their role in the complexity of open public space and measurability are discussed. The work results in an inventory of attributes that users find salient in public spaces. It does not discuss their qualitative values or contribution in generating spatial realities. It aims to define them clearly so that any further logical argumentation on open space concerning users may be solidly constructed. Finally, through categorisation of attributes it proposes the disciplinary levels necessary for the analysis of complex urban-architectural reality

  1. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  2. The near centre of Doi-Hopf module category _AM (H)~C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚海斌; 许永华

    1999-01-01

    It is known that any strict tensor category ( C, (?), I) determines a braided tensor category Z(C), the centre of C. When A is a finite dimension Hopf algebra, Drinfel’d has proved that Z(AM) is equivalent to ((D(A))M as a braided tensor category, where AM is the left A-module category and D (A) is the Drinfel’d double of A. For a braided tensor category C, the braid CU, V is a natural isomorphism for any pair of object (U, V) in C. If weakening the natural isomorphism of the braid CU, V to a natural transformation, then CU, V is a prebraid and the category C with a prebraid is called a prebraided tensor category. Similarly it can be proved that any strict tensor category C determines a prebraided tensor category Z’ (C), the near centre of C. An interesting prebraided tensor structure of the Yetter-Drinfel’d category C#AYDC#A is given, where C # A is the smash product bialgebra of C and A. And it is proved that the near centre of Doi-Hopf module AM(H)C is equivalent to the Yetter-Dri

  3. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  4. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  5. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  6. Memory for category information is idealized through contrast with competing options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2010-02-01

    We suggest that human category formation relies on contrastive learning mechanisms that seek to reduce prediction error. In keeping with this view, manipulating category contrast leads to systematic distortions in people's memory for category information. Simply by changing the basis of comparison (i.e., the available response options), we can systematically distort people's perceptions of novel, energy-source, and political categories. Our proposal explains perceived variations in category members' typicality, including cases in which average items are judged as highly typical and cases in which extreme or ideal members are judged as highly typical of the category. Although straightforward, our account spans findings from studies in goal-derived, cross-cultural, and object-based categorization and suggests ways in which society's perception of key issues is distorted by political discourse. PMID:20424052

  7. Seeing Like a Geologist: Bayesian Use of Expert Categories in Location Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Mark P; Newcombe, Nora S; Resnick, Ilyse; Shipley, Thomas F

    2016-03-01

    Memory for spatial location is typically biased, with errors trending toward the center of a surrounding region. According to the category adjustment model (CAM), this bias reflects the optimal, Bayesian combination of fine-grained and categorical representations of a location. However, there is disagreement about whether categories are malleable. For instance, can categories be redefined based on expert-level conceptual knowledge? Furthermore, if expert knowledge is used, does it dominate other information sources, or is it used adaptively so as to minimize overall error, as predicted by a Bayesian framework? We address these questions using images of geological interest. The participants were experts in structural geology, organic chemistry, or English literature. Our data indicate that expertise-based categories influence estimates of location memory-particularly when these categories better constrain errors than alternative ("novice") categories. Results are discussed with respect to the CAM.

  8. Fragment-Based Learning of Visual Object Categories in Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kromrey; Matthew Maestri; Karin Hauffen; Evgeniy Bart; Jay Hegdé

    2010-01-01

    When we perceive a visual object, we implicitly or explicitly associate it with an object category we know. Recent research has shown that the visual system can use local, informative image fragments of a given object, rather than the whole object, to classify it into a familiar category. We have previously reported, using human psychophysical studies, that when subjects learn new object categories using whole objects, they incidentally learn informative fragments, even when not required to d...

  9. The Role of Internal Reference Points in the Category Purchase Decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David R.; Randolph E. Bucklin

    1999-01-01

    The authors study the role that reference effects play in the category purchase decision for consumer nondurable products. Category purchase behavior is represented by a nested logit model that is estimated on purchase records of shoppers in two Universal Product Code (UPC) scanner panels. A series of hypotheses are developed, modeled, and tested regarding the effects that internal reference points for product category attractiveness are likely to have on the decision to buy in a product cate...

  10. Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffen, Karin; Bart, Eugene; Brady, Mark; Kersten, Daniel; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantitatively study object perception, be it perception by biological systems or by machines, one needs to create objects and object categories with precisely definable, preferably naturalistic, properties1. Furthermore, for studies on perceptual learning, it is useful to create novel objects and object categories (or object classes) with such properties2. Many innovative and useful methods currently exist for creating novel objects and object categories3-6 (also see refs. 7,8). ...

