Sample records for chemical-looping combustion chemical

  1. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk


    Rashmeet Singh Monga; Ganesh R. Kale


    A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC) of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk) at 1 bar pr...

  2. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault


    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  3. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  4. Operation of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Hamers, H.P.; Cobden, P.D.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van


    Chemical Looping Combustion is an alternative technology for CO2 capture. While most systems utilize dual circulating fluidized-beds, this work shows that fixed-bed Chemical Looping Combustion is a feasible configuration for this technology. The inherent separation of the CO2 from the depleted air

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore

  6. Chemical Looping Combustion of Methane: A Technology Development View


    Rutuja Bhoje; Ganesh R. Kale; Nitin Labhsetwar; Sonali Borkhade


    Methane is a reliable and an abundantly available energy source occurring in nature as natural gas, biogas, landfill gas, and so forth. Clean energy generation using methane can be accomplished by using chemical looping combustion. This theoretical study for chemical looping combustion of methane was done to consider some key technology development points to help the process engineer choose the right oxygen carrier and process conditions. Combined maximum product (H2O + CO2) generation, weigh...

  7. Scale-up of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Geerdink, P.; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    Fixed-bed chemical looping combustion is currently being studied experimentally with the optimization of systems up to 1 kW. One of the key advantages for using the fixed-bed configuration over fluidized-beds is the flexibility in operating parameters that allows for application of CLC not only to

  8. Packed Bed Reactor Technology for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as an alternative for conventional power production processes to intrinsically integrate power production and CO2 capture. In this work a new reactor concept for CLC is proposed, based on dynamically operated packed bed reactors. With analytical

  9. Experimental validation of packed bed chemical-looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Chemical-looping combustion has emerged as a promising alternative technology, intrinsically integrating CO2 capture in power production. A novel reactor concept based on dynamically operated packed beds has been proposed [Noorman, S., van Sint Annaland, M., Kuipers, J.A.M., 2007. Packed bed reactor

  10. Tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of carbonaceous fuels. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier comprises, where is a chemical composition. Generally, 0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.2.0, 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.5, and 0.2.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.2.5, and in some embodiments, 0.8.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.2, y.ltoreq.1.2, and z.gtoreq.0.8. The tri-metallic ferrite oxygen carrier may be used in various applications for the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, including as an oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion.

  11. Advancements in Development of Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Fang


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of greenhouse CO2. Extensive research has been performed on CLC in the last decade with respect to oxygen carrier development, reaction kinetics, reactor design, system efficiencies, and prototype testing. Transition metal oxides, such as Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn oxides, were reported as reactive species in the oxygen carrier particles. Ni-based oxygen carriers exhibited the best reactivity and stability during multiredox cycles. The performance of the oxygen carriers can be improved by changing preparation method or by making mixedoxides. The CLC has been demonstrated successfully in continuously operated prototype reactors based on interconnected fluidized-bed system in the size range of 0.3–50 kW. High fuel conversion rates and almost 100%  CO2 capture efficiencies were obtained. The CLC system with two interconnected fluidized-bed reactors was considered the most suitable reactor design. Development of oxygen carriers with excellent reactivity and stability is still one of the challenges for CLC in the near future. Experiences of building and operating the large-scale CLC systems are needed before this technology is used commercially. Chemical-looping reforming (CLR and chemical-looping hydrogen (CLH are novel chemical-looping techniques to produce synthesis gas and hydrogen deserving more attention and research.

  12. Comparison of oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Marcus


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion is a combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. This technique involves combustion of fossil fuels by means of an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from the air to the fuel. In this manner a decrease in efficiency is avoided for the energy demanding separation of CO2 from the rest of the flue gases. Results from fifty oxygen carriers based on iron-, manganese- and nickel oxides on different inert materials are compared. The particles were prepared using freeze granulation, sintered at different temperatures and sieved to a size 125-180 mm. To simulate the environment the particles would be exposed to in a chemical-looping combustor, reactivity tests under alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions were performed in a laboratory fluidized bed-reactor of quartz. Reduction was performed in 50% CH4/50% H2O while the oxidation was carried out in 5% O2 in nitrogen. In general nickel particles are the most reactive, followed by manganese. Iron particles are harder but have a lower reactivity. An increase in sintering temperatures normally leads to an increase in strength and decrease in reactivity. Several particles investigated display a combination of high reactivity and strength as well as good fluidization behavior, and are feasible for use as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion.

  13. Attrition Rate of Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion Systems (United States)

    Feilen, Harry Martin

    This project developed an evaluation methodology for determining, accurately and rapidly, the attrition resistance of oxygen carrier materials used in chemical looping technologies. Existing test protocols, to evaluate attrition resistance of granular materials, are conducted under non-reactive and ambient temperature conditions. They do not accurately reflect the actual behavior under the unique process conditions of chemical looping, including high temperatures and cyclic operation between oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. This project developed a test method and equipment that represented a significant improvement over existing protocols. Experimental results obtained from this project have shown that hematite exhibits different modes of attrition, including both due to mechanical stresses and due to structural changes in the particles due to chemical reaction at high temperature. The test methodology has also proven effective in providing reactivity changes of the material with continued use, a property, which in addition to attrition, determines material life. Consumption/replacement cost due to attrition or loss of reactivity is a critical factor in the economic application of the chemical looping technology. This test method will allow rapid evaluation of a wide range of materials that are best suited for this technology. The most important anticipated public benefit of this project is the acceleration of the development of chemical looping technology for lowering greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion of Methane: A Technology Development View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Bhoje


    Full Text Available Methane is a reliable and an abundantly available energy source occurring in nature as natural gas, biogas, landfill gas, and so forth. Clean energy generation using methane can be accomplished by using chemical looping combustion. This theoretical study for chemical looping combustion of methane was done to consider some key technology development points to help the process engineer choose the right oxygen carrier and process conditions. Combined maximum product (H2O + CO2 generation, weight of the oxygen carrier, net enthalpy of CLC process, byproduct formation, CO2 emission from the air reactor, and net energy obtainable per unit weight (gram of oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion can be important parameters for CLC operation. Carbon formed in the fuel reactor was oxidised in the air reactor and that increased the net energy obtainable from the CLC process but resulted in CO2 emission from the air reactor. Use of CaSO4 as oxygen carrier generated maximum energy (−5.3657 kJ, 800°C per gram of oxygen carrier used in the CLC process and was found to be the best oxygen carrier for methane CLC. Such a model study can be useful to identify the potential oxygen carriers for different fuel CLC systems.

  15. Operation of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, E. [TNO, Gas Treatment, Leeghwaterstraat 46, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Hamers, H.P.; Gallucci, F.; Van Sint Annaland, M. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cobden, P. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)


    Chemical Looping Combustion is an alternative technology for CO2 capture. While most systems utilize dual circulating fluidized-beds, this work shows that fixed-bed Chemical Looping Combustion is a feasible configuration for this technology. The inherent separation of the CO2 from the depleted air stream gives a very low efficiency penalty, which is further improved by the possibility of using a pressurized fixed-bed system, a factor much more difficult to realize with circulating fluidized beds. A laboratory scale experimental system has been constructed for the purpose of validating a numerical model. The results from the numerical model have agreed well with experimental data over full oxidation-reduction cycles and will be presented in subsequent publications. The work briefly described here, and to be presented in detail in coming publications, forms a basis which proves feasibility, but also opens up several possibilities for further investigations needed to scale-up and eventually commercialize CLC for power generation with inherent CO2 capture.

  16. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz


    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  17. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Chemical-Looping Combustion and Gasification of Coals and Oxygen Carrier Development: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang


    Full Text Available Chemical-looping technology is one of the promising CO2 capture technologies. It generates a CO2 enriched flue gas, which will greatly benefit CO2 capture, utilization or sequestration. Both chemical-looping combustion (CLC and chemical-looping gasification (CLG have the potential to be used to generate power, chemicals, and liquid fuels. Chemical-looping is an oxygen transporting process using oxygen carriers. Recently, attention has focused on solid fuels such as coal. Coal chemical-looping reactions are more complicated than gaseous fuels due to coal properties (like mineral matter and the complex reaction pathways involving solid fuels. The mineral matter/ash and sulfur in coal may affect the activity of oxygen carriers. Oxygen carriers are the key issue in chemical-looping processes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA has been widely used for the development of oxygen carriers (e.g., oxide reactivity. Two proposed processes for the CLC of solid fuels are in-situ Gasification Chemical-Looping Combustion (iG-CLC and Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU. The objectives of this review are to discuss various chemical-looping processes with coal, summarize TGA applications in oxygen carrier development, and outline the major challenges associated with coal chemical-looping in iG-CLC and CLOU.

  19. Chemical looping combustion. Fuel conversion with inherent CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvoll, Oeyvind


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a new concept for fuel energy conversion with CO2 capture. In CLC, fuel combustion is split into separate reduction and oxidation processes, in which a solid carrier is reduced and oxidized, respectively. The carrier is continuously recirculated between the two vessels, and hence direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. As a result, a stoichiometric amount of oxygen is transferred to the fuel by a regenerable solid intermediate, and CLC is thus a variant of oxy-fuel combustion. In principle, pure CO2 can be obtained from the reduction exhaust by condensation of the produced water vapour. The thermodynamic potential and feasibility of CLC has been studied by means of process simulations and experimental studies of oxygen carriers. Process simulations have focused on parameter sensitivity studies of CLC implemented in 3 power cycles; CLC-Combined Cycle, CLC-Humid Air Turbine and CLC-Integrated Steam Generation. Simulations indicate that overall fuel conversion ratio, oxidation temperature and operating pressure are among the most important process parameters in CLC. A promising thermodynamic potential of CLC has been found, with efficiencies comparable to, - or better than existing technologies for CO2 capture. The proposed oxygen carrier nickel oxide on nickel spinel (NiONiAl) has been studied in reduction with hydrogen, methane and methane/steam as well as oxidation with dry air. It has been found that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures above 600 deg C, solid reduction with dry methane occurs with overall fuel conversion of 92%. Steam methane reforming is observed along with methane cracking as side reactions, yielding an overall selectivity of 90% with regard to solid reduction. If steam is added to the reactant fuel, coking can be avoided. A methodology for long-term investigation of solid chemical activity in a batch reactor is proposed. The method is based on time variables for oxidation. The results for Ni

  20. A solar assisted polygeneration system integrating methane reforming and chemical looping combustion with zero carbon emission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WANG, Jiangjiang; FU, Chao


    .... This paper combines chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and methane reforming with CO2 to accomplish CO2 capture and utilization and proposes a novel polygeneration system to produce syngas, electricity, chilled water for cooling, and hot water...

  1. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  2. Reactor choices for chemical looping combustion (CLC) dependencies on materials characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Lambert, A.; Fossdal, A.; Leenman, R.N.; Comte, E.; Bos, W.A.P. van den; Blom, R.


    The physio-chemical stability of the oxygen carrier material during chemical looping combustion (CLC) operation is crucial. In the present paper we discuss the challenges connected to operating a metal oxide base material in a cyclic manner between oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Especially,

  3. Effects of operating pressure on the key parameters of coal direct chemical looping combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahul Wadhwani Bikash Mohanty


    Techno-economic development of chemical looping combustion (CLC) process has been one of the most pursued research areas of the present decade due to its ability to reduce carbon foot print during utilization of coal to generate energy...

  4. A novel reactor configuration for packed bed chemical-looping combustion of syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, H.P.; Gallucci, F.; Cobden, P.D.; Kimball, E.; Sint Annaland, M. van


    This study reports on the application of chemical looping combustion (CLC) in pressurized packed bed reactors using syngas as a fuel. High pressure operation of CLC in packed bed has a different set of challenges in terms of material properties, cycle and reactor design compared to fluidized bed

  5. Study of dimensional changes during redox cycling of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossdal, A.; Darell, O.; Lambert, A.; Schols, E.; Comte, E.; Leenman, R.N.; Blom, R.


    Dimensional and phase changes of four candidate oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion are investigated by dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray diffraction during four redox cycles. NiO/Ni2AlO4 does not exhibit significant dimensional changes during cycling, and it is shown that

  6. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M


    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  7. CO{sub 2} capture from coal combustion using chemical-looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias Mattisson; Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Bernhard Kronberger; Anders Lyngfelt; Juan Adanez; Hermann Hofbauer [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel, thus avoiding direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are inherently separated from the rest of the flue gases, and no major energy is expended for this separation. The paper presents results from a three year project devoted to developing the CLC technology for use with syngas from coal combustion. The project has focused on i) the development of oxygen carrier particles, ii) establishing a reactor design and feasible operating conditions and iii) construction and operation of a continuously working hot reactor. Approximately 300 different oxygen carriers based on oxides of the metals Ni, Fe, Mn and Cu were investigated with respect to parameters which are important in a CLC system, and from these investigations, several particles were found to possess suitable qualities as oxygen carriers. Several cold-model prototypes of CLC based on interconnected fluidized beds were tested, and from these tests a hot prototype CLC reactor system was constructed and operated successfully using three carriers based on Ni, Fe and Mn developed within the project for 30-70 h. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Chemical looping combustion: A new low-dioxin energy conversion technology. (United States)

    Hua, Xiuning; Wang, Wei


    Dioxin production is a worldwide concern because of its persistence and carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects. The pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process of disposing solid waste is an alternative to traditional solid waste incineration developed to reduce the dioxin production. Based on the equilibrium composition of the Deacon reaction, pyrolysis gas oxidized by seven common oxygen carriers, namely, CuO, NiO, CaSO4, CoO, Fe2O3, Mn3O4, and FeTiO3, is studied and compared with the pyrolysis gas directly combusted by air. The result shows that the activity of the Deacon reaction for oxygen carriers is lower than that for air. For four typical oxygen carriers (CuO, NiO, Fe2O3, and FeTiO3), the influences of temperature, pressure, gas composition, and tar on the Deacon reaction are discussed in detail. According to these simulation results, the dioxin production in China, Europe, the United States, and Japan is predicted for solid waste disposal by the pyrolysis-chemical looping combustion process. Thermodynamic analysis results in this paper show that chemical looping combustion can reduce dioxin production in the disposal of solid waste. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Separation of carbon dioxide with the use of chemical-looping combustion and gasification of fuels (United States)

    Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Litun, D. S.; Sankin, D. A.


    Matters regarding using new technology for chemical-looping combustion of fuels for solving the problem of separation and disposal of artificial CO2 (CO2 sequestration) are discussed. The primary results of investigations and possible schemes for implementing the processes in pilot and commercial installations are presented. Their technical and economic indicators are estimated, and a possibility of disposing CO2 produced during electricity generation is considered.

  10. Gasification Coupled Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal: A Thermodynamic Process Design Study


    Borkhade, Sonali A.; Shriwas, Preksha A.; Ganesh R. Kale


    A thermodynamic investigation of gasification coupled chemical looping combustion (CLC) of carbon (coal) is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200°C. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the gasifier and CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions and energy requirements of the gasifier, fuel reactor, and air reactor were determined. Coal (carbon) gasification using 1.5 mol H2O and 1.5 mol CO2 per mole c...

  11. A Polygeneration System Based on Multi-Input Chemical Looping Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a polygeneration system based on a multi-input chemical looping combustion system, which generates methanol and electricity, through the use of natural gas and coal. In this system, the chemical looping hydrogen (CLH production system and the coal-based methanol production system are integrated. A high quality fuel, natural gas, is used to improve the conversion ratio of coal. The Gibbs energy of the two kinds of fuels is fully used. Benefitting from the chemical looping process, 27% CO2 can be captured without energy penalty. With the same outputs of methanol and electricity, the energy savings ratio of the new system is about 12%. Based on the exergy analyses, it is disclosed that the integration of synthetic utilization of natural gas and coal plays a significant role in reducing the exergy destruction of the new system. The promising results obtained in this paper may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize natural gas and coal more efficiently and economically.

  12. Chemical Looping Technology: Oxygen Carrier Characteristics. (United States)

    Luo, Siwei; Zeng, Liang; Fan, Liang-Shih


    Chemical looping processes are characterized as promising carbonaceous fuel conversion technologies with the advantages of manageable CO2 capture and high energy conversion efficiency. Depending on the chemical looping reaction products generated, chemical looping technologies generally can be grouped into two types: chemical looping full oxidation (CLFO) and chemical looping partial oxidation (CLPO). In CLFO, carbonaceous fuels are fully oxidized to CO2 and H2O, as typically represented by chemical looping combustion with electricity as the primary product. In CLPO, however, carbonaceous fuels are partially oxidized, as typically represented by chemical looping gasification with syngas or hydrogen as the primary product. Both CLFO and CLPO share similar operational features; however, the optimum process configurations and the specific oxygen carriers used between them can vary significantly. Progress in both CLFO and CLPO is reviewed and analyzed with specific focus on oxygen carrier developments that characterize these technologies.

  13. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Techno-economic investigation of a chemical looping combustion based power plant. (United States)

    Porrazzo, Rosario; White, Graeme; Ocone, Raffaella


    Among the well-known state-of-the-art technologies for CO2 capture, Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) stands out for its potential to capture CO2 efficiently from a fuel power plant. CLC involves the combustion of carbonaceous fuel such as coal-derived syngas or natural gas via a redox chemical reaction with a solid oxygen carrier circulating between two fluidised beds. Avoided NOx emissions, high CO2 capture and thermal efficiency are the key concepts that make worth the investigation of this technology. One of the main issues about CLC might concern the impact of the solid metal oxides price and lifetime on the Levelised Cost Of the Electricity (LCOE). A natural gas fired power plant embedding a CLC unit is presented in this work. Detailed fluidised bed models are implemented in Aspen Plus software. Kinetics and hydrodynamics are taken into account to evaluate their effect on the total solid inventory required for full fuel conversion. The models are incorporated into a power plant and a detailed economic evaluation is undertaken by varying two relevant parameters: fuel price and lifetime of the solid particles. The effect of these parameters on the LCOE is investigated and a comparison between CLC and a post-combustion technology employing amines (e.g. monoethanolamine, MEA) is presented. It is shown that the CLC power plant under study leads to a lower LCOE compared to the current MEA post-combustion solution.

  15. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ling [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)


    Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  16. Fabrication and processing of next-generation oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadarajah, Arunan [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)


    Among numerous methods of controlling the global warming effect, Chemical Looping Combustion is known to be the most viable option currently. A key factor to a successful chemical looping process is the presence of highly effective oxygen carriers that enable fuel combustion by going through oxidation and reduction in the presence of air and fuel respectively. In this study, CaMnO3-δ was used as the base material and doped on the A-site (Sr or La) and B-site (Fe, Ti, Zn and Al) by 10 mol % of dopants. Solid state reaction followed by mechanical extrusion (optimized paste formula) was used as the preparation method A series of novel doped perovskite-type oxygen carrier particles (CaxLa (Or Sa)1-x Mn1-yByO3-δ (B-site = Fe, Ti, Al, or Zr)) were synthesized by the proposed extrusion formula. The produced samples were characterized with XRD, SEM, BET and TGA techniques. According to the results obtained from TGA analysis, the oxygen capacity of the samples ranged between 1.2 for CLMZ and 1.75 for CSMF. Reactivity and oxygen uncoupling behaviors of the prepared samples were also evaluated using a fluidized bed chemical looping reactor using methane as the fuel at four different temperatures (800, 850, 900, 950 °C). All of the oxygen carriers showed oxygen uncoupling behavior and they were able to capture and release oxygen. Mass-based conversion of the perovskites was calculated and temperature increase proved to increase the mass-based conversion rate in all of the samples under study. Gas yield was calculated at 950 °C as well, and results showed that CLMZ, CM and CSMF showed 100% gas yields and CLMF and CSMZ showed approximately 85% yield in fluidized bed reactor, which is a high and acceptable quantity. Based on extended reactor tests the modified calcium manganese perovskite structures (CSMF) can be a good candidate for future pilot tests.

  17. Chemical Looping Combustion of Hematite Ore with Methane and Steam in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bayham


    Full Text Available Chemical looping combustion is considered an indirect method of oxidizing a carbonaceous fuel, utilizing a metal oxide oxygen carrier to provide oxygen to the fuel. The advantage is the significantly reduced energy penalty for separating out the CO2 for reuse or sequestration in a carbon-constrained world. One of the major issues with chemical looping combustion is the cost of the oxygen carrier. Hematite ore is a proposed oxygen carrier due to its high strength and resistance to mechanical attrition, but its reactivity is rather poor compared to tailored oxygen carriers. This problem is further exacerbated by methane cracking, the subsequent deposition of carbon and the inability to transfer oxygen at a sufficient rate from the core of the particle to the surface for fuel conversion to CO2. Oxygen needs to be readily available at the surface to prevent methane cracking. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of steam to overcome this issue and improve the conversion of the natural gas to CO2, as well as to provide data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD validation. The steam will gasify the deposited carbon to promote the methane conversion. This work studies the performance of hematite ore with methane and steam mixtures in a 5 cm fluidized bed up to approximately 140 kPa. Results show an increased conversion of methane in the presence of steam (from 20–45% without steam to 60–95% up to a certain point, where performance decreases. Adding steam allows the methane conversion to carbon dioxide to be similar to the overall methane conversion; it also helped to prevent carbon accumulation from occurring on the particle. In general, the addition of steam to the feed gas increased the methane conversion. Furthermore, the addition of steam caused the steam methane reforming reaction to form more hydrogen and carbon monoxide at higher steam and methane concentrations, which was not completely converted at higher concentrations and

  18. Simulation of mass and energy balances of a chemical-looping combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Kronberger; G. Loeffler; H. Hofbauer [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria). Institute of Chemical Engineering


    Chemical-Looping Combustion is constructed from two separate reactors: i) the fuel reactor where the fuel gas is oxidised and ii) the air reactor where the metal oxide re-oxidation reaction takes place. The oxygen transfer is realised by means of oxygen carrier materials, and the oxidation products of the fuel are kept separated from the combustion air. No extra energy for CO{sub 2} separation and further sequestration is needed. A mathematical model of a CLC system with an integrated solution of the mass and energy balances was set up. Evaluation of the effect of numerous design and operating parameters, such as fuel gas composition and reactor cooling arrangement that depend on the oxygen carrier type, were carried out. The results of the model reveal that in many cases additional reactor cooling and oxygen carrier flow have to be chosen properly to guarantee appropriate temperatures in the reactor and complete fuel gas combustion. These are requirements for avoiding thermal and mechanical decomposition of the oxygen carrier, and operation of the electricity generation cycle with high thermal and CO{sub 2}-capture efficiency.

  19. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling...

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of chemical looping combustion technology and comparison with pre-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion technologies for CO2 capture


    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul


    Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from conventional coal-based power plants is a growing concern for the environment. Chemical looping combustion (CLC), pre-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion are promising CO2 capture technologies which allow clean electricity generation from coal in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. This work compares the characteristics of the above three capture technologies to those of a conventional IGCC plant without CO2 capture. CLC tech...

  1. Design and scale-up of a combustion process for inherent CO{sub 2} separation by chemical looping combustion; Design und Scale-up eines Verbrennungsverfahrens zur inhaerenten CO{sub 2} - Abtrennung mittels Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberger, B.; Luisser, M.; Loeffler, G.; Hofbauer, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und Technische Biowissenschaften, Wien (Austria)


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel power plant concept with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. Using metal oxides as oxygen carriers, oxygen is separated from the combustion air and is supplied to the fuel for oxidation. There is no direct contact between fuel and combustion air, and the combustion products CO2 and water are obtained separately from nitrogen. The contribution presents the state of development of the process. Design criteria are derived from the research findings so far in the fields of oxygen carrier reactivity and stability, fluid dynamics of the reactor system, simulation of power plant processes, and prototype operation. The design criteria, together with the scale-up criteria developed for CLC, provide the basis for developing a power plant concept with integrated CLC combustion. (orig.)

  2. Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers. (United States)

    Huang, H B; Aisyah, L; Ashman, P J; Leung, Y C; Kwong, C W


    Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800°C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800°C. A reaction temperature of 950°C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Computational Approaches for Simulation and Advanced Controls for Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lou, Xinsheng; Neuschaefer, Carl; Chaudry, Majid; Quinn, Joseph


    This document provides the results of the project through September 2009. The Phase I project has recently been extended from September 2009 to March 2011. The project extension will begin work on Chemical Looping (CL) Prototype modeling and advanced control design exploration in preparation for a scale-up phase. The results to date include: successful development of dual loop chemical looping process models and dynamic simulation software tools, development and test of several advanced control concepts and applications for Chemical Looping transport control and investigation of several sensor concepts and establishment of two feasible sensor candidates recommended for further prototype development and controls integration. There are three sections in this summary and conclusions. Section 1 presents the project scope and objectives. Section 2 highlights the detailed accomplishments by project task area. Section 3 provides conclusions to date and recommendations for future work.

  4. Metal ferrite oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Fan, Yueying


    The disclosure provides a metal ferrite oxygen carrier for the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The metal ferrite oxygen carrier comprises MFe.sub.xO.sub.y on an inert support, where MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is a chemical composition and M is one of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Mn, and combinations thereof. For example, MFe.sub.xO.sub.y may be one of MgFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, SrFe.sub.2O.sub.4, BaFe.sub.2O.sub.4, CoFe.sub.2O.sub.4, MnFeO.sub.3, and combinations thereof. The MFe.sub.xO.sub.y is supported on an inert support. The inert support disperses the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y oxides to avoid agglomeration and improve performance stability. In an embodiment, the inert support comprises from about 5 wt. % to about 60 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier and the MFe.sub.xO.sub.y comprises at least 30 wt. % of the metal ferrite oxygen carrier. The metal ferrite oxygen carriers disclosed display improved reduction rates over Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and improved oxidation rates over CuO.

  5. Reduction Kinetics of a CasO4 Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion (United States)

    Xiao, R.; Song, Q. L.; Zheng, W. G.; Deng, Z. Y.; Shen, L. H.; Zhang, M. Y.

    The CaSO4 based oxygen carrier has been proposed as an alternative low cost oxygen carrier for Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. The reduction of CaSO4 to CaS is an important step for the cyclic process of reduction/oxidation in CLC of coal with CaSO4 based oxygen carrier. Thermodynamic analysis of CaSO4 oxygen carrier with CO based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization show that the essentially high purity of CO2 can be obtained, while the solid product is CaS instead of CaO. The intrinsic reduction kinetics of a CaSO4 based oxygen carrier with CO was investigated in a differential fixed bed reactor. The effects of gas partial pressure (20%-70%) and temperature (880-950°C) on the reduction were investigated. The reduction was described with shrinking unreacted core model. Experimental results of CO partial pressure on the solid conversion show that the reduction of fresh oxygen carriers is of first order with respect to the CO partial pressure. Both chemical reaction control and product layer diffusion control determine the reduction rate. The dependences of reaction rate constant and effective diffusivity with temperature were both obtained. The kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data.

  6. Numerical investigation of the role of clustering during oxygen-carrier regeneration in Chemical Looping Combustion (United States)

    Goyal, Himanshu; Pepiot, Perrine


    In the air-reactor of a dual-bed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) system, the spent oxygen-carrier, in the form of metal or reduced metal oxide, is oxidized with air, typically in a high velocity riser reactor. Such a configuration provides challenging modeling issues, as the granular flow is characterized by a highly fluctuating solid volume fraction due to the formation of dense clusters. This may strongly affect the solid residence time in the air-reactor, and therefore, the extent of the oxygen-carrier regeneration and ultimately, the overall reactivity of the carrier in the fuel reactor. Here, we investigate how clustering impacts gas-solid chemical reactions in the reactor using a detailed Lagrange-Euler computational framework. The simulations account for both mass and heat transfer between the gas phase and the metal oxide particles, and the evolution of oxygen content of the metal oxide particles, or equivalently, their degree of oxidation. Two particle models of different complexity are considered. Results are analyzed to quantify the relative importance on the regeneration process of the reactor hydrodynamics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1638837.

  7. Effect of fuel particle size on reaction rate in chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iggland, M.; Leion, H.; Mattisson, T.; Lyngfelt, A. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Process Engineering


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) uses an oxygen carrier circulating between an air and a fuel reactor to replace direct burning of fuels in air. The very low energy penalty for CO{sub 2} separation in CLC gives it the potential to become an important technology on the way to a CO{sub 2} neutral energy supply. In this work, the influence of the particle size of coal on the rate of reaction of the coal was investigated in a bed of oxygen carrier. In order to do this, a method to quench the reaction of coal with oxygen carriers at a specified time and measure the particle size distribution of the remaining coal was developed. Three size fractions of coal were used in the experiments: 90-125, 180-212 and 250-355 mu m. Particle size distributions of the fuel show a decrease in particle size with time. The influence of devolatilisation of the coal on the coal particle size was measured, showing that coal particles do not break in the fluidized bed reactor used for the experiments. Reaction rates based on measurements of gas phase concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} showed that the reaction rate is independent of the particle size. These results are in line with literature findings, as studies have shown that carbon gasification is size-independent at conditions similar to those in the performed CLC experiments.

  8. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 1: Fundamentals and design methodology

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet, and depleted air and product streams at exit. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of micro-channels with oxygen carriers (OC) coated on the inner surface of the channel walls. In the CC application, the OC oxidizes the fuel while the channel is in the fuel zone to generate undiluted CO2, and is regenerated while the channel is in the air zone. In this two-part series, the effect of the reactor design parameters is evaluated and its performance with different OCs is compared. In Part 1, the design objectives and criteria are specified and the key parameters controlling the reactor performance are identified. The fundamental effects of the OC characteristics, the design parameters, and the operating conditions are studied. The design procedures are presented on the basis of the relative importance of each parameter, enabling a systematic methodology of selecting the design parameters and the operating conditions with different OCs. Part 2 presents the application of the methodology to the designs with the three commonly used OCs, i.e., nickel, copper, and iron, and compares the simulated performances of the designs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electric arc furnace dust as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion. (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Huang, Wei-Chen; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Chang, Shu-Huai; Ku, Young; Lee, Hao-Yeh


    The relative abundance and low cost of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) make it a viable oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion (CLC) system. Under a reducing agent, zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) phase in EAFD releases zinc vapor in a complex gas-solid reaction. In an effort to suppress the emission of zinc vapor, the reaction mechanism of ZnFe2O4 prepared as an oxygen carrier in a redox cycling test is primarily discussed, as well as the issue of coupling with an inert Al2O3 support. The study focused the investigation on redox cycling behavior and CO2 conversion in ZnFe2O4/Al2O3 and EAFD/Al2O3 systems using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor (FxBR). In a lab-scaled semi-fluidized bed reactor (semi-FzBR) of EAFD/Al2O3 as an oxygen carrier system, a high CO gas yield approximately 0.98 after fifty redox cycles is also experimentally obtained. It can be anticipated that the use of EAFD/Al2O3 system as an oxygen carrier in a reversible CLC process could be economical and environmentally beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical looping combustion in a rotating bed reactor--finding optimal process conditions for prototype reactor. (United States)

    Håkonsen, Silje Fosse; Blom, Richard


    A lab-scale rotating bed reactor for chemical looping combustion has been designed, constructed, and tested using a CuO/Al(2)O(3) oxygen carrier and methane as fuel. Process parameters such as bed rotating frequency, gas flows, and reactor temperature have been varied to find optimal performance of the prototype reactor. Around 90% CH(4) conversion and >90% CO(2) capture efficiency based on converted methane have been obtained. Stable operation has been accomplished over several hours, and also--stable operation can be regained after intentionally running into unstable conditions. Relatively high gas velocities are used to avoid fully reduced oxygen carrier in part of the bed. Potential CO(2) purity obtained is in the range 30 to 65%--mostly due to air slippage from the air sector--which seems to be the major drawback of the prototype reactor design. Considering the prototype nature of the first version of the rotating reactor setup, it is believed that significant improvements can be made to further avoid gas mixing in future modified and up-scaled reactor versions.

  11. A reduced fidelity model for the rotary chemical looping combustion reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike O.


    The rotary chemical looping combustion reactor has great potential for efficient integration with CO capture-enabled energy conversion systems. In earlier studies, we described a one-dimensional rotary reactor model, and used it to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous reactor operation. Though this detailed model provides a high resolution representation of the rotary reactor performance, it is too computationally expensive for studies that require multiple model evaluations. Specifically, it is not ideal for system-level studies where the reactor is a single component in an energy conversion system. In this study, we present a reduced fidelity model (RFM) of the rotary reactor that reduces computational cost and determines an optimal combination of variables that satisfy reactor design requirements. Simulation results for copper, nickel and iron-based oxygen carriers show a four-order of magnitude reduction in simulation time, and reasonable prediction accuracy. Deviations from the detailed reference model predictions range from 3% to 20%, depending on oxygen carrier type and operating conditions. This study also demonstrates how the reduced model can be modified to deal with both optimization and design oriented problems. A parametric study using the reduced model is then applied to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal reactor design to changes in selected operating and kinetic parameters. These studies show that temperature and activation energy have a greater impact on optimal geometry than parameters like pressure or feed fuel fraction for the selected oxygen carrier materials.

  12. Off-design performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle: effects of ambient temperature (United States)

    Chi, Jinling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan


    The present work investigates the influence of ambient temperature on the steady-state off-design thermodynamic performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the CLC reactor system was conducted, which shows that the parameters that influence the temperatures of the CLC reactors most are the flow rate and temperature of air entering the air reactor. For the ambient temperature variation, three off-design control strategies have been assumed and compared: 1) without any Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control, 2) IGV control to maintain air reactor temperature and 3) IGV control to maintain constant fuel reactor temperature, aside from fuel flow rate adjusting. Results indicate that, compared with the conventional combined cycle, due to the requirement of pressure balance at outlet of the two CLC reactors, CLC combined cycle shows completely different off-design thermodynamic characteristics regardless of the control strategy adopted. For the first control strategy, temperatures of the two CLC reactors both rise obviously as ambient temperature increases. IGV control adopted by the second and the third strategy has the effect to maintain one of the two reactors' temperatures at design condition when ambient temperature is above design point. Compare with the second strategy, the third would induce more severe decrease of efficiency and output power of the CLC combined cycle.

  13. Investigation of Coal Fueled Chemical Looping Combustion Using Fe3O4 as Oxygen Carrier (United States)

    Xlang, Wenguo; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wangt, Sha; Tian, Wendong; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Yanji; Xiao, Yunhan

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier and Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China) as the fuel for this study. The influences of operation temperatures, and coal to Fe3O4 mass ratios on the reduction characteristics of the oxygen carrier were investigated using an atmosphere TGA. The sample, comprised of 2.25mg coal and 12.75mg Fe3O4, was heated to 1000°C. Experimental results show that the reaction between the coal volatile and Fe3O4 began at 700°C while the reaction between the coal char and Fe3O4 occurred at 800°C and reached a peak at 900°C. Fe3O4 was fully reduced into FeO, while some FeO was further reduced to Fe. As the operation temperature rises, the reduction conversion rate increases. At the temperatures of 850°C, 900°C, and 950°C, the reduction conversion rates were 37.1%, 46.5%, and 54.1% respectively. When the mass ratios of coal to Fe3O4 were 5/95, 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80, the reduction conversion rates were 29.5%,40.8%,46.5%, and 46.6% respectively. With the increase of coal to Fe3O4 mass ratio, the conversion rate increases first and then changes no more. There exists an optimal coal to Fe3O4 mass ratio.

  14. Analysis of thermally coupled chemical looping combustion-based power plants with carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Iloeje, Chukwunwike


    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. A number of CO2 capture-enabled power generation technologies have been proposed to address the negative environmental impact of CO2 emission. One important barrier to adopting these technologies is the associated energy penalty. Chemical-looping Combustion (CLC) is an oxy-combustion technology that can significantly lower this penalty. It utilizes an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from air/oxidizing stream in an oxidation reactor to the fuel in a reduction reactor. Conventional CLC reactor designs employ two separate reactors, with metal/metal oxide particles circulating pneumatically in-between. One of the key limitations of these designs is the entropy generation due to reactor temperature difference, which lowers the cycle efficiency. Zhao et al. (Zhao et al., 2014; Zhao and Ghoniem, 2014) proposed a new CLC rotary reactor design, which overcomes this limitation. This reactor consists of a single rotating wheel with micro-channels designed to maintain thermal equilibrium between the fuel and air sides. This study uses three thermodynamic models of increasing fidelity to demonstrate that the internal thermal coupling in the rotary CLC reactor creates the potential for improved cycle efficiency. A theoretical availability model and an ideal thermodynamic cycle model are used to define the efficiency limits of CLC systems, illustrate the impact of reactor thermal coupling and discuss relevant criteria. An Aspen Plus® model of a regenerative CLC cycle is then used to show that this thermal coupling raises the cycle efficiency by up to 2% points. A parametric study shows that efficiency varies inversely with pressure, with a maximum of 51% at 3bar, 1000C and 60% at 4bar, 1400C. The efficiency increases with CO2 fraction at high pressure ratios but exhibits a slight inverse dependence at low pressure ratios. The parametric study shows that for low purge steam demand, steam generation improves exhaust heat recovery and increases efficiency

  15. Density functional theory study on activity of α-Fe 2O 3 in chemical-looping combustion system (United States)

    Dong, Changqing; Sheng, Shuhui; Qin, Wu; Lu, Qiang; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Junjiao


    The dominant growth planes (0 0 0 1) and (1 1 0 2) have been used to investigate the activity of the natural α-Fe 2O 3 in chemical-looping combustion system based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In the chemical-looping combustion system, CO is selected as the probe fuel gas to detect the activities of the different surfaces. CO interacts stronger to Fe 2O 3 (1 1 0 2) than Fe 2O 3 (0 0 0 1). CO can be oxidized into CO 2 species directly on Fe 2O 3 (1 1 0 2) rather than Fe 2O 3 (0 0 0 1). The formation of CO 2 accompanying with a transformation from hematite to magnetite acted as the key step for the reduction process of hematite.

  16. Experimental evaluation of a Chinese sulfur-containing lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion


    Wang, Xiaojia; Hao LIU; Jin, Baosheng; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Chenggong; Snape, Colin E.


    A series of chemical-looping combustion (CLC) tests were conducted in a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reactor to investigate the potential of a Chinese sulfur-containing lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier. Two main products of solidfuel pyrolysis and gasification, namely, CH4 and CO, were selected as the reducing gases. Consecutive reduction−oxidation cycles were first carried out in the TGA reactor to evaluate the cyclic stability and agglomeration tendency of the oxygen carrier. The eff...

  17. A novel reactor configuration for packed bed chemical-looping combustion of syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, H.P.; Gallucci, F.; Van Sint Annaland, M. [Multiphase Reactor Group, Chemical Process Intensification, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Cobden, P.D. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kimball, E. [TNO Gas Treatment, P.O. Box 6000, 2600 JA Delft (Netherlands)


    This study reports on the application of chemical looping combustion (CLC) in pressurized packed bed reactors using syngas as a fuel. High pressure operation of CLC in packed bed has a different set of challenges in terms of material properties, cycle and reactor design compared to fluidized bed operation. However, high pressure operation allows the use of inherently more efficient power cycles than low pressure fluidized bed solutions. This paper quantifies the challenges in high pressure operation and introduces a novel reactor concept with which those challenges can be addressed. Continuous cyclic operation of a packed bed CLC system is simulated in a 1D numerical reactor model. Importantly, it is demonstrated that the temperature profiles that can occur in a packed bed reactor as a result of the different process steps do not accumulate, and have a negligible effect on the overall performance of the system. Moreover, it has been shown that an even higher energy efficiency can be achieved by feeding the syngas from the opposite direction during the reduction step (i.e. countercurrent operation). Unfortunately, in this configuration mode, more severe temperature fluctuations occur in the reactor exhaust, which is disadvantageous for the operation of a downstream gas turbine. Finally, a novel reactor configuration is introduced in which the desired temperature rise for obtained hot pressured air suitable for a gas turbine is obtained by carrying out the process with two packed bed reactor in series (two-stage CLC). This is shown to be a good alternative to the single bed configuration, and has the added advantage of decreasing the demands on both the oxygen carrier and the reactor materials and design specification.

  18. Reactor design, cold-model experiment and CFD modeling for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Ma, Jinchen; Hu, Xintao; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Baowen; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an efficient, clean and cheap technology for CO{sub 2} capture, and an interconnected fluidized bed is more appropriate solution for CLC. This paper aims to design a reactor system for CLC, carry out cold-model experiment of the system, and model fuel reactor using commercial CFD software. As for the CLC system, the air reactor (AR) is designed as a fast fluidized bed while the fuel reactor (FR) is a bubbling bed; a cyclone is used for solid separation of the AR exit flow. The AR and FR are separated by two U-type loop seals to remain gas sealed. Considered the chemical kinetics of oxygen carrier, fluid dynamics, pressure balance and mass balance of the system simultaneously, some key design parameters of a CH{sub 4}-fueled and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based CLC reactor (thermal power of 50 kWth) are determined, including key geometric parameters (reactor cross-sectional area and reactor height) and operation parameters (bed material quantity, solid circulation rate, apparent gas velocity of each reactor). A cold-model bench having same geometric parameters with its prototype is built up to study the effects of various operation conditions (including gas velocity in the reactors and loop seals, and bed material height, etc.) on the solids circulation rate, gas leakage, and pressure balance. It is witnessed the cold-model system is able to meet special requirements for CLC system such as gas sealing between AR and FR, the circulation rate and particles residence time. Furthermore, the thermal FR reactor with oxygen carrier of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and fuel of CH{sub 4} is simulated by commercial CFD solver FLUENT. It is found that for the design case the combustion efficiency of CH{sub 4} reaches 88.2%. A few part of methane is unburned due to fast, large bubbles rising through the reactor.

  19. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit; Li, Fanxing; Santiso, Erik


    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  20. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to

  1. Processing and Evaluation of Next Generation Oxygen Carrier Materials for Chemical Looping Combustion (United States)

    Hamedi Rad, Mina

    This study follows two methods to achieve a modified CaMnO 3-delta structure with higher oxygen capacity and stability. The first method is replacement of manganese with iron as a cheaper alternative and the second method is size effect investigations of A-site dopants on CaMn 0.9Fe0.1O3-delta and its oxygen capacity and stability. Solid state reaction followed by mechanical extrusion is used as the preparation method. All synthesized perovskites are characterized by TGA and XRD analyses. The samples of highest oxygen capacity and stability are further characterized by SEM and BET analyses. Oxygen uncoupling behavior and reactivity of these samples are also examined using a fluidized bed reactor performing Chemical Looping Combustion. The temperature effect is also investigated during chemical looping process at temperatures of 800, 850, 900 and 950 °C. In the first method, since calcium could not be incorporated in the structure, strontium is used as the A-site cation. SrFeO3-delta has shown to be more stable than CaMnO3-delta. However, because of low oxygen capacity, it is doped on the A-site (La and Ba) and B-site (Al, Ti, Mn, Co) by 10 mol% (Sr0.9La0.1FeO3-delta, Sr0.9Ba0.1FeO3-delta, SrFe0.9Al 0.1O3-delta, SrFe0.9Ti0.1O3-delta , SrFe0.9Mn0.1O3-delta, SrFe 0.9Co0.1O3-delta). Results reveal that manganese doped structure (SrFe0.9Mn0.1O3-delta) has the highest oxygen capacity. Adding more manganese to the structure increases the oxygen capacity even further. The best iron-based structure has 30 mol% manganese, doped on the B-site, having 28% mass change in an inert atmosphere (SrFe0.7Mn0.3O3-delta, SFM73) and high stability. Results of conducted experiments in second method demonstrated that Strontium doped perovskite (Ca0.9Sr0.1Mn0.9Fe 0.1O3-delta, CS91MF91) is the best synthesized oxygen carrier among all synthesized manganese and iron-based perovskites. This material shows excellent oxygen uptake and release (1.78 wt. %) and high stability. The reactivity and

  2. Coprecipitated, copper-based, alumina-stabilized materials for carbon dioxide capture by chemical looping combustion. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Qasim; Kierzkowska, Agnieszka Marta; Müller, Christoph Rüdiger


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) process to produce a pure stream of CO(2) at very low costs when compared with alternative CCS technologies, such as scrubbing with amines. From a thermodynamic point of view, copper oxide is arguably the most promising candidate for the oxygen carrier owing to its exothermic reduction and oxidation reactions and high oxygen-carrying capacity. However, the low melting point of pure copper of only 1085 °C has so far prohibited the synthesis of copper-rich oxygen carriers. This paper is concerned with the development of copper-based and Al(2)O(3)-stabilized oxygen carriers that contain a high mass fraction of CuO, namely, 82.4 wt %. The oxygen carriers were synthesized by using a coprecipitation technique. The synthesized oxygen carriers were characterized in detail with regards to their morphological properties, chemical composition, and surface topography. It was found that both the precipitating agent and the pH at which the precipitation was performed strongly influenced the structure and chemical composition of the oxygen carriers. In addition, XRD analysis confirmed that, for the majority of the precipitation conditions investigated, CuO reacted with Al(2)O(3) to form fully reducible CuAl(2)O(4). The redox characteristics of the synthesized materials were evaluated at 800 °C by using methane as the fuel and air for reoxidation. It was found that the oxygen-carrying capacity of the synthesized oxygen carriers was strongly influenced by both the precipitating agent and the pH at which the precipitation was performed; however, all oxygen carriers tested showed a stable cyclic oxygen-carrying capacity. The oxygen carriers synthesized at pH 5.5 using NaOH or Na(2)CO(3) as the precipitating agents were the best oxygen carriers synthesized owing to their high and stable oxygen transfer and uncoupling capacities. The excellent redox characteristics of the best oxygen carrier

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of in situ gasification-chemical looping combustion (iG-CLC) of Indian coal. (United States)

    Suresh, P V; Menon, Kavitha G; Prakash, K S; Prudhvi, S; Anudeep, A


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an inherent CO2 capture technology. It is gaining much interest in recent years mainly because of its potential in addressing climate change problems associated with CO2 emissions from power plants. A typical chemical looping combustion unit consists of two reactors-fuel reactor, where oxidation of fuel occurs with the help of oxygen available in the form of metal oxides and, air reactor, where the reduced metal oxides are regenerated by the inflow of air. These oxides are then sent back to the fuel reactor and the cycle continues. The product gas from the fuel reactor contains a concentrated stream of CO2 which can be readily stored in various forms or used for any other applications. This unique feature of inherent CO2 capture makes the technology more promising to combat the global climate changes. Various types of CLC units have been discussed in literature depending on the type of fuel burnt. For solid fuel combustion three main varieties of CLC units exist namely: syngas CLC, in situ gasification-CLC (iG-CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU). In this paper, theoretical studies on the iG-CLC unit burning Indian coal are presented. Gibbs free energy minimization technique is employed to determine the composition of flue gas and oxygen carrier of an iG-CLC unit using Fe2O3, CuO, and mixed carrier-Fe2O3 and CuO as oxygen carriers. The effect of temperature, suitability of oxygen carriers, and oxygen carrier circulation rate on the performance of a CLC unit for Indian coal are studied and presented. These results are analyzed in order to foresee the operating conditions at which economic and smooth operation of the unit is expected.

  4. Reduction kinetics of iron-based oxygen carriers using methane for chemical-looping combustion (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Shuzhong; Wang, Longfei; Lv, Mingming


    The performance of three iron-based oxygen carriers (pure Fe2O3, synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 and iron ore) in reduction process using methane as fuel is investigated in thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The reaction rate and mechanism between three oxygen carriers and methane are investigated. On the basis of reactivity in reduction process, it may be concluded that Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 has the best reactivity with methane. The reaction rate constant is found to be in the following order: Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 > pure Fe2O3 > iron ore and the activation energy varies between 49 and 184 kJ mol-1. Reduction reactions for the pure Fe2O3 and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 are well represented by the reaction controlling mechanism, and for the iron ore the phase-boundary controlled (contracting cylinder) model dominates. The particles of iron ore and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 have better stability than that of pure Fe2O3 when the reaction temperature is limited to lower than 1223 K. These preliminary results suggest that iron-based mixed oxygen carrier particles are potential to be used in methane chemical looping process, but the reactivity of the iron ore needs to be increased.

  5. Exergy Analysis of a Syngas-Fueled Combined Cycle with Chemical-Looping Combustion and CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Urdiales Montesino


    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are still widely used for power generation. Nevertheless, it is possible to attain a short- and medium-term substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere through a sequestration of the CO2 produced in fuels’ oxidation. The chemical-looping combustion (CLC technique is based on a chemical intermediate agent, which gets oxidized in an air reactor and is then conducted to a separated fuel reactor, where it oxidizes the fuel in turn. Thus, the oxidation products CO2 and H2O are obtained in an output flow in which the only non-condensable gas is CO2, allowing the subsequent sequestration of CO2 without an energy penalty. Furthermore, with shrewd configurations, a lower exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation can be achieved. This paper focus on a second law analysis of a CLC combined cycle power plant with CO2 sequestration using syngas from coal and biomass gasification as fuel. The key thermodynamic parameters are optimized via the exergy method. The proposed power plant configuration is compared with a similar gas turbine system with a conventional combustion, finding a notable increase of the power plant efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of syngas composition on the results is investigated by considering different H2-content fuels.

  6. Experimental Investigation of CaMnO3−δ Based Oxygen Carriers Used in Continuous Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallberg


    Full Text Available Three materials of perovskite structure, CaMn1−xMxO3−δ (M = Mg or Mg and Ti, have been examined as oxygen carriers in continuous operation of chemical-looping combustion (CLC in a circulating fluidized bed system with the designed fuel power 300 W. Natural gas was used as fuel. All three materials were capable of completely converting the fuel to carbon dioxide and water at 900°C. All materials also showed the ability to release gas phase oxygen when fluidized by inert gas at elevated temperature (700–950°C; that is, they were suitable for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU. Both fuel conversion and oxygen release improved with temperature. All three materials also showed good mechanical integrity, as the fraction of fines collected during experiments was small. These results indicate that the materials are promising oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion.

  7. Finial Scientific/Technical Report: Application of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Process for the Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wei-Ping Pan; Dr. John T. Riley


    Chemical Looping Combustion is a novel combustion technology for the inherent separation of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}. In 1983, Richter and Knoche proposed reversible combustion, which utilized both the oxidation and reduction of metal. Metal associated with its oxidized form as an oxygen carrier was circulated between two reactors--oxidizer and reducer. In the reducer, the solid oxygen carrier reacts with the fuel to produce CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and elemental metal only. Pure CO{sub 2} will be obtained in the exit gas stream from the reducer after H{sub 2}O is condensed. The pure CO{sub 2} is ready for subsequent sequestration. In the oxidizer, the elemental metal reacts with air to form metal oxide and separate oxygen from nitrogen. Only nitrogen and some unused oxygen are emitted from the oxidizer. The advantage of CLC compared to normal combustion is that CO{sub 2} is not diluted with nitrogen but obtained in a relatively pure form without any energy needed for separation. In addition to the energy-free purification of CO{sub 2}, the CLC process also provides two other benefits. First, NO{sub x} formation can be largely eliminated. Secondly, the thermal efficiency of a CLC system is very high. Presently, the CLC process has only been used with natural gas. An oxygen carrier based on an energy balance analysis and thermodynamics analysis was selected. Copper (Cu) seems to be the best choice for the CLC system for solid fuels. From this project, the mechanisms of CuO reduction by solid fuels may be as follows: (1) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are available, reduction of CuO could start at about 400 C or less. (2) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is lower, reduction of CuO could occur at an onset temperature of about 500 C, char gasification reactivity in CO{sub 2} was lower at lower temperatures. (3) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is higher than 750 C

  8. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two-part series, a new rotary reactor concept for gas-fueled CLC is proposed and analyzed. In part 1, the detailed configuration of the rotary reactor is described. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet and exit. Two purging sectors are used to avoid the mixing between the fuel stream and the air stream. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of channels with copper oxide coated on the inner surface of the channels. The support material is boron nitride, which has high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Gas flows through the reactor at elevated pressure, and it is heated to a high temperature by fuel combustion. Typical design parameters for a thermal capacity of 1 MW have been proposed, and a simplified model is developed to predict the performances of the reactor. The potential drawbacks of the rotary reactor are also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plants with Chemical Looping Reforming of Natural Gas and Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareq Mohd Nazir


    Full Text Available In this paper, a gas-fired combined cycle power plant subjected to a pre-combustion CO2 capture method has been analysed under different design conditions and different heat integration options. The power plant configuration includes the chemical looping reforming (CLR of natural gas (NG, water gas shift (WGS process, CO2 capture and compression, and a hydrogen fuelled combined cycle to produce power. The process is denoted as a CLR-CC process. One of the main parameters that affects the performance of the process is the pressure for the CLR. The process is analysed at different design pressures for the CLR, i.e., 5, 10, 15, 18, 25 and 30 bar. It is observed that the net electrical efficiency increases with an increase in the design pressure in the CLR. Secondly, the type of steam generated from the cooling of process streams also effects the net electrical efficiency of the process. Out of the five different cases including the base case presented in this study, it is observed that the net electrical efficiency of CLR-CCs can be improved to 46.5% (lower heating value of NG basis by producing high-pressure steam through heat recovery from the pre-combustion process streams and sending it to the Heat Recovery Steam Generator in the power plant.

  10. A two-compartment fluidized bed reactor for CO{sub 2} capture by chemical-looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberger, B.; Loeffler, G.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/1663, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Johansson, E.; Mattisson, T.; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy Conversion, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion method for a gaseous fuel with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. A CLC system consists of two reactors, an air reactor and a fuel reactor, and an oxygen carrier circulating between the two reactors. The oxygen carrier transfers the oxygen from the air to the fuel. The flue gas from the fuel reactor consists of carbon dioxide and water, while the flue gas from the air reactor is nitrogen from the air. A two-compartment fluidized bed CLC system was designed and tested using a flow model in order to find critical design parameters. Gas velocities and slot design were varied, and the solids circulation rate and gas leakage between the reactors were measured. The solids circulation rate was found to be sufficient. The gas leakage was somewhat high but could be reduced by altering the slot design. Finally, a hot laboratory CLC system is presented with an advanced design for the slot and also with the possibility for inert gas addition into the downcomer for solids flow increase. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Effects of Steam and CO2 in the Fluidizing Gas when Using Bituminous Coal in Chemical-Looping Combustion (United States)

    Leion, H.; Lyngfelt, A.; Mattisson, T.

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel in order to avoid direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, the CO2 is inherently separated from the flue gases with a potential for considerably lower energy penalty and cost compared to other techniques for CO2 separation. The oxygen carrier is circulated between two reactors, a fuel and an air reactor, where the flue gas from the air reactor contains oxygen depleted air and the flue gas from the fuel reactor contains mainly CO2 and H2O. The water can easily be condensed and the remaining CO2 can be transported for underground storage. Most of the prior work with CLC has focused on using natural gas and syngas as fuel and oxygen carrying material normally produced from pure chemicals. However, recent work on adapting the CLC process for solid fuels with ores and natural minerals as oxygen carrier shows promising results. This paper will present results from reactivity investigations in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor system using previously investigated natural mineral ilmenite as oxygen carrier and a bituminous Colombian coal as fuel. Experiments were conducted at a temperature of 970°C with N2, steam, and/or CO2 in the fluidizing gas. Synergy effects between steam and CO2 on fuel conversion was noted. The results show that the fuel conversion was a roughly a factor 5 faster with steam as compared to CO2 in the fluidizing gas.

  12. Study on Reaction Characteristics of Chemical-Looping Combustion between Maize Stalk and High Index Facet Iron Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qin


    Full Text Available In this work, experiments were performed to investigate the activity and regeneration ability of iron-based oxygen carrier with high index facet (104 during chemical looping combustion (CLC, suggesting that morphological control of the oxygen carrier is very rewarding. Fe2O3(104 supported on Al2O3 was synthesized by a morphology controlled method to undertake maize stalk CLC experiments. Compared with the referenced Fe2O3/Al2O3 prepared by the impregnation method, Fe2O3(104/Al2O3 presents better reactivity, showing higher fuel conversion rate and CO2 concentration in gaseous products. Further, structural characterizations, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM (LEO-1450 and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analysis, and multi-cycles CLC reactions were performed to verify the good regeneration and stability of the Fe2O3(104/Al2O3. The findings indicate that the Fe2O3(104/Al2O3 is efficient when used for CLC of maize stalk.

  13. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D


    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  14. Highly Efficient Oxygen-Storage Material with Intrinsic Coke Resistance for Chemical Looping Combustion-Based CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Qasim; Kurlov, Alexey; Rupp, Jennifer Lilia Marguerite; Müller, Christoph Rüdiger


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging thermochemical CO2 capture cycles that allow the capture of CO2 with a small energy penalty. Here, the development of suitable oxygen carrier materials is a key aspect to transfer these promising concepts to practical installations. CuO is an attractive material for CLC and CLOU because of its high oxygen-storage capacity (20 wt %), fast reaction kinetics, and high equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen at typical operating temperatures (850-1000 °C). However, despite its promising characteristics, its low Tammann temperature requires the development of new strategies to phase-stabilize CuO-based oxygen carriers. In this work, we report a strategy based on stabilization by co-precipitated ceria (CeO2-x ), which allowed us to increase the oxygen capacity, coke resistance, and redox stability of CuO-based oxygen carriers substantially. The performance of the new oxygen carriers was evaluated in detail and compared to the current state-of-the-art materials, that is, Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO with similar CuO loadings. We also demonstrate that the higher intrinsic oxygen uptake, release, and mobility in CeO2-x -stabilized CuO leads to a three times higher carbon deposition resistance compared to that of Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO. Moreover, we report a high cyclic stability without phase intermixing for CeO2-x -supported CuO. This was accompanied by a lower reduction temperature compared to state-of-the-art Al2 O3 -supported CuO. As a result of its high resistance towards carbon deposition and fast oxygen uncoupling kinetics, CeO2-x -stabilized CuO is identified as a very promising material for CLC- and CLOU-based CO2 capture architectures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Investigation of coal fueled chemical looping combustion using Fe3O4 as oxygen carrier: Influence of variables (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Wenguo; Wang, Sha; Tian, Wendong; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Yanji; Xiao, Yunhan


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with inherent CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier. Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China), straw coke and natural coke were used as fuels for this study. Influences of operation temperatures, coal to Fe3O4 mass ratios, and different kinds of fuels on the reduction characteristics of the oxygen carrier were investigated using an atmosphere thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the characteristic of the solid residues. Experimental results shown that the reaction between the coal and the oxygen carrier become strong at a temperature of higher than 800°C. As the operation temperature rises, the reduction conversion rate increases. At the temperatures of 850°C, 900°C, and 950°C, the reduction conversion rates were 37.1%, 46.5%, and 54.1% respectively. However, SEM images show that at the temperature of higher than 950°C, the iron oxides become melted and sintered. The possible operation temperature should be kept around 900°C. When the mass ratios of coal to Fe3O4 were 5/95, 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80, the reduction conversion rates were 29.5%, 40.8%, 46.5%, and 46.6% respectively. With the increase of coal, the conversion rate goes up. But there exist an optimal ratio around 15/85. Comparisons based on different kinds of fuels show that the solid fuel with a higher volatile and a more developed pore structure is conducive to the reduction reactivity of the oxygen carrier.

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Electrochemically Driven Chemical Looping Heat Pump


    James, Nelson A.; Braun, James E.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Horton, W. Travis


    Electrochemical cells have been widely explored for their use in high efficiency energy systems. In this paper a novel heat pump cycle is proposed which utilizes chemical looping driven by electrochemical cells. Chemical looping is a method that has been applied to various applications such as combustion and air separation. It consists of the cycling of a substance between different chemical compositions in order to produce a desired effect. When the chemical composition of a fluid changes, v...

  17. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion. (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana


    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation.

  18. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 2: Base Case and Sensitivity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong


    Part 1 (10.1021/ef3014103) of this series describes a new rotary reactor for gas-fueled chemical-looping combustion (CLC), in which, a solid wheel with microchannels rotates between the reducing and oxidizing streams. The oxygen carrier (OC) coated on the surfaces of the channels periodically adsorbs oxygen from air and releases it to oxidize the fuel. A one-dimensional model is also developed in part 1 (10.1021/ef3014103). This paper presents the simulation results based on the base-case design parameters. The results indicate that both the fuel conversion efficiency and the carbon separation efficiency are close to unity. Because of the relatively low reduction rate of copper oxide, fuel conversion occurs gradually from the inlet to the exit. A total of 99.9% of the fuel is converted within 75% of the channel, leading to 25% redundant length near the exit, to ensure robustness. In the air sector, the OC is rapidly regenerated while consuming a large amount of oxygen from air. Velocity fluctuations are observed during the transition between sectors because of the complete reactions of OCs. The gas temperature increases monotonically from 823 to 1315 K, which is mainly determined by the solid temperature, whose variations with time are limited within 20 K. The overall energy in the solid phase is balanced between the reaction heat release, conduction, and convective cooling. In the sensitivity analysis, important input parameters are identified and varied around their base-case values. The resulting changes in the model-predicted performance revealed that the most important parameters are the reduction kinetics, the operating pressure, and the feed stream temperatures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Feasibility study of sulfates as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kale


    Full Text Available The operational feasibility temperature range of chemical looping combustion (CLC and chemical looping reforming (CLR of the fuels methane, propane, iso-octane and ethanol was explored using the common sulphates

  20. The synergetic effect of metal oxide support on Fe2O3 for chemical looping combustion: A theoretical study (United States)

    Qin, Wu; Wang, Yang; Dong, Changqing; Zhang, Junjiao; Chen, Qiuluan; Yang, Yongping


    This study deals with the synergetic effect of Al2O3 on Fe2O3 for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of CO, in comparison with the synergetic effects of ZrO2 and MgO reported in our previous works. Property analysis of Fe2O3/Al2O3 shows that new bonds form cross the interface making Fe2O3 less prone to agglomerate on Al2O3, and 0.129 e transfers from Al2O3 to Fe2O3 to activate the electronic state of Fe2O3. Al2O3 [ZrO2 and MgO] favors the thermal stability of Fe2O3 by preventing the phase transformation, markedly regulates charge populations on the O-Fe bonds and their overlaps and hence tunes the redox properties of Fe2O3. The reaction mechanism analysis demonstrates that Al2O3 [ZrO2 and MgO] activates Fe2O3 for oxidizing CO into CO2 (accompanied by the reduction of Fe2O3) in the fuel reactor, which decrease the height of barrier energy (Ea), and the Ea follows clearly Fe2O3 > Fe2O3/Al2O3 > Fe2O3/MgO > Fe2O3/ZrO2. However, these supports usually increase the Ea for oxidizing Fe2O2 into Fe2O3 by O2 in the air reactor, and the Ea follows clearly Fe2O3/ZrO2 > Fe2O3/Al2O3 > Fe2O3/MgO > Fe2O3. It is argued that different supports could be applied to a given CLC system of different thermodynamic properties.

  1. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Chiu, John H. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Edberg, Carl D. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Thibeault, Paul R. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Turek, David G. [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)


    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration

  2. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier. (United States)

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction and Oxidation Kinetics of a CaMn0.9Mg0.1O3-delta Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion


    Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Abad Secades, Alberto; Caballero Flores, Arturo; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez Elorza, Juan


    The objective of this study was to establish the reaction kinetics involved in redox cycles of the CaMn0.9Mg0.1O3−δ material to be used as an oxygen carrier in the chemical-looping-combustion process. The oxygen-transport capacity and reactivity of this material during consecutive reduction and oxidation steps with gaseous compounds (CH4, H2, CO, and O2) were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus. The oxygen uncoupling properties of this material were also analyzed. It was found t...

  4. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.


    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  5. Experimental Investigations on a Novel Chemical Looping Combustion Configuration Étude expérimentale d’une nouvelle configuration de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanpanah M.M.


    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a promising novel combustion technology involving inherent separation of carbon dioxide with minimum energy penalty. An oxygen carrier is employed to continuously transfer oxygen from the air reactor to the fuel reactor where the oxygen is delivered to the fuel. Consequently, direct contact between the air and fuel is prevented. The resulting flue gas is CO2-rich, without N2 dilution. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported back to the air reactor for re-oxidation purposes, hence forming a chemical loop. Various CLC configurations have already been developed and tested on laboratory scales. However, more investigations are required to achieve feasible CLC processes. Among the different points to address, control of the solid circulation rate between the two reactors is of the highest importance regarding its effect on achievement of an appropriate oxygen transfer rate and solid oxidation degrees. Moreover, minimization of gas leakage between the fuel and air reactors is another important issue to be considered. A novel CLC configuration is proposed where reactions are carried out in two interconnected bubbling fluidized beds. Solid circulation rate control is achieved independently of gas flow rate in the reactors through use of pneumatic non-mechanical valves (L-valves. Moreover, loopseals are employed to minimize gas leakage while transferring solids. Experimental results from operation of a 10 kWth equivalent cold prototype are presented in this paper. The effect of operating variables on the solid circulation rate, gas leakage between the two beds and the pressure balance on all of the process elements is studied. The results demonstrate stable solid circulation with efficient control of the solid flow rate and effective gas tightness of the system. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technologie prometteuse qui implique la separation inherente du dioxyde de carbone avec une perte

  6. Synergetic effect of ZrO2 on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Fe2O3 during chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Tan, Qinliang; Qin, Wu; Chen, Qiuluan; Dong, Changqing; Li, Wenyan; Yang, Yongping


    Fe2O3/ZrO2 model oxygen carrier is constructed at atomic-level precision under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. Based on density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamical simulations, structure and energy analysis suggests that the complex Fe2O3/ZrO2 is stable and more chemically active than the pure Fe2O3, ZrO2 promotes the adsorption of CO, which is chemisorption rather than physisorption on the pure Fe2O3 surface. Interface electronic interaction of Fe2O3/ZrO2 makes Fe2O3 positive to accept electron from CO easily and hence promoting the chemisorption of CO and the formation of carbonate species, while such electronic interaction makes it relatively more difficult in oxidizing Fe2O2 supported on ZrO2. However, all reaction barrier energies are small enough for Fe2O2 oxidation to happen under high temperature in the CLC system. Both CO oxidation by Fe2O3/ZrO2 related to the fuel reactor in the chemical looping combustion (CLC) system and Fe2O2/ZrO2 oxidation by O2 related to the air reactor in CLC system illustrate the synergetic effect of ZrO2 on the CO oxidation and Fe2O2 oxidation.

  7. Kinetics of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by methane (CH{sub 4}) during chemical looping combustion: A global mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Carpenter, Stephen


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion which produces a sequestration ready concentrated CO{sub 2} stream in power production. A CLC system is composed with two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor. An oxygen carrier such as hematite (94%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) circulates between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. An important issue for the CLC process is the selection of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, since it must retain its reactivity through many cycles. The primary objective of this work is to develop a global mechanism with respective kinetics rate parameters such that CFD simulations can be performed for large systems. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in a continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (15, 20, and 35%) was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825{degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at the early stage of reaction and H{sub 2} and CO at the final stage of reactions. A kinetic model based on two parallel reactions, 1) first-order irreversible rate kinetics and 2) Avrami equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied to the reduction data. It was found, that the reaction rates for both reactions increase with, both, temperature and the methane concentration in inlet gas.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sintering-resistant silica-encapsulated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles active for oxidation and chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Park, Jung-Nam; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Yong-Sheng; McFarland, Eric W.


    A nanocomposite catalyst composed of ferromagnetic magnetite cores (15.5 ± 2.0 nm) and silica shells with a thickness of 4.5 ± 1.0 nm (Fe3O4@SiO2) was prepared by a two-step microemulsion-based synthesis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy after oxidation support the presence of a stable Fe3O4 core and a surface phase of γ-Fe2O3. The nanocomposite structure exhibited 100% conversion of CO in oxygen at a residence time of 0.1 s at 310 °C. When pre-oxidized, the Fe3O4@SiO2 catalyst is shown to be a suitable solid oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion of methane at 700 °C. The nanocomposites retain their magnetism following the reaction which provides the potential for use of magnetic separation and capture in moving bed reactor applications. The core magnetite within the silica shell is resistant to sintering and a bulk phase transition to temperatures as high as 700 °C. These catalysts can be of use in applications of high temperature applications where catalyst recovery by magnetic separation may be required.

  9. Kinetics of Oxidation of a Reduced Form of the Cu-Based Oxygen-Carrier for Use in Chemical-Looping Combustion (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Dennis, J. S.; Hayhurst, A. N.; Scott, S. A.

    A co-precipitated mixture of CuO and Al2O3 is a good oxygen-carrier for chemical-looping combustion. The kinetics of regeneration of this reduced oxygen-carrier (355 - 500 urn) were measured from 300 to 750°C when reacting it with O2. Care was taken to ensure these measurements were not affected by interphase mass transfer. Efforts were also made to minimise sampling problems by using a rapid-response mass spectrometer for reactions lasting for 45 s or less; otherwise, a paramagnetic analyser for O2 was used, since the mass spectrometer drifted with time. The order of reaction with respect to O2 was found to be ˜ unity at 300 to 750°C. Below 600°C, the reduced oxygen-carrier was incompletely oxidised to a mixture of CU2O and Al2O3. Above 600°C, regeneration was completely to CuO and Al2O3 and was controlled to a considerable extent by external mass transfer. At these higher temperatures, regeneration involved a shrinking core mechanism and the two consecutive steps: 2Cu + 1/2O_2 to Cu_2 O, Cu_2 O + 1/2O_2 to 2CuO. The activation energies and pre-exponential factors for both reactions were measured from initial rates. The kinetics in the first cycle of operations were found to be similar to those in the subsequent cycles.

  10. The Effects of Thermal Treatment and Steam Addition on Integrated CuO/CaO Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Recio


    Full Text Available The combination of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC with Calcium Looping (CaL using integrated pellets is an alternative CO2 capture process to the current amine-based sorbent processes, but the pellets lose sorption capacity over time. In this paper, the deactivation behavior of CaO, CuO and CuO/CaO integrated pellets used for multiple (16–20 cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer was studied. The impact of thermal treatment and the presence of steam on the deactivation were also investigated. Nitrogen physisorption and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the pellets. The analysis revealed significant migration of the copper to the surface of the composite pellets, which likely suppressed carbonation capacity by reducing the accessibility of the CaO. While thermal pre-treatment and steam addition enhanced the performance of the base CaO pellets, the former led to cracks in the pellets. In contrast, thermal pretreatment of the CuO/CaO composite pellets resulted in worse CLC and CaL performance.

  11. Theoretical study of oxidation-reduction reaction of Fe2O3 supported on MgO during chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Qin, Wu; Chen, Qiuluan; Wang, Yang; Dong, Changqing; Zhang, Junjiao; Li, Wenyan; Yang, Yongping


    We applied density-functional theory (DFT) in periodic system to investigate the two reactions (CO + Fe2O3/MgO → CO2 + Fe2O2/MgO, O2 + Fe2O2/MgO → O + Fe2O3/MgO) in chemical looping combustion system. While Fe2O3 was supported on MgO(1 0 0) surface Fe2O3 gathered together to form a cluster shape on MgO(1 0 0), denoted as Fe2O3/MgO, where the Fe2O3 was activated by MgO(1 0 0). Then CO interacted with Fe2O3/MgO and carbonate generated during a stepwise reaction with the calculated maximum barrier energy of 0.95 eV, far less than that of the reaction between CO and the pure Fe2O3 cluster (2.59 eV). CO was oxidized by Fe2O3/MgO and then Fe2O3/MgO transformed into the reduced state Fe2O2/MgO, corresponding to the reaction in the fuel reactor in the CLC system. Then the breaking of the adsorbed O2 molecule on Fe2O2/MgO made an O atom bind to a Fe site with the barrier energy of 0. 20 eV, which played as the key step for the oxidizing of Fe2O2/MgO by O2 into Fe2O3/MgO, corresponding to the reaction in the air reactor in the CLC system.

  12. Theoretical study of stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO2 during chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Wang, Minjun; Liu, Jing; Shen, Fenghua; Cheng, Hao; Dai, Jinxin; Long, Yan


    The addition of inert support is important for the Cu-based oxygen carrier used in chemical looping combustion (CLC). The effects of the ZrO2 support on the stability and reactivity of Cu-based oxygen carrier were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). First, the sintering inhibition mechanism of ZrO2 that support active CuO was investigated. The optimized Cu4O4/ZrO2 structure showed a strong interaction occurred between the Cu4O4 cluster and ZrO2(1 0 1) surface. The interaction prevented the migration and agglomeration of CuO. Next, the adsorption of CO on Cu4O4/ZrO2 and the mechanism of the CuO/ZrO2 reduction by CO were studied. CO mainly chemisorbed on the Cu site and ZrO2 acted as an electron donor in the adsorption system. The energy barrier of CuO/ZrO2 reduction by CO (0.79 eV) was much lower than that of the pure CuO cluster (1.44 eV), indicating that ZrO2 had a positive effect on CuO/ZrO2 reduction by CO. After CO was oxidized in the fuel reactor, the CuO was reduced into Cu. The adsorption of O2 on Cu2/ZrO2 and the most likely pathway of Cu2/ZrO2 oxidation by O2 were investigated. The adsorption of O2 was found a strong chemisorption behavior. The energy barriers were low enough for the Cu-based oxygen carrier oxidation reaction.

  13. Chemical Looping Reforming for H2, CO and Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar,Saurabh; Najera,Michelle; Solunke,Rahul; Veser,Götz


    We demonstrate that the extension of CLC onto oxidants beyond air opens new, highly efficient pathways for production of ultra-pure hydrogen, activation of CO{sub 2} via reduction to CO, and are currently working on production of syngas using nanocomposite Fe-BHA. CLR hold great potential due to fuel flexibility and CO{sub 2} capture. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a novel clean combustion technology which offers an elegant and highly efficient route for fossil fuel combustion. In CLC, combustion of a fuel is broken down into two spatially separated steps. In the reducer, the oxygen carrier (typically a metal) supplies the stoichiometric oxygen required for fuel combustion. In the oxidizer, the oxygen-depleted carrier is then re-oxidized with air. After condensation of steam from the effluent of the reducer, a high-pressure, high-purity sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is obtained. In the present study, we apply the CLC principle to the production of high-purity H{sub 2}, CO, and syngas streams by replacing air with steam and/or CO{sub 2} as oxidant, respectively. Using H{sub 2}O as oxidant, pure hydrogen streams can be obtained. Similarly, using CO{sub 2} as oxidant, CO is obtained, thus opening an efficient route for CO{sub 2} utilization. Using steam and CO{sub 2} mixtures for carrier oxidation should thus allow production of syngas with adjustable CO:H{sub 2} ratios. Overall, these processes result in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR), i.e. the net overall reaction is the steam and/or dry reforming of the respective fuel.

  14. Control and optimization system and method for chemical looping processes (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao


    A control system for optimizing a chemical loop system includes one or more sensors for measuring one or more parameters in a chemical loop. The sensors are disposed on or in a conduit positioned in the chemical loop. The sensors generate one or more data signals representative of an amount of solids in the conduit. The control system includes a data acquisition system in communication with the sensors and a controller in communication with the data acquisition system. The data acquisition system receives the data signals and the controller generates the control signals. The controller is in communication with one or more valves positioned in the chemical loop. The valves are configured to regulate a flow of the solids through the chemical loop.

  15. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong


    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  16. The synergetic effect of metal oxide support on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for chemical looping combustion: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Wu, E-mail:; Wang, Yang; Dong, Changqing, E-mail:; Zhang, Junjiao; Chen, Qiuluan; Yang, Yongping


    This study deals with the synergetic effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of CO, in comparison with the synergetic effects of ZrO{sub 2} and MgO reported in our previous works. Property analysis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows that new bonds form cross the interface making Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} less prone to agglomerate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 0.129 e transfers from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to activate the electronic state of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} [ZrO{sub 2} and MgO] favors the thermal stability of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by preventing the phase transformation, markedly regulates charge populations on the O-Fe bonds and their overlaps and hence tunes the redox properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The reaction mechanism analysis demonstrates that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} [ZrO{sub 2} and MgO] activates Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} for oxidizing CO into CO{sub 2} (accompanied by the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the fuel reactor, which decrease the height of barrier energy (E{sub a}), and the E{sub a} follows clearly Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}. However, these supports usually increase the E{sub a} for oxidizing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by O{sub 2} in the air reactor, and the E{sub a} follows clearly Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgO > Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It is argued that different supports could be applied to a given CLC system of different thermodynamic properties.

  17. Theoretical study of stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} during chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minjun; Liu, Jing, E-mail:; Shen, Fenghua; Cheng, Hao; Dai, Jinxin; Long, Yan


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stability and reaction mechanism of CuO supported on ZrO{sub 2} were studied by DFT. • ZrO{sub 2} provides a high resistance to CuO sintering. • ZrO{sub 2} promotes the activity of CuO for CO oxidation in fuel reactor. • The energy barriers are low enough for CuO/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation reaction in air reactor. - Abstract: The addition of inert support is important for the Cu-based oxygen carrier used in chemical looping combustion (CLC). The effects of the ZrO{sub 2} support on the stability and reactivity of Cu-based oxygen carrier were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). First, the sintering inhibition mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} that support active CuO was investigated. The optimized Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} structure showed a strong interaction occurred between the Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4} cluster and ZrO{sub 2}(1 0 1) surface. The interaction prevented the migration and agglomeration of CuO. Next, the adsorption of CO on Cu{sub 4}O{sub 4}/ZrO{sub 2} and the mechanism of the CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO were studied. CO mainly chemisorbed on the Cu site and ZrO{sub 2} acted as an electron donor in the adsorption system. The energy barrier of CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO (0.79 eV) was much lower than that of the pure CuO cluster (1.44 eV), indicating that ZrO{sub 2} had a positive effect on CuO/ZrO{sub 2} reduction by CO. After CO was oxidized in the fuel reactor, the CuO was reduced into Cu. The adsorption of O{sub 2} on Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and the most likely pathway of Cu{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} were investigated. The adsorption of O{sub 2} was found a strong chemisorption behavior. The energy barriers were low enough for the Cu-based oxygen carrier oxidation reaction.