  11. Post-error slowing predicts rule-based but not information-integration category learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Helen; Maddox, W. Todd; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether error monitoring, operationalized as the degree to which individuals slow down after committing an error (i.e, post-error slowing), is differentially important in the learning of rule-based vs. information-integration category structures. Rule-based categories are most efficiently solved through the application of an explicit verbal strategy (e.g. sort by color). In contrast, information-integration categories are believed to be learned in a trial-by-trial associative manne...

  12. Which categories should direct marketers feature for which customers when using targeted promotions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reutterer, Thomas; Boztug, Yasemin; Breugelmans, Els

    -stage procedure. For deriving segment-specific promotions at the product category level, this procedure takes both interdependencies in purchase behaviour across categories and customer heterogeneity with respect to cross-category effects in response to marketing actions into account. The resulting...... recommendations are empirically evaluated vis-à-vis alternative approaches in a controlled field experiment conducted in cooperation with a major online grocery retailer....

  13. Preference-based segmentation : a study of food category and meal preferences among Vietnamese teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi Hoa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of preference-based segmentation for a broad array of meals and food categories in the context of teenagers in Vietnam. A convenience sample of 413 Vietnamese teenagers in secondary and high schools provided an evaluation on the preference of 30 items of food categories and 36 common meals was collected based on structured questionnaires and then used as inputs for the analyses. A five-cluster solution for the food category segmentati...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  15. Hom-Hopf group coalgebras and braided T-categories obtained from Hom-Hopf algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Miman; Zhou, Nan; Wang, Shuanhong

    2015-11-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide new examples of braided T-categories in the sense of Turaev [Arabian J. Sci. Eng., Sect. C 33(2C), 483-503 (2008)]. For this purpose, we first introduce a class of new twisted Yetter-Drinfeld modules categories. Then, we construct a new braided T-category, generalizing the main constructions by Panaite and Staic [Isr. J. Math. 158, 349-366 (2007)]. Finally, we show that the new braided T-category in some conditions coincides with the representations of a certain Hom-Hopf group-coalgebra that we construct.

  16. The multicultural jigsaw puzzle: category indispensability and acceptance of immigrants' cultural rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja; Smeekes, Anouk

    2014-11-01

    This research introduces and examines the relatively novel concept of category indispensability. It is examined whether the perception of subgroup indispensability for the identity of a superordinate category is associated with majority members' acceptance of minority rights. We investigated the role of perceived national category indispensability of immigrants for native's acceptances of immigrants' expressive cultural rights. The general hypothesis tested is that higher perceived category indispensability of immigrant groups is associated with higher acceptance. Results from four studies provide support for this hypothesis among native Dutch participants living in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the relationship was found to be mediated by a sense of common dual belonging and by deprovincialization beliefs.

  17. Non-Negative Integral Level Affine Lie Algebra Tensor Categories and Their Associativity Isomorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Robert

    2016-08-01

    For a finite-dimensional simple Lie algebra {{g}}, we use the vertex tensor category theory of Huang and Lepowsky to identify the category of standard modules for the affine Lie algebra {{widehat{{g}}}} at a fixed level {ℓin{N}} with a certain tensor category of finite-dimensional {{g}}-modules. More precisely, the category of level ℓ standard {{widehat{{g}}}}-modules is the module category for the simple vertex operator algebra {L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0)}, and as is well known, this category is equivalent as an abelian category to {{D}({g},ℓ)}, the category of finite-dimensional modules for the Zhu's algebra {A{(L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0))}}, which is a quotient of {U({g})}. Our main result is a direct construction using Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations of the associativity isomorphisms in {{D}({g},ℓ)} induced from the associativity isomorphisms constructed by Huang and Lepowsky in {{L_{widehat{{g}}}(ℓ, 0) - {mod}}}. This construction shows that {{D}({g},ℓ)} is closely related to the Drinfeld category of {U({g})}[[h

  18. On Colour, Category Effects, and Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of colour in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether colour benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items differing in colour diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (colour and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) colour slightly favoured processing of items with higher colour diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used colour information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of colour deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that colour is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing. PMID:26074675

  19. Young children’s learning of relational categories:multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eThibaut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011, two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard and knife-slice of bread, for the cutter for relation. Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations.

  20. LCA of the timber sector in Ghana: preliminary life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Most life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches in life cycle assessment (LCA) are developed for western countries. Their LCIA approaches and characterization methodologies for different impact categories may not be necessarily relevant to African environmental conditions and particula

  1. Learning through Feature Prediction: An Initial Investigation into Teaching Categories to Children with Autism through Predicting Missing Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty generalising information from one situation to another, a process that requires the learning of categories and concepts. Category information may be learned through: (1) classifying items into categories, or (2) predicting missing features of category items. Predicting missing features has to this point been…

  2. 47 CFR 36.382 - Category 3-All other customer services expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category 3-All other customer services expense. 36.382 Section 36.382 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.382 Category 3—All other customer services expense....