  18. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a Laboratory Fluidized-bed Reactor Combustion de charges solides avec la boucle chimique dans un lit fluidisé de laboratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leion H.


    Full Text Available When using solid fuel in a chemical looping system, the char fraction of the fuel needs to be gasified before syngas react with the oxygen carrier. This can be done inside the fuel reactor with fuel and oxygen carriers well mixed, and, since this gasification is comparably slow, this will be the time limiting step of such a system. An option is to use an oxygen carrier that is able to release gas-phase oxygen which can react with the fuel by normal combustion giving a significantly faster overall fuel conversion. This last option is generally referred to as Chemical Looping combustion with Oxygen Un-coupling (CLOU. In this work, an overview is given of parameters that affect the fuel conversion in laboratory CLC and CLOU experiments. The main factor determining the fuel conversion, in both CLC and CLOU, is the fuel itself. High-volatile fuels are generally more rapidly converted than low volatile fuels. This difference in fuel conversion rate is more pronounced in CLC than in CLOU. However, the fuel conversion is also, both for CLC and CLOU, increased by increasing temperature. Increased steam and SO2 fraction in the surrounding gas will also enhance the fuel conversion in CLC. CO2 gasification in CLC appears to be very slow in comparison to steam gasification. H2 can inhibit fuel gasification in CLC whereas CO did not seem to have any effect. Possible deactivation of oxygen carriers due to SO2 or ash also has to be considered. Lorsque l’on utilise des combustibles solides dans la boucle chimique (CLC pour Chemical Looping Combustion, il est nécessaire de gazéifier le char avant de faire la combustion du gaz de synthèse au contact du transporteur d’oxygène. Ces réactions peuvent s’effectuer dans le réacteur fuel, dans lequel le combustible et le transporteur d’oxygène sont bien mélangés. Cependant, la gazéification du charbon est lente et reste l’étape limitante du processus de combustion dans ces conditions. Une alternative

  19. CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU)—Experiments in a continuously operating fluidized-bed reactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Rydén, Magnus


    Particles of the perovskite material CaMn0.875Ti0.125O3 has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling, and for chemical-looping combustion of natural gas, by 70h of experiments in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor system. For the oxygen uncoupling experiments, it was found that the particles released O2 in gas phase at temperatures above 720°C when the fuel reactor was fluidized with CO2. The effect increased with increased temperature, and with the O2 partial pressure in the air reactor. At 950°C, the O2 concentration in the outlet from the fuel reactor was in the order of 4.0vol%, if the particles were oxidized in air. For the chemical-looping combustion experiments the combustion efficiency with standard process parameters was in the order of 95% at 950°C, using 1000kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas, of which about 30% was located in the fuel reactor. Reducing the fuel flow so that 1900kg oxygen carrier per MW natural gas was used improved the combustion efficiency to roughly 99.8%. The particles retained their physical properties, reactivity with CH4 and ability to release gas-phase O2 reasonably well throughout the testing period and there were no problems with the fluidization or formation of solid carbon in the reactor. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles underwent changes in their phase composition though. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chemical looping reforming of generator gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiara, T.; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, P.


    The main objective of this work is to investigate the carbon deposition during reforming of hydrocarbons in a Chemical Looping Reformer (CLR). This knowledge is needed to asses the viability of the CLR technology in reforming tar from biomass gasification preserving lighter hydrocarbons and minimizing the carbon formation during the process. Two different setups were used to test the reactivity of the different samples in the conditions of interest for the tar reforming process: 1) Fixed bed flow reactor (FR), and 2) Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the experiments, the gas atmosphere was switched from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere in every cycle. During the oxidizing cycle, the carrier was regenerated using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Four different oxygen carriers based on nickel (Ni40 and Ni60), manganese (Mn) and ilmenite (Fe) were tested. In the tests, toluene was used to simulate the tars. The Fe and the Mn carrier reacted to a small extent with methane at the highest temperature studied, 800 degrees C. The Ni-carriers did not react at 600 degrees C at first, but they showed some reactivity after having been activated at the higher temperature. Carbon formation occurred with the Ni-carriers, more so with the Ni60 than the Ni40. Ni40, Mn and Fe were activated at the higher temperature. However, Fe showed only low capacity. Ni60 showed no capability of tar reforming. Ni40 showed a high tendency to carbon formation at 800 degrees C, but the formation could be lowered by changing some parameters. Mn formed almost no carbon. Ni40 and Mn were chosen for further studies. Carbon deposition occurred for both Ni40 and Mn, but the amount deposited for Ni40 was about 10 times bigger. Ni40 reacted with the methane and toluene only at 800 degrees C. The conversion over Mn was not as big as for toluene alone. Carbon was formed from carbon monoxide on the Ni40 carrier and on the Mn, but to a much less extent on the latter one. The presence of hydrogen decreased

  1. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidisé circulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalatkar K.


    Full Text Available Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC, however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particleparticle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. Des études numériques de simulation des écoulements (CFD ont été réalisées sur un lit fluidisé circulant opérant en combustion par boucle chimique (CLC décrit dans la littérature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. Si de nombreuses études expérimentales ont été conduites pour étudier le procédé CLC, les études concernant la simulation des écoulements par CFD de ce concept sont très limitées. Le système de combustion en boucle chimique simulé dans cette étude concerne la combustion d’une charge gazeuse (méthane. Un modèle 2-D à deux phases continues a été utilisé pour décrire les phases gaz et solide avec des sous-modèles détaillés pour décrire les forces d’interactions entre fluideparticule et particule-particule. Des modèles cinétiques globaux ont été intégrés pour décrire les réactions de combustion et de transformation du matériau transporteur d’oxygène. Les résultats obtenus par CFD ont été comparés aux concentrations expérimentales mesurées des diff

  2. Chemical looping integration with a carbon dioxide gas purification unit (United States)

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E.; Jukkola, Glen D.; Thibeault, Paul R.; Liljedahl, Gregory N.


    A chemical looping system that contains an oxidizer and a reducer is in fluid communication with a gas purification unit. The gas purification unit has at least one compressor, at least one dryer; and at least one distillation purification system; where the gas purification unit is operative to separate carbon dioxide from other contaminants present in the flue gas stream; and where the gas purification unit is operative to recycle the contaminants to the chemical looping system in the form of a vent gas that provides lift for reactants in the reducer.

  3. Hydrogen production with CO 2 capture by coupling steam reforming of methane and chemical-looping combustion: Use of an iron-based waste product as oxygen carrier burning a PSA tail gas (United States)

    Ortiz, María; Gayán, Pilar; de Diego, Luis F.; García-Labiano, Francisco; Abad, Alberto; Pans, Miguel A.; Adánez, Juan

    In this work it is analyzed the performance of an iron waste material as oxygen carrier for a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system. CLC is a novel combustion technology with the benefit of inherent CO 2 separation that can be used as a source of energy for the methane steam reforming process (SR). The tail gas from the PSA unit is used as fuel in the CLC system. The oxygen carrier behaviour with respect to gas combustion was evaluated in a continuous 500 W th CLC prototype using a simulated PSA off-gas stream as fuel. Methane or syngas as fuel were also studied for comparison purposes. The oxygen carrier showed enough high oxygen transport capacity and reactivity to fully convert syngas at 880 °C. However, lower conversion of the fuel was observed with methane containing fuels. An estimated solids inventory of 1600 kg MW th -1 would be necessary to fully convert the PSA off-gas to CO 2 and H 2O. An important positive effect of the oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio up to 1.5 and the reactor temperature on the combustion efficiency was found. A characterization of the calcined and after-used particles was carried out showing that this iron-based material can be used as oxygen carrier in a CLC plant since particles maintain their properties (reactivity, no agglomeration, high durability, etc.) after more than 111 h of continuous operation.

  4. Calcium and chemical looping technology for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture solid oxygen- and CO2-carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Fennell, Paul


    Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical loopingProvi

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels in a 10 kWth Unit Combustion de charge solide en boucle chimique dans une unité de 10 kWth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berguerand N.


    Full Text Available The present study is based on previous results from batch experiments which were conducted in a 10 kWth chemical looping combustor for solid fuels using ilmenite, an iron titanium oxide, as the oxygen carrier with two solid fuels: a Mexican petroleum coke and a South African bituminous coal. These experiments involved testing at different fuel reactor temperatures, up to 1030°C, and different particle circulation rates between the air and fuel reactors. Previous results enabled modeling of the reactor system. In particular, it was possible to derive a correlation between measured operational data and actual circulation mass flow, as well as a model that describes the carbon capture efficiency as a function of the residence time and the char reactivity. Moreover, the kinetics of char conversion could be modeled and results showed good agreement with experimental values. The purpose of the present study was to complete these results by developing a model to predict the conversion of syngas with ilmenite in the fuel reactor. Here, kinetic data from investigations of ilmenite in TGA and batch fluidized bed reactors were used. Results were compared with the actual conversions during operation in this 10 kWth unit. Cette étude est basée sur des résultats antérieurs obtenus dans une unité de combustion de charges solides en boucle chimique d’une puissance de 10 kWth. Le transporteur d’oxygène utilisé est de l’ilménite, un minerai de fer et de titane, et les charges solides étudiées sont, d’une part, un coke de pétrole mexicain et, d’autre part, un charbon bitumineux sud africain. Les résultats expérimentaux ont été obtenus à des températures allant jusqu’à 1030°C avec différents débits de transporteur d’oxygène entre les réacteurs d’oxydation et de réduction. La modélisation de la combustion en boucle chimique de charges solides a déjà permis d’établir une corrélation entre le débit de circulation de

  6. Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description Oxydation et réduction des minerais de fer-titane dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Hoed P.


    Full Text Available Ilmenite (FeTiO3 is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes. Its reduction and oxidation are described by the system Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-Ti2O3. The phase diagram at 1 000°C, presented here, offers a useful tool for predicting reactions and their products. We see that Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite and TiO2 (rutile form a stable phase assemblage following the oxidation of FeTiO3 (ilmenite in air. The subsequent reduction of Fe2TiO5 at oxygen partial pressures of 10-15.5atm stabilizes Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, a solid solution of ilmenite. Further reduction will produce metallic iron, which compromises the integrity of the oxygen carrier for chemical looping processes. We speculate that the reduction of Fe-Ti oxides in several practical instances does not reach completion (and equilibrium under the imposed atmospheres operating in fuel reactors. L’ilménite (FeTiO3 est considéré comme un transporteur d’oxygène potentiel pour les procédés en boucle chimique. Ses mécanismes de réduction et d’oxydation sont décrits à travers le système Fe-Fe2O3-TiO2-TiO3. Le diagramme de phase à 1 000°C, présenté ici, est un outil utile pour prédire les réactions et les produits. Nous constatons que Fe2TiO5 (pseudobrookite et TiO2 (rutile forment un assemblage de phase stable après oxydation de l’ilménite (FeTiO3 dans l’air. La réduction subséquente de Fe2TiO5 à la pression partielle de 10−15,5atm stabilise vers Fe1.02Ti0.98O3, une solution solide d’ilménite. Une réduction plus poussée va produire du fer métallique et compromettre l’intégrité du transporteur d’oxygène dans la boucle chimique. Il est probable que la réduction des oxydes Fe-Ti ne soit pas, en pratique, complète et n’atteigne pas l’équilibre dans les conditions rencontrées en opération dans les réacteurs de réduction.

  7. Producción de H2 con captura de CO2 por reformado de CH4 integrado con un sistema Chemical-Looping Combustion


    Pans Castillo, Miguel Ángel; Adánez Elorza, Juan; Gayán Sanz, Pilar


    Desde la revolución industrial, en el siglo XIX, se viene produciendo un aumento de la temperatura de la tierra y océanos, debido principalmente a las emisiones antropogénicas que han intensificado el efecto invernadero natural de la tierra, causando un calentamiento global. La mayor contribución al cambio climático lo constituyen las emisiones antropogénicas de CO2, procedentes de la combustión de combustibles fósiles. Para reducir las emisiones de CO2 se han propuesto varias alternativas, ...

  8. Nonlinear model predictive control for chemical looping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhinaya; Lei, Hao; Lou, Xinsheng


    A control system for optimizing a chemical looping ("CL") plant includes a reduced order mathematical model ("ROM") that is designed by eliminating mathematical terms that have minimal effect on the outcome. A non-linear optimizer provides various inputs to the ROM and monitors the outputs to determine the optimum inputs that are then provided to the CL plant. An estimator estimates the values of various internal state variables of the CL plant. The system has one structure adapted to control a CL plant that only provides pressure measurements in the CL loops A and B, a second structure adapted to a CL plant that provides pressure measurements and solid levels in both loops A, and B, and a third structure adapted to control a CL plant that provides full information on internal state variables. A final structure provides a neural network NMPC controller to control operation of loops A and B.

  9. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, Matthias


    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO{sub 2}. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO{sub 2} can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  10. Chemical Looping with Copper Oxide as Carrier and Coal as Fuel Boucle chimique pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de cuivre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyring E.M.


    Full Text Available A preliminary analysis has been conducted of the performance of a Chemical Looping system with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU with copper oxide as the oxygen carrier and coal approximated by carbon as the fuel. The advantages of oxygen uncoupling are demonstrated by providing the energy balances, the circulation rate of oxygen carrier, the oxygen carrier mass loadings, the carbon burnout and oxygen partial pressure in the fuel reactor. Experimental data on the cycling of cuprous oxide to cupric oxide and kinetics for the oxidation and decomposition reactions of the oxides were obtained for use in the analysis. For this preliminary study unsupported oxides were utilized. The decomposition temperatures were rapid at the high temperature of 950°C selected for the fuel reactor. The oxidation kinetics peaked at about 800°C with the decrease in rate at higher temperatures, a decrease which is attributed in the literature to the temperature dependence of the diffusional resistance of the CuO layer surrounding the Cu2O; the diffusion occurs through grain boundaries in the CuO layers and the rate of diffusion decreases as a consequence of growth of CuO grains with increasing temperature. The analysis shows the advantages of CLOU in providing rapid combustion of the carbon with carbon burnout times lower than the decomposition times of the oxygen carrier. For the full potential of CLOU to be established additional data are needed on the kinetics of supported oxides at the high temperatures (>850°C at which oxygen is released by the CuO in the fuel reactor. Une analyse préliminaire a été conduite pour estimer les performances d’un procédé en boucle chimique découplé (CLOU, chemical looping uncoupling pour la combustion du charbon avec un transporteur d’oxygène à base d’oxyde de cuivre. Les avantages de ce système sont démontrés en établissant le bilan énergétique, l’inventaire et le débit de circulation du matériau transportant l

  11. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan


    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  12. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping. (United States)

    Zeman, Frank; Castaldi, Marco


    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/ or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO2 into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy.

  13. Chemical looping for syngas & hydrogen production with parallel CO2 activation (United States)

    More, Amey Sudhir

    The anticipated rise in global population and the rapidly growing economies of the developing world will dramatically increase the demand for consumer products, which are derived mostly from commodity chemicals. While the abundant natural gas (>95% CH4) reserves can potentially enable bulk chemical production, all commercial routes for methane (CH4) upgrading require its conversion to syngas (mixture of CO+H2) as a first step. Not only are current syngas production technologies highly energy and capital intensive, but they also result in large CO2 emissions. Overall, rising environmental concerns, increase demand for bulk chemicals and availability of abundant natural gas reserves together motivate the need to develop alternative processes for syngas production with CO2 utilization. 'Chemical Looping Combustion' is a clean combustion technology, which enables fossil fuel combustion with inherent CO2 capture based on the cyclic oxidation and reduction of an oxygen carrier. While most efforts in chemical looping (CL) are focused on combustion, we demonstrate the application of the "CL principle"--the periodic oxidation and reduction of a metal oxide to couple two independent redox reactions--to the activation of CO2 via reduction to CO (a chemical feedstock) and upgrading of CH4 to syngas or hydrogen. In this work, we investigate and compare CO2 activation via CL in two different operating modes: In the first scheme, CO2 reduction is coupled with CH4 oxidation by using mixtures of Fe and Ni (as alloys or simple physical mixtures) to produce CO and syngas product streams. In the second operating scheme, monometallic Ni carriers are utilized to catalytically crack CH4, producing pure H2 streams. The solid carbon deposits are then burnt off with CO2, overall producing separate CO and H2 product streams. Our investigations demonstrate the potential of CO2 as a "soft" oxidant which enables selective oxidation reactions in all the configurations, and thereby establish the

  14. Chemical Looping Autothermal Reforming at a 120 kW Pilot Rig (United States)

    Bofhàr-Nordenkampf, Johannes; Pröll, Tobias; Kolbitsch, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    Chemical looping with selective oxygen transport allows two step combustion or autothermal reforming without mixing of fuel and air. The reactor system consists of two reactors, an air reactor and a fuel reactor with a suitable oxygen carrier that transports the necessary oxygen for operation. In the present study, a highly active nickel based oxygen carrier is tested in a novel dual circulating fluidized bed (DCFB) system at a scale of 120 kW fuel power. The mean particle size of the oxygen carrier is 120 μm and the pilot rig is fueled with natural gas. For the investigated oxygen carrier high CH4 conversion is achieved. Air/fuel ratio is varied at three different fuel reactor temperatures. For chemical looping reforming one can observe synthesis gas composition close to thermodynamic equilibrium. In spite of the fact that no additional steam has been added to the fuel besides the one present through steam fluidization of the loop seals, coke formation does not occur at global stoichiometric air/fuel ratios above 0.46.

  15. A Study on the Role of Reaction Modeling in Multi-phase CFD-based Simulations of Chemical Looping Combustion Impact du modèle de réaction sur les simulations CFD de la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruggel-Emden H.


    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion is an energy efficient combustion technology for the inherent separation of carbon dioxide for both gaseous and solid fuels. For scale up and further development of this process multi-phase CFD-based simulations have a strong potential which rely on kinetic models for the solid/gaseous reactions. Reaction models are usually simple in structure in order to keep the computational cost low. They are commonly derived from thermogravimetric experiments. With only few CFD-based simulations performed on chemical looping combustion, there is a lack in understanding of the role and of the sensitivity of the applied chemical reaction model on the outcome of a simulation. The aim of this investigation is therefore the study of three different carrier materials CaSO4, Mn3O4 and NiO with the gaseous fuels H2 and CH4 in a batch type reaction vessel. Four reaction models namely the linear shrinking core, the spherical shrinking core, the Avrami-Erofeev and a recently proposed multi parameter model are applied and compared on a case by case basis. La combustion en boucle chimique (Chemical Looping Combustion est une technologie de combustion efficace permettant le captage in situ du CO2 pour des charges gazeuses ou solides. Dans l’optique du développement et de l’extrapolation du procédé, la CFD est un outil de simulation à fort potentiel qui s’appuie notamment sur des modèles cinétiques pour décrire les réactions gaz-solide. Ces modèles décrivant les réactions sont généralement assez simples pour limiter les temps de simulation et sont obtenus à partir d’expérimentations en thermobalance. Il y a encore peu de travaux de modélisation CFD du procédé CLC et il est difficile d’estimer l’importance du modèle décrivant les réactions chimiques sur les résultats des simulations. Le but de ce travail est donc d’étudier la combustion de charges gazeuses H2 et CH4 dans des réacteurs en batch en consid

  16. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih


    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  17. Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion - 4 000 h of Operational Experience Transporteurs d’oxygène pour la combustion en boucle chimique : expérience accumulée pendant 4 000 h d’opération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyngfelt A.


    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technology involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two interconnected fluidized beds, a fuel reactor and an air reactor, are used in the process. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO2 and H2O, and the latter is easily removed by condensation. Considerable research has been conducted on CLC in the last years with respect to oxygen carrier development, reactor design, system efficiencies and prototype testing. Today, more than 700 materials have been tested and the technology has been successfully demonstrated in chemical looping combustors in the size range 0.3-140 kW, using different types of oxygen carriers based on oxides of the metals Ni, Co, Fe, Cu and Mn. The total time of operational experience is more than 4 000 hours. From these tests, it can be established that almost complete conversion of the fuel can be obtained and 100% CO2 capture is possible. Most work so far has been focused on gaseous fuels, but the direct application to solid fuels is also being studied. This paper presents an overview of operational experience with oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustors. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technique de combustion permettant la séparation intrinsèque du CO2. Dans ce procédé, un oxyde métallique est utilisé comme transporteur d’oxygène pour véhiculer l’oxygène de l’air vers le combustible, ce qui permet d’éviter un contact direct entre le combustible et l’air. Deux lits fluidisés interconnectés sont utilisés, le réacteur air et le réacteur de combustion. Les fumées du réacteur de combustion contiennent le CO2 et la vapeur d’eau qui peut être facilement éliminée par condensation. Des recherches consid

  18. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayham, Sanuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Straub, Doug [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metaloxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections.

  19. An Integrated Photoelectrochemical-Chemical Loop for Solar-Driven Overall Splitting of Hydrogen Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Han, Jingfeng; Seger, Brian


    Abundant and toxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industry and nature has been traditionally considered a liability. However, it represents a potential resource if valuable H-2 and elemental sulfur can be simultaneously extracted through a H2S splitting reaction. Herein a photochemical-chemical loop...

  20. Simulation of the Fuel Reactor of a Coal-Fired Chemical Looping Combustor (United States)

    Mahalatkar, Kartikeya; O'Brien, Thomas; Huckaby, E. David; Kuhlman, John


    Responsible carbon management (CM) will be required for the future utilization of coal for power generation. CO2 separation is the more costly component of CM, not sequestration. Most methods of capture require a costly process of gas separation to obtain a CO2-rich gas stream. However, recently a process termed Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) has been proposed, in which an oxygen-carrier is used to provide the oxygen for combustion. This process quite naturally generates a separate exhaust gas stream containing mainly H2O and CO2 but requires two reaction vessels, an Air Reactor (AR) and a Fuel Reactor (FR). The carrier (M for metal, the usual carrier) is oxidized in the AR. This highly exothermic process provides heat for power generation. The oxidized carrier (MO) is separated from this hot, vitiated air stream and transported to the FR where it oxidizes the hydrocarbon fuel, yielding an exhaust gas stream of mainly H2O and CO2. This process is usually slightly endothermic so that the carrier must also transport the necessary heat of reaction. The reduced carrier (M) is then returned to the air reactor for regeneration, hence the term "looping." The net chemical reaction and energy release is identical to that of conventional combustion of the fuel. However, CO2 separation is easily achieved, the only operational penalty being the slight pressure losses required to circulate the carrier. CLC requires many unit operations involving gas-solid or granular flow. To utilize coal in the fuel reactor, in either a moving bed or bubbling fluidized bed, the granular flow is especially critical. The solid coal fuel must be heated by the recycled metal oxide, driving off moisture and volatile material. The remaining char must be gasified by H2O (or CO2), which is recycled from the product stream. The gaseous product of these reactions must then contact the MO before leaving the bed to obtain complete conversion to H2O and CO2. Further, the reduced M particles must be

  1. Effect of Ash on Oxygen Carriers for the Application of Chemical Looping Combustion to a High Carbon Char Effet des cendres sur l’activité des porteurs d’oxygène dans la combustion du charbon en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubel A.


    Full Text Available The application of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC to solid fuels is being investigated at the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER with the aim of the development of a Pressurized Chemical Looping Combustion/Gasification (PCLC/G process for the generation of electricity from coal. One important aspect of the CLC of solid fuel is the understanding of the effect of ash on the reactivity of Oxygen Carriers (OCs. The effect of ash on the redox capabilities of two different iron oxide OCs and on their ability to oxidize coal char was studied. To determine the effect of ash on the reactivity and recycle of the OCs through multiple redox cycles, fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was used. These experiments were performed in a TGMS system using 500 mg of ash/OC mixtures containing different ash concentrations up to 75%. The reducing gas was composed of 10% H2, 15% CO, 20% CO2, and a balance of Ar and the oxidizing gas was 20% O2 in Ar. Oxidation/reductions were carried to near completion. The ash was found to contain OC activity related to inherent iron present in the ash confirmed by XRD. This resulted in increased weight gain/loss on oxidation/reduction. The rate of oxidation/reduction increased with ash concentration due to increased porosity of the OC/ash mixture and better access of the reactive gases to the OC target sites. The two OCs were then used to combust a beneficiated coal char in the TGMS with the only oxygen supplied by an iron oxide OC. The starting mixture was 10% char and 90% of one of two OCs studied. The spent material containing reduced OC and ash was re-oxidized and 10% more char was added for a second reduction of the OC and oxidation of the added char. This procedure was repeated for 5 cycles increasing the ash concentrations from 5 to 25% in the char/ash/OC mixture. Carbon removal was 92 to 97.8 and 97.3 to 99.7% for the two different iron oxide OCs tested. Ash was not detrimental to the

  2. Chemical looping reactor system design double loop circulating fluidized bed (DLCFB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischi, Aldo


    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is continuously gaining more importance among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is an unmixed combustion process which takes place in two steps. An effective way to realize CLC is to use two interconnected fluidized beds and a metallic powder circulating among them, acting as oxygen carrier. The metallic powder oxidizes at high temperature in one of the two reactors, the air reactor (AR). It reacts in a highly exothermic reaction with the oxygen of the injected fluidising air. Afterwards the particles are sent to the other reactor where the fuel is injected, the fuel reactor (FR). There, they transport heat and oxygen necessary for the reaction with the injected fuel to take place. At high temperatures, the particle's oxygen reacts with the fuel producing Co2 and steam, and the particles are ready to start the loop again. The overall reaction, the sum of the enthalpy changes of the oxygen carrier oxidation and reduction reactions, is the same as for the conventional combustion. Two are the key features, which make CLC promising both for costs and capture efficiency. First, the high inherent irreversibility of the conventional combustion is avoided because the energy is utilized stepwise. Second, the Co2 is intrinsically separated within the process; so there is in principle no need either of extra carbon capture devices or of expensive air separation units to produce oxygen for oxy-combustion. A lot of effort is taking place worldwide on the development of new chemical looping oxygen carrier particles, reactor systems and processes. The current work is focused on the reactor system: a new design is presented, for the construction of an atmospheric 150kWth prototype working with gaseous fuel and possibly with inexpensive oxygen carriers derived from industrial by-products or natural minerals. It consists of two circulating fluidized beds capable to operate in fast fluidization regime; this will increase the

  3. Using Low-Cost Iron-Based Materials as Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion Utilisation de matériaux bon marché à base de fer comme transporteur d’oxygène dans la combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerndal E.


    Full Text Available In chemical looping combustion with solid fuels, the oxygen-carrier lifetime is expected to be shorter than with gaseous fuels. Therefore, it is particularly important to use low-cost oxygen carriers in solid fuel applications. Apart from being cheap, these oxygen carriers should be able to convert the CO and H2 produced from the solid fuel gasification and be sufficiently hard to withstand fragmentation. Several low-cost iron-based materials displayed high conversion of syngas and high mechanical strength and can be used for further development of the technology. These materials include oxide scales from Sandvik and Scana and an iron ore from LKAB. All tested oxygen carriers showed higher gas conversion than a reference sample, the mineral ilmenite. Generally, softer oxygen carriers were more porous and appeared to have a higher reactivity towards syngas. When compared with ilmenite, the conversion of CO was higher for all oxygen carriers and the conversion of H2 was higher when tested for longer reduction times. The oxygen carrier Sandvik 2 displayed the highest conversion of syngas and was therefore selected for solid fuel experiments. The conversion rate of solid fuels was higher with Sandvik 2 than with the reference sample, ilmenite. Pour appliquer la combustion en boucle chimique à des charges solides, il est important d’utiliser des matériaux transporteurs d’oxygène bon marché. En effet, la durée de vie du transporteur d’oxygène risque d’être plus courte sur charge solide que sur charge gazeuse. Ces matériaux doivent également bien convertir le monoxyde de carbone et l’hydrogène résultant de la gasification, tout en étant suffisamment durs pour résister à la fragmentation. Plusieurs matériaux ont montré un potentiel de conversion élevé sur le gaz de synthèse ainsi qu’une résistance mécanique élevée, ce qui permet d’envisager leur utilisation lors des développements futurs de la technologie. Parmi ces

  4. Comparison of Iron and Tungsten Based Oxygen Carriers for Hydrogen Production Using Chemical Looping Reforming (United States)

    Khan, M. N.; Shamim, T.


    Hydrogen production by using a three reactor chemical looping reforming (TRCLR) technology is an innovative and attractive process. Fossil fuels such as methane are the feedstocks used. This process is similar to a conventional steam-methane reforming but occurs in three steps utilizing an oxygen carrier. As the oxygen carrier plays an important role, its selection should be done carefully. In this study, two oxygen carrier materials of base metal iron (Fe) and tungsten (W) are analysed using a thermodynamic model of a three reactor chemical looping reforming plant in Aspen plus. The results indicate that iron oxide has moderate oxygen carrying capacity and is cheaper since it is abundantly available. In terms of hydrogen production efficiency, tungsten oxide gives 4% better efficiency than iron oxide. While in terms of electrical power efficiency, iron oxide gives 4.6% better results than tungsten oxide. Overall, a TRCLR system with iron oxide is 2.6% more efficient and is cost effective than the TRCLR system with tungsten oxide.

  5. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Bayham, Samuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The proposed Clean Power Plan requires CO2 emission reductions of 30% by 2030 and further reductions are targeted by 2050. The current strategies to achieve the 30% reduction targets do not include options for coal. However, the 2016 Annual Energy Outlook suggests that coal will continue to provide more electricity than renewable sources for many regions of the country in 2035. Therefore, cost effective options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel power plants are vital in order to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets beyond 2030. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metal-oxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections. The solid material that is used to transport oxygen is called an oxygen carrier material. The cost, durability, and performance of this material is a key issue for the CLC technology. Researchers at the NETL R&IC have developed an oxygen carrier material that consists of copper, iron, and alumina. This material has been tested extensively using lab scale instruments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical attrition (ASTM D5757), and small fluidized bed reactor tests. This report will describe the results from a realistic, circulating, proof-of-concept test that was

  6. The Role of Attrition and Solids Recovery in a Chemical Looping Combustion Process Effet de l’attrition et de la récupération des particules dans le procédé de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramp M.


    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state behavior of a Chemical Looping Combustion process of interconnected fluidized bed reactors is simulated. The simulations have been carried out in two different scales, 50 kWth and 100 MWth. Attrition model derived from small scale laboratory experiments has been employed for the prediction of the process behavior in terms of attrition and Oxygen Carrier loss. Information on Oxygen Carrier characteristics and reaction kinetics were taken from literature. Realistic circulation mass flows of Oxygen Carrier particles are obtained and Oxygen Carrier losses are quantified. The large scale process looses significantly more Oxygen Carrier than the small scale process based on the same amount of thermal energy produced. Incomplete conversion in the air reactor could be identified as a critical point. Another issue is the fuel gas bypassing the Oxygen Carrier particles through bubbles in the large scale process which leads to lowered fuel conversions. The simulations indicate that a similar performance of a pilot scale and a large scale process is not guaranteed due to the scale-up effect on fluid dynamics. Furthermore, the simulations allow an assessment of the influence of the quality of the solids recovery system on the Oxygen Carrier loss. The distribution of the losses between possible origins is investigated and different changes in the solids recovery system are discussed regarding their potential to decrease the Oxygen Carrier loss. For example, the addition of a second-stage cyclone after the air reactor of the large scale process reduces the Oxygen Carrier loss significantly. Le présent travail propose un modèle de simulation en continu du procédé de combustion en boucle chimique constitué de deux lits fluidisés interconnectés. Les simulations ont été conduites à deux échelles 50 kWth correspondant à une installation pilote et 100 MWth correspondant à une installation industrielle. Un modèle d

  7. Different Methods of Manufacturing Fe-Based Oxygen Carrier Particles for Reforming Via Chemical Looping, and Their Effect on Performance (United States)

    Cleeton, J. P. E.; Bonn, C. D.; Müller, C. R.; Dennis, J. S.; Scott, S. A.

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a means of combusting carbonaceous fuels, which inherently separates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the remaining combustion products, and has the potential to be used for the production of high-purity hydrogen. Iron-based oxygen carriers for CLC have been subject to considerable work; however, there are issues regarding the lifespan of iron-based oxygen carriers over repeated cycles. In this work, haematite (Fe2O3) was reduced in an N2+CO+CO2 mixture within a fluidised bed at 850°C, and oxidised back to magnetite (Fe3O4) in a H2O+N2 mixture, with the subsequent yield of hydrogen during oxidation being of interest. Subsequent cycles started from Fe3O4 and two transition regimes were studied; Fe3O4↔Fe0.947O and Fe3O4↔Fe. Particles were produced by mechanical mixing and co-precipitation. In the case of co-precipitated particles, Al was added such that the ratio of Fe:Al by weight was 9:1, and the final pH of the particles during precipitation was investigated for its subsequent effect on reactivity. This paper shows that co-precipitated particles containing additives such as Al may be able to achieve consistently high H2 yields when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe, and that these yields are a function of the ratio of [CO2] to [CO] during reduction, where thermodynamic arguments suggest that the yield should be independent of this ratio. A striking feature with our materials was that particles made by mechanical mixing performed much better than those made by co-precipitation when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe0.947O, but much worse than co-precipitated particles when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe.

  8. Hydrogen from ethanol reforming with aqueous fraction of pine pyrolysis oil with and without chemical looping. (United States)

    Zin, R Md; Ross, A B; Jones, J M; Dupont, V


    Reforming ethanol ('EtOH') into hydrogen rich syngas using the aqueous fraction from pine bio-oil ('AQ') as a combined source of steam and supplementary organic feed was tested in packed bed with Ni-catalysts 'A' (18wt%/α-Al2O3) and 'B' (25wt%/γ-Al2O3). The catalysts were initially pre-reduced by H2, but this was followed by a few cycles of chemical looping steam reforming, where the catalysts were in turn oxidised in air and auto-reduced by the EtOH/AQ mixture. At 600°C, EtOH/AQ reformed similarly to ethanol for molar steam to carbon ratios (S/C) between 2 and 5 on the H2-reduced catalysts. At S/C of 3.3, 90% of the carbon feed converted on catalyst A to CO2 (58%), CO (30%) and CH4 (2.7%), with 17wt% H2 yield based on dry organic feedstock, equivalent to 78% of the equilibrium value. Catalyst A maintained these outputs for four cycles while B underperformed due to partial reduction. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical looping dry reforming as novel, intensified process for CO{sub 2} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar, S. [University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Najera, M. [University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Veser, G. [University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Chemical looping dry reforming (CLDR) is a novel, intensified route for CO{sub 2} activation. Two nanostructured carriers (Fe-BHA and Fe rate at SiO{sub 2}) are synthesized, characterized, and evaluated with regard to activity and stability in thermogravimetric and fixed-bed CLDR reactor studies over a temperature range of 500-800 C. Fe-barium hexaaluminate (Fe-BHA) shows fast redox kinetics and stable operation over multiple CLDR cycles, while Fe rate at SiO{sub 2} exhibits poor activity for CO generation due to a partial loss of the core-shell structure and formation of silicates. While the latter could be removed via a two-step oxidation scheme, carrier utilization remained well below that of Fe-BHA (51 % versus 15 %). However, the two-step oxidation configuration turns the net endothermic CLDR process into a net exothermic process, opening up a highly efficient autothermal process alternative. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Multiscale Modeling of a Packed Bed Chemical Looping Reforming (PBCLR Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Singhal


    Full Text Available Packed bed reactors are broadly used in industry and are under consideration for novel reactor concepts such as packed bed chemical looping reforming (PBCLR. Mass and heat transfer limitations in and around the particles in packed bed reactors strongly affect the behavior of these units. This study employs a multiscale modeling methodology to simulate a PBCLR reactor. Specifically, small-scale particle-resolved direct numerical simulation is utilized to improve large-scale mass transfer models for use in an industrial scale 1D model. Existing intra-particle mass transfer models perform well for simple first order reactions, but several model enhancements were required to model the more complex steam methane reforming reaction system. Three specific aspects required enhanced modeling: the generation of additional gas volume by the reforming reactions, the lack of clear reaction orders in the equilibrium reactions, and the diffusion of multiple reactant species into the particle. Large-scale simulations of the PBCLR reactor with the enhanced 1D model showed that the highly reactive Ni-based catalyst/oxygen carrier employed allows for the use of large particle sizes and high gas flowrates, offering potential for process intensification.

  11. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Xu, Dikai [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Hsieh, Tien-Lin [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Simpson, James [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Statnick, Robert [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Tong, Andrew [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Fan, Liang-Shih [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)


    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  12. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Chen, Liangyong [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Yi [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Richburg, Lisa [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Simpson, James [WorleyParsons Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States); White, Jay [WorleyParsons Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Rossi, Gianalfredo [WorleyParsons Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States)


    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  13. Chemical looping fluidized-bed concentrating solar power system and method (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen


    A concentrated solar power (CSP) plant comprises a receiver configured to contain a chemical substance for a chemical reaction and an array of heliostats. Each heliostat is configured to direct sunlight toward the receiver. The receiver is configured to transfer thermal energy from the sunlight to the chemical substance in a reduction reaction. The CSP plant further comprises a first storage container configured to store solid state particles produced by the reduction reaction and a heat exchanger configured to combine the solid state particles and gas through an oxidation reaction. The heat exchanger is configured to transfer heat produced in the oxidation reaction to a working fluid to heat the working fluid. The CSP plant further comprises a power turbine coupled to the heat exchanger, such that the heated working fluid turns the power turbine, and a generator coupled to and driven by the power turbine to generate electricity.

  14. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih


    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  15. A comparative study of geopolymers synthesized from OXY-combustion and chemical looping combustion bottom ashes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, CN


    Full Text Available silicate (Na2SiO2) and sodium hydroxide solutions (5M, 10M and 15M) and the pastes were cured at 60°C for 10days. The properties of the geopolymers were characterized using: TGA, FTIR and SEM-EDX techniques. TGA analysis showed that FBC geopolymer with 5M...

  16. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, David [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)


    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design.

  17. Chemical looping of metal nitride catalysts: low-pressure ammonia synthesis for energy storage. (United States)

    Michalsky, R; Avram, A M; Peterson, B A; Pfromm, P H; Peterson, A A


    The activity of many heterogeneous catalysts is limited by strong correlations between activation energies and adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favourable at ambient temperature and pressure, the catalytic synthesis of ammonia (NH 3 ), a fertilizer and chemical fuel, from N 2 and H 2 requires some of the most extreme conditions of the chemical industry. We demonstrate how ammonia can be produced at ambient pressure from air, water, and concentrated sunlight as renewable source of process heat via nitrogen reduction with a looped metal nitride, followed by separate hydrogenation of the lattice nitrogen into ammonia. Separating ammonia synthesis into two reaction steps introduces an additional degree of freedom when designing catalysts with desirable activation and adsorption energies. We discuss the hydrogenation of alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrides and the reduction of transition metal nitrides to outline a promoting role of lattice hydrogen in ammonia evolution. This is rationalized via electronic structure calculations with the activity of nitrogen vacancies controlling the redox-intercalation of hydrogen and the formation and hydrogenation of adsorbed nitrogen species. The predicted trends are confirmed experimentally with evolution of 56.3, 80.7, and 128 μmol NH 3 per mol metal per min at 1 bar and above 550 °C via reduction of Mn 6 N 2.58 to Mn 4 N and hydrogenation of Ca 3 N 2 and Sr 2 N to Ca 2 NH and SrH 2 , respectively.

  18. Multifunctional Pd/Ni-Co catalyst for hydrogen production by chemical looping coupled with steam reforming of acetic acid. (United States)

    Fermoso, Javier; Gil, María V; Rubiera, Fernando; Chen, De


    High yield of high-purity H2 from acetic acid, a model compound of bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass, was produced by sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SESR). An oxygen carrier was introduced into a chemical loop (CL) coupled to the cyclical SESR process to supply heat in situ for the endothermic sorbent regeneration to increase the energy efficiency of the process. A new multifunctional 1 %Pd/20 %Ni-20 %Co catalyst was developed for use both as oxygen carrier in the CL and as reforming catalyst in the SESR whereas a CaO-based material was used as CO2 sorbent. In the sorbent-air regeneration step, the Ni-Co atoms in the catalyst undergo strong exothermic oxidation reactions that provide heat for the CaO decarbonation. The addition of Pd to the Ni-Co catalyst makes the catalyst active throughout the whole SESR-CL cycle. Pd significantly promotes the reduction of Ni-Co oxides to metallic Ni-Co during the reforming stage, which avoids the need for a reduction step after regeneration. H2 yield above 90 % and H2 purity above 99.2 vol % were obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hydrogen Production from Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming over Yttrium Promoted Ni/SBA-16 Oxygen Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Daneshmand-Jahromi


    Full Text Available In this work, the modification of Ni/SBA-16 oxygen carrier (OC with yttrium promoter is investigated. The yttrium promoted Ni-based oxygen carrier was synthesized via co-impregnation method and applied in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process, which is used for the production of clean energy carrier. The reaction temperature (500–750 °C, Y loading (2.5–7.4 wt. %, steam/carbon molar ratio (1–5, Ni loading (10–30 wt. % and life time of OCs over 16 cycles at 650 °C were studied to investigate and optimize the structure of OC and process temperature with maximizing average methane conversion and hydrogen production yield. The synthesized OCs were characterized by multiples techniques. The results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX of reacted OCs showed that the presence of Y particles on the surface of OCs reduces the coke formation. The smaller NiO species were found for the yttrium promoted OC and therefore the distribution of Ni particles was improved. The reduction-oxidation (redox results revealed that 25Ni-2.5Y/SBA-16 OC has the highest catalytic activity of about 99.83% average CH4 conversion and 85.34% H2 production yield at reduction temperature of 650 °C with the steam to carbon molar ratio of 2.

  20. High purity H2 by sorption-enhanced chemical looping reforming of waste cooking oil in a packed bed reactor. (United States)

    Pimenidou, P; Rickett, G; Dupont, V; Twigg, M V


    High purity hydrogen (>95%) was produced at 600 degrees C and 1 atm by steam reforming of waste cooking oil at a molar steam to carbon ratio of 4 using chemical looping, a process that features redox cycles of a Ni catalyst with the in-situ carbonation/calcination of a CO(2) sorbent (dolomite) in a packed bed reactor under alternated feedstreams of fuel-steam and air. The fuel and steam conversion were higher with the sorbent present than without it. Initially, the dolomite carbonation was very efficient (100%), and 98% purity hydrogen was produced, but the carbonation decreased to around 56% with a purity of 95% respectively in the following cycles. Reduction of the nickel catalyst occurred alongside steam reforming, water gas shift and carbonation, with H(2) produced continuously under fuel-steam feeds. Catalyst and CO(2)-sorbent regeneration was observed, and long periods of autothermal operation within each cycle were demonstrated. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research Data Supporting "Synthesis, Application and Carbonation Behaviour of Ca2Fe2O5 for Chemical Looping H2 Production"


    Ismail, Mohammad; Liu, Wen; Chan, Martin S.C.; Dunstan, Matthew T.; Scott, Stuart A


    Chemical looping hydrogen production uses the oxidation and reduction of metal oxides, typically iron, to produce hydrogen. This work focuses on the modification of iron oxide with calcium oxide to form an oxygen carrier containing di-calcium ferrite (Ca2Fe2O5), which presents favourable thermodynamics for achieving higher conversions of steam to hydrogen compared to chemically unmodified iron oxide. Different methods of synthesis, viz. mechanochemical synthesis and co-precipitation, were use...

  2. Hydrodynamic analysis of a three-fluidized bed reactor cold flow model for chemical looping hydrogen generation. Pressure characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zhipeng; Xiang, Wenguo; Chen, Shiyi; Wang, Dong [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment


    Chemical looping hydrogen generation (CLHG) can produce pure hydrogen with inherent separation of CO{sub 2} from fossils fuel. The process involves a metal oxide, as an oxygen carrier, such as iron oxide. The CLHG system consists of three reactors: a fuel reactor (FR), a steam reactor (SR) and an air reactor (AR). In the FR, the fuel gases react with iron oxides (hematite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, wuestite FeO), generating reduced iron oxides (FeO or even Fe), and with full conversion of gaseous fuels, pure CO{sub 2} can be obtained after cooling the flue gas from the fuel reactor; in the SR, FeO and Fe reacts with steam to generate magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and H{sub 2}, the latter representing the final target product of the process; in the AR, the magnetite is oxidized back to hematite which is used in another cycle. A cold flow model of three-fluidized bed for CLHG corresponding to 50 KW hot units has been built. A major novelty of this facility is the compact fuel reactor, which integrates a bubble and a fast fluidized bed to avoid the incomplete conversion of the fuel gas caused by the thermodynamics equilibrium. In order to study the pressure characteristics and the solids concentration of the system, especially in the fuel reactor, the gas velocity of three reactors, gas flow of L-type value, total solids inventory (TSI) and the secondary air of fuel reactor were varied. Results show that the pressure and the solids concentration are strongly influenced by the fluidizing-gas velocity of three reactors. Moreover, the entrainment of the upper part of fuel reactor increases as the total solids inventory increases, and the operating range of the FR can be changed by introducing secondary air or increasing the total solids inventory.

  3. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.


    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  4. Promotion of Ca-Co Bifunctional Catalyst/Sorbent with Yttrium for Hydrogen Production in Modified Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Akbari-Emadabadi


    Full Text Available In this study, the application of a calcium-based bifunctional catalyst/sorbent is investigated in modified chemical looping steam methane reforming (CLSMR process for in situ CO2 sorption and H2 production. The yttrium promoted Ca-Co samples were synthesized and applied as bifunctional catalysts/sorbent. The influence of reduction temperature (500–750 °C, Ca/Co and Ca/Y ratios (1.5–∞ and 3–18, respectively and catalyst life time are determined in CLSMR process. The physicochemical transformation of fresh, used and regenerated samples after 16 redox cycles are determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The effect of yttrium promoter on the structure of catalyst and regeneration step on the reversibility of bifunctional catalyst/sorbent was two important factors. The characterization results revealed that the presence of yttrium in the structure of Ca-9Co sample could improve the morphology and textural properties of catalyst/sorbents. The suitable reversibility of bifunctional catalyst/sorbents during the repeated cycles is confirmed by characterization of calcined samples. The Ca-9Co-4.5Y as optimal catalyst illustrated superior performance and stability. It showed about 95.8% methane conversion and 82.9% hydrogen yield at 700 °C and stable activity during 16 redox cycles.

  5. Synthesis and Application of Cerium-Incorporated SBA-16 Supported Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier in Cyclic Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Meshksar


    Full Text Available Hydrogen, as a clean energy carrier, could be produced aided by cyclic oxidation-reduction of oxygen carriers (OCs in contact with carbonaceous fuel in chemical looping steam methane reforming (CL-SMR process. In this study, the cerium was incorporated into the SBA-16 support structure to synthesize the Ni/Ce-SBA-16 OC. The supports were synthesized using hydrothermal method followed by impregnation of Ni and characterized via low and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, and transmission electron micrograph (TEM techniques. In addition, the effect of various Si/Ce molar ratios (20–60 in the support structure, Ni loading (10–30 wt %, reaction temperature (500–750 °C, and life time of optimal oxygen carrier over 16 cycles were investigated. The results of wide angle XRD and SEM revealed that the incorporation of CeO2 in the channels of SBA-16 caused the formation of nickel metallic particles with smaller size and prevents the coke formation. The results showed that OC with 15 wt % Ni and Si/Ce molar ratio of 40 (15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 has the best performance when compared with other OCs in terms of catalytic activity and structural properties. The methane conversion of about 99.7% was achieved at 700 °C using 15Ni/Ce-SBA-16(40 OC. We anticipate that the strategy can be extended to investigate a variety of novel modified mesoporous silica as the supporting material for the Ni based OCs.

  6. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  7. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier; Resultats de l'experimentation sur un pilote operant en boucle chimique avec un materiau transporteur d'oxygene a base de nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proll, T.; Kolbitsch, P.; Bolhar-Nordenkampf, J.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, Vienna 1060 (Austria)


    A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas). The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH{sub 4} conversion) and 92% (CO{sub 2} yield). In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900 C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH{sub 4}) without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO{sub 2}-ready coupled production of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. (authors)

  8. Oxygen Storage Properties of La 1–xSrxFeO3-δ for Chemical-Looping Reactions—An In Situ Neutron and Synchrotron X-ray Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Daniel D.; Schreiber, Nathaniel J.; Levitas, Benjamin D.; Xu, Wenqian; Whitfield, Pamela S.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.


    Oxygen storage materials (OSMs) provide lattice oxygen for a number of chemical-looping reactions including natural gas combustion and methane reforming. La1–xSrxFeO3-δ has shown promise for use as an OSM in methane reforming reactions due to its high product selectivity, fast oxide diffusion, and cycle stability. Here, we investigate the structural evolution of the series La1–xSrxFeO3-δ for x = 0, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, and 1, using in situ synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction, as it is cycled under the conditions of a chemical-looping reactor (methane and oxygen atmospheres). In the compositions x = 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, and 1, we discover an envelope , or temperature range, of oxygen storage capacity (OSC), where oxygen can easily and reversibly be inserted and removed from the OSM. Our in situ X-ray and neutron diffraction results reveal that while samples with higher Sr contents had a higher OSC, those same samples suffered from slower reaction kinetics and some, such as the x = 1/2 and x = 2/3 compositions, had local variations in Sr content, which led to inhomogeneous regions with varying reaction rates. Therefore, we highlight the importance of in situ diffraction studies, and we propose that these measurements are required for the thorough evaluation of future candidate OSMs. Furthermore, we recommend La2/3Sr1/3FeO3-δ as the optimal OSM in the series because its structure remains homogeneous throughout the reaction, and its OSC envelope is similar to that of the higher doped materials.

  9. Inhibiting Fe–Al Spinel Formation on a Narrowed Mesopore-Sized MgAl2O4 Support as a Novel Catalyst for H2 Production in Chemical Looping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hafizi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the structure of Al2O3 is modified with magnesium to synthesize MgAl2O4 as an oxygen carrier (OC support. The surface properties and structural stability of the modified support are improved by the incorporation of magnesium in the structure of the support and additionally by narrowing the pore size distribution (about 2.3 nm. Then, iron oxide is impregnated on both an Al2O3 support and a MgAl2O4 support as the oxygen transfer active site. The XRD results showed the formation of solely Fe2O3 on the MgAl2O4 support, while both Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 are detected in the synthesized Fe2O3-Al2O3 structure. The synthesized samples are investigated in chemical looping cycles, including CO reduction (as one of the most important side reactions of chemical looping reforming, at different temperatures (300–500 °C and oxidation with steam at 700 °C for hydrogen production. The obtained results showed the inhibition of Fe–Al spinel formation in the structure of the Fe2O3-MgAl2O4 OC. In addition, H2 with a purity higher than 98% is achievable in oxidation of the OC with steam. In addition, the activity and crystalline change of the Fe2O3-MgAl2O4 OC is investigated after 20 reduction-oxidation cycles.

  10. Reduced chemical kinetics for propane combustion (United States)

    Ying, Shuh-Jing; Nguyen, Hung Lee


    It is pointed out that a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for the combustion of propane consists of 40 chemical species and 118 elementary chemical reactions. An attempt is made to reduce the number of chemical species and elementary chemical reactions so that the computer run times and storage requirements may be greatly reduced in three-dimensional gas turbine combustion flow calculations, while maintaining accurate predictions of the propane combustion and exhaust emissions. By way of a sensitivity analysis, the species of interest and chemical reactions are classified in descending order of importance. Nineteen species are chosen, and their pressure, temperature, and concentration profiles are presented for the reduced mechanisms, which are then compared with those from the full 118 reactions. It is found that 45 reactions involving 27 species have to be kept for comparable agreement. A comparison of the results obtained from the 45 reactions to that of the full 118 shows that the pressure and temperature profiles and concentrations of C3H8, O2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2 are within 10 percent of maximum change.

  11. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah Y.


    Accurate chemical kinetic combustion models of lightly branched alkanes (e.g., 2-methylalkanes) are important for investigating the combustion behavior of diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuels. Improving the fidelity of existing kinetic models is a necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values and rate rules. These update provides a better agreement with rapid compression machine measurements of ignition delay time, while also strengthening the fundamental basis of the model.

  12. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  13. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier Résultats de l’expérimentation sur un pilote opérant en boucle chimique avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène à base de nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pröll T.


    Full Text Available A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas. The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH4 conversion and 92% (CO2 yield. In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900°C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH4 without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO2-ready coupled production of H2 and N2 can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. Un pilote d’étude de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une puissance thermique de 120 kW a été dimensionné, construit et opéré. Il est constitué de deux lits circulants interconnectés. Les résultats d’opération qui sont présentés ont été obtenus avec un matériau transporteur d’oxygène très réactif à base de nickel. L’inventaire total du matériau est de 65 kg dans le pilote. La conversion du méthane atteinte est voisine de 99,8 % et le rendement en CO2 est de 92 %. Lorsqu’on opère en mode de reformage, l’équilibre thermodynamique est atteint dans le réacteur fioul. Tout l’oxygène est capté dans le réacteur air dès que le rapport stoechiométrique entre l’air et le méthane est inférieur à 1 et que la temp

  14. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin


    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  15. Chemical Kinetic Characterization of Combustion Toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Seiser, R; Bozzelli, J W; Da Costa, I; Fournet, R; Billaud, F; Battin-Leclerc, F; Seshadri, K; Westbrook, C K


    A study is performed to elucidate the chemical kinetic mechanism of combustion of toluene. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for toluene was improved by adding a more accurate description of the phenyl + O{sub 2} reaction channels. Results of the chemical kinetic mechanism are compared with experimental data obtained from premixed and nonpremixed systems. Under premixed conditions, predicted ignition delay times are compared with new experimental data obtained in shock tube. Also, calculated species concentration histories are compared to experimental flow reactor data from the literature. Critical conditions of extinction and ignition were measured in strained laminar flows under nonpremixed conditions in the counterflow configuration. Numerical calculations are performed using the chemical kinetic mechanism at conditions corresponding to those in the experiments. Critical conditions of extinction and ignition are predicted and compared with the experimental data. For both premixed and nonpremixed systems, sensitivity analysis was used to identify the reaction rate constants that control the overall rate of oxidation in each of the systems considered.

  16. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume


    Marius BREBENEL


    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  17. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL


    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  18. Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Sarathy, S M


    Predictive engine simulation models are needed to make rapid progress towards DOE's goals of increasing combustion engine efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions. These engine simulation models require chemical kinetic submodels to allow the prediction of the effect of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions. Chemical kinetic models for conventional and next-generation transportation fuels need to be developed so that engine simulation tools can predict fuel effects. The objectives are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

  19. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.


    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  20. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)


    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  1. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen Combustion Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K


    A detailed chemical kinetic model is used to explore the flammability and detonability of hydrogen mixtures. In the case of flammability, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrogen is coupled to the CHEMKIN Premix code to compute premixed, laminar flame speeds. The detailed chemical kinetic model reproduces flame speeds in the literature over a range of equivalence ratios, pressures and reactant temperatures. A series of calculation were performed to assess the key parameters determining the flammability of hydrogen mixtures. Increased reactant temperature was found to greatly increase the flame speed and the flammability of the mixture. The effect of added diluents was assessed. Addition of water and carbon dioxide were found to reduce the flame speed and thus the flammability of a hydrogen mixture approximately equally well and much more than the addition of nitrogen. The detailed chemical kinetic model was used to explore the detonability of hydrogen mixtures. A Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) detonation model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics was used to model the detonation. The effectiveness on different diluents was assessed in reducing the detonability of a hydrogen mixture. Carbon dioxide was found to be most effective in reducing the detonability followed by water and nitrogen. The chemical action of chemical inhibitors on reducing the flammability of hydrogen mixtures is discussed. Bromine and organophosphorus inhibitors act through catalytic cycles that recombine H and OH radicals in the flame. The reduction in H and OH radicals reduces chain branching in the flame through the H + O{sub 2} = OH + O chain branching reaction. The reduction in chain branching and radical production reduces the flame speed and thus the flammability of the hydrogen mixture.

  2. Chemical kinetics and combustion modelling with CFX 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, P. [AEA Technology, Computational Fluid Dynamics Services Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)


    The presentation describes some recent developments in combustion and kinetics models used in the CFX software of AEA Technology. Three topics are highlighted: the development of coupled solvers in a traditional `SIMPLE`-based CFD code, the use of detailed chemical kinetics mechanism via `look-up` tables and the application of CFD to large-scale multi-burner combustion plant. The aim is identify those physical approximations and numerical methods that are likely to be most useful in the future and those areas where further developments are required. (author) 6 refs.

  3. High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M


    Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

  4. 46 CFR 194.05-19 - Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail requirements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquids as chemical stores-Detail... and Marking § 194.05-19 Combustible liquids as chemical stores—Detail requirements. (a) Combustible liquid chemical stores and reagents shall be governed by subparts 194.15 and 194.20. (b) Other...

  5. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  6. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective. (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T


    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  7. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Combustion of Oxygenated Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, E.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.J.; Westbrook, C.K.


    Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in the literature, which was obtained at low temperature, subatmospheric conditions in closed vessels, using pressure measurements as the main diagnostic. Some qualitative agreement was obtained, but the experimental data consistently indicated lower overall reactivities than the model, differing by factors of 10 to 50. This discrepancy, which occurs for species with well-established kinetic mechanisms as well as for methyl esters, is tentatively ascribed to the presence of wall reactions in the experiments. The model predicts a region of weak or negative dependence of overall reaction rate on temperature for each methyl ester. Examination of the reaction fluxes provides an explanation of this behavior, involving a temperature-dependent competition between chain-propagating unimolecular decomposition processes and chain-branching processes, similar to that accepted for hydrocarbons. There is an urgent need to obtain more complete experimental data under well-characterized conditions for thorough testing of the model.



  9. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler


    Radomiak Henryk; Bala-Litwiniak Agnieszka; Zajemska Monika; Musiał Dorota


    In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterificatio...

  10. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry


    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion with Chemical Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjwani, Balram


    The present doctoral thesis studies and develops methodologies for turbulent combustion with the Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Three main objectives for present doctoral thesis were. First, development of LES methodology in curvilinear coordinates. LES formulation in curvilinear coordinates can be achieved in two ways, (1) conventional approach, where filtering is performed prior to the transformation, and (2) alternate approach, where filtering is performed after the transformation. In present work the conventional approach was preferred than the alternate approach. Furthermore, filtering in physical space introduces a commutation error between filtering and differentiation due to non uniform meshes. The commutation filter, which can commute up to any order of accuracy were discussed in generalized coordinates. The LES module in generalized coordinate was implemented in the in-house RANS code. The methodology was validated by performing the LES of pipe, 3D lid driven cavity, Backward facing step, axisymmetric dump combustor with and without swirl. Furthermore, the influence of numerical scheme, discretization, subgrid model, grid resolution were explored for LES.The second objective of the present doctoral research was development of the Eddy Dissipation Concept for turbulent combustion (EDC) for LES. EDC assumes that combustion take place in the fine structure and they are located in the isolated regions. In RANS, the fine structure regions are estimated based on the full cascading in the each numerical cell, however this was not applicable for the LES, where either partial cascading or no cascading take place in the each numerical cell. In present work fine structure regions were formulated considering the partial cascading. Furthermore, in LES the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation are not computed explicitly, therefore the fine structure length and velocity scales, based on the eddy viscosity were proposed. The LES-EDC was validated by performing the LES

  12. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H J; Fisher, E M; Glaude, P-A; Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Flynn, P F; Durrett, R P; zur Loye, A O; Akinyemi, O C; Dryer, F L


    Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et al. [1] showed experimentally that particulate levels can be significantly reduced by adding oxygenated species to the fuel. They found the Bosch smoke number (a measure of the particulate or soot levels in diesel exhaust) falls from about 55% for conventional diesel fuel to less than 1% when the oxygen content of the fuel is above about 25% by mass, as shown in Figure 1. It has been well established that addition of oxygenates to automotive fuel, including both diesel fuel as well as gasoline, reduces NOx and CO emissions by reducing flame temperatures. This is the basis for addition of oxygenates to produce reformulated gasoline in selected portions of the country. Of course, this is also accompanied by a slight reduction in fuel economy. A new overall picture of diesel combustion has been developed by Dec [2], in which laser diagnostic studies identified stages in diesel combustion that had not previously been recognized. These stages are summarized in Figure 2. The evolution of the diesel spray is shown, starting as a liquid jet that vaporizes and entrains hot air from the combustion chamber. This relatively steady process continues as long as fuel is being injected. In particular, Dec showed that the fuel spray vaporizes and mixes with air and products of earlier combustion to provide a region in which a gas phase, premixed fuel-rich ignition and burn occurs. The products of this ignition are then observed experimentally to lead rapidly to formation of soot particles, which subsequently are consumed in a diffusion flame. Recently, Flynn et al. [3] used a chemical kinetic and

  13. Efficiency of log wood combustion affects the toxicological and chemical properties of emission particles. (United States)

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta


    Particulate matter (PM) has been identified as a major environmental pollutant causing severe health problems. Large amounts of the harmful particulate matter (PM) are emitted from residential wood combustion, but the toxicological properties of wood combustion particles are poorly known. To investigate chemical and consequent toxicological characteristics of PM(1) emitted from different phases of batch combustion in four heating appliances. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and human BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were exposed for 24 h to different doses (15-300 µg/mL) of wood combustion particles. After the exposure, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, production of the inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and MIP-2) and effects on the cell cycle were assessed. Furthermore, the detected toxicological responses were compared with the chemical composition of PM(1) samples including PAHs, metals and ions. All the wood combustion samples exerted high cytotoxicity, but only moderate inflammatory activity. The particles emitted from the inefficient phase of batch combustion in the sauna stove (SS) induced the most extensive cytotoxic and genotoxic responses in mammalian cells. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds in PM(1) samples might have contributed to these effects. Instead, water-soluble metals seemed to participate in the cytotoxic responses triggered by the particles from more efficient batch combustion in the masonry heaters. Overall, the toxicological responses were decreased when the combustion phase was more efficient. Efficiency of batch combustion plays a significant role in the harmfulness of PM even under incomplete wood combustion processes.

  14. Optical Diagnostics in the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Proces (United States)

    Luten, Henry; Oljaca, Miodrag; Tomov, Trifon; Metzger, Timothy


    Optical emission spectroscopy and IR temperature measurements are used to investigate the structure of a sub-micron droplet spray flame in the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process. The specific system examined in this study is the deposition of barium-strontium-titanate (BaxSr1-xTiO3), a high performance ferroelectric. Spectral measurements were used to determine the decomposition rates of the precursors as well as the lifetimes and relative concentrations of the primary decomposition products. The emissions from atomic and unimolecular species reach a maximum value early in the flame and then decrease sharply, indicating very fast reaction rates. This data, however, is a function of the flame temperature. In order to arrive at proper relative concentration data, the optical emission data must be normalized using measured temperature. Two-dimensional temperature maps were obtained using a non-contact, infrared temperature sensor with peak sensitivity at 4.5 microns. It was found that the sodium emission intensity correlates with the flame temperature, and the sodium emission was used as an internal standard for removing the temperature factor and isolating the relative concentration data. While the flame temperature reaches maximum value at approximately 2 cm, the normalized emission for most species reaches peak intensity closer to the nozzle exit.

  15. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources (United States)

    Kong, Peter C


    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  16. Prediction of Combustion Instability with Detailed Chemical Kinetics (United States)


    Rendus Mecanique , 2013. 8 S. Srinivasan, R. Ranjan, and S. Menon. Flame Dynamics During Combustion Instability in a High- Pressure, Shear-Coaxial...Terms on Reliability of CFD Algorithms. Computers and Fluids , 39(10):1909–1922, 2010. 18 Harvazinski M.E. Modeling Self-Excited Combustion Instabilities

  17. Numerical prediction of the chemical composition of gas products at biomass combustion and co-combustion in a domestic boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomiak Henryk


    Full Text Available In recent years the numerical modelling of biomass combustion has been successfully applied to determine the combustion mechanism and predict its products. In this study the influence of the addition of waste glycerin in biomass wood pellets on the chemical composition of exhaust gases has been investigated. The pellets have been prepared from spruceand pine wood sawdust without and with addition of waste glycerin. The waste glycerol is a undesirable by-product of biodiesel transesterification at oil manufacturing. The produced pellets were being burned in the 10 kW domestic boiler adapted to wood pellets combustion. The possibilities of pollutants generation (CO2, CO, NOx SOx and compounds containing chlorine in the exhaust gases coming from the boiler were numerically calculated using the latest version of CHEMKIN-PRO software, introduced by the American company Reaction Design. The results of the calculations correspond to the data obtained on a real object, in particular: combustion temperature, gas pressure, residence time of fuel in the burner, air flow, fuel consumption, as well as elementary composition of fuel supplied into the boiler. The proposed method of predicting the chemical composition of exhaust gases allows proper control of the combustion process and can be considered as an important step in reducing the pollutants (lower emission of NOx, SOx and CO2 neutral and thus to contribute to the improvement of the environmental quality. In addition, knowledge of the amounts of Clbased compounds produced in combustion process (under given conditions, can serve as an important hint in terms of corrosion prevention of boiler- and chimney steels.

  18. The Role of Comprehensive Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms in Combustion Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M


    Recent developments by the authors in the field of comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels are reviewed. Examples are given of how these mechanisms provide fundamental chemical insights into a range of combustion applications. Practical combustion consists primarily of chemical heat release from reactions between a fuel and an oxidizer, and computer simulations of practical combustion systems have become an essential tool of combustion research (Westbrook et al., 2005). At the heart of most combustion simulations, the chemical kinetic submodel frequently is the most detailed, complex and computationally costly part of a system model. Historically, the chemical submodel equations are solved using time-implicit numerical algorithms, due to the extreme stiffness of the coupled rate equations, with a computational cost that varies roughly with the cube of the number of chemical species in the model. While early mechanisms (c. 1980) for apparently simple fuels such as methane (Warnatz, 1980) or methanol (Westbrook and Dryer, 1979) included perhaps 25 species, current detailed mechanisms for much larger, more complex fuels such as hexadecane (Fournet et al., 2001; Ristori et al., 2001; Westbrook et al., 2008) or methyl ester methyl decanoate (Herbinet et al., 2008) have as many as 2000 or even 3000 species. Rapid growth in capabilities of modern computers has been an essential feature in this rapid growth in the size and complexity of chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms.

  19. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao


    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  20. Computational Model of Forward and Opposed Smoldering Combustion with Improved Chemical Kinetics


    Rein, Guillermo


    A computational study has been carried out to investigate smoldering ignition and propagation in polyurethane foam. The onedimensional, transient, governing equations for smoldering combustion in a porous fuel are solved accounting for improved solid-phase chemical kinetics. A systematic methodology for the determination of solid-phase kinetics suitable for numerical models has been developed and applied to the simulation of smoldering combustion. This methodology consists i...

  1. Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick


    This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We

  2. Application of Detailed Chemical Kinetics to Combustion Instability Modeling (United States)


    chemical kinetics of the methane oxidation. Two-dimensional results with global chemistry have shown significantly lower amplitudes than the ex...Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 November 2015 – 04 January 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of Detailed Chemical Kinetics to...under two different conditions corresponding to marginally stable and unstable operation in order to evaluate the performance of the chemical kinetics

  3. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Analysis of Low Temperature Non-Sooting Diesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L


    We have developed a model of the diesel fuel injection process for application to analysis of low temperature non-sooting combustion. The model uses a simplified mixing correlation and detailed chemical kinetics, and analyzes a parcel of fuel as it moves along the fuel jet, from injection into evaporation and ignition. The model predicts chemical composition and soot precursors, and is applied at conditions that result in low temperature non-sooting combustion. Production of soot precursors is the first step toward production of soot, and modeling precursor production is expected to give insight into the overall evolution of soot inside the engine. The results of the analysis show that the model has been successful in describing many of the observed characteristics of low temperature combustion. The model predicts results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained for soot formation experiments at conditions in which the EGR rate is increased from zero to very high values as the fueling rate is kept constant. The model also describes the two paths to achieve non-sooting combustion. The first is smokeless rich combustion and the second is modulated kinetics (MK). The importance of the temperature after ignition and the equivalence ratio at the time of ignition is demonstrated, as these parameters can be used to collapse onto a single line all the results for soot precursors for multiple fueling rates. A parametric analysis indicates that precursor formation increases considerably as the gas temperature in the combustion chamber and the characteristic mixing time are increased. The model provides a chemical kinetic description of low temperature diesel combustion that improves the understanding of this clean and efficient regime of operation.

  4. Coupling of Transport and Chemical Processes in Catalytic Combustion (United States)

    Bracco, F. V.; Bruno, C.; Royce, B. S. H.; Santavicca, D. A.; Sinha, N.; Stein, Y.


    Catalytic combustors have demonstrated the ability to operate efficiently over a much wider range of fuel air ratios than are imposed by the flammability limits of conventional combustors. Extensive commercial use however needs the following: (1) the design of a catalyst with low ignition temperature and high temperature stability, (2) reducing fatigue due to thermal stresses during transient operation, and (3) the development of mathematical models that can be used as design optimization tools to isolate promising operating ranges for the numerous operating parameters. The current program of research involves the development of a two dimensional transient catalytic combustion model and the development of a new catalyst with low temperature light-off and high temperature stablity characteristics.

  5. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for NOx emission prediction in biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshfar, Ehsan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Glarborg, Peter


    Because of the complex composition of biomass, the chemical mechanism contains many different species and therefore a large number of reactions. Although biomass gas‐phase combustion is fairly well researched and understood, the proposed mechanisms are still complex and need very long computational...

  6. Chemical composition and properties of ashes from combustion plants using Miscanthus as fuel. (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof


    Miscanthus giganteus is one of the energy crops considered to show potential for a substantial contribution to sustainable energy production. In the literature there is little data available about the chemical composition of ashes from the combustion of Miscanthus and practically no data about their physical properties. However, for handling, treatment and utilization of the ashes this information is important. In this study ashes from two biomass combustion plants using Miscanthus as fuel were investigated. The density of the ashes was 2230±35kg/m(3), which was similar to the density of ashes from straw combustion. Also the bulk densities were close to those reported for straw ashes. The flowability of the ashes was a little worse than the flowability of ashes from wood combustion. The measured heavy metal concentrations were below the usual limits for utilization of the ashes as soil conditioner. The concentrations in the bottom ash were similar to those reported for ash from forest residue combustion plants. In comparison with cyclone fly ashes from forest residue combustion the measured heavy metal concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were considerably lower. Cl(-), S and Zn were enriched in the cyclone fly ash which is also known for ashes from wood combustion. In comparison with literature data obtained from Miscanthus plant material the concentrations of K, Cl(-) and S were lower. This can be attributed to the fact that the finest fly ash is not collected by the cyclone de-dusting system of the Miscanthus combustion plants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Chemical Characterization of Pineapple Leaf Residue Chars generated by Controlled Combustion and by open burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng L.Y.


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the chemical characteristics of pineapple leave residues (PLRs char generated by controlled combustion and by open burning. The properties of char generated by control combustion (CC and open burning (OB varied, due to differences in the production process. The total N, K and surface area of the char generated by CC were significantly higher than the OB. The results indicate that the CC process was better to be applied as a soil amendment than was the OB process.

  8. Chemical effects of a high CO2 concentration in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Bentzen, L.L.B.


    in terms of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrocarbon oxidation. On the basis of results of the present study, it can be expected that oxy-fuel combustion will lead to strongly increased CO concentrations in the near-burner region. The CO2 present will compete with O-2 for atomic hydrogen...... CO2. The high local CO levels may have implications for near-burner corrosion and stagging, but increased problems with CO emission in oxy-fuel combustion are not anticipated....

  9. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion. (United States)

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto


    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  10. Premixed CH4/O2-enriched air combustion: Identification of thermal, chemical and aerodynamic effects (United States)

    Most, J.-M.; Dahikar, S.; Pal, S.; Claverie, A.; Denis, D.; Pillier, L.; de Persis, S.


    This work contributes to the evaluation of a new innovative process focused on the reduction of the cost of a post-combustion capture of CO2 in a Carbon Capture and Storage system (CCS). The process based on the separation of dried fumes composed mainly by CO2 and N2 by using membranes, which should lead to a lower energetic separation cost than amines. But the membranes become efficient if the upstream CO2 concentration is higher than 30% at their entrance that requires enriching the oxidizer flow by O2. To maintain the exhaust temperature compatible with materials thermal resistance, the reactants are diluted by a recirculation of a part of the flue gases (like N2/O2/CO2). But, the chemical kinetic, the energetic efficiencies, the radiation transfer, the transport and thermal properties of the flow can be affected by CO2. The objective of this work will be to identify the behaviour of the combustion of premixed CH4/O2-enriched air, both diluted in N2 and CO2 and to determine the combustion parameters. This allows to recover the CH4/air conditions in terms of CO2 concentration in reactants, O2 excess, dilution rate, temperature of the reactants, etc. Experiments are performed on the laminar premixed flame using counterflow burner. To characterize the combustion behaviour, the flammability limits are determined and flame thickness and position are measured from PLIF-OH diagnostic. Further, CHEMKIN simulations are performed to check the validity of the GRI3.0 chemical kinetic mechanism for premixed CH4/air synthetic combustion and identify the leading phenomena.

  11. The chemical transformation of calcium in Shenhua coal during combustion in a muffle furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Sida [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering; Shu, Xinqian [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering


    The chemical reaction characteristics of calcium in three samples of Shenhua coal, i.e. raw sample, hydrochloric acid washed sample and hydrochloric acid washed light fraction, during combustion in a muffle furnace have been investigated in this paper. Ca is bound by calcite and organic matter in Shenhua coal. X ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis has been conducted to these samples' combustion products obtained by heating at different temperatures. It has been found that the organically-bound calcium could easily react with clays and transform into gehlenite and anorthite partially if combusted under 815 C, whilst the excluded minerals promoted the conversion of gehlenite to anorthite. Calcite in Shenhua coal decomposed into calcium oxide and partially transformed into calcium sulfate under 815 C, and formed gehlenite and anorthite under 1,050 C. Calcite and other HCl-dissolved minerals in Shenhua coal were responsible mainly for the characteristic that the clay minerals in Shenhua coal hardly became mullite during combustion.

  12. On mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of chemical kinetics in turbulent lean premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilleberg, Bjorn


    This thesis investigates turbulent reacting lean premixed flows with detailed treatment of the chemistry. First, the fundamental equations which govern laminar and turbulent reacting flows are presented. A perfectly stirred reactor numerical code is developed to investigate the role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities. This includes both global single-step and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. The single-step mechanisms predict to some degree a similar behavior as the detailed mechanisms. However, it is shown that simple mechanisms can by themselves introduce instabilities. Magnussens Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) for turbulent combustion is implemented in the open source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM R for treatment of both fast and detailed chemistry. RANS turbulence models account for the turbulent compressible flow. A database of pre-calculated chemical time scales, which contains the influence of chemical kinetics, is coupled to EDC with fast chemistry to account for local extinction in both diffusion and premixed flames. Results are compared to fast and detailed chemistry calculations. The inclusion of the database shows significantly better results than the fast chemistry calculations while having a comparably small computational cost. Numerical simulations of four piloted lean premixed jet flames falling into the 'well stirred reactor/broken reaction zones' regime, with strong finite-rate chemistry effects, are performed. Measured and predicted scalars compare well for the two jets with the lowest velocities. The two jets with the highest velocities experience extinction and reignition, and the simulations are able to capture the decrease and increase of the OH mass fractions, but the peak values are higher than in the experiments. Also numerical simulations of a lean premixed lifted jet flame with high sensitivity to turbulence modeling and chemical kinetics are performed. Limitations of the applied turbulence and

  13. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad


    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have been investigated in single cylinder engine running in GCI combustion mode at part-load conditions both experimentally and numerically. The studied fuels are: Saudi Aramco light naphtha (SALN) (Research octane number (RON) = 62 and final boiling point (FBP) = 91 °C), Haltermann straight run naphtha (HSRN) (RON = 60 and FBP = 140 °C) and a primary reference fuel (PRF65) (RON = 65 and FBP = 99 °C). Injection sweeps, where the start of injection (SOI) is changed between −60 and −11 CAD aTDC, have been performed for the three fuels. Full cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were executed using PRFs as chemical surrogates for the naphtha fuels. Physical surrogates based on the evaporation characteristics of the naphtha streams have been developed and their properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. It was found that the three fuels have similar combustion phasings and emissions at the conditions tested in this work with minor differences at SOI earlier than −30 CAD aTDC. These trends were successfully reproduced by the CFD calculations. The chemical and physical effects were further investigated numerically. It was found that the physical characteristics of the fuel significantly affect the combustion for injections earlier than −30 CAD aTDC because of the low evaporation rates of the fuel because of the higher boiling temperature of the fuel and the colder in-cylinder air during injection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, Robers [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ju, Yiguang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  15. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)


    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  16. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor. (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos


    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  17. Numerical investigation of a straw combustion boiler – Part I: Modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernbecher Andrea


    Full Text Available In the framework of a European project, a straw combustion boiler in conjunction with an organic Rankine cycle is developed. One objective of the project is the enhancement of the combustion chamber by numerical methods. A comprehensive simulation of the combustion chamber is prepared, which contains the necessary submodels for the thermo-chemical conversion of straw and for the homogeneous gas phase reactions. Part I introduces the modelling approach for the thermal decomposition of the biomass inside the fuel bed, whereas part II deals with the simulation of the gas phase reactions in the freeboard.