  3. Get Your Facts Right: Preschoolers Systematically Extend Both Object Names and Category-Relevant Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Amanda K; Mather, Emily; Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate over the extent to which language development shares common processing mechanisms with other domains of learning. It is well-established that toddlers will systematically extend object labels to similarly shaped category exemplars (e.g., Markman and Hutchinson, 1984; Landau et al., 1988). However, previous research is inconclusive as to whether young children will similarly extend factual information about an object to other category members. We explicitly contrast facts varying in category relevance, and test for extension using two different tasks. Three- to four-year-olds (N = 61) were provided with one of three types of information about a single novel object: a category-relevant fact ('it's from a place called Modi'), a category-irrelevant fact ('my uncle gave it to me'), or an object label ('it's called a Modi'). At test, children provided with the object name or category-relevant fact were significantly more likely to display systematic category extension than children who learnt the category-irrelevant fact. Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that the mechanisms responsible for word learning may be domain-general in nature.

  4. 76 FR 472 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Landing Gear Retracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes--Landing Gear Retracting Mechanisms and Pilot... transport category airplanes on landing gear retracting mechanisms and the pilot compartment view. This... in a stalling maneuver, and would add an additional requirement to keep the landing gear and doors...

  5. 77 FR 1614 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Landing Gear Retracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 472). The NPRM proposed to amend the standards for landing gear... Transport Category Airplanes--Landing Gear Retracting Mechanisms and Pilot Compartment View AGENCY: Federal... the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes on landing gear retracting mechanisms...

  6. Exploiting photographic style for category-level image classification by generalizing the spatial pyramid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van Gemert

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of photographic style for category-level image classification. Specifically, we exploit the assumption that images within a category share a similar style defined by attributes such as colorfulness, lighting, depth of field, viewpoint and saliency. For these style att

  7. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  8. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  9. Using social distictions in taste for analysing design styles across product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Mugge, R.; Huinink, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research uncovers seven cross-category design styles and demonstrates how people’s preferences for these design styles are based on social distinctions. Knowledge of these cross-category design styles and the research approach might assist designers when faced with the challenge of how to addre

  10. Child and Adult Verb Categories. Kansas Workinq Papers in Linguistics. Vol. 4, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ronald P.

    Studies of the acquisition of word meaning and the semantic features involved have been mostly confined to noun categories and polar adjectives. Investigation of the semantic categories underlying verb forms has implications not only for theories of child language acquisition but also for theories of semantic structure in general. Experimental…

  11. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  12. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  13. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  14. Generic Language Use Reveals Domain Differences in Young Children's Expectations about Animal and Artifact Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore domain differences in young children's expectations about the structure of animal and artifact categories. We examined 5-year-olds' and adults' use of category-referring generic noun phrases (e.g., "Birds fly") about novel animals and artifacts. The same stimuli served as both animals and artifacts;…

  15. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  16. Will a Category Cue Attract You? Motor Output Reveals Dynamic Competition across Person Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Ambady, Nalini; Rule, Nicholas O.; Johnson, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    People use social categories to perceive others, extracting category cues to glean membership. Growing evidence for continuous dynamics in real-time cognition suggests, contrary to prevailing social psychological accounts, that person construal may involve dynamic competition between simultaneously active representations. To test this, the authors…

  17. Bayesian Maximum Entropy prediction of soil categories using a traditional soil map as soft information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Bogaert, P.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian Maximum Entropy was used to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of soil categories in the Netherlands, and to simulate realizations from the associated multi-point pdf. Besides the hard observations (H) of the categories at 8369 locations, the soil map of the Netherlands 1:50 000 was u

  18. 14 CFR 29.60 - Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A... Elevated heliport takeoff path: Category A. (a) The elevated heliport takeoff path extends from the point of commencement of the takeoff procedure to a point in the takeoff path at which the rotorcraft is...

  19. 47 CFR 36.377 - Category 1-Local business office expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.377 Category 1—Local business office expense. (a) The expense in this category for the area under study is first segregated on the basis of an analysis of job... commissions paid to payment agencies (which receive payment on customer accounts) and collection...

  20. Neuronal integration in visual cortex elevates face category tuning to conscious face perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrenfort, J.J.; Snijders, T.M.; Heinen, K.; Gaal, S. van; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    The human brain has the extraordinary capability to transform cluttered sensory input into distinct object representations. For example, it is able to rapidly and seemingly without effort detect object categories in complex natural scenes. Surprisingly, category tuning is not sufficient to achieve c