  18. Models of Non-Stationary Thermodynamic Processes in Rocket Engines Taking into Account a Chemical Equilibrium of Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Aliev


    Full Text Available The paper considers the two approach-based techniques for calculating the non-stationary intra-chamber processes in solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE. The first approach assumes that the combustion products are a mechanical mix while the other one supposes it to be the mix, which is in chemical equilibrium. To enhance reliability of solution of the intra ballistic tasks, which assume a chemical equilibrium of combustion products, the computing algorithms to calculate a structure of the combustion products are changed. The algorithm for solving a system of the nonlinear equations of chemical equilibrium, when determining the iterative amendments, uses the orthogonal QR method instead of a method of Gauss. Besides, a possibility to apply genetic algorithms in a task about a structure of combustion products is considered.It is shown that in the tasks concerning the prediction of non-stationary intra ballistic characteristics in a solid propellant rocket engine, application of models of mechanical mix and chemically equilibrium structure of combustion products leads to qualitatively and quantitatively coinciding results. The maximum difference in parameters is 5-10%, at most. In tasks concerning the starting operation of a solid sustainer engine with high-temperature products of combustion difference in results is more essential, and can reach 20% and more.A technique to calculate the intra ballistic parameters, in which flotation of combustion products is considered in the light of a spatial statement, requires using the high-performance computer facilities. For these tasks it is offered to define structure of products of combustion and its thermo-physical characteristics, using the polynoms coefficients of which should be predefined.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Combustion in PDE using simplified Chemical Mechanisms (United States)

    Raghupathy, Arun P.; Ghia, Karman; Ghia, Urmila


    The detonation phenomenon has been studied for nearly a century for its use in a Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE). It is attractive since it is a fast, constant-volume process, which is more efficient than deflagration, in converting chemical energy to mechanical energy. The combustion phenomenon inside a PDE is being modeled with single-step and simplified multi-step finite-rate reaction mechanisms. Detonation is initiated using two techniques, namely, i) Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) and ii) Direct initiation. Both of these approaches are studied using mixtures of ethylene-oxygen and hydrogen-oxygen. A second-order accurate, finite-volume flow solver with capabilities to model chemical reactions (FLUENT) is used for this purpose. The computational simulation allows for proper visualization of the flame propagation, and provides additional insight into the onset of detonation and its structure. The pressure and temperature time-histories at various points in the combustion chamber are examined in detail. The computational results for ethylene-oxygen mixture are validated with the work of Li and Kailasanath. These results show comparable trends in the pressure profiles inside the tube at various time instants.

  20. A Sequential Fluid-mechanic Chemical-kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Westbrook, C; Pitz, W; Dibble, R; Wright, J F; Akinyemi, W C; Hessel, R P


    We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers. The success of this procedure is in large part a consequence of the fact that for much of the compression stroke the chemistry is inactive and thus has little influence on fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Then, when chemistry is active, combustion is rather sudden, leaving little time for interaction between chemistry and fluid mixing and heat transfer. This sequential methodology has been capable of explaining the main characteristics of HCCI combustion that have been observed in experiments. In this paper, we use our model to explore an HCCI engine running on propane. The paper compares experimental and numerical pressure traces, heat release rates, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The results show an excellent agreement, even in parameters that are difficult to predict, such as chemical heat release rates. Carbon monoxide emissions are reasonably well predicted, even though it is intrinsically difficult to make good predictions of CO emissions in HCCI engines. The paper includes a sensitivity study on the effect of the heat transfer correlation on the results of the analysis. Importantly, the paper also

  1. Thermodynamic investigation of waste cooking oil based hydrogen generation system with chemical looping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Faleh


    The results show that coke formation can be thermodynamically inhibited by increasing the S/C ratio and/or the NiO/C ratio. The conditions that maximize hydrogen production, minimize methane and carbon monoxide content as well as avoid coke formation at thermoneutral conditions were found to be S/C = 5, T = 600 °C and NiO/C = 0.493. Under these conditions, a hydrogen yield of 144.3 mol/kg of soybean waste cooking oil can be obtained, which appears to be an attractive result for starting experimental research.

  2. Capture of CO{sub 2} in Coal Combustion (CCCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T.; Abanades, J.C.; Lyngfelt, A.; Abad, A.; Johansson, M.; Adanez, J.; Garcia-Labiano, F.; Diego, L.F. de; Gayan, P.; Kronberger, B.; Hofbauer, H.; Luisser, M.; Palacios, J.M.; Alvares, D.; Grasa, G.; Oakey, J.; Arias, B.; Orjala, M.; Heiskanen, V.P.


    The aim of the project is to develop processes for carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants with small energy penalties. Two novel processes are studied: chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and the lime carbonation/calcination cycle (LCCC). Both parts of the project have been highly successful. With respect to CLC the process was a paper concept when the project started, never tested in actual operation. In this project a large number of oxygen carriers have been produced and tested and many were found to have suitable properties for the process. A small reactor system for chemical-looping combustion was developed, tested and found to be working well with three different oxygen carriers. Furthermore cold-flow models indicate the realism of the process in full scale. The kinetics of a limited number of particles has been studied in detail, and modelling shows that the solids inventories needed will be small. With respect to the LCCC part, some of the options investigated can be potentially competitive to capture CO{sub 2} in coal-based power generation and cement plants. The observed decay in capture capacity of the sorbent can be compensated with a large make up flow of fresh limestone due to its low price. The key reactor systems (carbonator and calciner) have shown no major barriers for continuous operation All the options studied have the inherent advantage of low efficiency penalties. For some options, no major technical barriers have been identified and confidence has been built on the operation and understanding of individual units. Some of the options are ready to be demonstrated at large pilot level in a continuous power plant.

  3. Numerical simulation of Jet-A combustion approximated by improved propane chemical kinetics (United States)

    Ying, Shuh-Jing; Nguyen, Hung Lee


    Through the effort devoted to the chemical kinetics for propane air combustion, three mechanisms are developed. The full mechanism consists of 131 reactions. This mechanism is used as a guide for the evaluation of other mechanisms, but because of the long expected cpu time, it is not to be incorporated into the computer code KIVA-II for actual simulation. Through the sensitivity analysis, a reduced mechanism of 45 reactions is produced. But the calculated results from the 45 reaction mechanism are always low in temperature. Some efforts are devoted to correct this situation and details are included in this report. A simplified mechanism of reactions is successfully improved and computed results are compared with experimental data. Contour plots of physical parameters and species concentrations and results for emission indices of CO and NOx are presented.

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of cenospheres from the combustion of heavy fuel oil (United States)

    Clayton, R. M.; Back, L. H.


    Photomicrography of particle cross sections, measurements of density, porosity, and surface area, and determinations of chemical compositions, have been used in conjunction with SEM of surface structure to characterize cenospheres generated by combustion of residual oil in a steam power plant. Large and small cenospheres, which respectively fall into the 100-200 and small 20-40 micron range, are spheroidal and hollow, with at least one blowhole; outer/inner diameter ratios for the shells are of the order of 1.3-1.4. Typically, a cenosphere contains only about 18 vol pct solid material. The presence of S, Fe, Na, and V in substantial concentrations presage high temperature heat exchanger surface corrosion problems due to cenosphere deposition.

  5. Analysis of RDX-TAGzT pseudo-propellant combustion with detailed chemical kinetics (United States)

    Kumbhakarna, Neeraj; Thynell, Stefan T.; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Lin, Ping


    A detailed model of steady-state combustion of a pseudo-propellant containing cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT) is presented. The physicochemical processes occurring within the foam layer, comprised of a liquid and gas bubbles, and a gas-phase region above the burning surface are considered. The chemical kinetics is represented by a global thermal decomposition mechanism within the liquid by considering 18 species and eight chemical reactions. The reactions governing decomposition of TAGzT were deduced from separate confined rapid thermolysis experiments using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Within the gas bubbles and gas-phase region, a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism was used by considering up to 93 species and 504 reactions. The pseudo-propellant burn rate was found to be highly sensitive to the global decomposition reactions of TAGzT. The predicted results of burn rate agree well with experimental burn-rate data. The increase in burn rate by inclusion of TAGzT is due in part from exothermic decomposition of the azotetrazolate within the foam layer, and from fast gas-phase reactions between triaminoguanidine decomposition products, such as hydrazine, and oxidiser products from the nitramine decomposition.

  6. Hybrid Approach for Modeling Chemical Kinetics and Turbulence Effects on Combustion-Instability Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combustion instabilities pose a significant technical risk in the development of liquid and solid rocket motors. Much of the effort in modeling combustion...

  7. Turbulent Diffusion Combustion Model Using Chemical Equilibrium Combined with the Eddy Dissipation Concept for Reducing Detailed Chemical Mechanisms : An Application of H2-air Turbulent Diffusion Flame (United States)

    Fukumoto, Kazui; Ogami, Yoshifumi

    This research aims at building a turbulent diffusion combustion model based on chemical equilibrium and kinetics for simplifying complex chemical mechanism. This paper presents the combustion model based on chemical equilibrium combined with an eddy dissipation concept model (CE-EDC); the model is validated by simulating a H2-air turbulent diffusion flame. In the CE-EDC model, the reaction rate of fuels and intermediate species are estimated by using the equations of the EDC model. Then, the reacted fuels and intermediate species are assumed to be in chemical equilibrium; the amounts of the other species are determined by the Gibbs free energy minimization method by using the amounts of the reacted fuels, intermediate species, and air as reactants. An advantage of the CE-EDC model is that the amounts of the combustion products can be determined without using detailed chemical mechanisms. Moreover, it can also predict the amounts of the intermediate species. The obtained results are compared with Takagi‧s experimental data and the data computed by the EDC model, which uses the complex chemical mechanisms. The mole fractions of H2, O2, H2O, temperature, and velocity obtained by using our CE-EDC model were in good agreement with these reference data without taking into account the chemical reaction rates of the O2 and H2O. Furthermore, the mole fractions of OH and H are in good agreement with the results of the EDC model at the high temperatures. On the other hand, the chemical equations involving OH and H were used for predicting the mole fractions of OH and H, which were similar to those obtained from the EDC model at low temperatures. Using the present CE-EDC model, amounts of combustion products can be calculated by using a reduced chemical mechanism and the Gibbs free energy minimization theory. The accuracy of this model is in the same order as that of the EDC model.

  8. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov


    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  9. Fast Prediction of HCCI and PCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network-Based Chemical Kinetic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, W T; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Chen, J Y


    We have added the capability to look at in-cylinder fuel distributions using a previously developed ignition model within a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) that uses an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict ignition (The combined code: KIVA3V-ANN). KIVA3V-ANN was originally developed and validated for analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, but it is also applicable to the more difficult problem of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. PCCI combustion refers to cases where combustion occurs as a nonmixing controlled, chemical kinetics dominated, autoignition process, where the fuel, air, and residual gas mixtures are not necessarily as homogeneous as in HCCI combustion. This paper analyzes the effects of introducing charge non-uniformity into a KIVA3V-ANN simulation. The results are compared to experimental results, as well as simulation results using a more physically representative and computationally intensive code (KIVA3V-MPI-MZ), which links a fluid mechanics code to a multi-zone detailed chemical kinetics solver. The results indicate that KIVA3V-ANN produces reasonable approximations to the more accurate KIVA3V-MPI-MZ at a much reduced computational cost.

  10. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances. (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W


    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  12. A comprehensive iso-octane combustion model with improved thermochemistry and chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour


    Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) is a primary reference fuel and an important component of gasoline fuels. Moreover, it is a key component used in surrogates to study the ignition and burning characteristics of gasoline fuels. This paper presents an updated chemical kinetic model for iso-octane combustion. Specifically, the thermodynamic data and reaction kinetics of iso-octane have been re-assessed based on new thermodynamic group values and recently evaluated rate coefficients from the literature. The adopted rate coefficients were either experimentally measured or determined by analogy to theoretically calculated values. Furthermore, new alternative isomerization pathways for peroxy-alkyl hydroperoxide (ȮOQOOH) radicals were added to the reaction mechanism. The updated kinetic model was compared against new ignition delay data measured in rapid compression machines (RCM) and a high-pressure shock tube. These experiments were conducted at pressures of 20 and 40 atm, at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, and at temperatures in the range of 632–1060 K. The updated model was further compared against shock tube ignition delay times, jet-stirred reactor oxidation speciation data, premixed laminar flame speeds, counterflow diffusion flame ignition, and shock tube pyrolysis speciation data available in the literature. Finally, the updated model was used to investigate the importance of alternative isomerization pathways in the low temperature oxidation of highly branched alkanes. When compared to available models in the literature, the present model represents the current state-of-the-art in fundamental thermochemistry and reaction kinetics of iso-octane; and thus provides the best prediction of wide ranging experimental data and fundamental insights into iso-octane combustion chemistry.

  13. CSP-based chemical kinetics mechanisms simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion: An application to hybrid rocket propulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Ciottoli, Pietro P.


    A set of simplified chemical kinetics mechanisms for hybrid rocket applications using gaseous oxygen (GOX) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is proposed. The starting point is a 561-species, 2538-reactions, detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for hydrocarbon combustion. This mechanism is used for predictions of the oxidation of butadiene, the primary HTPB pyrolysis product. A Computational Singular Perturbation (CSP) based simplification strategy for non-premixed combustion is proposed. The simplification algorithm is fed with the steady-solutions of classical flamelet equations, these being representative of the non-premixed nature of the combustion processes characterizing a hybrid rocket combustion chamber. The adopted flamelet steady-state solutions are obtained employing pure butadiene and gaseous oxygen as fuel and oxidizer boundary conditions, respectively, for a range of imposed values of strain rate and background pressure. Three simplified chemical mechanisms, each comprising less than 20 species, are obtained for three different pressure values, 3, 17, and 36 bar, selected in accordance with an experimental test campaign of lab-scale hybrid rocket static firings. Finally, a comprehensive strategy is shown to provide simplified mechanisms capable of reproducing the main flame features in the whole pressure range considered.

  14. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Charles [Environ Holdings, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Wilson, Robert [Environ Holdings, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)


    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  15. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures: chemical characterization of combusted inventory red and violet smoke mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Moneyhun, J.H.


    Red and violet smoke grenades (Grenade, Hand, Smoke, M18) were combusted within canvas tents and the combustion products were sampled and analyzed. Uncombusted red and violet smoke mixes from the same lots used to fill the combusted grenades were also analyzed. Approximately ten percent of the major dye component of the red smoke mix, methylaminoanthraquinone (MAA) was converted to aminoanthraquinones (1-AA and 2-AA). The violet smoke mix was formulated to contain 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DAA) and MAA. Upon combustion the DAA was converted almost completely to diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) which was a minor constituent of the uncombusted mix. As in the combusted red smoke mix, it was found that MAA was partially converted to aminoanthraquinones.

  16. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J


    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  17. Energetic study of combustion instabilities and genetic optimisation of chemical kinetics; Etude energetique des instabilites thermo-acoustiques et optimisation genetique des cinetiques reduites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ch.E.


    Gas turbine burners are now widely operated in lean premixed combustion mode. This technology has been introduced in order to limit pollutants emissions (especially the NO{sub x}), and thus comply with environment norms. Nevertheless, the use of lean premixed combustion decreases the stability margin of the flames. The flames are then more prone to be disturbed by flow disturbances. Combustion instabilities are then a major problem of concern for modern gas turbine conception. Some active control systems have been used to ensure stability of gas turbines retro-fitted to lean premixed combustion. The current generation of gas turbines aims to get rid of these control devices getting stability by a proper design. To do so, precise and adapted numerical tools are needed even it is impossible at the moment to guarantee the absolute stability of a combustion chamber at the design stage. Simulation tools for unsteady combustion are now able to compute the whole combustion chamber. Its intrinsic precision, allows the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to take into account numerous phenomena involved in combustion instabilities. Chemical modelling is an important element for the precision of reactive LES. This study includes the description of an optimisation tools for the reduced chemical kinetics. The capacity of the LES to capture combustion instabilities in gas turbine chamber is also demonstrated. The acoustic energy analysis points out that the boundary impedances of the combustion systems are of prime importance for their stability. (author)

  18. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun


    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  19. Evaluation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms used for modeling mild combustion for natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed


    Full Text Available A numerical and parametric study was performed to evaluate the potential of reduced chemistry mechanisms to model natural gas chemistry including NOx chemistry under mild combustion mode. Two reduced mechanisms, 5-step and 9-step, were tested against the GRI-Mech3.0 by comparing key species, such as NOx, CO2 and CO, and gas temperature predictions in idealized reactors codes under mild combustion conditions. It is thus concluded that the 9-step mechanism appears to be a promising reduced mechanism that can be used in multi-dimensional codes for modeling mild combustion of natural gas.

  20. Conductive zinc oxide thin film coatings by combustion chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunke, I., E-mail: [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Heft, A. [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schäfer, P.; Haidu, F.; Lehmann, D. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Grünler, B.; Schimanski, A. [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Zahn, D.R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)


    We have established a combustion chemical vapour deposition (C-CVD) system for the deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) at atmospheric pressure. This C-CVD process has the advantage of a short exposure of the substrates to the flame. It is also potentially applicable as an inline coating system. Fundamental studies were performed on undoped ZnO. The specific resistivity of these layers strongly depends on the film thickness and decreases with increasing thickness. As the lowest resistivities, values of about 2.0 · 10{sup −1} Ωcm are achieved. Ultra-violet photoemission spectra show the valence band structure of the deposited ZnO. The work function and valence band edge were determined. UV–vis spectra were taken to investigate the transmission of the coated glass samples. From these spectra the band gap energy was obtained. Raman spectroscopy as well as infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ordered ZnO crystallites. The X-ray diffraction verified this result and illustrates the hexagonal structure. In the mid-infrared range precursor deposits were detected for low substrate temperatures. - Highlights: ► Zinc oxide (ZnO) films are conductive in the range of 2.0 · 10{sup −1} Ωcm. ► X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate crystalline ZnO films. ► Precursor deposits were proved within the films for low growing temperatures. ► Band gap energy changes are achieved due to different growing temperatures.

  1. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xia Zhang


    Full Text Available Because the air-staged combustion technology is one of the key technologies with low investment running costs and high emission reduction efficiency for the pulverized boiler, it is important to reveal the chemical reaction kinetics mechanism for developing various technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction emissions. At the present work, a three-dimensional mesh model of the large-scale four corner tangentially fired boiler furnace is established with the GAMBIT pre-processing of the FLUENT software. The partial turbulent premixed and diffusion flame was simulated for the air-staged combustion processing. Parameters distributions for the air-staged and no the air-staged were obtained, including in-furnace flow field, temperature field and nitrogen oxide concentration field. The results show that the air-staged has more regular velocity field, higher velocity of flue gas, higher turbulence intensity and more uniform temperature of flue gas. In addition, a lower negative pressure zone and lower O2 concentration zone is formed in the main combustion zone, which is conducive to the NO of fuel type reduced to N2, enhanced the effect of NOx reduction. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th November 2015; Revised: 14th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016  How to Cite: Zhang, J.X., Zhang, J.F. (2016. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 100-108. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108 Permalink/DOI:

  2. Analysis of the chemical and physical properties of combustion aerosols: State of the art. (United States)

    The impact of combustion aerosols on human health is well documented byepidemiological studies, however the effect of low concentrations of ultrafineparticles on the human lung are not yet fully understood. With the advent ofnovel measurement technologies for simultaneous charact...

  3. Particles emitted from indoor combustion sources: size distribution measurement and chemical analysis. (United States)

    Roy, A A; Baxla, S P; Gupta, Tarun; Bandyopadhyaya, R; Tripathi, S N


    This study is primarily focused toward measuring the particle size distribution and chemical analysis of particulate matter that originates from combustion sources typically found in Indian urban homes. Four such sources were selected: cigarette, incense stick, mosquito coil, and dhoop, the latter being actually a thick form of incense stick. Altogether, seven of the most popular brands available in the Indian market were tested. Particle size distribution in the smoke was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer, using both long and nano forms of differential mobility analyzer (DMA), with readings averaged from four to six runs. The measurable particle size range of the nano DMA was 4.6 nm to 157.8 nm, whereas that of the long DMA was 15.7 nm to 637.8 nm. Therefore, readings obtained from the long and the nano DMA were compared for different brands as well as for different sources. An overlap was seen in the readings in the common range of measurement. The lowest value of peak concentration was seen for one brand of incense stick (0.9 x 10(6) cm(-3)), whereas the highest (7.1 x 10(6) cm(-3)) was seen for the dhoop. Generally, these sources showed a peak between 140 and 170 nm; however, 2 incense stick brands showed peaks at 79 nm and 89 nm. The dhoop showed results much different from the rest of the sources, with a mode at around 240 nm. Chemical analysis in terms of three heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and lead) was performed using graphite tube atomizer and flame-atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Calculations were made to assess the expected cancer and noncancer risks, using published toxicity potentials for these three heavy metals. Our calculations revealed that all the sources showed lead concentrations much below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) level. One of the two mosquito coil brands (M(2)) showed cadmium concentrations two times higher than the California Environmental

  4. Aspects chimiques de la combustion du charbon pulvérisé. Première partie Chemical Aspects of the Combustion of Pulverized Coal. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Soete G. G.


    deux mécanismes totalement différents, par exemple entre le mécanisme d'ignition homogène et le mécanisme d'ignition hétérogène du charbon, avec des conséquences pratiques pour la stabilisation de la flamme industrielle ; autre exemple : la compétition entre les divers mécanismes homogènes de formation d'oxydes d'azote et les mécanismes hétérogènes de leur réduction sur des particules solides de coke, de suie et de cendre. Avec ces idées présentes comme un leitmotiv implicite, on passe en revue les grandes étapes de la flamme industrielle de charbon pulvérisé : la dévolatilisation rapide avec la formation progressive de volatils gazeux, de goudrons et de coke ; la transformation partielle des produits gazeux et liquides de pyrolyse en suies ainsi que leur oxydation en phase gazeuse ; la combustion hétérogène du coke ; l'ignition du charbon et sa dépendance par rapport à des processus critiques homogènes et (ou hétérogènes. Comme exemple typique d'un épiphénomènechimique, on suit la transformation des espèces azotées en NO et en N2, qui se greffe en contrepoint et à chaque pas sur tes différents thèmes successifs de cette symphonie de l'oxydation du charbon. En de nombreux points de cette évolution du charbon à travers la flamme, les connaissances de la chimie de com-bustion en phase gazeuse constituent un instrument utile d'interprétation (par exemple : pour l'oxydation des volatils, pour la discussion des modalités d'ignition. II n'en reste pas moins vrai que la plupart des problèmes chimiques hétérogènes sont bien spécifiques de la flamme de charbon ; leur traitement est rendu ardu à cause de la complexité, évolutive au cours de la combustion, du combustible solide lui-même. It is not easy to obtain a full picture of the multiple chemical phenomena which occur inside a pulverized coal flame. This bibliographie review attempts to give more than just a juxtaposition of data from the recent literature and risks making

  5. Fine particle emissions in three different combustion conditions of a wood chip-fired appliance - Particulate physico-chemical properties and induced cell death (United States)

    Leskinen, J.; Tissari, J.; Uski, O.; Virén, A.; Torvela, T.; Kaivosoja, T.; Lamberg, H.; Nuutinen, I.; Kettunen, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Jalava, P. I.; Sippula, O.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.


    A biomass combustion reactor with a moving grate was utilised as a model system to produce three different combustion conditions corresponding to efficient, intermediate, and smouldering combustion. The efficient conditions (based on a CO level of approximately 7 mg MJ-1) corresponded to a modern pellet boiler. The intermediate conditions (CO level of approximately 300 mg MJ-1) corresponded to non-optimal settings in a continuously fired biomass combustion appliance. The smouldering conditions (CO level of approximately 2200 mg MJ-1) approached a batch combustion situation. The gaseous and particle emissions were characterised under each condition. Moreover, the ability of fine particles to cause cell death was determined using the particle emissions samples. The physico-chemical properties of the emitted particles and their toxicity were considerably different between the studied combustion conditions. In the efficient combustion, the emitted particles were small in size and large in number. The PM1 emission was low, and it was composed of ash species. In the intermediate and smouldering combustion, the PM1 emission was higher, and the particles were larger in size and smaller in number. In both of these conditions, there were high-emission peaks that produced a significant fraction of the emissions. The PAH emissions were the lowest in the efficient combustion. The smouldering combustion conditions produced the largest PAH emissions. In efficient combustion conditions, the emitted fine particles had the highest potential to cause cell death. This finding was most likely observed because these fine particles were mainly composed of inorganic ash species, and their relative contents of Zn were high. Thus, even the PM1 from optimal biomass combustion might cause health effects, but in these conditions, the particle emissions per energy unit produced were considerably lower.

  6. The Tapioca Bomb: A Demonstration to Enhance Learning about Combustion and Chemical Safety (United States)

    Keeratichamroen, Wasana; Dechsri, Precharn; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip


    In any demonstration to students, producing light and sound usually ensures interest and can enhance understanding and retention of the concepts involved. A guided inquiry (Predict, Observe, Explain: POE) approach was used to involve the students actively in their learning about the explosive combustion of fine flour particles in air in the…

  7. Quantum Chemical Study of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Effects on Combustion Kinetics. (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth E; Atlanov, Arseniy A; Vasu, Subith S


    In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O2), diluted with CO2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO2 and H2O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO2 at supercritical state (sCO2). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule. All transition states and reactant and product complexes are reported for three reactions: H2CO + HO2 → HCO + H2O2 (R1), 2HO2 → H2O2 + O2 (R2), and CO + OH → CO2 + H (R3). In reaction R3, covalent binding of CO2 to the OH radical and then the CO molecule opens a new pathway, including hydrogen transfer from oxygen to carbon atoms followed by CH bond dissociation. Compared to the bimolecular OH + CO mechanism, this pathway reduces the activation barrier by 5 kcal/mol and is expected to accelerate the reaction. In the case of hydroperoxyl self-reaction 2HO2 → H2O2 + O2 the intermediates, containing covalent bonds to CO2 are found not to be competitive. However, the spectator CO2 molecule can stabilize the cyclic transition state and lower the barrier by 3 kcal/mol. Formation of covalent intermediates is also discovered in the H2CO + HO2 → HCO + H2O2 reaction, but these species lead to substantially higher activation barriers, which makes them unlikely to play a role in hydrogen transfer kinetics. The van der Waals complexation with carbon dioxide also stabilizes the transition state and reduces the reaction barrier. These results indicate that the CO2 environment is likely to have a catalytic effect on combustion reactions, which needs to be included in kinetic combustion mechanisms in supercritical CO2.

  8. Physical and chemical characterisation of crude meat and bone meal combustion residue: 'waste or raw material?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, Eric [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)]. E-mail:; Guilet, Richard [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sarda, Stephanie [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sharrock, Patrick [LCBM, Universite Paul Sabatier, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)


    As a result of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal by-product is now severely controlled. Meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. Main disposal option is incineration, producing huge amounts of ashes the valorisation of which becomes a major concern. The aim of this work is to characterise MBM combustion residue in order to evaluate their physical and chemical properties to propose new valorisation avenues. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (24 wt.%) inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) couple with energy disperse X-ray analysis (EDX). Elemental analysis revealed the presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium with high level of phosphate (56 wt.%) and calcium (31 wt.%), two major constituents of bone, mainly as a mixture of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phases. The impact of combustion temperature (from 550 to 1000 deg. C) on the constitution of ashes was followed by TGA, XRD and specific surface measurements. We observed a strong decrease of surface area for the ashes with crystallisation of calcium phosphates phases without major changes of chemical composition.

  9. The promising chemical kinetics for the simulation of propane-air combustion with KIVA-II code (United States)

    Ying, S. J.; Gorla, Rama S. R.; Kundu, Krishna P.


    The development of chemical kinetics for the simulation of propane-air combustion with the use of computer code KIVA-II since 1989 is summarized here. In order to let readers understand the general feature well, a brief description of the KIVA-II code, specially related with the chemical reactions is also given. Then the results of recent work with 20 reaction mechanism is presented. It is also compared with the 5 reaction mechanism. It may be expected that the numerical stability of the 20 reaction mechanism is better as compared to that of 5 reaction mechanism, but the CPU time of the CRAY computer is much longer. Details are presented in the paper.

  10. A study on reduced chemical mechanisms of ammonia/methane combustion under gas turbine conditions


    Xiao, Hua; Howard, Michael; Valera Medina, Agustin; Dooley, Stephen; Bowen, Philip John


    As an alternative fuel and hydrogen carrier, ammonia is believed to have good potential for future power generation. To explore the feasibility of co-firing ammonia with methane, studies involving robust numerical analyses with detailed chemistry are required to progress towards industrial implementation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine a reduced mechanism for simulation studies of ammonia/methane combustion in practical gas turbine combustor conditions. Firstly, five d...

  11. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)


    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.


    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  13. Simulation of CO-H2-air Turbulent Diffusion Flame by the Combustion Model Combined Chemical Equilibrium Method with the Eddy Dissipation Concept Model (United States)

    Fukumoto, Kazui; Ogami, Yoshifumi

    This research aims at building a turbulent diffusion combustion model based on chemical equilibrium and kinetics for simplifying complex chemical mechanisms. This paper presents the combustion model based on chemical equilibrium combined with an eddy dissipation concept model (CE-EDC); the model is validated by simulating a CO-H2-air turbulent diffusion flame. In the CE-EDC model, the reaction rate of fuels and intermediate species are estimated by using the equations of the EDC model. Then, the reacted fuels and intermediate species are assumed to be in chemical equilibrium; the amounts of the other species are determined by the Gibbs free energy minimization method by using the amounts of the reacted fuels, intermediate species, and air as reactants. An advantage of the CE-EDC model is that the amounts of the combustion products can be determined without using detailed chemical mechanisms. Moreover, it can also predict the amounts of the intermediate species. The obtained results are compared with Correa's experimental data and Gran's computational data by using the EDC model, which uses the complex chemical mechanisms. The mole fractions of CO, H2, H2O, OH, temperature, and mixture fraction obtained by using our CE-EDC model were in good agreement with these reference data. Using the present CE-EDC model, amounts of combustion products can be calculated by using a reduced chemical mechanism and the Gibbs free energy minimization theory. The accuracy of this model is in the same order as that of the EDC model.

  14. Challenges in Propellants and Combustion: 100 Years after Nobel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuo, Kenneth


    .... The Topics covered include: chemical kinetics of propellant combustion, environmental considerations in combustion of solid and liquid propellants, commercial application in the combustion of energetic materials, effective...

  15. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L


    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  16. Chemical Fixation of CO2 in Coal Combustion Products and Recycling through Biosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; David Behel


    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented.

  17. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole


    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  18. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarnalatha, S. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramani, K. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthi, A. Geetha [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekaran, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail:


    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 deg. C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr{sup 3+} to Cr{sup 6+}. The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm{sup 2}. The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  19. Numerical studies of spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuels using reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole


    Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H 16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate. The Favre-Averaged Navier Stokes based simulation using the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model was implemented in the numerical calculations of the spray formation processes while the SAGE chemical kinetic solver is used for the detailed kinetic modeling. The SAGE chemical kinetic solver is directly coupled with the gas phase calculations by renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulent model using a well-stirred reactor model. Validations of the spray liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length data were performed against previous experimental results. The simulated liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length were validated at an ambient density of 15kg/m3, and injection pressure conditions of 100, 200 and 300 MPa were utilized. The predicted liquid length, ignition delay and flame lift-off length agree with the trends obtained in the experimental data at all injection conditions. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.

  20. Chemical and toxicologic characterization of fossil fuel combustion product phenalen-1-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, J.A.; Lafleur, A.L.; Liber, H.L.; Biemann, K.


    In the course of analysis of the combustion products of fossil fuels, phenalen-1-one has been identified as one of the components. It was differentiated from fluoren-9-one and benzo(c)cinnoline, all of which exhibit very similar mass spectra, by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography with high-speed spectrophotometric detection. Ultraviolet spectra are reported along with retention data for both gas and liquid chromatography. Mutagenic activity was determined in Salmonella typhimurium, using resistance to the purine analogue 8-azaguanine as a genetic marker. Phenalen-1-one was found to be a potent mutagen, while benzo(c)cinnoline was six times less active. Fluoren-9-one was completely inactive as a bacterial mutagen.

  1. Dynamic Chemical Model for $\\text {H} _2 $/$\\text {O} _2 $ Combustion Developed Through a Community Workflow

    KAUST Repository

    Oreluk, James


    Elementary-reaction models for $\\\\text{H}_2$/$\\\\text{O}_2$ combustion were evaluated and optimized through a collaborative workflow, establishing accuracy and characterizing uncertainties. Quantitative findings were the optimized model, the importance of $\\\\text{H}_2 + \\\\text{O}_2(1\\\\Delta) = \\\\text{H} + \\\\text{HO}_2$ in high-pressure flames, and the inconsistency of certain low-temperature shock-tube data. The workflow described here is proposed to be even more important because the approach and publicly available cyberinfrastructure allows future community development of evolving improvements. The workflow steps applied here were to develop an initial reaction set using Burke et al. [2012], Burke et al. [2013], Sellevag et al. [2009], and Konnov [2015]; test it for thermodynamic and kinetics consistency and plausibility against other sets in the literature; assign estimated uncertainties where not stated in the sources; select key data targets (

  2. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Peterson, Dr. Brian [University of Edinburgh; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Northrop, Dr. William [University of Minnesota


    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  3. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln. (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin


    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  4. Biofuels combustion. (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K


    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  5. Synthesis of meso-crystalline Al2O3 nano-platelet coatings using combustion chemical vapor deposition (C-CVD)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhonge, BP


    Full Text Available Meso-crystalline alumina (Al2O3) coatings having a nano-platelet microstructure were synthesized using an indigenously designed combustion chemical vapor deposition facility. Aluminum acetylacetonate of 0.001 to 0.005 M concentrations dissolved...

  6. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry


    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  7. Calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions of composite rocket propellants combustion products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An adequate method for calculating chemical equilibrium in a predominantly gaseous, multi-component reactive mixture was investigated and successfully applied. This method involves the stated equilibrium reaction scheme, including, first, the formation of chemical species, of which concentrations prevail in the mixture, then the formation of gaseous atomic species by dissociation of previous ones, and, finally, the formation of complex chemical species from the atomic species. A computer program, which permits calculations of equilibrium compositions by the iteration procedure, has been developed. The results of calculations have been compared with data obtained by the programs OPHELIE, MICROPEP, and the program SPP, as documented in the NASA-Lewis Code, which is presently the world-wide standard. All comparisons gave satisfactory agreement.

  8. Quantum Chemical Study of CH3 + O2 Combustion Reaction System: Catalytic Effects of Additional CO2 Molecule. (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E; Wait, Elizabeth; Vasu, Subith S


    The supercritical carbon dioxide diluent is used to control the temperature and to increase the efficiency in oxycombustion fossil fuel energy technology. It may affect the rates of combustion by altering mechanisms of chemical reactions, compared to the ones at low CO2 concentrations. Here, we investigate potential energy surfaces of the four elementary reactions in the CH3 + O2 reactive system in the presence of one CO2 molecule. In the case of reaction CH3 + O2 → CH2O + OH (R1 channel), van der Waals (vdW) complex formation stabilizes the transition state and reduces the activation barrier by ∼2.2 kcal/mol. Alternatively, covalently bonded CO2 may form a six-membered ring transition state and reduce the activation barrier by ∼0.6 kcal/mol. In case of reaction CH3 + O2 → CH3O + O (R2 channel), covalent participation of CO2 lowers the barrier for the rate limiting step by 3.9 kcal/mol. This is expected to accelerate the R2 process, important for the branching step of the radical chain reaction mechanism. For the reaction CH3 + O2 → CHO + H2O (R3 channel) with covalent participation of CO2, the activation barrier is lowered by 0.5 kcal/mol. The reaction CH2O + OH → CHO + H2O (R4 channel) involves hydrogen abstraction from formaldehyde by OH radical. Its barrier is reduced from 7.1 to 0.8 kcal/mol by formation of vdW complex with spectator CO2. These new findings are expected to improve the kinetic reaction mechanism describing combustion processes in supercritical CO2 medium.

  9. Bubble Combustion (United States)

    Corrigan, Jackie


    , a computational model developed at Glenn, that simulates the cavitational collapse of a single bubble in a liquid (water) and the subsequent combustion of the gaseous contents inside the bubble. The model solves the time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations in one-dimension with finite-rate chemical kinetics using the CHEMKIN package. Specifically, parameters such as frequency, pressure, bubble radius, and the equivalence ratio were varied while examining their effect on the maximum temperature, radius, and chemical species. These studies indicate that the radius of the bubble is perhaps the most critical parameter governing bubble combustion dynamics and its efficiency. Based on the results of the parametric studies, we plan on conducting experiments to study the effect of ultrasonic perturbations on the bubble generation process with respect to the bubble radius and size distribution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; Paul Enlow; Richard Strickland; David Behel


    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented. Algal growth can be limited by several factors, including the level of bicarbonate available for photosynthesis, the pH of the growth solution, nutrient levels, and the size of the cell population, which determines the available space for additional growth. In order to supply additional CO2 to increase photosynthesis and algal biomass production, fly ash reactor has been demonstrated to increase the available CO2 in solution above the limits that are achievable with dissolved gas alone. The amount of dissolved CO2 can be used to control pH for optimum growth. Periodic harvesting of algae can be used to maintain algae in the exponential, rapid growth phase. An 800 liter scale up demonstrated that larger scale production is possible. The larger experiment demonstrated that indirect addition of CO2 is feasible and produces significantly less stress on the algal system. With better harvesting methods, nutrient management, and carbon dioxide management, an annual biomass harvest of about 9,000 metric tons per square kilometer (36 MT per acre) appears to be feasible. To sequester carbon, the algal biomass needs to be placed in a permanent location. If drying is undesirable, the biomass will eventually begin to aerobically decompose. It was demonstrated that algal biomass is a suitable feed to an anaerobic digester to produce methane


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Micro-scale catalytic combustion characteristics and heat transfer processes of preheated methane-air mixtures (φ = 0.4 in the plane channel were investigated numerically with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. The plane channel of length L = 10.0 mm, height H =1.0 mm and wall thickness δ = 0.1 mm, which inner horizontal surfaces contained Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst washcoat. The computational results indicate that the presence of the gas phase reactions extends mildly the micro-combustion stability limits at low and moderate inlet velocities due to the strong flames establishment, and have a more profound effect on extending the high-velocity blowout limits by allowing for additional heat release originating mainly from the incomplete CH4 gas phase oxidation in the plane channel. When the same mass flow rate (ρin × Vin is considered, the micro-combustion stability limits at p: 0.1 MPa are much narrower than at p: 0.6 MPa due to both gas phase and catalytic reaction activities decline with decreasing pressure. Catalytic micro-combustor can achieve stable combustion at low solid thermal conductivity ks < 0.1 W∙m-1•K-1, while the micro-combustion extinction limits reach their larger extent for the higher thermal conductivity ks = 20.0-100.0 W∙m-1•K-1. The existence of surface radiation heat transfers significantly effects on the micro-combustion stability limits and micro-combustors energy balance. Finally, gas phase combustion in catalytic micro-combustors can be sustained at the sub-millimeter scale (plane channel height of 0.25 mm.

  12. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  13. Chemical modifiers for direct determination of cobalt in coal combustion residues by ultrasonic slurry-sampling-ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M.; Carlosena, A.; Fernandez, E.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui, S.; Prada, D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Univ. of La Coruna (Spain)


    Five modifiers were tested for the direct determination of cobalt in coal fly ash and slag by ultrasonic slurry-sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-ETAAS).The furnace temperature programs and the appropriate amount for each modifier were optimized to get the highest signal and the best separation between the atomic and background signals. Nitric acid (0.5% v/v) was the most adequate chemical modifier for cobalt determination, selecting 1450 C and 2100 C as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, respectively. This modifier also acts as liquid medium for the slurry simplifying the procedure. The remaining modifiers enhanced the background signal, totally overlapped with cobalt peak. The method optimized gave a limit of detection of 0.36 {mu}g g{sup -1}, a characteristic mass of 13{+-}1 pg and an overall-method precision which is highly satisfactory (<7%, RSD). The method was validated by analyzing two certified coal fly ash materials, and satisfactory recoveries were obtained (83-90%) and no statistical differences were observed between the experimental and the certified cobalt concentrations. Additionally, certified sediment, soil and urban particulate matter were assayed; again good results were obtained. The developed methodology was used to determine cobalt in several coal combustion residues from five Spanish power plants. (orig.)

  14. Modelling of Combustion and Pollutant Formation in a Large, Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine using Integrated CFD-Skeletal Chemical Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Schramm, Jesper

    In this reported work, simulation studies of in-cylinder diesel combustion and pollutant formation processesin a two-stroke, low-speed uniflow-scavenged marine diesel engine are presented. Numerical computation is performed by integrating chemical kinetics into CFD computations. In order...... characteristics under high load condition in a marine diesel engine. Comparisons to the measurement show that the simulated pressure rise started 1.0 crank angle degree in advance and the calculated peak pressure is 1.7 % lower. The associated flame liftoff length is negligible, yielding high local equivalence...... to minimize the computational runtime, an in-house skeletal n-heptane chemical mechanism is coupled with the CFD model. This surrogate fuel model comprises 89 reactions with 32 species essential to diesel ignition/combustion processes as well as the formation of soot precursors and nitrogen monoxide (NO...

  15. Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment of fine particulate matters emitted from the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels. (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Fei; Lou, Wenhao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin


    Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology. For light diesel oil, marine heavy diesel oil, 93 octane petrol and 97 octane petrol diesel oil, the emission factors of FPMs were 3.05±0.29, 3.21±0.54, 2.36±0.33, and 2.28±0.25g/kg fuel, respectively. And the emission factors for the "16 US EPA" PAHs of FPM were 0.45±0.20, 0.80±0.22, 1.00±0.20, and 1.05±0.19mg/g FPMs, respectively. Fe is the most abundant metal in these FPMs, and the emission factors of FPMs were 2.58±1.70, 4.45±0.11, 8.18±0.58, and 9.24±0.17mg/g FPMs, respectively. We ranked the cytotoxicity of the FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>97 octane petrol>93 octane petrol>light diesel oil, and the genotoxicity of FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>light diesel oil>93 octane petrol>97 octane petrol. Significant correlations were found between PAH concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results demonstrated that fuels exhaust FPMs have strong association with ROS activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. These results indicated that fuels exhaust FPMs pose a potentially serious health, and emphasized the importance of assessing the health risks posed by the particulate pollutants in vehicle exhausts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Chemical characterization and toxicity of particulate matter emissions from roadside trash combustion in urban India (United States)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Schauer, James J.; Russell, Armistead G.; Marshall, Julian D.; Fushimi, Akihiro; Jain, Grishma; Sethuraman, Karthik; Verma, Vishal; Tripathi, Sachi N.; Bergin, Michael H.


    Roadside trash burning is largely unexamined as a factor that influences air quality, radiative forcing, and human health even though it is ubiquitously practiced across many global regions, including throughout India. The objective of this research is to examine characteristics and redox activity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with roadside trash burning in Bangalore, India. Emissions from smoldering and flaming roadside trash piles (n = 24) were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), brown carbon (BrC), and toxicity (i.e. redox activity, measured via the dithiothreitol "DTT" assay). A subset of samples (n = 8) were further assessed for toxicity by a cellular assay (macrophage assay) and also analyzed for trace organic compounds. Results show high variability of chemical composition and toxicity between trash-burning emissions, and characteristic differences from ambient samples. OC/EC ratios for trash-burning emissions range from 0.8 to 1500, while ambient OC/EC ratios were observed at 5.4 ± 1.8. Trace organic compound analyses indicate that emissions from trash-burning piles were frequently composed of aromatic di-acids (likely from burning plastics) and levoglucosan (an indicator of biomass burning), while the ambient sample showed high response from alkanes indicating notable representation from vehicular exhaust. Volume-normalized DTT results (i.e., redox activity normalized by the volume of air pulled through the filter during sampling) were, unsurprisingly, extremely elevated in all trash-burning samples. Interestingly, DTT results suggest that on a per-mass basis, fresh trash-burning emissions are an order of magnitude less redox-active than ambient air (13.4 ± 14.8 pmol/min/μgOC for trash burning; 107 ± 25 pmol/min/μgOC for ambient). However, overall results indicate that near trash-burning sources, exposure to redox-active PM can be extremely high.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition on chabazite (CHA) zeolite membranes for effective post-combustion CO2 capture. (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Taehee; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Won-Jin; Han, Doug-Young; Baik, Hionsuck; Choi, Nakwon; Choi, Jungkyu


    Chabazite (CHA) zeolites with a pore size of 0.37 × 0.42 nm(2) are expected to separate CO2 (0.33 nm) from larger N2 (0.364 nm) in postcombustion flue gases by recognizing their minute size differences. Furthermore, the hydrophobic siliceous constituent in CHA membranes can allow for maintaining the CO2/N2 separation performance in the presence of H2O in contrast with the CO2 affinity-based membranes. In an attempt to increase the molecular sieving ability, the pore mouth size of all silica CHA (Si-CHA) particles was reduced via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Accordingly, an increase of the CVD treatment duration decreased the penetration rate of CO2 into the CVD-treated Si-CHA particles. Furthermore, the CVD process was applied to siliceous CHA membranes in order to improve their CO2/N2 separation performance. Compared to the intact CHA membranes, the CO2/N2 maximum separation factor (max SF) for CVD-treated CHA membranes was increased by ∼ 2 fold under dry conditions. More desirably, the CO2/N2 max SF was increased by ∼ 3 fold under wet conditions at ∼ 50 °C, a representative temperature of the flue gas stream. In fact, the presence of H2O in the feed disfavored the permeation of N2 more than that of CO2 through CVD-modified CHA membranes and thus, contributed to the increased CO2/N2 separation factor.

  18. Influences of H2O mass fraction and chemical kinetics mechanism on the turbulent diffusion combustion of H2-O2 in supersonic flows (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhen-guo; Li, Shi-bin; Liu, Wei-dong


    Hydrogen is one of the most promising fuels for the airbreathing hypersonic propulsion system, and it attracts an increasing attention of the researchers worldwide. In this study, a typical hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor was investigated numerically, and the predicted results were compared with the available experimental data in the open literature. Two different chemical reaction mechanisms were employed to evaluate their effects on the combustion of H2-O2, namely the two-step and the seven-step mechanisms, and the vitiation effect was analyzed by varying the H2O mass fraction. The obtained results show that the predicted mole fraction profiles for different components show very good agreement with the available experimental data under the supersonic mixing and combustion conditions, and the chemical reaction mechanism has only a slight impact on the overall performance of the turbulent diffusion combustion. The simple mechanism of H2-O2 can be employed to evaluate the performance of the combustor in order to reduce the computational cost. The H2O flow vitiation makes a great difference to the combustion of H2-O2, and there is an optimal H2O mass fraction existing to enhance the intensity of the turbulent combustion. In the range considered in this paper, its optimal value is 0.15. The initiated location of the reaction appears far away from the bottom wall with the increase of the H2O mass fraction, and the H2O flow vitiation quickens the transition from subsonic to supersonic mode at the exit of the combustor.

  19. Lectures on combustion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, S.Z.; Lax, P.D.; Sod, G.A. (eds.)


    Eleven lectures are presented on mathematical aspects of combustion: fluid dynamics, deflagrations and detonations, chemical kinetics, gas flows, combustion instability, flame spread above solids, spark ignition engines, burning rate of coal particles and hydrocarbon oxidation. Separate abstracts were prepared for three of the lectures. (DLC)

  20. Effect of the temperature of different combustion zones in the boiler grate on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Rompalski


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of the temperature of characteristic zones of coal combustion in a stoker fired boiler (drying, degassing, and burn-out, on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags. This information is important as it helps identify the impact of coal properties on the accumulation of trace elements, primarily mercury, in combustion waste. The study is the continuation of research work on the impact of mercury compounds accumulated in combustion waste on the natural environment (mercury from landfills of slag, and fly ash. Studies were undertaken because no in-depth analysis of the impact of the temperature of particular zones of stoker fired boilers on the physical and chemical parameters of the post-process slag, including mercury content, had been reported in literature. Both of the coals examined, classified as bituminous coal according to the International Classification of Seam Coals and of type 32.1 according to the PN-G-97002:1982 standard, showed an average mercury content of 0.0849 μg/g. In the chemical composition determined for the ash derived from burnt coal, the dominance of SiO2 and Al2O3 over other oxides was found. This feature results in the increase of the softening temperature and ash melting and, therefore, during the combustion of coal tested in a stoker fired boiler, only ash was subjected to the sintering process. Mercury content in the other examined samples taken from various locations of the stoker fired boiler (drying – 32–1050 °C, degassing – 1050–1020 °C, and burn-out – 1020–400 °C varied from 0.0668 to 0.0009 μg/g and was determined with the use of a LECO atomic absorption spectrometer. The analyses of the elemental composition, performed with the application of XRF spectrometry, for ash obtained from samples collected from different sampling points of the stoker fired boiler showed that the largest concentration of

  1. Repurposing Mass-produced Internal Combustion Engines Quantifying the Value and Use of Low-cost Internal Combustion Piston Engines for Modular Applications in Energy and Chemical Engineering Industries (United States)

    L'Heureux, Zara E.

    This thesis proposes that internal combustion piston engines can help clear the way for a transformation in the energy, chemical, and refining industries that is akin to the transition computer technology experienced with the shift from large mainframes to small personal computers and large farms of individually small, modular processing units. This thesis provides a mathematical foundation, multi-dimensional optimizations, experimental results, an engine model, and a techno-economic assessment, all working towards quantifying the value of repurposing internal combustion piston engines for new applications in modular, small-scale technologies, particularly for energy and chemical engineering systems. Many chemical engineering and power generation industries have focused on increasing individual unit sizes and centralizing production. This "bigger is better" concept makes it difficult to evolve and incorporate change. Large systems are often designed with long lifetimes, incorporate innovation slowly, and necessitate high upfront investment costs. Breaking away from this cycle is essential for promoting change, especially change happening quickly in the energy and chemical engineering industries. The ability to evolve during a system's lifetime provides a competitive advantage in a field dominated by large and often very old equipment that cannot respond to technology change. This thesis specifically highlights the value of small, mass-manufactured internal combustion piston engines retrofitted to participate in non-automotive system designs. The applications are unconventional and stem first from the observation that, when normalized by power output, internal combustion engines are one hundred times less expensive than conventional, large power plants. This cost disparity motivated a look at scaling laws to determine if scaling across both individual unit size and number of units produced would predict the two order of magnitude difference seen here. For the first

  2. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz


    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  3. Smoldering Combustion


    Rein, G


    Smoldering combustion is the slow, low temperature, flameless burning of porous fuels and is the most persistent type of combustion phenomena. It is especially common in porous fuels which form a char on heating, like cellulosic insulation, polyurethane foam or peat. Smoldering combustion is among the leading causes of residential fires, and it is a source of safety concerns in industrial premises as well as in commercial and space flights. Smoldering is also the dominant combustion phenomena...

  4. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  5. Development and validation of a generic reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for CFD spray combustion modelling of biodiesel fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xinwei; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Ho, Jee Hou


    and detailed mechanism predictions, for each zero-dimensional (0D) auto-ignition and extinction process using CHEMKIN-PRO. Maximum percentage errors of less than 40.0% were recorded when the predicted ignition delay (ID) periods for coconut, palm, rapeseed and soybean methyl esters were compared to those...... of the respective detailed mechanisms. Predicted key species profiles in extinction process for each biodiesel fuel such as hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethylene (C2H4) were also found to be in reasonable agreement to those produced from the respective detailed mechanism, with a maximum......, combustion and extinction phenomena....

  6. The structure and chemical composition of combustion aerosols formed in internal combustion engine. Final report; Polttomoottorissa syntyvien palamisaerosolien rakenne ja kemiallinen koostumus. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalander, T.; Leskinen, A.; Ruotsalainen, I.; Raunemaa, T.; Rantanen, L.; Mikkonen, S.


    In this investigation, the dependence of total particle emissions, particle size distribution, organic (QC) and elemental (EC) carbon content, volatility of particles and photoionisation response due to PAH compounds on driving rate, engine load and fuel composition were measured. A new 1997 diesel car equipped with a direct injection, turbo charged engine and oxidation catalyst, and an old 1988 diesel car with a swirl chamber, indirect injection engine were applied for tests. The diesel fuels tested were reformulated diesel fuel (Neste Citydiesel, DIKC), and an EN 590 fuel, both of summer grade. For spark ignition engine tests, a 1989 non-catalyst, carburettor engine car was applied. The gasolines tested were reformulated gasoline (95ER) and non-reformulated EN228 gasoline. The test runs were performed in a chassis dynamometer at Neste Engine Laboratory using constant loads of 3.5 and 10 kW at constant driving rate of 50 km/h, and loads of 10 and 20 kW at 80 km/h, all at 4th gear. Additionally, photoionisation measurements were performed in ECE+EUDC driving cycles. Exhaust gas was diluted in dilution tunnel. Exhaust particles were collected on quartz fiber, teflon and teflon impregnated glass fiber filters for gravimetric and chemical analysis. Organic and elemental carbon were analysed by thermal-optical method from quartz filters. Additionally, trace elements and Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions were analysed from teflon and glass fiber filters. Diesel particle size distributions were measured by SMPS-analyzer in the range of 10 to 480 nm, spark ignition engine exhaust particles in the range of 5 to 190 nm. The size change due to volatility of organic material on diesel particles was determined by Tandem-DMA analyzer equipped with an evaporator (thermal desorption unit) and on spark ignition engine particles with an evaporator and SMPS. The reformulated diesel fuel produced 10 to 40 % less particles than EN590 fuel

  7. Studies in combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  8. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  9. Mathematical Modeling in Combustion Science

    CERN Document Server

    Takeno, Tadao


    An important new area of current research in combustion science is reviewed in the contributions to this volume. The complicated phenomena of combustion, such as chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer, and gaseous flows, have so far been studied predominantly by experiment and by phenomenological approaches. But asymptotic analysis and other recent developments are rapidly changing this situation. The contributions in this volume are devoted to mathematical modeling in three areas: high Mach number combustion, complex chemistry and physics, and flame modeling in small scale turbulent flow combustion.

  10. Reduction of Hematite to Magnetite in CO/CO2 Gas Mixtures Under Carbon Looping Combustion Conditions (United States)

    Simmonds, Tegan; Hayes, Peter C.


    Iron oxides have been identified as promising materials for use as oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion technologies as there are abundant resources available in the form of ore and in industrial wastes. The isothermal reduction of hematite (Fe2O3) in the fuel reactor and the subsequent oxidation of magnetite (Fe3O4) in air are the principal reactions of interest for these applications. Experimental investigations have been carried out to characterize the microstructural changes taking place as a result of the reduction reactions for a range of CO/CO2 gas compositions at temperatures between 1073 K and 1373 K (800 °C and 1100 °C). It has been shown that magnetite spinel is formed directly from hematite under these conditions and that porous magnetite or dense platelet or "lath" type morphologies can be formed depending on gas composition and reaction temperature. The conditions for the lath/pore transition are established. Dendritic gas pores are formed during the creation of the porous magnetite. This morphology allows continuous contact between the gas reactant and reaction interface and results in high reduction reaction rates.

  11. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Molnár, Mihály; Major, István; Ajtai, Tibor; Utry, Noémi; Bozóki, Zoltán


    An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m-3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6 × OC) accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF) combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC = EC + OC) in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB) was a major source (40 %) for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 %) for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF) to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB) were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO) made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as domestic and industrial heating or cooking using gas, oil or coal

  12. Combustion science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Kalyan


    Introduction and Review of Thermodynamics Introduction Combustion Terminology Matter and Its Properties Microscopic Overview of Thermodynamics Conservation of Mass and Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Summary Stoichiometry and Thermochemistry of Reacting Systems Introduction Overall Reactions Gas Analyses Global Conservation Equations for Reacting Systems Thermochemistry Summary Appendix Reaction Direction and Equilibrium Introduction Reaction Direction and Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Relations Vant Hoff Equation Adi

  13. On Lean Turbulent Combustion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LEVENTIU


    Full Text Available This paper investigates a lean methane-air flame with different chemical reaction mechanisms, for laminar and turbulent combustion, approached as one and bi-dimensional problem. The numerical results obtained with Cantera and Ansys Fluent software are compared with experimental data obtained at CORIA Institute, France. First, for laminar combustion, the burn temperature is very well approximated for all chemical mechanisms, however major differences appear in the evaluation of the flame front thickness. Next, the analysis of turbulence-combustion interaction shows that the numerical predictions are suficiently accurate for small and moderate turbulence intensity.

  14. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith


    particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

  15. The development of a combustion chamber liner utilizing a long-fiber reinforced composite material made using the poly-silazane impregnation method and the chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K.; Fujioka, N.; Hayakawa, T. [Mitsui Eng. and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tamahara, Tamano (Japan); Kawamura, N.; Sato, K. [TONEN Corp., Saitama (Japan)


    A combustion liner made of a fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite (CMC) having oxidation-resistance and the required drawing dimensions, has been developed by using both methods of poly-silazane impregnation and SiC coating, which is expected to be effective in the improvement of oxidation resistance, through chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A basic manufacturing technology has been established to make static components with complex shapes using non-woven fabrics made of short cut continuous fiber. The prototype extension liner has proven to be available in practical combustion environment atmosphere in engines through satisfactory inspection results conducted after the engine combustion environment test for a cumulative test duration of 31 hours. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Scramjet Combustion Processes (United States)


    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...entrance to the combustion duct, where the production of the chemical radicals, which are a first stage in Scramjet Combustion Processes RTO-EN-AVT-185...314KM) Nosecone Eject (47SEC,73KM,M7.7) Orion Burnout (39SEC,56KM,M7.1) Orion Ignition (12SEC,9.4KM,M3.2) Terrier Ignition (0SEC,0KM,M0) Stage

  17. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Allylic Sites by3O2; Implications for Combustion Modeling and Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Curran, Henry J


    Hydrogen atom abstraction from allylic C-H bonds by molecular oxygen plays a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules having allylic hydrogen atoms. Rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction by molecular oxygen from molecules with allylic sites have been calculated. A series of molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and super secondary allylic hydrogen atoms of alkene, furan, and alkylbenzene families are taken into consideration. Those molecules include propene, 2-butene, isobutene, 2-methylfuran, and toluene containing the primary allylic hydrogen atom; 1-butene, 1-pentene, 2-ethylfuran, ethylbenzene, and n-propylbenzene containing the secondary allylic hydrogen atom; 3-methyl-1-butene, 2-isopropylfuran, and isopropylbenzene containing tertiary allylic hydrogen atom; and 1-4-pentadiene containing super allylic secondary hydrogen atoms. The M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory was used to optimize the geometries of all of the reactants, transition states, products and also the hinder rotation treatments for lower frequency modes. The G4 level of theory was used to calculate the electronic single point energies for those species to determine the 0 K barriers to reaction. Conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunnelling corrections was used to calculate the rate constants. The comparison between our calculated rate constants with the available experimental results from the literature shows good agreement for the reactions of propene and isobutene with molecular oxygen. The rate constant for toluene with O 2 is about an order magnitude slower than that experimentally derived from a comprehensive model proposed by Oehlschlaeger and coauthors. The results clearly indicate the need for a more detailed investigation of the combustion kinetics of toluene oxidation and its key pyrolysis and oxidation intermediates. Despite this, our computed barriers and rate constants retain an important internal consistency. Rate constants

  18. Analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and supersonic aircraft with hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, A.M.; Lebedev, A.B.; Titova, N.S. [Central Inst. of Aviation Motors, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    On the basic of quasi one dimensional mixing model the numerical analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and hypersonic aircraft is presented. It was found that species HNO, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} could be formed as a result of nonequilibrium processes in the plume and their concentrations can essentially exceed both background values in free stream of atmosphere and their values at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 10 refs.

  19. Solvent-free, improved synthesis of pure bixbyite phase of iron and manganese mixed oxides as low-cost, potential oxygen carrier for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mungse, P.B.; Saravanan, G.; Nishibori, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Labhsetwar, N.K.


    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 511-521 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : CO capture and sequestration * Lattice * Mixed metal oxides * Reactive oxygen * Thermal power plants Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  20. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen


    ) porosity test. The performance of the prepared materials was first evaluated in a TGA reactor through a CO reduction and subsequent steam oxidation process. Then a complete redox process was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor, where the NiFe2O4 oxygen carrier was first reduced by simulated biomass pyrolysis...... with the characterization results. Furthermore, compared to individual nickel ferrite particles, the mixture of NiFe2O4 and SiO2 presented remarkably higher stability during 20 cycles in the fixed-bed reactor. The structural and morphological stability of samples after reactions was also examined by XRD, XPS, and SEM...

  1. Examination of Perovskite Structure CaMnO3-δ with MgO Addition as Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling Using Methane and Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazheng Jing


    Full Text Available Perovskite structure oxygen carriers with the general formula CaMnxMg1-xO3-δ were spray-dried and examined in a batch fluidized bed reactor. The CLOU behavior, reactivity towards methane, and syngas were investigated at temperature 900°C to 1050°C. All particles showed CLOU behavior at these temperatures. For experiments with methane, a bed mass corresponding to 57 kg/MW was used in the reactor, and the average CH4 to CO2 conversion was above 97% for most materials. Full syngas conversion was achieved for all materials utilizing a bed mass corresponding to 178 kg/MW. SEM/EDX and XRD confirmed the presence of MgO in the fresh and used samples, indicating that the Mg cation is not incorporated into the perovskite structure and the active compound is likely pure CaMnO3-δ. The very high reactivity with fuel gases, comparable to that of baseline oxygen carriers of NiO, makes these perovskite particles highly interesting for commercial CLC application. Contrary to NiO, oxygen carriers based on CaMnO3-δ have no thermodynamic limitations for methane oxidation to CO2 and H2O, not to mention that the materials are environmentally friendly and can utilize much cheaper raw materials for production. The physical properties, crystalline phases, and morphology information were also determined in this work.

  2. Measurement of chemical emissions under the influence of low-NO{sub x} combustion modifications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dismukes, E.B.


    Effect of low-NO{sub x} firing. There was no clear-cut effect on the emission of trace metals or acid gases. The data give marginal evidence for a decreased emission of Cr(VI), which would be a favorable change but is not certain by any means. The effect on aldehydes and ketones cannot be stated because of the loss of samples for baseline conditions; no credible data on these compounds were obtained for baseline conditions. The change in volatile organics appeared to be a reduction in emissions, whereas that for semi-volatiles seemed to be an increase. Inasmuch as low-NO{sub x} firing is sometimes accompanied by large increases in the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, the result for semi-volatiles is more in line with expectation. Effect of the hot-side ESP. As indicated above, the hot-side ESP lowered trace-element emissions to the range roughly from 1 to 5% of the levels found in the inlet gas stream. Not surprisingly, the hot-side ESP had no measurable influence on the emissions of SO{sub x}, HF, and HCl. Quite surprisingly, on the other hand, the ESP seemed to suppress the emission of certain organic substances. Suppression of the emission of formaldehyde is particularly difficult to explain. Presumably, the apparent disappearance of organics in the vapor state may be due in part to chemical changes at the high temperature of the ESP or in the corona regions, where ozone and other high-energy reactants are present. Perhaps chemical destruction was aided in the instance of semi-volatile compounds by relatively long residence times at high temperature while the compounds were adsorbed on ash particles in the hoppers. Effect of the cold-side ESP. Limited data with the cold-side ESP in operation made it difficult to detect any but the most emphatic effect of that ESP. No dramatic effect was seen.

  3. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred


    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  4. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma


    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m−3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6  ×  OC accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC  =  EC + OC in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB was a major source (40 % for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 % for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as

  5. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  6. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika


    conditions). Results from a 3D-LES simulation model for chemically reacting flows have been validated using the experimental data obtained within this study. The simulations have been carried out at the Division of Combustion Physics. The 3D simulation model can be used as a tool for studying the complex phenomena encountered in pulsating combustion. Together with measurements of temperature fields and measurements of the concentration of different species (for example O{sub 2}, NO and CH{sub 4}) in the combustion chamber, even further enhanced understanding of the fundamental processes in pulse combustors can be achieved.

  7. Chemically adjusting plasma temperature, energy, and reactivity (CAPTEAR) method using NOx and combustion for selective synthesis of Sc3N@C80 metallic nitride fullerenes. (United States)

    Stevenson, Steven; Thompson, M Corey; Coumbe, H Louie; Mackey, Mary A; Coumbe, Curtis E; Phillips, J Paige


    Goals are (1) to selectively synthesize metallic nitride fullerenes (MNFs) in lieu of empty-cage fullerenes (e.g., C60, C70) without compromising MNF yield and (2) to test our hypothesis that MNFs possess a different set of optimal formation parameters than empty-cage fullerenes. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for the selective synthesis of metallic nitride fullerenes. This new method is "Chemically Adjusting Plasma Temperature, Energy, and Reactivity" (CAPTEAR). The CAPTEAR approach with copper nitrate hydrate uses NOx vapor from NOx generating solid reagents, air, and combustion to "tune" the temperature, energy, and reactivity of the plasma environment. The extent of temperature, energy, and reactive environment is stoichiometrically varied until optimal conditions for selective MNF synthesis are achieved. Analysis of soot extracts indicate that percentages of C60 and Sc3N@C80 are inversely related, whereas the percentages of C70 and higher empty-cage C2n fullerenes are largely unaffected. Hence, there may be a "competitive link" in the formation and mechanism of C60 and Sc3N@C80. Using this CAPTEAR method, purified MNFs (96% Sc3N@C80, 12 mg) have been obtained in soot extracts without a significant penalty in milligram yield when compared to control soot extracts (4% Sc3N@C80, 13 mg of Sc3N@C80). The CAPTEAR process with Cu(NO3)2.2.5H2O uses an exothermic nitrate moiety to suppress empty-cage fullerene formation, whereas Cu functions as a catalyst additive to offset the reactive plasma environment and boost the Sc3N@C80 MNF production.

  8. Chemical composition and structure of the shell of fly ash non-perforated cenospheres produced from the combustion of the Kuznetsk coal (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.N. Anshits; O.A. Mikhailova; A.N. Salanov; A.G. Anshits [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology


    The relationship between the composition and structure of the shell of low-density non-perforated cenospheres of fly ashes from the combustion of coal from the Kuznetsk Basin (Russia) at temperatures of 1500 and 1650{sup o}C has been investigated. Narrow fractions of cenospheres of constant composition have been separated from concentrates with the use of the technological scheme including stages of hydrodynamic gravitational separation, grain-size classification, and magnetic separation. It has been established that the concentrations of the major components of the chemical composition of the products obtained are related by linear regression equations. The shell structure has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy. It has been revealed that the outer and inner surfaces of globules are covered by a film with a thickness of 30-50 nm. The surface of magnetic cenospheres contains heterogeneous regions with extended linear ferrospinel aggregates of crystallites with sizes ranging from 50 to 1000 nm. It has been shown that the size of globules and the thickness and porosity of the shell in each series depend on the composition of the melt from which they are formed and on its viscosity. Nonmagnetic cenospheres are formed from the high-silica K-Al-Si melt with the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio varying over a wide range (1.6-3.6). Narrow fractions of magnetic cenospheres formed at low temperatures (1500{sup o}C) are characterized by nearly constant SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios. Globules of this type are formed from two immiscible high-silica K-Al-Si and Fe-Al-Si melts. 38 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents. (United States)

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack


    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  10. Strobes: an oscillatory combustion. (United States)

    Corbel, Justine M L; Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries


    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century. However, the chemical and physical processes involved in this curious oscillatory combustion remain unknown. Several theories have been proposed: One claims that two different reactions occur: one during the slow dark phase and another during the fast flash phase. The alternation between the phases is ascribed to heat variations. Other theories suggest that the formation of intermediate species during the dark phase and the change of phase are caused by variations in their concentration. A ternary strobe composition with ammonium perchlorate, magnalium, and barium sulfate is analyzed. The role of barium sulfate is studied by replacing it by other metal sulfates that have different physical properties (melting points), and the burning of the compositions is recorded with a high-speed camera and a spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Experimental results show noticeable differences in the physical and chemical processes involved in the strobe reactions.

  11. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.


    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE ( addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  12. Combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants; Chimie de la combustion et formation des polluants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This book of proceedings reports on 7 papers on combustion chemistry and formation of pollutants presented during the workshop organized by the `Combustion and Flames` section of the French society of thermal engineers. The chemistry of combustion is analyzed in various situations such as: turbojet engines, spark ignition engines, industrial burners, gas turbines etc... Numerical simulation is used to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in combustion, to describe the kinetics of oxidation, combustion and flame propagation, and to predict the formation of pollutants. (J.S.)

  13. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru


    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  14. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL


    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  15. Pollutant Formation in Monodisperse Fuel Spray Combustion (United States)

    Cernansky, N. P.; Sarv, H.


    The combustion of liquid sprays represents an extremely important class of combustion processes. In the transition region, encompassing droplet sizes in the range of 25-80 micron diameter, the mixing and evaporation processes are both incomplete at the flame front and burning occurs in a combined diffusive and premixed fashion. Under these conditions, the relative importance of heterogeneous and homogeneous effects in dominating the combustion process is switched and gives rise to a number of interesting phenomena. NO (sub x) formation in monodisperse spray combustion was investigated with the following specific objectives: (1) to quantitatively determine the effect of droplet size, number density, etc. on NO sub x formation in monodisperse fuel spray combustion; and (2) to isolate the important physical and chemical phenomena in NO sub x formation in these combustion systems.

  16. Combustion Research Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  17. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion. (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas


    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  18. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  19. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, T.S.


    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.


    CERN Multimedia

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    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  1. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E


    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  2. Chemical-physical properties of spinel CoMn2O4 nano-powders and catalytic activity in the 2-propanol and toluene combustion: Effect of the preparation method. (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Salari, Dariush; Niaei, Aligholi; Deganello, Francesca; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Hojati, Pejman


    Spinel-type CoMn(2)O(4)nano-powders are prepared using sol-gel auto combustion (SGC) and co-precipitation (CP) methods and their catalytic activities are evaluated in combustion of 2-propanol and toluene. The chemical-physical properties of the oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N(2)-adsorption-desorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After calcination at 700°C, CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC shows higher amounts of the normal-type spinel phase and is more crystalline than CoMn(2)O(4)-CP. Higher calcination temperatures (850°C) do not affect very much the weight percentage of the normal-type spinel phase; although the crystal size slightly increased. The TPR analysis evidences a large number of Mn(3+) cations in CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC compared to CoMn(2)O(4)-CP. This difference, together with the higher surface area, could justify the higher activity of CoMn(2)O(4)-SGC in both the investigated reactions.

  3. Some characteristics of fine beryllium particle combustion (United States)

    Davydov, D. A.; Kholopova, O. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.


    Beryllium dust will be produced under plasma interaction with beryllium armor of the first wall in ITER. Exothermal reaction of this dust with water steam or air, which can leak into the reactor vacuum chamber in some accidents, gives concern in respect to reactor safety. Results of studies devoted to combustion of fine beryllium particles are reviewed in the paper. A chemically active medium and elevated temperature are prerequisite to the combustion of beryllium particles. Their ignition is hampered by oxide films, which form a diffusion barrier on the particle surface as a result of pre-flame oxidation. The temperature to initiate combustion of particles depends on flame temperature, particle size, composition of combustible mixture, heating rate and other factors. In mixtures enriched with combustible, the flame temperature necessary to ignite individual particles approaches the beryllium boiling temperature.

  4. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - implications for cyclone induced rapid lift and TIL physico-chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, Hans; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Schumann, Ulrich [DLR IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Arnold, Frank [MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); DLR IPA, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Simgen, Hardy; Lindemann, Siegfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank [MPI Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pirjola, Liisa [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)


    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of polluted planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO{sub 2} and other species), which had increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important impact of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL. This impact includes particularly aerosol formation.

  5. COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various


    Combustion research at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory focuses on the study of the chemical and physical processes which are important in combustion. Two areas of application dominate; the control of combustion processes to allow the utilization of new fuels while limiting pollutant formation and the reduction of fire hazards accompanying energy generation and utilization technologies. Principal program areas are the interaction of fluid-mechanical turbulence and combustion, the development and application of new physical and chemical diagnostic techniques for combustion research, pollutant formation and destruction processes, theoretical and computational modeling of combustion processes, combustion processes in engines, fire science, and fire safety. Work is reported in these areas: ENGINE COMBUSTION AND IGNITION STUDIES; COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTANT FORMATION; COMBUSTION FLUID MECHANICS; and FIRE RESEARCH.

  6. Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion Explosion, Flame, Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Michael A


    Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and

  7. Combustion 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap


    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  8. Assessment of the environmental impact of landfill sites with open combustion located in arid regions by combined chemical and ecotoxicological studies. (United States)

    Wichmann, H; Kolb, M; Jopke, P; Schmidt, C; Alawi, M; Bahadir, M


    Two different waste disposal sites in Jordan were investigated in order to determine the environmental situation in context with waste disposal techniques. One landfill, located at Marka/Amman, had been closed about 25 years ago and covered with soil. Here, the waste had been actively open combusted and openings in the cover, still emitting smoke, indicated that waste was still smoldering inside the landfill's body. The second disposal site close to Ekeeder/Irbid is still operated. On this ground, the solid waste is not intentionally burned, although spontaneous fires frequently come up. Samples of waste, soil, and entrained dust were collected and analyzed. From the solid samples, respectively, their eluates, sum parameters, ecotoxicological effects as well as contents of elements/heavy metals and organic pollutants (PAH, PCDD/F) were determined. In general, the Ekeeder-samples were low-contaminated. The investigation of the Marka-samples showed higher contamination of the site's center, clearly being influenced by combustion processes. A significant contamination of the landfill's vicinity by its emissions could not be derived from the analytical data. Ecotoxicological investigations, applying a bio-test battery, revealed correlations with the sum parameters but not with the trace pollutants. Thus, the Marka-samples with the highest measured values of sum parameters caused adverse effects on three different test species, whereas other samples from Marka and Ekeeder had small or no effects. The results of these investigations depict the influence of different disposal techniques on the contamination situation of a landfill and they shall contribute to assess the conditions of other disposal sites in (semi)arid regions.

  9. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)


    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  10. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Larrouturou, Bernard; Numerical Combustion


    Interest in numerical combustion is growing among applied mathematicians, physicists, chemists, engine manufacturers and many industrialists. This proceedings volume contains nine invited lectures and twenty seven contributions carefully selected by the editors. The major themes are numerical simulation of transsonic and supersonic combustion phenomena, the study of supersonic reacting mixing layers, and turbulent combustion. Emphasis is laid on hyperbolic models and on numerical simulations of hydrocarbon planes with a complete set of chemical reactions carried out in two-dimensional geometries as well as on complex reactive flow simulations.

  11. Status of Boron Combustion Research (United States)


    Chemical M. K. King, ARC L. Cook, NBS C. E. Kolb, Aerodyne *T. Curran, AFWAL/PO C. K. Law, U. Cal.-Davi3 P. Davidovits , Boston College *C. R. Martel...Homogeneous Combustion Kinetics of Boron Compounds. A. Fontijn, RPI. 1030 Simple Boron Atom Reactions. P. Davidovits , Boston College. 1050 Ultra-Fast Energy... DAVIDOVITS . J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3287 (1981). DED - T. G. DIGIUSEPPI. Rt. ESTES, and P. DAVIDOVITS . J. Phys. Chem.. 6, 260 (1982). ERF -A. J. ENGLISH

  12. Combustion Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 30 years The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) has served as a national and international leader in combustion science and technology. The need for a...

  13. Numerical simulation of premixed Hydrogen/air combustion pressure in a spherical vessel


    Guo Han-yu; Tao Gang; Zhang Li-jing


    In order to study the development process of hydrogen combustion in a closed vessel, an on-line chemical equilibrium calculator and a numerical simulation method would be used to analysis the combustion pressure and flame front of mixed gas, which based on 20L H2/air explosion experiments in spherical vessel (Crowl and Jo,2009). The results showed that, the turbulent model could reflect the process of combustion, and the error of combustion pressure by simulation is smaller than the Chemical ...

  14. Extending the predictions of chemical mechanisms for hydrogen combustion by Comparison of predicted and measured flame temperatures in burner-stabilized, 1-D flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    A method is presented for extending the range of conditions for which the performance of chemical mechanisms used to predict hydrogen burning velocities can be evaluated. Specifically, by comparing the computed variation of flame temperature with mass flux in burner-stabilized flat flames with those

  15. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof


    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  16. Combustion Properties of Laminated Veneer Lumbers Bonded With PVAc, PF Adhesives and Impregnated With Some Chemicals = Bazi Kimyasallarla Emprenye Edilmiş ve PF ve PVAc Tutkali ile Yapıştırılan Lamine Ağaç Malzemelerin Yanma Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref KURT


    Full Text Available In this study, it has been investigated that the effects of impregnation materials that are (NH32P, Al2(SO43, K2CO3, Cacl, Zncl2, on combustion properties of 3 ply laminated veneer lumbers (LVL produced from fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf. by using of phenol-formaldehyde (PF, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc. The pressure - vacuum method was used for impregnation process. Combustion test was performed according to the procedure of ASTM-E 69 standards. As a result; zinc chloride was found to be the most successful fire retardant chemical in LVL at PF adhesive. Since it diminishes combustion, the impregnation of LVL produced from fir by using PF adhesive can be advised to be impregnated by using pressure vacuum method.

  17. Gaseous emissions from waste combustion. (United States)

    Werther, Joachim


    An overview is given on methods and technologies for limiting the gaseous emissions from waste combustion. With the guideline 2000/76/EC recent European legislation has set stringent limits not only for the mono-combustion of waste in specialized incineration plants but also for co-combustion in coal-fired power plants. With increased awareness of environmental issues and stepwise decrease of emission limits and inclusion of more and more substances into the network of regulations a multitude of emission abatement methods and technologies have been developed over the last decades. The result is the state-of-the-art waste incinerator with a number of specialized process steps for the individual components in the flue gas. The present work highlights some new developments which can be summarized under the common goal of reducing the costs of flue gas treatment by applying systems which combine the treatment of several noxious substances in one reactor or by taking new, simpler routes instead of the previously used complicated ones or - in the case of flue gas desulphurisation - by reducing the amount of limestone consumption. Cost reduction is also the driving force for new processes of conditioning of nonhomogenous waste before combustion. Pyrolysis or gasification is used for chemical conditioning whereas physical conditioning means comminution, classification and sorting processes. Conditioning yields a fuel which can be used in power plants either as a co-fuel or a mono-fuel and which will burn there under much better controlled conditions and therefore with less emissions than the nonhomogeneous waste in a conventional waste incinerator. Also for cost reasons, co-combustion of wastes in coal-fired power stations is strongly pressing into the market. Recent investigations reveal that the co-firing of waste can also have beneficial effects on the operating behavior of the boiler and on the gaseous emissions.

  18. Combustion Aerosols from Pulverised Coal Combustion and Biomass Grate Combustion. Filtration aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillieblad, Lena [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology


    Combustion processes generate particles, which are formed both from the inorganic content in the fuel and from organic compounds as a result of incomplete combustion. The particles are removed from the flue gas by cyclones, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or fabric filters (FFs). The particle removal capacity is strongly depending on the particle properties, operating conditions and selected particle removal technology. The particle properties are depending on fuel type, combustion technique and combustion conditions. In this study the particle properties for two different types of solid fuel combustion were investigated and compared. The two processes were pulverised coal combustion and grate boilers operating on woody biomass. Characterisation of fuels was made both with standard analyses and more sophisticated methods like computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and subsequent leaching procedures. A major difference between coal and woody biomass is the occurrence of potassium. In woody biofuel potassium is a reactive components, mainly water-soluble or organically associated, whereas it in coal it is associated to minerals like illite. The particle number size and particle mass size distributions were measured with low-pressure impactors (LPI), electrical mobility analysers and electrical low-pressure impactors (ELPI). The submicrometer particle mass concentration was similar for the two combustion processes. There is a difference between different coals and also between different woody biofuels. The coarse particle fraction is considerably larger for coal combustion, due to the high content of minerals in the coal. Potassium, sulphur and chlorine dominate the submicrometer particle chemical composition from wood fired grate boilers. Coarser particles have a high content of calcium. Silicon and aluminium are the major elements in particles from pulverised coal combustion. An enrichment of calcium, sulphur and phosphorous in the submicrometer

  19. Steady Nuclear Combustion in Rockets (United States)

    Saenger, E.


    The astrophysical theory of stationary nuclear reactions in stars is applied to the conditions that would be met in the practical engineering cases that would differ from the former, particularly with respect to the much lower combustion pressures, dimensions of the reacting volume, and burnup times. This application yields maximum rates of hear production per unit volume of reacting gas occurring at about 10(exp 8) K in the cases of reactions between the hydrogen isotopes, but yields higher rates for heavier atoms. For the former, with chamber pressures of the order of 100 atmospheres, the energy production for nuclear combustion reaches values of about 10(exp 4) kilocalories per cubic meter per second, which approaches the magnitude for the familiar chemical fuels. The values are substantially lower for heavier atoms, and increase with the square of the combustion pressure. The half-life of the burnup in the fastest reactions may drop to values as low as those for chemical fuels so that, despite the high temperature, the radiated energy can remain smaller than the energy produced, particularly if an inefficiently radiating (i.e., easily completely ionized reacting material like hydrogen), is used. On the other hand, the fraction of completely ionized particles in the gases undergoing nuclear combustion must not exceed a certain upper limit because the densities (approximately 10(exp -10) grams per cubic centimeter)) lie in the range of high vacua and only for the previously mentioned fraction of nonionized particles can mean free paths be retained small enough so that the chamber diameters of several dozen meters will suffice. Under these conditions it appears that continuously maintained stable nuclear reactions at practical pressures and dimensions are fundamentally possible and their application can be visualized as energy sources for power plants and propulsion units.

  20. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines (United States)

    Zeleznik, F. J.


    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  1. Boiler using combustible fluid (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.


    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  2. Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} separation in coal-fired power plants. An investigation of the process of chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} with potassium carbonate and piperazine; Post-Combustion CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in Kohlekraftwerken. Untersuchung eines Prozesses zur chemischen Absorption von CO{sub 2} mit Kaliumkarbonat und Piperazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oexmann, Jochen; Kather, Alfons [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik


    In the separation process of carbon dioxide after the combustion process, the CO2 will be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power stations by means of absorption in a chemical solvent. Potassium carbonate frequently is used as a solvent in the separation of carbon dioxide during the processing of natural gas. The improvement of the separation efficiency with potassium carbonate requires an activation by means of an amine. In the contribution under consideration, the authors use piperazine as an amine. Up to now, suitable simulations of the total process are missing in order to compare the potential of the system K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/piperazine as a solvent for the separation of carbon dioxide in a coal-fired power station with the potential of other solvents. Under this aspect, the authors report on the influence of the composition of the solvent, the pressure of the desorber as well as the separation rate on the specific heat requirement of the reboilers as well as on the specific power demand of the integrated total process.

  3. Lump wood combustion process (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan


    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  4. Internal Combustion Engines as Fluidized Bed Reactors (United States)

    Lavich, Zoe; Taie, Zachary; Menon, Shyam; Beckwith, Walter; Daly, Shane; Halliday, Devin; Hagen, Christopher


    Using an internal combustion engine as a chemical reactor could provide high throughput, high chemical conversion efficiency, and reactant/product handling benefits. For processes requiring a solid catalyst, the ability to develop a fluidized bed within the engine cylinder would allow efficient processing of large volumes of fluid. This work examines the fluidization behavior of particles in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine at various engine speeds. For 40 micron silica gel particles in a modified Megatech Mark III transparent combustion engine, calculations indicate that a maximum engine speed of about 60.8 RPM would result in fluidization. At higher speeds, the fluidization behavior is expected to deteriorate. Experiments gave qualitative confirmation of the analytical predictions, as a speed of 48 RPM resulted in fluidized behavior, while a speed of 171 RPM did not. The investigation shows that under certain conditions a fluidized bed can be obtained within an engine cylinder. Corresponding Author.

  5. 40 CFR 62.14525 - Can my combustion unit be exempt from this subpart? (United States)


    ... Plants). (n) Chemical recovery units. Combustion units burning materials to recover chemical constituents or to produce chemical compounds where there is an existing commercial market for such recovered... Combustors). (h) Materials recovery units. Units that combust waste for the primary purpose of recovering...

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower


    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  7. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil. (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S


    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  8. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  9. Characterization and heading of irradiated fuels and their chemical analogs; Caracterizacion y lixiviacion de combustibles nucleares irradiados y de sus analogos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J. A. [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)


    This work presents results of leaching experiments under deionized water and under synthetic granite at room temperature in air using spent fuel (UO{sub 2} and MOX LWR fuels) and the chemical analogues, natural UO{sub 2} and SIMFUEL. The experimental conditions and procedure for irradiated and non-irradiated materials were kept similar as much as possible. Also dissolution behaviour studies of preoxidised LWR UO{sub 2} and MOX spent fuel up to different on the oxidation degree. For both fuel types, UO{sub 2} and MOX, the fission products considered showed a fractional release normalised to uranium higher than 1, due to either the larger inventory at preferential leaching zones, such as, grain boundaries or to the inherent higher solubility of some of these elements. In contrast to fission products, the fractional release of PU from the UO{sub 2} fuel was not affected by the oxidation level. Finally a thermodynamic study of the experimental leaching results obtained in this work was performed. (Author)

  10. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop


    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability and availability of data for combustion research. The architecture consists of an application layer, a communication layer and distributed cloud servers running in a mix environment of Windows, Macintosh and Linux systems. The application layer runs software such as CHEMKIN modeling application. The communication layer provides secure transfer/archive of kinetic, thermodynamic, transport and gas surface data using private/public keys between clients and cloud servers. A robust XML schema based on the Process Informatics Model (Prime) combined with a workflow methodology for digitizing, verifying and uploading data from scientific graphs/tables to Prime is implemented for chemical molecular structures of compounds. The outcome of using this system by combustion researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Clean Combustion Research Center and its collaborating partners indicated a significant improvement in efficiency in terms of speed of chemical kinetics and accuracy in searching for the right chemical kinetic data.

  11. Detonation capturing for stiff combustion chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkenbosch, A.C.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Klein, R.


    This paper contributes to the topic of unphysical one-cell-per-time-step travelling combustion wave solutions in numerical computations of detonation waves in the presence of stiff chemical source terms. These false weak detonation solutions appear when a gas-dynamics-chemistry operator-splitting

  12. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice...

  13. Sulfur Release during Alternative fuels Combustion in Cement Rotary Kilns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar

    to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content and larger particle sizes. When full combustion of alternative fuels in the calcin er and/or main burner......, the usage of selected waste, biomass, and by-products with recoverable calorific value, defined as alternative fuels, is increasing and their combustion is mo re challenging compared to fossil fuels, due to the lack of experience in handling the different and va rying combustion characteristics caused...... by different chemical and physical properties, e.g. higher moisture content and larger particle sizes. When full combustion of alternative fuels in the calcin er and/or main burner is not achieved, partially or unburned solid fuels may drop into the material bed in dire ct contact with the bed material...

  14. Kinetics and Product Channels in Combustion Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, John F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)


    We report study of the chemical kinetics and/or photochemistry of several chemical reactions of potential interest in understanding the gas phase combustion chemistry of nitrogen-containing molecules. Studies completed during the final grant period include determination of quantum yields of the photolysis of HCNO, fulminic acid, a kinetics and product channel study of the reaction of CN radicals with methyl bromide, and study of the products of the reaction of hydroxymethyl radical with nitric oxide.

  15. Strobes: An Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341356034; van Lingen, J.N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311441769; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073464708; Meijerink, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986


    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  16. Strobes: An oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.


    Strobe compositions belong to the class of solid combustions. They are mixtures of powdered ingredients. When ignited, the combustion front evolves in an oscillatory fashion, and flashes of light are produced by intermittence. They have fascinated many scientists since their discovery at the

  17. Rocket Combustion Chamber Coating (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor)


    A coating with the ability to protect (1) the inside wall (i.e., lining) of a rocket engine combustion chamber and (2) parts of other apparatuses that utilize or are exposed to combustive or high temperature environments. The novelty of this invention lies in the manner a protective coating is embedded into the lining.

  18. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pope, Stephen B


    .... The PDF approach to turbulent combustion has the advantages of fully representing the turbulent fluctuations of species and temperature, and of allowing realistic combustion chemistry to be implemented...

  19. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt


    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  20. Combustion Engines Development Mixture Formation, Combustion, Emissions and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Christian; Teichmann, Rüdiger


    In the development of engines and vehicles it is nowadays standard practice to use commercially available computing programmes for simulation, not only of the transient reaction of vehicles or of the complete driveshaft, but also of the highly unsteady processes in the combustion chamber of an engine. Normally the source code is not available for these computing programmes and it takes too much time to study the respective specifications, so the users often do not have sufficient knowledge about the physical and chemical contents of the approaches that the programmes are based on. We have often been faced with this fact in talks to employees or in discussions during the presentation of results of simulation. Therefore it is our aim to point out different physical and chemical approaches and to show the possibilities and limits of the models used.

  1. Study for the numerical resolution of combustion phenomena in burners


    Godayol Capdevila, Èric


    Combustion is a complex phenomenon of interest that combines chemical reactions and turbulent flows. Resolution of both problems is a difficult task. On the one hand, chemical reactions introduce a large amount of species with different properties and small temporal scales due to chemical kinetics. On the other hand, turbulent flows imply a large span of spatial scales. Different models are commonly applied to reduce these requirements. Chemical reactions can be modeled with reduced chemic...

  2. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  3. JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1 (United States)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)


    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 33 unclassified/unlimited papers which were presented at the 33rd Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee Meeting in conjunction with the Propulsion Systems Hazards at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. The JANNAF papers contained in this volume review airbreathing combustion measurement, performance and control; electrothermal-chemical gun experiment and modeling; liquid propellant gun experiment and modeling; solid propellant gun interior ballistics; formulation modeling and diagnostics, ignition, and gun barrel wear modeling, blast and flash; and ram, fastcore and gas generator gun propulsion concepts.

  4. Improvement of energy efficiency of natural gas combustion by applying a homogeneous combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczyk Jacek


    Full Text Available In many heat devices designers and operators meet the problem of low efficiency of combustion and restricted emission standards. This process should be improved to maximize its efficiency and satisfy additional requirements as, for example, uniform temperature fieldin combustion chamber, low noise level or very low NOx emission. These requirements are satisfied by homogeneous combustion. Such combustion method is particularly attractive for the steel or glass industry or power industry based in particular on natural gas. In this paper factors, which have the biggest influence on performance of flameless combustion, are discussed, among others: momentum of fuel and oxidizer, composition of the mixture, the temperature of the inlet gases. Additionally, blind simulations of combustion in a combustion chamber of a furnace are run to assess how high is the influence of these factors individually. Numerical simulations are performed in a CFD code AVL Fire. The detailed chemical kinetics mechanism GRI-mech 3.0 is used for combustion calculations. Calculations results are correlated with experimental data. Blind simulations and experiment provide similar level of NOX emission (~6-8 ppm. Experiments showed that the effect of the addition of ethylene to fuel on emissions of NOX, CO, THC is not significant. Similarly, numerical simulations predict that influence of ethylene is negligible. CO, THC and CO2 were on a stable level across all cases. NOX emissions increases when mass flow of air and fuel increases due to higher heat release in the same volume, what results in higher temperature of combustion products. When temperature of fuel increases NOX level decreases.

  5. Influence of residential wood combustion on local air quality. (United States)

    Hellén, H; Hakola, H; Haaparanta, S; Pietarila, H; Kauhaniemi, M


    The importance of wood combustion to local air quality was estimated by measuring different air pollutants and conducting chemical mass balance modelling. PM10, PM2.5, PAHs and VOC concentrations in ambient air were measured in a typical Finnish residential area. Measurements were conducted in January-March 2006. For some compounds, wood combustion was clearly the main local source at this site. The effect of wood combustion was more clearly seen for organic compounds than for fine particle mass. For fine particles, background concentrations dominated. However, very high, short-lived concentration peaks were detected, when the wind direction and other weather conditions were favourable. For organic compounds, the effect of wood combustion was seen in diurnal and in two-week average concentrations. PAH-concentrations were often several times higher at the residential area than in the background. Benzene concentrations showed similar diurnal pattern as the use of wood and benzene/toluene ratios indicated that wood combustion is the most important source. A chemical mass balance model was used for studying the effect of wood combustion on the measured concentrations of VOCs. Model results showed that the main local sources for VOCs at Kurkimäki are wood combustion and traffic. Wood combustion was clearly the most important source for many compounds (e.g., benzene).

  6. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  7. Advanced Chemical Modeling for Turbulent Combustion Simulations (United States)


    evaluate this reaction rate. The reactions of tolualdehyde are based on the reactions of toluene and benzaldehyde . The methyl side chain of on benzaldehyde to give methylphenyl radicals. Tolualdehyde can lead also to the formation of toluene , benzaldehyde , cresol, and phenoxy species...alkanes such as n-heptane and iso-octane. Additionally, aromatic species such as benzene and toluene are included. This base mechanism has been

  8. Combustion Technology Outreach (United States)


    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  9. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)


    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  10. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Combustion Chamber for Button Turbojet Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongpeng


    Full Text Available To provide reference data for ultra-micro combustor, a new type button turbojet engine was designed and simulated the combustion’s steady-state process. The boundary condition of inlet was calculated using isentropic numerical calculation, taken into turbulent chemical reaction, heat radiation, and so on, getting the combustion chamber’s steady-state of the velocity, temperature and component concentration distribution, analysis the fuel/air flow and backflow, combustion efficiency and total pressure recovery coefficient, and compared with the experimental data. The calculation results can accurately reflect the actual combustion. The results show that combustion chamber exit velocity is about 65m/s, outlet temperature is around 1000K, the simulation and experimental data are similar, combustion chamber structure design is reasonable, and this paper will provide a basis for the future improvement of the millimeter scale turbojet engine.

  12. Particle Emissions from Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpila, Aneta; Bohgard, Mats [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology; Strand, Michael; Lillieblad, Lena; Sanati, Mehri [Vaexjoe Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Bioenergy Technology; Pagels, Joakim; Rissler, Jenny; Swietlicki, Erik; Gharibi, Arash [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Physics


    particle number concentration increased slightly with increasing load, at the same time the fine mode particles became smaller. This was probably caused by different degree of particle coagulation as the residence time in the boiler was changed. The mean diameter during combustion of forest residue was around 100 nm compared to 70-80 nm for dry wood and pellets, while the total number was close to constant. This explains the differences in mass concentration found in the impactor measurements. The concentrations of CO and THC was highest for the dry wood fuel, the PAH concentration was highest for pellets combustion in boiler 4, however this boiler was poorly tuned at the time of measurement. The PAH concentration was 5 times higher during combustion of dry wood compared to forest residue. The concentration of CO, THC and PAH varied to a great extend. The high concentrations were measured in boilers running at a low load. The concentration of particle organic carbon was less than 15% of PMI for all fuels. However we used heated primary dilution, which inhibits the condensation of organic components into, the particle phase. A significant fraction of the emitted organic carbon may condense to the particle phase during dilution after the stack or after being oxidized in the atmosphere. We also measured elemental carbon in the particle phase. The contribution to PM1 was as high as 25-30% during pellets combustion at low load and 8% at low load during combustion of dry wood. In all other cases the EC-concentration was less than 3% of PMI. PIXE and lon-chromatography confirmed that alkali-salts were the dominant chemical species. PIXE analysis revealed that emitted amounts of heavy metals such as Zn, Cd and Pb are strongly dependent on the type of the fuel used. Forest residues gave high emissions of Zn, Cd and Pb, while pellets gave very high emissions of Cd and Zn. The fuel with the lowest emissions of heavy metals was dry wood. This again could be related to ash content in

  13. Solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. (United States)

    Rajeshwar, Krishnan; de Tacconi, Norma R


    In this tutorial review, we summarize recent research on the solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for applications related to photovoltaic solar energy conversion, photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation, and heterogeneous photocatalytic remediation of environmental pollutants. First, the advantages of combustion synthesis relative to other strategies for preparing oxide semiconductors are discussed followed by a summary of process variants in combustion synthesis. The possibility of in situ chemical modification of the oxide during its formation in the combustion environment is addressed. Morphological and crystal structure aspects of the combustion-synthesized products are discussed followed by a summary of trends in their photocatalytic activity relative to benchmark samples prepared by other methods.

  14. Liquid-propellant droplet vaporization and combustion in high pressure environments (United States)

    Yang, Vigor


    In order to correct the deficiencies of existing models for high-pressure droplet vaporization and combustion, a fundamental investigation into this matter is essential. The objective of this research are: (1) to acquire basic understanding of physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the vaporization and combustion of isolated liquid-propellant droplets in both stagnant and forced-convective environments; (2) to establish droplet vaporization and combustion correlations for the study of liquid-propellant spray combustion and two-phase flowfields in rocket motors; and (3) to investigate the dynamic responses of multicomponent droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient flow oscillations.

  15. Ash chemistry and behavior in advanced co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group


    The purpose of this LIEKKI 2 project is to report results achieved within the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project to the Finnish combustion research community through the LIEKKI program. The purpose of the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project is to find prediction methods for evaluating ash behavior, such as slagging, fouling and corrosion propensity, in full scale combustion systems through chemical or mineralogical analyses, intelligent laboratory tests and chemistry calculations. The project focuses on coals, coal mixtures and coal biomass mixtures fired in advanced combustion systems, such as fluidized bed boilers, pulverized fuel boilers with critical steam values etc. The project will make use of (1) advanced multi-component combustion equilibrium calculations, (2) ash sintering tendency laboratory tests and (3) chemical evaluations of slagging, fouling and corrosion measurements in full scale units. (orig.)

  16. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.


    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  17. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif


    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  18. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P. [and others


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  19. Chemical kinetics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)


    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  20. Review on Pollutants from the Solid Biomass Combustion


    Junjie Chen


    This review considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biomass fuels is discussed. This is followed by the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification. The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate meta...

  1. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad


    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  2. Ab Initio-Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry (United States)


    There are two prime objectives of the research. One is to develop and apply efficient methods for using ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs...31-Mar-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Ab Initio-Based Predictions of Hydrocarbon Combustion Chemistry The...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 hydrocarbon combustion, ab initio quantum chemistry, potential energy surfaces, chemical

  3. Combustion Waves and Fronts in Flows (United States)

    Clavin, Paul; Searby, Geoff


    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Physical Insights: 1. General considerations; 2. Laminar premixed flames; 3. Turbulent premixed flames; 4. Gaseous shocks and detonations; 5. Chemical kinetics of combustion; 6. Laser-driven ablation front in ICF; 7. Explosion of massive stars; Part II. Detailed Analytical Studies: 8. Planar flames; 9. Flame kernels and flame balls; 10. Wrinkled flames; 11. Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability; 12. Shock waves and detonations; Part III. Complements: 13. Statistical physics; 14. Chemistry; 15. Flows; References; Index.

  4. Combustion and regulation; Combustion et reglementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This conference was organized after the publication of the French by-law no 2010 relative to combustion installations and to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. Five topics were discussed during the conference: the new regulations, their content, innovations and modalities of application; the means of energy suppliers to face the new provisions and their schedule; the manufacturers proposals for existing installations and the new equipments; the administration control; and the impact of the new measures on exploitation and engineering. Twenty papers and 2 journal articles are reported in these proceedings. (J.S.)

  5. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites (United States)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David


    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  6. Internal combustion engine (United States)

    Baker, Quentin A.; Mecredy, Henry E.; O'Neal, Glenn B.


    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  7. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.


    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  8. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed


    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics provide valuable information, the high fidelity simulations with matched parametric conditions improve fundamental understanding of relevant physical and chemical processes by accessing additional observables such as the local mixture distribution, intermediate species concentrations, and detailed chemical reaction rates. Commercial software, CONVERGE™, was used as the main simulation tool, with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model and the multi-zone (SAGE) combustion model to compute the chemical reaction terms. SOI is varied from late compression ignition (CI) to early partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The simulation results revealed a stronger correlation between fuel injection timing and combustion phasing for late SOI conditions, whereas the combustion phasing starts to decouple from SOI for early SOI cases. The predictions are consistent with the experimental observations, in terms of the overall trends in combustion and emission characteristics, while the high fidelity simulations provided further insights into the effects of mixture stratifications resulting from different SOI conditions.

  9. Fluidised Bed Combustion: A Novel Technology for the Combustion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A firing technology, which is increasingly becoming popular for the combustion of fuels with difficult combustion properties, is fluidised bed combustion (FBC). In the current paper, the special features of FBC have been reviewed and their advantages as compared to conventional firing systems highlighted. This has been ...

  10. Radiative Augmented Combustion. (United States)


    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  11. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  12. Fuel-Rich Catalytic Combustion (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Olson, Sandra L.


    Two-stage combustion system reduces particulate emissions. Program on catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrates feasibility of two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With fuel-rich (fuel/air equivalence ratios of 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic-combustion preburner as first stage, combustion process free of soot at reactor-outlet temperatures of 1,200 K or less.

  13. Coal combustion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, C.S.


    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  14. Nonlinear Combustion Instability Prediction (United States)

    Flandro, Gary


    The liquid rocket engine stability prediction software (LCI) predicts combustion stability of systems using LOX-LH2 propellants. Both longitudinal and transverse mode stability characteristics are calculated. This software has the unique feature of being able to predict system limit amplitude.

  15. Supersonic Combustion Ramjet Research (United States)


    engine). As noted above in USAF scramjet flight scenarios , high vehicle heat loads will ensure that the fuel (initially a liquid hydrocarbon such as a... cinema stereoscopic PIV system for the measurement of micro- and meso-scale turbulent premixed flame dynamics,” Paper B13, 5th US Combustion

  16. Combustion Research Program: chapter from Energy and Environment Division annual report 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J.


    A combustion system typically involves a complex interaction of chemical and fluid mechanical phenomena. It is a fertile field for sophisticated research and development which draw on the academic disciplines of high temperature chemical kinetics and turbulent fluid mechanics. A number of the most recent experimental and theoretical research techniques, such as laser based instrumentation, molecular beam techniques, and powerful computational and numerical analysis techniques in fluid mechanics can be fully exploited in well planned programs of combustion research. The initiation of research on problems associated with coal combustion is discussed in the first two articles. The subsequent twelve articles summarize research projects covering a wide variety of combustion problems. Several are directly related to pollution problems; in particular there is a coordinated program aimed at developing clean burning internal combustion engines. Another important general area being studied (in three experimental and two theoretical projects) is the complex interaction of fluid mechanical turbulence with combustion heat release.

  17. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies (United States)


    characterization of key combustion phenomena. • Continue efforts to integrate increasingly sophisticated chemistry and kinetics models with fluid dynamics to...chemical kinetics , and 5) detonation-stabilized turbulent flames. Lean blowout data was collected on propane and jet fuel bluff-body stabilized flames...ignition delay time is an adequate representation of the chemical timescale. 15. SUBJECT TERMS flameholder, combustor, chemical, kinetics , detonation

  18. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Glarborg, Peter


    Most fossil fuels contain sulphur and also biofuels and household waste have a sulphur content. As a consequence sulphur species will often be present in combustion processes. In this paper the fate and influence of fuel sulphur species in combustion will be treated. First a description...... of the sulphur compounds in fossil fuels and the possibilities to remove them will be given. Then the combustion of sulphur species and their influence on the combustion chemistry and especially on the CO oxidation and the NOx formation will be described. Finally the in-situ removal of sulphur in the combustion...

  19. Low emission internal combustion engine (United States)

    Karaba, Albert M.


    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  20. Potassium behaviour during combustion of wood in circulating fluidised bed power plants


    Valmari, Tuomas


    The behaviour of alkali metals, especially of potassium, during circulating fluidised bed combustion of wood-based fuels was studied experimentally in pilot-scale and industrial scale combustors. The fuels included willow, forest residue and waste wood co-combusted with paper mill sludge. As a result of this work, the main chemical and physical transformation mechanisms of potassium compounds in the combustion chamber and in the convective pass are presented in this thesis. Aerosol measur...

  1. Experimental and CFD investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jimmy

    treatment. The aim of this project is to provide validation data for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models relevant for grate firing combustion conditions. CFD modeling is a mathematical tool capable of predicting fluid flow, mixing and chemical reaction with thermal conversion and transport. Prediction...... of pollutant formation, which occurs in small concentrations with little impact on the general combustion process is in this work predicted by a post-processing step, making it less computationally expensive. A reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate fired boiler......, but under well-defined conditions. Comprehensive experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition are obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. Ammonia is added to the combustion setup in order to simulate fuel...

  2. An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T


    Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

  3. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...... modelling, data collection and observations at an industrial cement plant firing alternative fuels. Alternative fuels may differ from conventional fossil fuels in combustion behaviour through differences in physical and chemical properties and reaction kinetics. Often solid alternative fuels are available...

  4. Clean coal combustion in domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.; Kubica, K.; Sciazko, M. [Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)


    Combustion of raw coal in existing domestic furnaces with a low efficiency (usually below 50%) is a source of pollutants generation like dust, SO{sub 2} and PAH including cancerogenic BAP, resulting in serious environmental problems. Emission of pollutants depends on solid fuels quality and fuel combustion parameters. Pollutants emission can be decreased by the use of upgraded coal derived solid fuels or replacement of old heating appliances with new ones with high thermal efficiency and ecological affectivity. Several ecological fuels manufacturing methods have been elaborated in the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal. Thermal and emission tests of heating devices and solid fuels were performed with the use of IChPW experimental plant. Results were confirmed in heating devices in real heating objects. Taking results into account proposal of legal regulation for Polish domestic sector was elaborated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Clean coal combustion in domestic sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.; Kubica, K.; Sciazko, M. (Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland))


    Combustion of raw coal in existing domestic furnaces with a low efficiency (usually below 50%) is a source of pollutants generation like dust, SO[sub 2] and PAH including cancerogenic BAP, resulting in serious environmental problems. Emission of pollutants depends on solid fuels quality and fuel combustion parameters. Pollutants emission can be decreased by the use of upgraded coal derived solid fuels or replacement of old heating appliances with new ones with high thermal efficiency and ecological affectivity. Several ecological fuels manufacturing methods have been elaborated in the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal. Thermal and emission tests of heating devices and solid fuels were performed with the use of IChPW experimental plant. Results were confirmed in heating devices in real heating objects. Taking results into account proposal of legal regulation for Polish domestic sector was elaborated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.


    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  7. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.


    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  8. Premixed Supersonic Combustion (Rev) (United States)


    lean and low temperature flameout points). Figure 11. Chemiluminescence image (0.6 ms capture) at global φ = 0.41 (cavity-side = 0.27...mixing can still be rate-controlling if the flow temperature is high or if a flame holder is present and there is an adequate source of combustion... temperature associated with kinetic energy and ΔTc is the change in temperature associated with the chemistry [3]. If the rise in temperature

  9. Theory of Combustion Noise (United States)


    The overall sound generation processes have been classi- fied in terms of the sound due to an isolated turbulent flame and that due to the...of the fluid mechanics of the reacting gas. The overall sound generation processes have been classified in terms of the sound due to an isolated ...steady intercoupling between various aerothermochemical modes excited in the combustion zone. To be specific, the non-steady exo- thermic and

  10. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays (United States)


    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  11. Internal combustion piston engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.


    Current worldwide production of internal combustion piston engines includes many diversified types of designs and a very broad range of sizes. Engine sizes range from a few horsepower in small mobile units to over 40,000 brake horsepower in large stationary and marine units. The key characteristics of internal combustion piston engines considered appropriate for use as prime movers in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) are evaluated. The categories of engines considered include spark-ignition gas engines, compression-ignition oil (diesel) engines, and dual-fuel engines. The engines are evaluated with respect to full-load and part-load performance characteristics, reliability, environmental concerns, estimated 1976 cost data, and current and future status of development. The largest internal combustion piston engines manufactured in the United States range up to 13,540 rated brake horsepower. Future development efforts are anticipated to result in a 20 to 25% increase in brake horsepower without increase in or loss of weight, economy, reliability, or life expectancy, predicated on a simple extension of current development trends.

  12. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  13. Spray combustion stability (United States)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald


    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  14. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand


    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires, and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects on the order of up to 26%permil; became obvious in the derived CO2 from combustion of different kinds of material, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature, sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original total 18O signature of the material appeared to have little influence, however, a contribution of specific bio-chemical

  15. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang


    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  16. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D [Rochester Hills, MI; Reitz, Rolf D [Madison, WI


    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  17. Computer technique for simulating the combustion of cellulose and other fuels (United States)

    Andrew M. Stein; Brian W. Bauske


    A computer method has been developed for simulating the combustion of wood and other cellulosic fuels. The products of combustion are used as input for a convection model that slimulates real fires. The method allows the chemical process to proceed to equilibrium and then examines the effects of mass addition and repartitioning on the fluid mechanics of the convection...

  18. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:;


    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  19. 2009 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, Volker [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Non-intrusive laser diagnostics for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of temperature, chemical composition, and flow parameters have emerged over the last few decades as major tools for the study of both fundamental and applied combustion science. Many of the important advances in the field can be attributed to the discussions and ideas emanating from this meeting. This conference, originating in 1981 and held biennially, focuses on laser-based methods for measurement of both macroscopic parameters and the underlying microscale physical and chemical processes. Applications are discussed primarily to elucidate new chemical and physical issues and/or interferences that need to be addressed to improve the accuracy and precision of the various diagnostic approaches or to challenge the community of diagnosticians to invent new measurement techniques. Combustion environments present special challenges to the optical diagnostics community as they address measurements relevant to turbulence, spray and mixture formation, or turbulence/chemistry interactions important in practical combustion systems as well as fundamental chemical reactions in stationary laminar flames. The diagnostics considered may be generally classed as being incoherent, where the signals are radiated isotropically, or coherent, where the signals are generated in a directed, beam-like fashion. Both of the foregoing may employ either electronic or Raman resonance enhancement or a combination of both. Prominent incoherent approaches include laser induced fluorescence (LIF), spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, laser induced incandescence, molecular flow tagging, and Mie scattering and their two- and three-dimensional imaging variants. Coherent approaches include coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM), polarization spectroscopy (PS), laser induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) and laser-based absorption spectroscopy. Spectroscopic

  20. Modelling of Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion of Hydrogen using Conditional Moment Closure Method (United States)

    Noor, M. M.; Aziz Hairuddin, A.; Wandel, Andrew P.; Yusaf, T. F.


    Most of the electricity generation and energy for transport is still generated by the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy by burning the fuels in the combustion chamber. Regulation for pollution and the demand for more fuel economy had driven worldwide researcher to focus on combustion efficiency. In order to reduce experimental cost, accurate modelling and simulation is very critical step. Taylor series expansion was utilised to reduce the error term for the discretization. FORTRAN code was used to execute the discretized partial differential equation. Hydrogen combustion was simulated using Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model. Combustion of hydrogen with oxygen was successfully simulated and reported in this paper.

  1. Chemical kinetics of low and high temperature oxidation of reference fuels and of some additives at up to 40 bars; Cinetique chimique de l`oxydation de basse et haute temperature de combustibles de reference et de certains additifs jusqu`a 40 bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathonnet, M.; Dagaut, Ph.; Reuillon, M.; Voisin, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Laboratoire de Combustion et Systemes Reactifs


    A study of the oxidation of reference fuels for controlled ignition engines (n-heptane and iso-octane) and for turbojet engines (n-decane and TR0 kerosene) has been carried out in a self-agitated engine using gas jets at 1 to 40 bars and 550 to 1250 deg. K. Experimental results obtained have been used to propose a detailed kinetics mechanism for kerosene combustion. The study of the oxidation of oxygenated additives used in petrol (MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE) and of the oxidation of a diesel substitute (DME) has been carried out in a self-agitated engine using gas jets at 1 to 10 bars and 800 to 1275 deg. K. These studies indicate that the oxidation of ether-type additives (MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE) produces important oxygenated intermediates which are potential pollutants: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and meth-acrolein. Butadiene and isoprene concentrations have been measured too. However, DME does not produce higher compounds but formaldehyde is one of its main oxidation intermediates. Chemical mechanisms leading to the formation of these pollutants are included in the proposed combustion models. (J.S.)

  2. The modes of gaseous combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Rubtsov, Nickolai M


    This book provides an analysis of contemporary problems in combustion science, namely flame propagation, detonation and heterophaseous combustion based on the works of the author. The current problems in the area of gas combustion, as well as the methods allowing to calculate and estimate limiting conditions of ignition, and flame propagation on the basis of experimental results are considered. The book focuses on the virtually inaccessible works of Russian authors and will be useful for experienced students and qualified scientists in the area of experimental studies of combustion processes.

  3. Active Combustion Control Valve Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, research into active combustion control has yielded impressive results in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities and widening the operational...

  4. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Donald W. [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)


    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  5. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight (United States)


    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  6. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Jozef


    Full Text Available With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m−2 and 50 kW.m−2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  7. A comprehensive study of combustion products generated from pulverized peat combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler (United States)

    Kuzmin, V. A.; Zagrai, I. A.


    The experimental and theoretical study of combustion products has been carried out for the conditions of pulverized peat combustion in BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. Sampling has been performed in different parts of the boiler system in order to determine the chemical composition, radiative properties and dispersity of slag and ash particles. The chemical composition of particles was determined using the method of x-ray fluorescence analysis. Shapes and sizes of the particles were determined by means of electron scanning microscopy. The histograms and the particle size distribution functions were computed. The calculation of components of the gaseous phase was based on the combustion characteristics of the original fuel. The software package of calculation of thermal radiation of combustion products from peat combustion was used to simulate emission characteristics (flux densities and emissivity factors). The dependence of emission characteristics on the temperature level and on the wavelength has been defined. On the basis of the analysis of emission characteristics the authors give some recommendations how to determine the temperature of peat combustion products in the furnace of BKZ-210-140F steam boiler. The findings can be used to measure the combustion products temperature, support temperature control in peat combustion and solve the problem of boiler furnace slagging.

  8. Numerical simulations of fluidization dynamics in a hot model of a CLC process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyłka Anna


    The paper presents numerical simulations of the dynamic fluidized bed for Chemical Looping Combustion using CeSFaMB software. The model was validated on the basis of the results obtained from experiments, which were carried out on the Fluidized-Bed Chemical-Looping-Combustion of Solid-Fuels (FB-CLC-SF unit. The studies were conducted in air atmosphere at temperature of 850°C. The validation of the 1.5D model showed that the maximum relative error between experiment and simulations results does not exceed 12%.

  9. Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barmina I.


    Full Text Available Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.

  10. Volumetric Combustion Diagnostics (United States)


    i.e., the central plane of the burner and the plane where the PLIF measurement was taken) was extracted and plotted in Fig. 7b. Fig. 7c directly...Hsu, Particle Image Velocimetry in a Nonreacting and Reacting High-Speed Cavity, Journal of Propulsion and Power, 30(3) (2014) 576-591. [7] Y.W...quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33(1) (2011) 1-40. [13] A.W

  11. Effect of Gas Mixture Composition on the Parameters of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Chríbik


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of the internal combustion piston engine, which is a drive unit for micro-cogeneration units. The introduction is a brief statement of the nature of gas mixture compositions that are useful for the purposes of combustion engines, together with the basic physical and chemical properties relevant to the burning of this gas mixture. Specifically, we will discuss low-energy gases (syngases and mixtures of natural gas with hydrogen. The second section describes the conversion of the Lombardini LGW 702 combustion engine that is necessary for these types of combustion gases. Before the experimental measurements, a simulation in the Lotus Engine simulation program was carried out to make a preliminary assessment of the impact on the performance of an internal combustion engine. The last section of the paper presents the experimental results of partial measurements of the performance and emission parameters of an internal combustion engine powered by alternative fuels.

  12. Calorific values and combustion chemistry of animal manure (United States)

    Combustion chemistry and calorific value analyses are the fundamental information for evaluating different biomass waste-to-energy conversion operations. Specific chemical exergy of manure and other biomass feedstock will provide a measure for the theoretically maximum attainable energy. The specifi...

  13. Numerical Simulations of Shock-Induced Mixing and Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J B; Day, M; Kuhl, A L


    In this paper we use numerical simulation to investigate shock-induced ignition and combustion of a hydrocarbon gas. The focus of this paper is on quantifying the effect of fidelity in the chemical kinetics on the overall solution. We model the system using the compressible Navier Stokes equations for a reacting mixture. These equations express conservation of species mass, momentum, total energy.

  14. Combustion reaction of Ti–Al–C–N system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The combustion reaction of Ti–Al–C–N system was investigated by using Ti powders and one CN precursor powder as reactant powder blends. The reactant powder blends ... Mu1 Baoyan Liang1. Materials and Chemical Engineering School, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007, Henan, P.R. China ...

  15. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste (United States)

    Christopher Barton; Donald Marx; Domy Adriano; Bon Jun Koo; Lee Newman; Stephen Czapka; John Blake


    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three...

  16. Photostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste (United States)

    Christopher Barton; Donald Marx; Domy Adriano; Bon Jun Koo; Lee Newman; Stephen Czapka; John Blake


    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three...

  17. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  18. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj


    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  19. Combustion Stratification for Naphtha from CI Combustion to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.


    This study demonstrates the combustion stratification from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC). Experiments are performed in an optical CI engine at a speed of 1200 rpm for diesel and naphtha (RON = 46). The motored pressure at TDC is maintained at 35 bar and fuelMEP is kept constant at 5.1 bar to account for the difference in fuel properties between naphtha and diesel. Single injection strategy is employed and the fuel is injected at a pressure of 800 bar. Photron FASTCAM SA4 that captures in-cylinder combustion at the rate of 10000 frames per second is employed. The captured high speed video is processed to study the combustion homogeneity based on an algorithm reported in previous studies. Starting from late fuel injection timings, combustion stratification is investigated by advancing the fuel injection timings. For late start of injection (SOI), a direct link between SOI and combustion phasing is noticed. At early SOI, combustion phasing depends on both intake air temperature and SOI. In order to match the combustion phasing (CA50) of diesel, the intake air temperature is increased to 90°C for naphtha. The combustion stratification from CI to PPC is also investigated for various level of dilution by displacing oxygen with nitrogen in the intake. The start of combustion (SOC) was delayed with the increase in dilution and to compensate for this, the intake air temperature is increased. The mixture homogeneity is enhanced for higher dilution due to longer ignition delay. The results show that high speed image is initially blue and then turned yellow, indicating soot formation and oxidation. The luminosity of combustion images decreases with early SOI and increased dilution. The images are processed to generate the level of stratification based on the image intensity. The level of stratification is same for diesel and naphtha at various SOI. When O concentration in the intake is decreased to 17.7% and 14


    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  1. Plasma igniter for internal-combustion engines (United States)

    Breshears, R. R.; Fitzgerald, D. J.


    Hot ionized gas (plasma) ignites air/fuel mixture in internal combustion engines more effectively than spark. Electromagnetic forces propel plasma into combustion zone. Combustion rate is not limited by flame-front speed.

  2. Combustion of Methane Hydrate (United States)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding

  3. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel


    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  4. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability (United States)

    Harrje, D. T.


    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  5. Advanced modeling of oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungen Yin


    The main goal of this small-scale project is to investigate oxy-combustion of natural gas (NG) through advanced modeling, in which radiation, chemistry and mixing will be reasonably resolved. 1) A state-of-the-art review was given regarding the latest R and D achievements and status of oxy-fuel technology. The modeling and simulation status and achievements in the field of oxy-fuel combustion were also summarized; 2) A computer code in standard c++, using the exponential wide band model (EWBM) to evaluate the emissivity and absorptivity of any gas mixture at any condition, was developed and validated in detail against data in literature. A new, complete, and accurate WSGGM, applicable to both air-fuel and oxy-fuel combustion modeling and applicable to both gray and non-gray calculation, was successfully derived, by using the validated EWBM code as the reference mode. The new WSGGM was implemented in CFD modeling of two different oxy-fuel furnaces, through which its great, unique advantages over the currently most widely used WSGGM were demonstrated. 3) Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed for oxy-NG flame and air-NG flame, in which dissociation effects were considered to different degrees. Remarkable differences in oxy-fuel and air-fuel combustion were revealed, and main intermediate species that play key roles in oxy-fuel flames were identified. Different combustion mechanisms are compared, e.g., the most widely used 2-step global mechanism, refined 4-step global mechanism, a global mechanism developed for oxy-fuel using detailed chemical kinetic modeling (CHEMKIN) as reference. 4) Over 15 CFD simulations were done for oxy-NG combustion, in which radiation, chemistry, mixing, turbulence-chemistry interactions, and so on were thoroughly investigated. Among all the simulations, RANS combined with 2-step and refined 4-step mechanism, RANS combined with CHEMKIN-based new global mechanism for oxy-fuel modeling, and LES combined with different combustion

  6. Combustion & Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLDRC) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Combustion and Laser Diagnostics Research Complex (CLRDC) supports the experimental and computational study of fundamental combustion phenomena to...

  7. Radiative heat transfer in turbulent combustion systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F


    This introduction reviews why combustion and radiation are important, as well as the technical challenges posed by radiation. Emphasis is on interactions among turbulence, chemistry and radiation (turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions – TCRI) in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations. Subsequent chapters cover: chemically reacting turbulent flows; radiation properties, Reynolds transport equation (RTE) solution methods, and TCRI; radiation effects in laminar flames; TCRI in turbulent flames; and high-pressure combustion systems. This Brief presents integrated approach that includes radiation at the outset, rather than as an afterthought. It stands as the most recent developments in physical modeling, numerical algorithms, and applications collected in one monograph.

  8. Pollutants generated by the combustion of solid biomass fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jenny M; Ma, Lin; Williams, Alan; Pourkashanian, Mohamed


    This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy.This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification.The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols

  9. Spying on spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The British Coal Technical Services and Research Executive (TSRE) has carried out a project to investigate potential applications of fibre optic based distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology within a mining environment. The objective was to determine whether DTS could identify and locate spontaneous combustion earlier than conventional systems. The trials took place in a British mine from April to September 1992 and from August to November 1993 using a commercially available system from York Sensors Ltd. Results indicate that DTS is capable of very sensitive temperature monitoring, revealing sub-degree thermal trends resulting from various activities and local heatings. DTS has several prospective mining applications, e.g. monitoring known hot spots, investigating ventilation and heat flow through mine workings. The trials show that the system can be installed, calibrated, operated and maintained by relatively inexperienced personnel. 1 photo.

  10. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos


    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  11. Application des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique aux combustions industrielles. Illustration par la fabrication du gaz de synthèse Application of Mechanistic Models of Chemical Kinetics to Industrial Combustion. Illustration by Synthetic Gas Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau P.


    Full Text Available En combustion, la formation d'espèces mineures clés, comme les polluants, peut être interprétée par des modèles mécanistiques de cinétique chimique. Les informations que fournissent ces modèles, même s'il ne s'agit que de tendances, sont suffisamment fiables pour définir des choix technologiques. Toutefois, compte-tenu de la complexité des phénomènes traités, leur emploi fait appel à une méthode indirecte décrite dans cet article et illustrée par la conception d'un réacteur autotherme destiné à la préparation d'un syngaz (gaz de synthèse. Dans l'exemple proposé comme application, l'objectif est de faire fonctionner à l'air un réacteur opérant actuellement à l'oxygène pur. Le modèle mécanistique choisi établit très clairement les contraintes imposées par ce choix. During the development of a partial combustion reactor for natural gas [1], Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has made use of a mechanistic model to determine the impact of operational parameters on the formation of soot. The model we chose deals with the oxidation and pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons by several hundred elementary reactions, some of which are shown in Table 1. All the species taken into consideration as well as their linking are shown in the flowchart in Fig. 3. Our data mainly came from References [2] and [8], from which we took all the reactions of species having three carbon atoms or less as well as the pyrolysis reactions of hydrocarbons with four carbon atoms. In this database, the kinetic coefficients of reactions between CH4 and the C2H5, C2H3 and C2H radicals were replaced by the values published in Reference [9]. This set of reactions is not sufficient to analyze the formation of soot, and so we added on the pyrolysis reactions of acetylene from Reference [10]. The model assimilated the total mass of carbon contained in C5 and C6 hydrocarbons with a soot number assumed to be proportional to the mass of soot formed by the

  12. Filtration combustion: Smoldering and SHS (United States)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.


    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of combustion waves propagating in porous media. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application may well differ. For example, smoldering generally occurs at a relatively low temperature and with a smaller propagation velocity than SHS filtration combustion waves. Nevertheless, the two areas of application have much in common, so that mechanisms learned about in one application can be used to advantage in the other. In this paper we discuss recent results in the areas of filtration combustion.

  13. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik


    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  14. Numerical Studies on Controlling Gaseous Fuel Combustion by Managing the Combustion Process of Diesel Pilot Dose in a Dual-Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Maciej


    Full Text Available Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.

  15. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.


    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  16. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail:; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering


    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI


    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  18. Microwave assisted combustion synthesis of non-equilibrium intermetallic compounds. (United States)

    Veronesi, Paolo; Rosa, Roberto; Colombini, Elena; Leonelli, Cristina; Poli, Giorgio; Casagrande, Angelo


    A simplified model of the microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of Ni and Al metal powders to form the NiAl intermetallic on titanium and steel substrates is presented. The simulation couples an electro-thermal model with a chemical model, accounting for local heat generation due to the highly exothermic nature of the reactions between the powders. Numerical results, validated by experimental values, show that the capability of microwaves to convey energy, and not heat, can be used to alter the temperature profiles during and after the combustion synthesis, leading to unique intermetallic microstructures. This phenomenon is ascribed to the extended existence of high temperature liquid intermetallic phases, which react with the metallic substrates at the interface. Moreover, microwave heating selectivity allows to maintain the bulk of the substrate metallic materials to a much lower temperature, compared to combustion synthesis in conventionally heated furnaces, thus reducing possible unwanted transformations like phase change or oxidation.

  19. Les méthodes thermiques de production des hydrocarbures. Chapitre 5 : Combustion "in situ". Pricipes et études de laboratoire Thermal Methods of Hydrocarbon Production. Chapter 5 : "In Situ" Combustion. Principles and Laboratory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger J.


    Full Text Available II existe plusieurs variantes de la combustion in situ, suivant le sens de déplacement du front de combustion, à co-courant ou à contre-courant, et suivant la nature des fluides injectés, air seul ou injection combinée d'air et d'eau. Les réactions de pyrolyse, d'oxydation et de combustion mises en jeu par ces techniques sont discutées, en particulier la cinétique des principaux mécanismes réactionnels, l'importance du dépôt de coke et l'exothermicité des réactions d'oxydation et de combustion. Les résultats d'essais de déplacement unidirectionnel du front de combustion dans des cellules de laboratoire sont présentés et discutés. Enfin on indique les conditions pratiques d'application des méthodes de combustion in situ sur champ. Possible variations of in situ combustion technique ore as follows : forward or reverse combustion depending on the relative directions of the air flow and the combustion front, dry combustion if air is the only fluid injected into the oil-bearing formation, or fixe/woter flooding if water is injected along with air. The chemical reactions of pyrolysis, oxidation and combustion involved in these processes are described. The kinetics of these reactions is discussed as well as fuel availability in forward combustion and the exothermicity of the oxidation and combustion reactions. The results obtained in the laboratory when a combustion front propagates in unidirectional adiabatic tells are described and discussed. This type of experimentation provides extensive information on the characteristics of the processes. Screening criteria for the practical application of in situ combustion techniques are presented.

  20. Combustion of Solid Propellants (La Combustion des Propergols Solides) (United States)


    poudres modificateurs balistiques, des noirs de A mouler de caract~ristiques volontairement carbone sont souvent incorpor~s car ils ont diffdrontes antilueurs (suppresseurs de la post noir de carbone eat souvent utilisd combustion). Ceux-ci, g~ndralement des sels industriellemont comae param...devient compressible at is vitesse de combustion Pour 6tablir un bilan sur le risque eat modifide. La figure 7 illustre cet d’appariticn d’instabilit~s

  1. Measures for a quality combustion (combustion chamber exit and downstream); Mesures pour une combustion de qualite (sortie de chambre de combustion et en aval)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epinat, G. [APAVE Lyonnaise, 69 (France)


    After a review of the different pollutants related to the various types of stationary and mobile combustion processes (stoichiometric, reducing and oxidizing combustion), measures and analyses than may be used to ensure the quality and efficiency of combustion processes are reviewed: opacimeters, UV analyzers, etc. The regulation and control equipment for combustion systems are then listed, according to the generator capacity level

  2. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.


    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  3. Chemical reactor and method for chemically converting a first material into a second material (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.


    A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

  4. Combustion Of Metals In Reduced Gravity And Extraterrestrial Environments (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; Modak, A.; Branch, M. C.


    The recent focus of this research project has been to model the combustion of isolated metal droplets and, in particular, to couple the existing theories and formulations of phenomena such as condensation, reaction kinetics, radiation, and surface reactions to formulate a more complete combustion model. A fully transient, one-dimensional (spherical symmetry) numerical model that uses detailed chemical kinetics, multi-component molecular transport mechanisms, condensation kinetics, and gas phase radiation heat transfer was developed. A coagulation model was used to simulate the particulate formation of MgO. The model was used to simulate the combustion of an Mg droplet in pure O2 and CO2. Methanol droplet combustion is considered as a test case for the solution method for both quasi-steady and fully transient simulations. Although some important processes unique to methanol combustion, such as water absorption at the surface, are not included in the model, the results are in sufficient agreement with the published data. Since the major part of the heat released in combustion of Mg, and in combustion of metals in general, is due to the condensation of the metal oxide, it is very important to capture the condensation processes correctly. Using the modified nucleation theory, an Arrhenius type rate expression is derived to calculate the condensation rate of MgO. This expression can be easily included in the CHEMKIN reaction mechanism format. Although very little property data is available for MgO, the condensation rate expression derived using the existing data is able to capture the condensation of MgO. An appropriate choice of the reference temperature to calculate the rate coefficients allows the model to correctly predict the subsequent heat release and hence the flame temperature.

  5. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars


    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  6. Active Control of Mixing and Combustion, from Mechanisms to Implementation (United States)

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.


    Implementation of active control in complex processes, of the type encountered in high Reynolds number mixing and combustion, is predicated upon the identification of the underlying mechanisms and the construction of reduced order models that capture their essential characteristics. The mechanisms of interest must be shown to be amenable to external actuations, allowing optimal control strategies to exploit the delicate interactions that lead to the desired outcome. Reduced order models are utilized in defining the form and requisite attributes of actuation, its relationship to the monitoring system and the relevant control algorithms embedded in a feedforward or a feedback loop. The talk will review recent work on active control of mixing in combustion devices in which strong shear zones concur with mixing, combustion stabilization and flame anchoring. The underlying mechanisms, e.g., stability of shear flows, formation/evolution of large vortical structures in separating and swirling flows, their mutual interactions with acoustic fields, flame fronts and chemical kinetics, etc., are discussed in light of their key roles in mixing, burning enhancement/suppression, and combustion instability. Subtle attributes of combustion mechanisms are used to suggest the requisite control strategies.

  7. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop (United States)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)


    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  8. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop (United States)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)


    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity (United States)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.


    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion (United States)

    Silver, Joel A.


    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  11. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan? (United States)


    ... pyrolysis/combustion unit is an integrated part of a plastics/rubber recycling unit as defined under... that combust fuels made from products of plastics/rubber recycling plants. Units are exempt from your... chemical plants or petroleum refineries that use feed stocks produced by plastics/rubber recycling units...

  12. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail


    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  13. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.


    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  14. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines (United States)

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.


    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower


    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  16. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun


    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  17. In-cylinder Combustion and Soot Evolution in the Transition from Conventional CI mode to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao


    The present study intends to explore the in-cylinder combustion and evolution of soot emission during the transition from conventional compression ignition (CI) combustion to partially premixed combustion (PPC) at low load conditions. In-cylinder combustion images and engine-out emissions were measured in an optical engine fueled with low octane heavy naphtha fuel (RON = 50). Full cycle engine simulations were performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code CONVERGETM, coupled with gas phase chemical kinetics, turbulence, and particulate size mimic soot model. The simulations were performed under low load conditions (IMEP ~ 2 to 3 bar) at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The start of injection (SOI) was advanced from late (-10 CAD aTDC) to early fuel injection timings (-40 CAD aTDC) to realize the combustion transition from CI combustion to PPC. The simulation results of combustion and emission are compared with the experimental results at both CI and PPC combustion modes. The results of the study show a typical low-temperature stratified lean combustion at PPC mode, while high-temperature spray-driven combustion is evident at CI mode. The in-cylinder small intermediates species such as acetylene (C2H2), propargyl (C3H3), cyclopentadienyl (C5H5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly suppressed at PPC mode. Nucleation reaction of PAHs collision contributed to main soot mass production. The distribution of soot mass and particle number density was consistent with the distribution of high-temperature zones at CI and PPC combustion modes.

  18. Using Alcohols as an Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ÖZER


    Full Text Available This study summarizes the studies on alcohol use in internal combustion engines nature. Nowadays, alcohol is used in internal combustion engines sometimes in order to reduce emissions and sometimes as an alternative fuel. Even vehicle manufacturers are producing and launching vehicles that are running directly with alcohol. Many types of pure alcohol that can be used on vehicles are available on the world. Using all of these types of alcohol led to the formation of engine emissions and power curves. The studies reveal that these changes are because of the physical and chemical characteristics of alcohols. Thıs study tries to explain what kind of conclusions the physical and chemical properties cause

  19. Fast and efficient combustion synthesis route to produce novel nanocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, Agnieszka; Huczko, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 1 Pasteura Street, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Dyjak, Slawomir [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)


    We report the preliminary results on simple one-step chemical synthesis of exfoliated graphite and other carbon-related nanostructures via a novel combustion synthesis route. We found previously that different solid carbonates could be decomposed to elements upon reducing in solid phase by using a strong reducers and the produced carbon vapors instantly condense towards 1-D nanocarbons. Here such combustion processing is extended towards the direct heterogeneous, efficient, and autothermic high-pressure reduction of gaseous carbon oxides (CO{sub 2} and CO) to elements using the following reducers: Li, Mg, Ca, B, Ti, Zr, and Al. The solid products (layered graphite and nanocarbides) were chemically purified and characterized using XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Toward the understanding of chemical absorption processes for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide: electronic and steric considerations from the kinetics of reactions of CO2(aq) with sterically hindered amines. (United States)

    Conway, William; Wang, Xiaoguang; Fernandes, Debra; Burns, Robert; Lawrance, Geoffrey; Puxty, Graeme; Maeder, Marcel


    The present study reports (a) the determination of both the kinetic rate constants and equilibrium constants for the reaction of CO(2)(aq) with sterically hindered amines and (b) an attempt to elucidate a fundamental chemical understanding of the relationship between the amine structure and chemical properties of the amine that are relevant for postcombustion capture of CO(2) (PCC) applications. The reactions of CO(2)(aq) with a series of linear and methyl substituted primary amines and alkanolamines have been investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR measurements at 25.0 °C. The specific mechanism of absorption for each of the amines, that is CO(2) hydration and/or carbamate formation, is examined and, based on the mechanism, the kinetic and equilibrium constants for the formation of carbamic acid/carbamates, including protonation constants of the carbamate, are reported for amines that follow this pathway. A Brønsted correlation relating the kinetic rate constants and equilibrium constants for the formation of carbamic acid/carbamates with the protonation constant of the amine is reported. Such a relationship facilitates an understanding of the effects of steric and electronic properties of the amine toward its reactivity with CO(2). Further, such relationships can be used to guide the design of new amines with improved properties relevant to PCC applications.

  1. Combustion-Assisted Photonic Annealing of Printable Graphene Inks via Exothermic Binders (Postprint) (United States)


    oligomers (viz., dimers, trimers, etc.), the distance dependence of SERS, the magnitude of the chemical enhancement mechanism , and the progress...thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, and chemical and environmental stability.5,6 Pristine graphene can be exfoliated from flake graphite... draws inspiration from literature precedent in the fields of thin film metal oxide electronics and ceramic synthesis. In this context, combustion

  2. Study of the particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and natural gas reburning


    Bertran,Celso A.; Marques,Carla S. T.


    In this work, a study of the particulate matter emitted from standard residual oil combustion and from natural gas reburning during oil combustion in a pilot scale furnace was carried out. The sizes, morphologies and chemical element distribution of particles were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy coupled to an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The microscopy results show three sorts of particles: spherical, very compact and smooth cenospheres with sizes of 0.6-1.5 mum; ...

  3. Formulation and analyses of vaporization and diffusion-controlled combustion of fuel sprays


    Arrieta Sanagustín, Jorge


    This dissertation focuses on the modelling of vaporization and combustion of sprays. A general two-continua formulation is given for the numerical computation of spray flows, including the treatment of the droplets as homogenized sources. Group combustion is considered, with the reaction between the fuel coming from the vaporizing droplets and the oxygen of the air modeled in the Burke-Schumann limit of infinitely fast chemical reaction, with nonunity Lewis numbers allowed for the different r...

  4. Journal of Nire, Vol. 4, No. 6, November 1995. Special issue: Novel development of combustion and heat-use technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    ;Table of Contents: Special Issue: Novel Development of Combustion and Heat-use Technologies: Review: Chemical Reactions Kinetics and Modeling; Original Papers: Fluidized Bed Catalytic Combustion-Measurement of Temperature Variations in a Bed; Effect of Char Particles on N2O Formation and Destruction in a Small Quartz CFBC; Combustion Characteristics of Biomass Waste (Superficial combustion characteristics of wood saw dust and tangerine peels); Direct Injection of Absorbents into a Pulverized Coal Combustion Furnace; A Method of Measuring Total Radiance Emmitted from High-Temperature Flames using a Thermopile Detector; Enhancement of Evaporative Heat Transfer in a Horizontal Tube Using Screen Mesh Wicks with Unique Configurations; Experimental Study of Heat pipe with Heat driven Pump; Calculation on Spectral Absorption Characteristics of High-Temperature Combustion Gasses; Study on the Resistance Wire Methods for Detonation Velocity and Observation of the Explosion for Explosive; Abstracts of Published Papers; Editorial.

  5. Effect of turbulence on NO formation in swirling combustion


    Wang Fang; Xie Xiang; Jiang Qi; Zhou Lixing


    Turbulence affects both combustion and NO formation. Fluctuation correlations are ideally used for quantitative analysis. From the instantaneous chemical reaction rate expression, ignoring the third-order correlation terms, the averaged reaction rate will have four terms, including the term of averaged-variable product, a concentration fluctuation correlation term, and temperature-concentration fluctuation correlation term. If the reaction-rate coefficient is denoted as K, the temperature flu...

  6. Physics and chemistry of plasma-assisted combustion


    Starikovskiy, Andrey


    There are several mechanisms that affect a gas when using discharge plasma to initiate combustion or to stabilize a flame. There are two thermal mechanisms—the homogeneous and inhomogeneous heating of the gas due to ‘hot’ atom thermalization and vibrational and electronic energy relaxation. The homogeneous heating causes the acceleration of the chemical reactions. The inhomogeneous heating generates flow perturbations, which promote increased turbulence and mixing. Non-thermal mechanisms incl...

  7. Combustion instability analysis for liquid propellant rocket engines (United States)

    Kim, Y. M.; Chen, C. P.; Ziebarth, J. P.


    The multi-dimensional numerical model has been developed to analyze the nonlinear combustion instabilities in liquid-fueled engines. The present pressure-based approach can handle the implicit pressure-velocity coupling in a non-iterative way. The additional scalar conservation equations for the chemical species, the energy, and the turbulent transport quantities can be handled by the same predictor-corrector sequences. This method is time-accurate and it can be applicable to the all-speed, transient, multi-phase, and reacting flows. Special emphasis is given to the acoustic/vaporization interaction which may act as the crucial rate-controlling mechanism in the liquid-fueled rocket engines. The subcritical vaporization is modeled to account for the effects of variable thermophysical properties, non-unitary Lewis number in the gas-film, the Stefan flow effect, and the effect of transient liquid heating. The test cases include the one-dimenisonal fast transient non-reacting and reacting flows, and the multi-dimensional combustion instabilities encountered in the liquid-fueled rocket thrust chamber. The present numerical model successfully demonstrated the capability to simulate the fast transient spray-combusting flows in terms of the limiting-cycle amplitude phenomena, correspondence between combustion and acoustics, and the steep-fronted wave and flame propagation. The investigated parameters include the spray initial conditions, air-fuel mixture ratios, and the engine geometry. Stable and unstable operating conditions are found for the liquid-fueled combustors. Under certain conditions, the limiting cycle behavior of the combusting flowfields is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the spray vaporization processes play an important role in releasing thermal energy and driving the combustion instability.

  8. Experimental Study of Liquid Fuel Spray Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree

    by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. Other supporters of the project have been MAN Diesel & Turbo A/S, DTU Mechanical Engineering, DTU Chemical Engineering, Sandia National Laboratories USA, Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus....... The continuing stringency of emission regulations for marine diesel engines forces a deeper understanding of the complex physical processes occurring inside the engine cylinder. A deeper understanding can lead to higher accuracy of predictive numerical models, thereby enabling evaluation of multiple engine...... the specific physical quantities needed in CFD validation of these types of flames. This work is a testament to that fact. The first part of this thesis is an extensive study of optical combustion diagnostics applied to complex transient sprayflames in a high temperature and pressure environment...

  9. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Miladin, E-mail:; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit


    Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of

  10. The effects of post combustion and post combustion gases in the electric arc furnace (United States)

    Eastep, Lisa Nicole

    In order to decrease energy consumption and increase scrap melting and productivity, post combustion (PC) technology is being implemented in several steelmaking processes, including bath smelting, the BOF and the EAF. In order to get the full benefit from this technology, the principles that govern it and the effects, both beneficial and adverse, must be determined. To this end, the CISR has been investigating two PC processes in the. EAF, the foamy slag approach and free space approach and the oxidation of scrap by post combustion gases. The free space approach, which is the subject of this work, consists of injectors blowing PC oxygen into the upper portion of the furnace. Air Liquide is developing an example of this system. Post Combustion consists of two sets of reactions: (1) the combustion of CO with oxygen and (2) the oxidation of scrap, liquid iron and C by the CO2 (the "de-post combustion" reactions). This project consists of two parts investigating both types of reactions. A computer simulation of a free space PC system is being developed and the kinetics of the oxidation of solid iron by CO 2 are being measured at high temperatures. Initial work included computer simulations of the process assuming a two-dimension geometry. These two dimension models were beneficial in gaining experience with the computer software package and provided some insights into the PC process. However, they could not adequately describe the conditions in the furnace. Therefore, a three-dimension model has been developed. Computer simulations including the post combustion reaction of CO and O2 combining to form CO2 and the de-post combustion reaction between CO2 and the carbon present in the bath have been conducted. It was found that the post combustion ratio (PCR) increased with increasing exhaust temperatures and with an increase in oxygen flow rate. Also, when the oxygen was injected at a lower flow rate with an angle, bands of temperature and composition results with the

  11. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition......The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...

  12. Combustion of droplets and sprays (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Christian; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Bäßler, Stefan; Mauss, Fabian; Meisl, Jürgen; Oomens, Bas; Rackwitz, Leif; Tait, Nigel; Angelberger, Christian; Eilts, Peter; Magnusson, Ingemar; Lauvergne, Romain; Tatschl, Reinhard


    The combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in internal combustion engines and gas turbines for energy production and aircraft propulsion is intrinsically tied to the formation of pollutants. Apart from aiming for the highest combustion efficiencies in order to lower the operational costs and the emission of CO2, the reduction of poisonous and environmentally harmful exhaust constituents is a challenging task for scientists and engineers. The most prominent pollutants are soot, identified to trigger respiratory diseases and cancer, and nitric oxides such as NO and NO2, which promote the formation of ozone affecting the cardiovascular system when released in the lower atmosphere. Soot and nitric oxides are greenhouse pollutants in the upper atmosphere. Even though only 2-3% of the anthropogenic emission of nitric oxides are contributed by aircraft, it is the only emission at high altitudes. Unfortunately, it has the greatest impact on climate there and it does not matter whether the fuels are fossil or, in the future, biomass.

  13. Novel Active Combustion Control Valve (United States)

    Caspermeyer, Matt


    This project presents an innovative solution for active combustion control. Relative to the state of the art, this concept provides frequency modulation (greater than 1,000 Hz) in combination with high-amplitude modulation (in excess of 30 percent flow) and can be adapted to a large range of fuel injector sizes. Existing valves often have low flow modulation strength. To achieve higher flow modulation requires excessively large valves or too much electrical power to be practical. This active combustion control valve (ACCV) has high-frequency and -amplitude modulation, consumes low electrical power, is closely coupled with the fuel injector for modulation strength, and is practical in size and weight. By mitigating combustion instabilities at higher frequencies than have been previously achieved (approximately 1,000 Hz), this new technology enables gas turbines to run at operating points that produce lower emissions and higher performance.

  14. Autodesk Combustion 4 fundamentals courseware

    CERN Document Server



    Whether this is your first experience with Combustion software or you're upgrading to take advantage of the many new features and tools, this guide will serve as your ultimate resource to this all-in-one professional compositing application. Much more than a point-and-click manual, this guide explains the principles behind the software, serving as an overview of the package and associated techniques. Written by certified Autodesk training specialists for motion graphic designers, animators, and visual effects artists, Combustion 4 Fundamentals Courseware provides expert advice for all skill le

  15. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate


    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden


    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  16. Application of the FIRST Combustion model to Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.


    Liquid fuel is of interest to apply to gas turbines. The large advantage is that liquids are easily storable as compared to gaseous fuels. Disadvantage is that liquid fuel has to be sprayed, vaporized and mixed with air. Combustion occurs at some stage of mixing and ignition. Depending on the

  17. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  18. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  19. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles


    Harris, William D.


    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  20. High Frequency Combustion Instabilities of LOx/CH4 Spray Flames in Rocket Engine Combustion Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliphorst, M.


    Ever since the early stages of space transportation in the 1940’s, and the related liquid propellant rocket engine development, combustion instability has been a major issue. High frequency combustion instability (HFCI) is the interaction between combustion and the acoustic field in the combustion

  1. Spectral optimization and uncertainty quantification in combustion modeling (United States)

    Sheen, David Allan

    Reliable simulations of reacting flow systems require a well-characterized, detailed chemical model as a foundation. Accuracy of such a model can be assured, in principle, by a multi-parameter optimization against a set of experimental data. However, the inherent uncertainties in the rate evaluations and experimental data leave a model still characterized by some finite kinetic rate parameter space. Without a careful analysis of how this uncertainty space propagates into the model's predictions, those predictions can at best be trusted only qualitatively. In this work, the Method of Uncertainty Minimization using Polynomial Chaos Expansions is proposed to quantify these uncertainties. In this method, the uncertainty in the rate parameters of the as-compiled model is quantified. Then, the model is subjected to a rigorous multi-parameter optimization, as well as a consistency-screening process. Lastly, the uncertainty of the optimized model is calculated using an inverse spectral optimization technique, and then propagated into a range of simulation conditions. An as-compiled, detailed H2/CO/C1-C4 kinetic model is combined with a set of ethylene combustion data to serve as an example. The idea that the hydrocarbon oxidation model should be understood and developed in a hierarchical fashion has been a major driving force in kinetics research for decades. How this hierarchical strategy works at a quantitative level, however, has never been addressed. In this work, we use ethylene and propane combustion as examples and explore the question of hierarchical model development quantitatively. The Method of Uncertainty Minimization using Polynomial Chaos Expansions is utilized to quantify the amount of information that a particular combustion experiment, and thereby each data set, contributes to the model. This knowledge is applied to explore the relationships among the combustion chemistry of hydrogen/carbon monoxide, ethylene, and larger alkanes. Frequently, new data will

  2. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN


    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  3. Vaporization and combustion of fuel droplets at supercritical conditions (United States)

    Yang, Vigor


    Vaporization and combustion liquid-fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments have been examined. The formulation is based on the complete conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates finite-rate chemical kinetics and a full treatment of liquid-vapor phase equilibrium at the droplet surface. The governing equations and the associated interface boundary conditions are solved numerically using a fully coupled, implicit scheme with the dual time-stepping integration technique. The model is capable of treating the entire droplet history, including the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state. As a specific example, the combustion of n-pentane fuel droplets in air is studied for pressures of 5-140 atm. In addition, the dynamic responses of droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient-pressure oscillations are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  4. Combustion synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline WO3. (United States)

    Morales, Walter; Cason, Michael; Aina, Olawunmi; de Tacconi, Norma R; Rajeshwar, Krishnan


    The energy payback time associated with the semiconductor active material is an important parameter in a photovoltaic solar cell device. Thus lowering the energy requirements for the semiconductor synthesis step or making it more energy-efficient is critical toward making the overall device economics more competitive relative to other nonpolluting energy options. In this communication, combustion synthesis is demonstrated to be a versatile and energy-efficient method for preparing inorganic oxide semiconductors such as tungsten trioxide (WO3) for photovoltaic or photocatalytic solar energy conversion. The energy efficiency of combustion synthesis accrues from the fact that high process temperatures are self-sustained by the exothermicity of the combustion process, and the only external thermal energy input needed is for dehydration of the fuel/oxidizer precursor mixture and bringing it to ignition. Importantly, we show that, in this approach, it is also possible to tune the optical characteristics of the oxide semiconductor (i.e., shift its response toward the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) in situ by doping the host semiconductor during the formative stage itself. As a bonus, the resultant material shows enhanced surface properties such as markedly improved organic dye uptake relative to benchmark samples obtained from commercial sources. Finally, this synthesis approach requires only very simple equipment, a feature that it shares with other "mild" inorganic semiconductor synthesis routes such as sol-gel chemistry, chemical bath deposition, and electrodeposition. The present study constitutes the first use of combustion synthesis for preparing WO3 powder comprising nanosized particles.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Meyer, K.E.


    Experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition have been obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. The reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate-fired boiler but un...... of more advanced chemical mechanisms did not improve the prediction of the overall combustion process but did provide additional information about species (especially H(2) and radicals), which is desirable for postprocessing pollutant formation.......Experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition have been obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. The reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate-fired boiler...... but under well-defined conditions. The experimental results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predictions, using the eddy dissipation model (EDM) its well as the eddy dissipation concept (EDC). The use of EDC allows for implementation of more advanced combustion schemes; we have...

  6. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  7. In vitro bioactivity of combustion products from 12 tobacco constituents. (United States)

    Préfontaine, David; Morin, André; Jumarie, Catherine; Porter, Andrew


    Twelve chemical components of tobacco leaf, representing 50% of its dry weight, were individually combusted and the bioactivities of their combustion products i.e. total particulate matter (TPM) were assayed using three in vitro tests. These components included carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, polyphenols and carboxylic acids. The mutagenic potencies were assessed with the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100). The induction of chromosomal damage, determined with the micronucleus test (IVMNT), and the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test (NRU), were conducted on V79 hamster lung fibroblast cells. The Salmonella mutagenicity test and IVMNT were conducted with and without rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. Salmonella mutagenicity data confirmed the mutagenicity of TPM samples obtained from nitrogenous compounds (amino acids and proteins). The IVMNT showed that precursors of phenols in smoke (i.e. polyphenols) exhibited significantly higher levels of toxicity compared to other tobacco components. While S9 activation amplified the Salmonella mutagenicity response to combustion products, it significantly inhibited the toxicity measured with the IVMNT. NRU data demonstrated the increasing cytotoxicity induced following longer exposure time to TPM samples from nitrogenous and phenolic components. This study is the first to characterize the toxicity of the combustion products of major tobacco constituents. Our data suggest different mechanisms of toxicity and underline the relevance of using various bioassays.

  8. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of 2-methylbutanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo


    2-Methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) is one of several next-generation biofuels that can be used as an alternative fuel or blending component for combustion engines. This paper presents new experimental data for 2-methylbutanol, including ignition delay times in a high-pressure shock tube and premixed laminar flame speeds in a constant volume combustion vessel. Shock tube ignition delay times were measured for 2-methylbutanol/air mixtures at three equivalence ratios, temperatures ranging from 750 to 1250. K, and at nominal pressures near 20 and 40. bar. Laminar flame speed data were obtained using the spherically propagating premixed flame configuration at pressures of 1, 2, and 5. bar. A detailed chemical kinetic model for 2-methylbutanol oxidation was developed including high- and low-temperature chemistry based on previous modeling studies on butanol and pentanol isomers. The proposed model was tested against new and existing experimental data at pressures of 1-40. atm, temperatures of 740-1636. K, equivalence ratios of 0.25-2.0. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were conducted for identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions, and to obtain better understanding of the combustion characteristics of larger alcohols.

  9. Straw combustion on slow-moving grates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen


    Combustion of straw in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively poor fuel burnout. A numerical grate combustion model was developed to assist in improving the combustion performance of these boilers. The model is based on a one-dimensional ‘‘walking...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4104 - Combustible waste. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 56.4104 Section 56.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 56.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including... properly, waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard shall...

  11. Laboratory Test of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (United States)


    700, Laboratory Tests of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines , dated 24 January 1985. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to...performance and endurance of reciprocating internal combustion engines . Test equipment includes engine dynamometers, precision fuel flow meters, oil...D-1 *This TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-700, Laboratory Tests of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines , dated 24

  12. Furnaces with multiple ?ameless combustion burners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danon, B.


    In this thesis three different combustion systems, equipped with either a single or multiple ?ameless combustion burner(s), are discussed. All these setups were investigated both experimentally and numerically, i.e., using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Flameless combustion is a

  13. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)


    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  14. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: 'Chemical and ecotoxicological studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, E. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France)]. E-mail:; Guilet, R. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique - LGC (UMR 5503), 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France)]. E-mail:; Cren, S. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Pereas, V. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France); Mouchet, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Gauthier, L. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)


    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10 000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3 g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10 000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  15. Sulfur Chemistry in Combustion II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Kiil, Søren


    Several options are available to control the emission of SO2 from combustion processes. One possibility is to use a cleaner technology, i.e. fuel switching from oil and coal to natural gas or biomass, or to desulphurize coal and oil. Another possibility is to change to a different technology...

  16. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tóth, J; Zsély, I


    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  17. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust (United States)


    ... may form combustible dust include, but are not limited to, wood, coal, plastics, biosolids, candy..., pharmaceutical manufacturing, tire manufacturing, production of rubber and plastics, plastics and rubber products manufacturing, recycling, wastewater treatment, and coal handling. OSHA is developing a standard that will...

  18. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  19. Combustion Characteristics of C5 Alcohols and a Skeletal Mechanism for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Sungwoo


    C5 alcohols are considered alternative fuels because they emit less greenhouse gases and fewer harmful pollutants. In this study, the combustion characteristics of 2-methylbutanol (2-methyl-1-butanol) and isopentanol (3-methyl-1-butanol) and their mixtures with primary reference fuels (PRFs) were studied using a detailed chemical kinetic model obtained from merging previously published mechanisms. Ignition delay times of the C5 alcohol/air mixtures were compared to PRFs at 20 and 40 atm. Reaction path analyses were conducted at intermediate and high temperatures to identify the most influential reactions controlling ignition of C5 alcohols. The direct relation graph with expert knowledge methodology was used to eliminate unimportant species and reactions in the detailed mechanism, and the resulting skeletal mechanism was tested at various homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine combustion conditions. These simulations were used to investigate the heat release characteristics of the methyl-substituted C5 alcohols, and the results show relatively strong reactions at intermediate temperatures prior to hot ignition. C5 alcohol blending in PRF75 in HCCI combustion leads to a significant decrease of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) and a delay of the main combustion. The heat release features demonstrated by C5 alcohols can be used to improve the design and operation of advanced engine technologies.

  20. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.


    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan