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Sample records for chemical weapons stockpile

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  4. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Underground nuclear testing of U.S. nuclear weapons was halted by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 when he announced a moratorium. In 1993, the moratorium was extended by President Bill Clinton and, in 1995, a program of Stockpile Stewardship was put in its place. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Twenty years have passed since then. Over the same time, the average age of a nuclear weapon in the stockpile has increased from 6 years (1992) to nearly 29 years (2015). At its inception, achievement of the objectives of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) appeared possible but very difficult. The cost to design and construct several large facilities for precision experimentation in hydrodynamics and high energy density physics was large. The practical steps needed to move from computational platforms of less than 100 Mflops/sec to 10 Teraflops/sec and beyond were unknown. Today, most of the required facilities for SSP are in place and computational speed has been increased by more than six orders of magnitude. These, and the physicists and engineers in the complex of labs and plants within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) who put them in place, have been the basis for underpinning an annual decision, made by the weapons lab directors for each of the past 20 years, that resort to underground nuclear testing is not needed for maintaining confidence in the safety and reliability of the U.S stockpile. A key part of that decision has been annual assessment of the physical changes in stockpiled weapons. These weapons, quite simply, are systems that invariably and unstoppably age in the internal weapon environment of radioactive materials and complex interfaces of highly dissimilar organic and inorganic materials. Without an ongoing program to rebuild some components and replace other components to increase safety or security, i.e., life extending these weapons, either underground testing would again be

  5. Identification of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention during an interlaboratory proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Reuver, L.P. de; Krimpen, S.H. van; Baar, B.L.M. van; Wils, E.R.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.Th

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the ability of laboratories to detect and identify chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and to designate laboratories for this task, the Technical Secretariat of the Organisa

  6. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  7. Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

    1987-10-01

    This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

  8. Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX ) and blister (mustard gas) agents , possibly weaponized into bombs, shells...largest in the world” during a June 2012 interview.16 Damascus possesses mustard blister agent , sarin nerve agent , and VX nerve agent , according to...chemical weapons stockpile. Syria also has several hundred metric tons of mustard agent in ready-to-use form and several tens of metric tons of VX . The

  9. Quality control of meteorological data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, J.C.; Tschopp, S.; Rogers, K.; Wasmer, F.; Liljegren, L.; Myirski, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

    2009-08-01

    The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Meteorological Support Project ensures the accuracy and reliability of data acquired by meteorological monitoring stations located at seven U.S. Army chemical weapons depots where storage and weapons destruction (demilitarization) activities are ongoing. The data are delivered in real time to U.S. Army plume dispersion models, which are used to plan for and respond to a potential accidental release of a chemical weapons agent. The project provides maintenance, calibration, and audit services for the instrumentation; collection, automated screening, visual inspection, and analysis of the data; and problem reporting and tracking to carefully control the data quality. The resulting high-quality meteorological data enhance emergency response modeling and public safety.

  10. Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others

    1995-02-01

    This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

  11. Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

  12. 20 Years of Success: Science, Technology, and the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-10-22

    On Oct. 22, 2015, NNSA celebrated the proven success of the Stockpile Stewardship Program at a half-day public event featuring remarks by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, Secretary of State John Kerry, and Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and NNSA Administrator Lt. Gen. (retired) Frank G. Klotz. The event also featured remarks by Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall and NNSA Principal Deputy Administrator Madelyn Creedon.

  13. Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

  14. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

  15. Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír

    2014-06-04

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  16. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  17. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  18. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  19. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  20. Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

    1994-10-21

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

  1. Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

    1999-11-05

    This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing

  2. The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

  3. Chemical Demilitarization Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    access machines , two (2) rocket cutting and shearing lines, two (2) neutralization system sampling stations, and three (3) Supercritical Water Oxidation...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-243 Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA) As...Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition-Related Operations and Maintenance ACAT - Acquisition Category ADM - Acquisition Decision

  4. Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

  5. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  6. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and..., 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of... Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has...

  7. The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for

  8. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  9. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  10. Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

    2014-09-01

    The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons.

  11. 48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  13. 15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The End-Use Certificate requirement...

  14. The Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the lessons learned from the chemical attacks that took place in 2013 in the Syrian military conflict, especially the sarin attacks on the Ghouta area of Damascus on August 21. Despite the limitations the UN Mission found while investigating the use of chemical weapons (CW in Syria, some interesting conclusions for the scientific and medical community can be obtained from its reports. These include the advantages of the Chemical Weapons Convention procedure for the investigation of alleged CW use, when compared with the United Nations mechanism for similar investigations, the difficulties of differential diagnosis based only on clinical signs and symptoms and the impact of secondary contamination when responding to a CW attack.

  15. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  16. Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Brian

    2011-03-01

    Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20 th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential

  17. A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.

    1990-08-01

    The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

  18. 28 CFR 552.25 - Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of chemical agents or non-lethal weapons. 552.25 Section 552.25 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... agents or non-lethal weapons. The Warden may authorize the use of chemical agents or non-lethal...

  19. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-03-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process.

  20. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  1. Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marvin L., E-mail: mladams@tamu.edu [Institute for National Security Education and Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

  2. Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marvin L.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

  3. Long Wave Infrared Detection of Chemical Weapons Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2007-04-27

    The purpose of Task 3.b under PL02-OP211I-PD07 (CBW simulant detection) was to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor work developed under this project for chemical and biological weapons detection. To this end, the specific goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of detection of chemical agents via that of simulants (Freons) with similar spectroscopic features. This has been achieved using Freon-125 as a simulant, a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), and a Herriott cell-based sensor developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) specifically for this task. The experimentally obtained spectrum of this simulant matches that found in the Northwest Infrared (NWIR) spectral library extremely well, demonstrating the ability of this technique to detect the exact shape of this feature, which in turn indicates the ability to recognize the simulant even in the presence of significant interference. It has also been demonstrated that the detected features of a typical interferent, namely water, are so different in shape and width to the simulant, that they are easily recognized and separated from such a measurement. Judging from the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the experimental data obtained, the noise equivalent absorption sensitivity is estimated to be 0.5 x 10-7 to 1 x 10-6 cm-1. For the particular feature of the simulant examined in this work, this corresponds to a relative concentration of 50 to 25 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv). The corresponding relative concentrations of other chemical targets would differ depending on the particular transition strengths, and would thus have to be scaled accordingly.

  4. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  5. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; HEISER,J.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

    2003-04-01

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east

  6. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  7. Diversion of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons Expertise from the Former Soviet Union: Understanding an Evolving Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical cases - Syria and Gen. Kuntsevich - Aum RAND 3. DEMAND FOR PROLIFERATION-CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE This section examines the scope and nature of...prominent example of demand for chemical weapons knowledge is Syria, where General Anatoly Kuntsevich , head of Russia’s chemical weapons program, built a

  8. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Paris Chemical Weapons Conference 7-11 January 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    further strengthening of the Geneva protocol and for the activation of negotiations on ban on and total liquida - tion of chemical weapons in such a...ministries, Yugoslav Assistant Foreign Secretary Kazi- mir Vidas and undersecretary of the Iraqi Foreign Min- istry Riyad al-Qaysi also discussed the

  10. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... These restrictions were imposed on July 9, 2002 (see Volume 67 FR Public Notice 4071). Dated: June 21... of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities. DATES: Effective Date: Upon publication in...

  11. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; Gregg, H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  12. Identification of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention using the novel sample-preparation methods and strategies of the Mobile Laboratory of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Terzic; H. Gregg; P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    The standard approach to on-site sample preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of chemicals relevant to the Chemical Weapons Convention provides relatively good coverage of the target analytes, but it suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as low sample throughput, use of bu

  13. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  14. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  15. U.S. Ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    safeguard trade secrets. Leading corpora- tions such as DuPont, Dow, and Monsanto also supported CWC ratification to improve the public image of the...represented large chemical companies such as Dow, DuPont, and Monsanto , was highly effective at contacting senators, putting out useful information, and

  16. An assessment of nondestructive testing technologies for chemical weapons monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.T.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), with the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) under the sponsorship of the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA), completed testing of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology on live agent systems. The tests were conducted at Tooele Army Depot during August 1992. The Nondestructive Evaluation systems were tested for potential use in verifying chemical treaty requirements. Five technologies, two neutron and three acoustic, were developed at DOE laboratories. Two systems from the United Kingdom (one neutron and one acoustic) were also included in the field trials. All systems tested showed the ability to distinguish among the VX, GB, and Mustard. Three of the systems (two acoustic and one neutron) were used by On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) personnel.

  17. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, P.; Ma, J. L.; Froment, D.; Jaureguy, J. C.

    1993-06-01

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time.

  18. Stockpile Management Program quarterly report. 2. quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this program is to ensure the safety and reliability of the enduring nuclear weapons stockpile by: (1) maintaining robust nuclear facilities that comprise the infrastructure needed to conduct the various laboratory programs; (2) maintaining capabilities and qualified personnel needed to successfully implement the Program and ensure availability of competencies; (3) meeting present and future production and surveillance requirements to support the enduring stockpile and other programmatic deliverables; and (4) capturing and maintaining expertise and competency in the processes and technologies required to build a complete physics package. Summaries of accomplishments are presented for approximately 30 projects managed under this program.

  19. Effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation trainings on physical and psychological well-being among chemical weapon victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical weapon victims are suffering from physical difficulties and psychological trainings may help to decrease these problems. The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation training on physical and psychological well-being in chemical weapon victims.Methods: An experimental, pre-post and follow-up study designed. Forty seven chemical weapon victims men with low mental health in Sardasht city (North-Western Iran randomly selected and assigned into three groups: 1-Mindfulness training group 2- Emotion regulation training group and 3- Control group. The first two groups were received mindfulness-based stress eduction training and emotion regulation training respectively, while no training provided for control group. Data was collected using the General Health Questionnaire, and Physical Syndromes Scale. Analysis of variance with repeated measure was used for analyzing the data.Results: Results indicated that mindfulness and emotion regulation were significantly improved physical syndromes and mental health in chemical weapon victims. Also, the effectiveness of mindfulness in follow-up scores of physical syndromes and in post-test and follow-up scores of mental health was higher than the base line scores (P<0.01. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed effectiveness of mindfulness and emotion regulation on improvement of physical syndromes and mental health in chemical weapon victims. Therefore, mindfulness and emotion regulation training could be suggested for improvement of physical and psychological well-being among chemical weapon victims.

  20. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    chloride and hydroxyl (strong nucleophile) dominated experimental solutions. Because of its overwhelming abundance in solution relative to hydroxyl ion, bicarbonate likely effectively competes in nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The addition of natural dissolved organic matter at 100 mg/L in pH 7 bicarbonate buffered solution slowed VX hydrolysis rates {approx}2 times relative to controls, suggesting hydrophobic interaction. Adsorption experiments derived isotherms from batch aqueous experiments on montmorillonite clay, iron-oxyhydroxide goethite, and on amorphous silica. VX had moderate affinity for montmorillonite and amorphous silica, and very low affinity toward goethite. The addition of dissolved organic matter into solution enhanced VX adsorption to goethite, consistent with its high affinity for hydrophobic organic matter (log K{sub oc} = 2.52). Diisopropylaminoethylthiol (DESH), a hydrolysis product of VX showed equivalent adsorption to montmorillonite, and poor affinity to goethite and silica. However, hydrolysis products O-Ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) strongly adsorbed on goethite, but not on montmorillonite or silica, suggesting a ligand-exchange mechanism. VX degraded rapidly when completely dried onto goethite followed by rehydration, consistent with an irreversible chemical adsorption mechanism.

  1. [Consequences learned from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War for the modern military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskikh, A N; Basharin, V A; Chepur, S V; Khalimov, Yu Sh; Markizova, N F

    2015-08-01

    The article describes the way medical service dealed with problems resulted from the use of chemical weapons during the First World War (1914-1918). It was revealed that many of the abovementioned problems remain unsolved up to the present moment. It is stated the existence of the threat of use of chemical weapons in modem military conflicts, which expands the area of responsibility for medical chemical protection. The authors proved necessity and algorithm of the training system, considered as a part of medical protection in case of adverse factors of chemical nature.

  2. Implementing the chemical weapons convention: The nuts and bolts of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper is a presentation prepared for the American Bar Association in which the author discusses the issue of rights to privacy in the United States in the face of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention inspections. The author points out that there are no clear precedents in law which deal with all the issues which will result from international inspections for verification which are required by the treaty. In particular as inspections tread on the issue of personal rights or private property there is a fairly ill defined legal area which needs to be developed to allow such inspections in the face of constitutional guarantees.

  3. Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, E

    1998-04-08

    This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Õs New Contained Firing Facility; The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 gÕs; A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests; High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy; Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB; JumpinÕ Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen; Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable; The Multibeam FabryÐPerot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurements of High Velocities; Theory and Modeling in Material Science; The Diamond Anvil Cell; Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometry; X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma

  4. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  5. Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David G.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess

  6. On-matrix derivatization extraction of chemical weapons convention relevant alcohols from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2013-10-11

    Present study deals with the on-matrix derivatization-extraction of aminoalcohols and thiodiglycols, which are important precursors and/or degradation products of VX analogues and vesicants class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). The method involved hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) mediated in situ silylation of analytes on the soil. Subsequent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of derivatized analytes offered better recoveries in comparison to the procedure recommended by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Various experimental conditions such as extraction solvent, reagent and catalyst amount, reaction time and temperature were optimized. Best recoveries of analytes ranging from 45% to 103% were obtained with DCM solvent containing 5%, v/v HMDS and 0.01%, w/v iodine as catalyst. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) with selected analytes ranged from 8 to 277 and 21 to 665ngmL(-1), respectively, in selected ion monitoring mode.

  7. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  8. Steps towards universality of the Chemical Weapons Convention: How can Africa contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.

    1999-11-02

    Universality is a fundamental principal of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It suffuses the fabric of the Convention, found not only in the very first ringing clauses of Article I, but also in the many technical details of its Annexes and Schedules. Consequently, universality is a topic on which commentary is appropriate from all quarters. The author offers his personal views as a lawyer on this important matter in the hope that, this distinguished audience may gain a perspective not available from practitioners of other professions. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US or of any other institution.

  9. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On August 2, 2013, a determination was made that the Government of Syria used... Notice 8460. That determination resulted in sanctions against the Government of Syria. Section 307(b)...

  10. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  11. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis`s total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer`s requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to {open_quotes}why have we adopted a science-based strategy{close_quotes} is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working.

  12. Accelerator Based Tools of Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Manhattan Project had to solve difficult challenges in physics and materials science. During the cold war a large nuclear stockpile was developed. In both cases, the approach was largely empirical. Today that stockpile must be certified without nuclear testing, a task that becomes more difficult as the stockpile ages. I will discuss the role of modern accelerator based experiments, such as x-ray radiography, proton radiography, neutron and nuclear physics experiments, in stockpile stewardship. These new tools provide data of exceptional sensitivity and are answering questions about the stockpile, improving our scientific understanding, and providing validation for the computer simulations that are relied upon to certify todays' stockpile.

  13. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many

  14. National Bases Constructed to Stockpile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC has recently started the preliminary work for construction of the large-scale oil stockpiling base in Yizheng City, Jiangsu Province. When the base is completed, it will be connected to CNPC's other oil stockpiling bases in Qinhuangdao and Huangdao, shaping the country's national oil stockpiling base at its preliminary stage.

  15. FY 2017 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan - Biennial Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    This year’s summary report updates the Fiscal Year 2016 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (FY 2016 SSMP), the 25-year strategic program of record that captures the plans developed across numerous NNSA programs and organizations to maintain and modernize the scientific tools, capabilities, and infrastructure necessary to ensure the success of NNSA’s nuclear weapons mission. The SSMP is a companion to the Prevent, Counter, and Respond: A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2017-2021) report, the planning document for NNSA’s nuclear threat reduction mission. New versions of both reports are published each year in response to new requirements and challenges. Much was accomplished in FY 2015 as part of the program of record described in this year’s SSMP. The science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program allowed the Secretaries of Energy and Defense to certify for the twentieth time that the stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for underground nuclear explosive testing. The talented scientists, engineers, and technicians at the three national security laboratories, the four nuclear weapons production plants, and the national security site are primarily responsible for this continued success. Research, development, test, and evaluation programs have advanced NNSA’s understanding of weapons physics, component aging, and material properties through first-of-a-kind shock physics experiments, along with numerous other critical experiments conducted throughout the nuclear security enterprise. The multiple life extension programs (LEPs) that are under way made progress toward their first production unit dates. The W76-1 LEP is past the halfway point in total production, and the B61-12 completed three development flight tests. Critical to this success is the budget. The Administration’s budget request for NNSA’s Weapons Activities has increased for all but one of the past seven years, resulting in a total increase of

  16. Using Direct Sub-Level Entity Access to Improve Nuclear Stockpile Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Y. Parker

    1999-08-01

    Direct sub-level entity access is a seldom-used technique in discrete-event simulation modeling that addresses the accessibility of sub-level entity information. The technique has significant advantages over more common, alternative modeling methods--especially where hierarchical entity structures are modeled. As such, direct sub-level entity access is often preferable in modeling nuclear stockpile, life-extension issues, an area to which it has not been previously applied. Current nuclear stockpile, life-extension models were demonstrated to benefit greatly from the advantages of direct sub-level entity access. In specific cases, the application of the technique resulted in models that were up to 10 times faster than functionally equivalent models where alternative techniques were applied. Furthermore, specific implementations of direct sub-level entity access were observed to be more flexible, efficient, functional, and scalable than corresponding implementations using common modeling techniques. Common modeling techniques (''unbatch/batch'' and ''attribute-copying'') proved inefficient and cumbersome in handling many nuclear stockpile modeling complexities, including multiple weapon sites, true defect analysis, and large numbers of weapon and subsystem types. While significant effort was required to enable direct sub-level entity access in the nuclear stockpile simulation models, the enhancements were worth the effort--resulting in more efficient, more capable, and more informative models that effectively addressed the complexities of the nuclear stockpile.

  17. Stockpile Dismantlement Database Training Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document, the Stockpile Dismantlement Database (SDDB) training materials is designed to familiarize the user with the SDDB windowing system and the data entry steps for Component Characterization for Disposition. The foundation of information required for every part is depicted by using numbered graphic and text steps. The individual entering data is lead step by step through generic and specific examples. These training materials are intended to be supplements to individual on-the-job training.

  18. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  19. Reality theory: A means to control the public`s fear of chemical weapons use. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, B.E.

    1997-04-01

    On 20 March 1995 terrorists released the chemical nerve agent sarin into the Tokyo subway system, killing 10 commuters and changing the public`s attitude about the most basic aspect of their lives: the air they breathe and the daily ritual of their commute to work. This is the new threat the United States must face: terrorism and its attack on the will of the people forcing governments to yield to the terrorists` position. Yet there is a different public response in warfare compared with a peacetime terrorist attack. This paper examines the psychological response of people in wartime and applies this description to chemical weapons use in war and in peace. The public`s response can be predicted if one uses reality theory, a concept leaders can use to mitigate responses that would prevent the execution of national strategy.

  20. Methodology for Long-Term Permeation Test Periods for HD in High-Density Polyethylene: Universal Munitions Storage Container for the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    new capability in permeation cup testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Distilled mustard (HD) Container Thickness effect Chemical warfare agent (CWA) Fick’s...storage room. The CWA concentration that is hazardous as a vapor leak can be quite low for eye injury and respiratory effects . The ASTM criterion...the other hand, there was considerable lag time, which is similar to a typical permeation curve. Inspecting the plot in Figure 23 reveals that the

  1. Of owl or ostrich. The U.S. policy of calculated ambiguity to deter the use of chemical and biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakamp, M.A.

    1998-12-01

    The United States has adopted a policy of calculated ambiguity regarding the role of nuclear weapons in response to a potential chemical or biological weapons (CBW) attack. Many factors affect decisions about the role nuclear weapons play in US counterproliferation strategy. This thesis describes the policy of calculated ambiguity and offers some observations about its prospects and pitfalls. The thesis presents evidence that suggests nuclear weapons could play a positive role in the US counterproliferation strategy, at least in some circumstances. It also explains how such a role could conflict with the US nonproliferation strategy. Such a role would also violate the nuclear taboo and be seen by a majority of countries as illegal and immoral. The United States has chosen a policy of calculated ambiguity in an attempt to retain the deterrent value of nuclear weapons without paying the political, legal, and moral costs of explicit reliance on nuclear weapons to deter the use of CBW. This may have short-term benefits, but ultimately may damage the national interest.

  2. Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David

    2010-01-01

    Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Concerned about the risks these chemicals pose to nearby residents, public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites. However, there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce, so decision makers need to set priorities. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a new methodology that develops a cleanup priority index for 1915 metric tons of obsolete pesticide formulations at 197 stockpile sites in Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. What emerges from the Tunisia results is a strategy for sequentially addressing all 197 sites to rapidly reduce potential health damage in a cost-effective way.

  3. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  4. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  5. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  6. FY 2016 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  7. FY 2015 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  8. 76 FR 76935 - Impact of Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... the synthesis of other chemicals. In this regard, note that the CWC, CWCIA, and CWCR have the... whenever ``Schedule 1'' chemicals (e.g., nitrogen mustards) are produced as intermediates in the synthesis... captive use situation), consumed, transferred, or stored in the United States. Note that, if the CWC...

  9. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  10. GC-MS Study of Mono- and Bishaloethylphosphonates Related to Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Discovery of a New Intramolecular Halogen Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazas-Márquez, Nerea; Sierra, María; Nova, Clara; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Aboitiz, Nuria; de Rivas, Gema; Sierra, Miguel A.; Martínez-Álvarez, Roberto; Gómez-Caballero, Esther

    2016-09-01

    A new class of compounds, mono- and bis-haloethylphosphonates (HAPs and bisHAPs, respectively), listed in Schedule 2.B.04 of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), has been synthesized and studied by GC-MS with two aims. First, to improve the identification of this type of chemicals by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, (OPCW). Second, to study the synergistic effect of halogen and silicon atoms in molecules undergoing mass spectrometry. Fragmentation patterns of trimethylsilyl derivatives of HAPs were found to depend on the nature of the halogen atom; this was in agreement with DFT-calculations. The data suggest that a novel intramolecular halogen transfer takes place during the fragmentation process.

  11. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  12. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  13. The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

  14. Cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals at a former nuclear weapons plant: piloting of an exposure surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W; Ruttenber, A J

    2001-02-01

    Cleanup of former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facilities involves potential exposures to various hazardous chemicals. We have collaboratively developed and piloted an exposure database and surveillance system for cleanup worker hazardous chemical exposure data with a cleanup contractor at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A unique system feature is the incorporation of a 34-category work task-coding scheme. This report presents an overview of the data captured by this system during development and piloting from March 1995 through August 1998. All air samples collected were entered into the system. Of the 859 breathing zone samples collected, 103 unique employees and 39 unique compounds were represented. Breathing zone exposure levels were usually low (86% of breathing zone samples were below analytical limits of detection). The use of respirators and other exposure controls was high (87 and 88%, respectively). Occasional high-level excursions did occur. Detailed quantitative summaries are provided for the six most monitored compounds: asbestos, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chromium, lead, and methylene chloride. Task and job title data were successfully collected for most samples, and showed specific cleanup activities by pipe fitters to be the most commonly represented in the database. Importantly, these results demonstrate the feasibility of the implementation of integrated exposure database and surveillance systems by practicing industrial hygienists employed in industry as well as the preventive potential and research uses of such systems. This exposure database and surveillance system--the central features of which are applicable in any industrial work setting--has enabled one of the first systematic quantitative characterizations of DOE cleanup worker exposures to hazardous chemicals.

  15. Strengthening the biological weapons convention and implications on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabriskie, D

    1998-06-01

    The development, production, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons are banned by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Reflecting the realities of the Cold War era in which it was negotiated, the BWC lacks means for compliance verification or enforcement. International efforts to remedy this deficiency are accelerating in the face of evidence that covert biological weapon programs are proliferating at the national and subnational levels.

  16. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  17. Iron and its complexation by phenolic cellular metabolites: from oxidative stress to chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a transition metal that forms chelates and complexes with various organic compounds, also with phenolic plant secondary metabolites. The ligands of iron affect the redox potential of iron. Electrons may be transferred either to hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide or molecular oxygen. In the first case, oxidative stress is decreased, in the latter two cases, oxidative stress is increased. This milieu-dependent mode of action may explain the non-linear mode of action of juglone and other secondary metabolites. Attention to this phenomenon may help to explain idiosyncratic and often nonlinear effects that result in biological assays. Current chemical assays are discussed that help to explore these aspects of redox chemistry.

  18. [Biological weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  19. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  20. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  1. Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

  2. Crude Oil Stockpiling Needed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The two oil crises in the 1970's had badly disturbed the economy and the way of life of those oil importing countries, which began to realize the importance of oil stockpiling. With the rapid development of economy, China could no longer satisfy itself soly with the domesticallyproduced oil.

  3. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  4. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  5. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals.

  6. China to Establish Strategic Oil Stockpile Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the reports from China's State Development and Reform Committee, a new department of the State Council recently put into operation, the relevant departments have located a number of places as the country's strategic oil stockpile bases, such as Zhoushan and Zhenghai in Zhejiang Province, Huangdao in Shandong Province and Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. However, the plan still needs to be examined and approved by the State Council.

  7. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material

  8. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  9. The use of neutron scattering in nuclear weapons research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzaitis, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We had a weapons science breakout session last week. Although it would have been better to hold it closer in time to this workshop, I think that it was very valuable. it may have been less of a {open_quotes}short-sleeve{close_quotes} workshop environment than we would have liked, but as the first time two communities-the weapons community and the neutron scattering community- got together, it was a wonderful opportunity to transfer information during the 24 presentations that were made. This report contains discussions on the fundamental analysis of documentation of the enduring stockpile; LANSCE`s contribution to weapons; spallation is critical to understanding; weapons safety assessments; applied nuclear physics requires cross section information; fission models need refinement; and establishing teams on collaborative projects.

  10. University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

    2007-12-13

    The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

  11. The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in

  12. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, Arvinda K; Palit, Meehir; Shakya, Purushottam; Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Sekhar, K; Dubey, Devendra K

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometric (GC/EI-MS) analysis of methyl esters of N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-sulfonic acids (DAESAs). These sulfonic acids are important environmental signatures of nerve agent VX and its toxic analogues, hence GC/EI-MS analysis of their methyl esters is of paramount importance for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. DAESAs were prepared by condensation of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid with dialkylamines, and by condensation of dialkylaminoethyl chloride with sodium bisulfite. GC/EI-MS analysis of methyl esters of DAESAs yielded mass spectra; based on these spectra, generalized fragmentation routes are proposed that rationalize most of the characteristic ions.

  13. Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.

    1999-01-18

    The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

  14. Science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Let me tell you a little about the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and how some of the examples you heard about from Sig Hecker and John Immele fit together in this view of a different world in the future where defense, basic and industrial research overlap. I am going to talk about science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE; the accelerator production of tritium (APT), which I think has a real bearing on the neutron road map; the world-class neutron science user facility, for which I will provide some examples so you can see the connection with defense science; and lastly, testing concepts for a high-power spallation neutron target and waste transmutation.

  15. The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Dany; Wolfson, Ze'ev

    2004-01-01

    The legacy and arsenal of biological weapons Russia inherited from USSR in 1991 became a lingering unsolved issue, in terms of a prime strategic arm that ought to be eliminated, advisably, in accordance with the Biological Weapons Convention Russia is committed to, and considering further undertakings and declarations made by the Russian regime. Indeed, that inheritance was created by USSR as a powerful, highly sophisticated component of utmost importance within the Soviet military paradigm, based on a wide spectrum of virulent, stabilized pathogens and toxins plus delivery systems. Moreover, remarkably advanced biotechnologies were thus applied to procure stockpiles of military-grade pathogens and toxins. Yet, an intriguing debate aroused with regard to the extent of the weaponized biological inventory accumulated by USSR, as well as the in effect attitude of Russia towards perpetuating or wiping out that inheritance. It turned out to form a far reaching and challenging complexity, both strategically and scientifically. The present study concentrates on the strategic as well as scientific spheres shaping that overall issue at large, attempting to thoroughly analyze it through an innovative methodology. One main conclusion thereby reached at is that the Russian military still poses a potential menance, in terms of both stockpiled, probably deployable biological weapons, and prevailing production capacities.

  16. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  17. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  18. FY 2014 - Stockpile and Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  19. North Korea’s Military Threat: Pyongyang’s Conventional Forces, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and Ballistic Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    eternalize their rule. They have a large stockpile and we are to be forbidden even to think about the manufacture of nuclear weapons.321 Any modest...Chinhae.” Additionally, in light with South Korea’s Sunshine Policy (overtures that past ROK President Kim Dae Jung made to North Korea), officially

  20. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  1. Non-Proliferation Regimes: A Comparative Analysis of Policies to Control the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons and Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco ), entered into force April 22, 1968 The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in...and the Treaty of Tlatelolco may contribute to future regime-building efforts. 5) Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines (NSG): The Zangger Committee and the

  2. The Department of Defense Commitment to the Destruction and Remediation of Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel: Can Present Policy and Approaches Effectively Meet the Challenges to Eliminate the Threat to the Public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Material. Current projections are that 42 states are impacted by the possible presence of RCWM...the Army. LUCs can impact property values and flexibility for various uses, many communities want remedies that require no restrictions on land use...Huntsville, Al: Headquarters 4 th District USACOE, January 2002. Department of the Army, Army Environmental Command. Army Enviromental Cleanup

  3. Toward Armageddon: The proliferation of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East. Occasional Paper No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    The author concludes that it is probable that unconventional weapons and their associated delivery systems will form a permanent part of future political and strategic calculations in the Middle East. Some possible consequences of this situation can be divided into three classes: intra-regional, inter-regional and extra-regional. There is no doubt that Israel, driven by the need for security,precipitated the proliferation of unconventional weapons and of surface-to-surface missiles in the Middle East. It will now be driven to secure itself from the new threat to its security posed by its regional opponents. The most significant extra-regional consequence of developments in the Middle East may be further complication of great power arms control negotiations. To the re-discovery by the United States and the Soviet Union of their obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty to reduce the level of their nuclear weapons must now be added the desire to reduce, if not entirely eliminate, their chemical weapons stockpiles in advance of a global ban. It is possible that lesser powers will learn from the evidence of the great powers behavior, although that contradicts much of what we know of the psychology of decision making in international politics. What is necessary, though not necessarily sufficient, is that the U.S. and the USSR as the two external powers with potentially the greatest leverage, work together toward the resolution of the underlying causes of conflict in a region marked by more than a generation of competition between them.

  4. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  6. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  7. 77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons... economy of the United States posed by the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the...

  8. Fragmentation energy index for universalization of fragmentation energy in ion trap mass spectrometers for the analysis of chemical weapon convention related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Meehir; Mallard, Gary

    2009-04-01

    The use of mass spectra generated at 70 eV in electron ionization (EI) as a universal standard for EI has helped in the generation of searchable library databases and had a profound influence on the analytical applications of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), similarly for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), suggesting a novel method to normalize the collisional energy for the universalization of fragmentation energy for the analysis of Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC)-related chemicals by atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS(n)) using three-dimensional (3D) ion trap instruments. For normalizing fragmentation energy a "fragmentation energy index" (FEI) is proposed which is an arbitrary scale based on the fact of specific MS/MS fragmentation obtained at different collisional energies for the reference chemicals which are not CWC scheduled compounds. FEI 6 for the generation of an MS(n) library-searchable mass spectral database is recommended.

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  11. History of Laser Weapon Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    surgery/medicine, hair re- moval, presentation pointers, law enforcement, ranging and sighting devices, welding applications, and much more. Using...other laser technology develop- ments. The first chemical laser, hydrogen fluoride ( HF ), was built in 1965, producing 1 kW. It was then that DoD became...energy laser (HEL) weapons. In industry, the more powerful CO2 lasers are used for weld - ing, drilling, and cutting. There are many different types

  12. Profitability of price promotions if stockpilling increases consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Teunter (Linda); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPrice promotions induce consumers to purchase higher-than-usual quantities, resulting in higher stocks that lead to increased consumption. We show for a stylized model with a single shop and a single loyal customer that because of this stockpiling effect, promotions can be profitable eve

  13. CNPC Uses Stockpiles to Avert Natural Gas Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), the country's largest oil and gas producer, has used gas from its stockpiles to meet the rising demand for winter energy.The company recently took 13.7 million cubic meters of gas from its Dagang storage facility in Tianjin because of extra demand for heating in Beijing and Tianjin.

  14. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  15. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil and... permit area where they will not be disturbed or be subject to excessive erosion. If left in place for... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12...

  16. Effects of alternative oil stockpiling programs on the U. S. economy, 1976--1979. Final results. [Effects of 730-/and 4380-million barrel stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Behling, D.J. Jr.

    1976-06-01

    Application of Brookhaven's Energy Input-Output Model is demonstrated by analyzing economy-wide effects of an Oil Stockpile Program. The model is used to estimate the 1976-79 inter-industry output, employment, capital, and energy substitution effects of 730- and 4380-barrel stockpiles. Two policy variables--the type of stockpile facility and the method of financing--and one assumption--balance of payments effects--are examined.

  17. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  18. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-03

    William Potter , and Nikolai Sokov, Reducing and Regulating Tactical (Nonstrategic) Nuclear Weapons in Europe, The James Martin Center For...See William C. Potter and Nikolai Sokov, “Nuclear Weapons that People Forget,” International Herald Tribune, May 31, 2000. 87 Sam Nunn, Igor...their security.97 94 Kent Harris , “NATO Allies Want U.S. Nuclear Weapons out of Europe

  19. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  20. 78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by... proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998, the President issued Executive Order 13094 amending...

  1. Behavior of South Yakutsk coals during prolonged stockpiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkulin, I.Ya.; Gebler, I.I.; Tager, A.N.; Panteleev, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    When brought to the surface, coal starts to react with atmospheric oxygen, leading to irreversible structural changes in the coal substance and a gradual change in every property. Above all, oxidation causes a deterioration in caking capacity and coking properties, which largely determine the technological value of coals as a raw material for the production of metallurgical coke. These problems are very acute for the South Yakutsk coalfield, which holds major reserves of high-grade coking coals and is starting to be developed in certain areas such as Neryungrinsk. Limiting stockpiling periods have been established on the basis of special research and practical experience for various types of coals from the well-known USSR coalfields (Donbas, Kuzbas, Karaganda), but no such information is available on South Yakutsk coals apart from some references to their unusually high oxidation resistance. Coals can oxidize at various rates after their extraction, depending on many factors including rank, petrographic constitution, degree of comminution during mining and conditions at the stockpile (temperature, humidity, etc.). During stockpiling, the smaller coal particles oxidize more rapidly than the larger, by reason of their greater specific surface area; hence, the caking capacity of the fines (<1 mm) from a homogeneous vitrinite coal is always below that of the lump coals.As the ambient temperature and humidity of the stockpile are raised, oxidation proceeds more rapidly. It is greatly inhibited at subzero temperatures. As a result of experiments, it was found that: (1) coals in the South Yakutsk coalfield are exceptionally resistant to oxidation; (2) it is possible to establish substantial reserves in the stockyards of coal cleaning and processing undertakings; and (3) samples of South Yakutsk coals remain representative (for normal standard analytical and testing purposes) over a storage period up to 1 year.

  2. Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

  3. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  4. Review of Radioisotopes as Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    radiation for the pur- pose of weapons use I-131 8.04 d 4590 β and  0.2 43573E-05 Nuclear fusion prod- uct/medical Solid/salt Cs-137 30.17 y 3.22 β...Requirements Office (JRO) for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Defense (J-8/JRO) and the US Army Office of The Surgeon General...D)], radiation dispersal devices (RDD), and improvised nuclear devices (IND), as well as conventional nuclear weapons.”1 To accomplish this task

  5. Operational research in weapon system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Varma

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper is divided into three parts: (a The first part deals with what operational research is. (bThe second part gives what we mean by Weapon Systems and discusses considerations that determine the choice of a particular weapon system from a class weapon systems. (cThe third part deals with some aspects of weapon replacement policy.The effectiveness of a weapon system is defined as E=D/C where E is weapon effectiveness (a comparative figure of merit; D is total damage inflicted or prevented and C is total cost, D and C being reduced to common dimensions. During the course of investigations, criteria regarding to choice of weapon or weapons from a set of weapon systems are established through production function and military effect curves. A procedure is described which maximizes the expectation of military utility in order to select a weapon system from the class of weapon systems. This is done under the following simplifying assumptions: (a Non- decreasing utility function; (b Constant average cost for each kind of weapons; and (c Independence of the performance of each unit of weapon. Some of the difficulties which arises when any of these restrictions is relaxed are briefly mentioned. Finally, the policy of weapon replacement and the factors governing the same are described."

  6. Modeling the filtration ability of stockpiled filtering facepiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Dana R.

    2016-03-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are often stockpiled for use during public health emergencies such as an infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. While many stockpile administrators are aware of shelf life limitations, environmental conditions can lead to premature degradation. Filtration performance of a set of FFR retrieved from a storage room with failed environmental controls was measured. Though within the expected shelf life, the filtration ability of several respirators was degraded, allowing twice the penetration of fresh samples. The traditional picture of small particle capture by fibrous filter media qualitatively separates the effect of inertial impaction, interception from the streamline, diffusion, settling, and electrostatic attraction. Most of these mechanisms depend upon stable conformational properties. However, common FFR rely on electrets to achieve their high performance, and over time heat and humidity can cause the electrostatic media to degrade. An extension of the Langevin model with correlations to classical filtration concepts will be presented. The new computational model will be used to predict the change in filter effectiveness as the filter media changes with time.

  7. Wounds and weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Dootz, B. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: X-ray findings are described, which are typical for injuries due to conventional weapons. It is intended to demonstrate that radiographs can show findings characteristic for weapons. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected in Vietnam, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Chad, Iran, Afghanistan, USA, Great Britain, France, Israel, Palestine, and Germany. Results: Radiograms of injuries due to hand grenades show their content (globes) and cover fragments. The globes are localized regionally in the victim's body. Survivors of cluster bombs show singular or few globes; having been hit by many globes would have been lethal. Shotguns produce characteristic distributions of the pallets and depth of penetration different from those of hand grenades and cluster bombs; cover fragments are lacking. Gunshot wounds (GSW) can be differentiated in those to low velocity bullets, high velocity projectiles, and projectiles, which disintegrate on impact. The radiogram furnishes the information about a dangerous shock and helps to recognize the weapon. Radiograms of victims of explosion show fragments and injuries due to the blast, information valid for therapy planning and prognosis. The radiogram shows details which can be used in therapy, forensic medicine and in war propaganda - examples could be findings typical for cluster bombs and for dumdum bullets; it shows the cruelty of the employment of weapons against humans and the conflict between the goal of medical care and those of military actions. Conclusion: Radiographs may show, which weapon has been employed; they can be read as war reports.

  8. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  9. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  10. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  11. Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

    2007-05-02

    This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

  12. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Calogero, F

    1981-01-01

    Information speech given by Prof. Calogero from the university of Roma to describe the actual situation of nuclear weapons in Europe, the strategical reasons or justifications for this deployment, the prospects of negociations, and what scientists could do and do on this issue.

  13. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  14. Neutrino Counter Nuclear Weapon

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Radiations produced by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole can be used to heat up the primary stage of a thermonuclear warhead and can in principle detonate the device remotely. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation can also be used as a tactical assault weapon to target hideouts that are unreachable by conventional means.

  15. Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Anna

    2004-10-01

    A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution in the event of a terrorist domestic nuclear attack. In the case of nuclear non-proliferation a number of new schemes are being considered by the IAEA to address the ever greater needs, including neutrino monitoring of the plutonium content of reactors. For all of these problems detailed nuclear theory is required. In this talk I discuss the theoretical physics needs for the type of problems of overlapping interest to astrophysics and national security.

  16. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease.

  17. ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of thermonuclear-fusion energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of "points" highlighting the strategic-political and military-technical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and fo...

  18. NON-LETHAL WEAPONS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal weapons, also called less-lethal weapons, less-than lethal weapons, non-deadly weapons, compliance weapons, or pain-inducing weapons are weapons intended to be less likely to kill a living target than conventional weapons. It is often understood that accidental, incidental, and correlative casualties are risked wherever force is applied, but non-lethal weapons try to minimise the risk as much as possible. Non-lethal weapons are used in combat situations to limit the escalation of c...

  19. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  20. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Command and Control Support System, which “enables robust Command and Control capability of all strategic assets with round the clock situational...Building Confidence in Pakistan’s Nuclear Security,” Arms Control Today, December 2007; Robin Walker, “Pakistan’s Evolution as a Nuclear Weapons State: Lt...that understands the importance and the high priority that the world places on nuclear security. 136 Ambassador Olson told the House Foreign

  1. Illegal Weapons Exports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  2. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    an occurrence. In his book, Atomic Tragedy, Sean Malloy writes that Henry Stimson, the United States Secretary of War, warned in April, 1945 that...Ibid., 380. 41 Ibid. 42 Sean L. Malloy , Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to use the Bomb Against Japan (Ithaca, New York...Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East, 96-97. 45 Robert M. Gates, National Defense Strategy (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  3. Computer controlled measurement of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles of the Western Lignite Corporation, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous combustion event in coal stockpiles is inevitable when appropriate environmental conditions are available.The objective of a computerized measurement system is to measure temperature changes existing in a coal stockpile.In order to achieve this intention, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 20 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analogue-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filterization and upgrading processes and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided.Afterwards, the diagrams of these time-temperature data are plotted.With the help of these graphs, the competent company will be able to examine the behavior of coal stockpiles in terms of spontaneous combustion and take necessary precautions against self-combustion beforehand.

  4. Enhanced detectability of fluorinated derivatives of N,N-dialkylamino alcohols and precursors of nitrogen mustards by gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis for verification of chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Prabhat; Purohit, Ajay; Tak, Vijay K; Dubey, D K

    2009-11-06

    N,N-Dialkylamino alcohols, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine and triethanolamine are the precursors of VX type nerve agents and three different nitrogen mustards respectively. Their detection and identification is of paramount importance for verification analysis of chemical weapons convention. GC-FTIR is used as complimentary technique to GC-MS analysis for identification of these analytes. One constraint of GC-FTIR, its low sensitivity, was overcome by converting the analytes to their fluorinated derivatives. Owing to high absorptivity in IR region, these derivatives facilitated their detection by GC-FTIR analysis. Derivatizing reagents having trimethylsilyl, trifluoroacyl and heptafluorobutyryl groups on imidazole moiety were screened. Derivatives formed there were analyzed by GC-FTIR quantitatively. Of these reagents studied, heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) produced the greatest increase in sensitivity by GC-FTIR detection. 60-125 folds of sensitivity enhancement were observed for the analytes by HFBI derivatization. Absorbance due to various functional groups responsible for enhanced sensitivity were compared by determining their corresponding relative molar extinction coefficients ( [Formula: see text] ) considering uniform optical path length. The RSDs for intraday repeatability and interday reproducibility for various derivatives were 0.2-1.1% and 0.3-1.8%. Limit of detection (LOD) was achieved up to 10-15ng and applicability of the method was tested with unknown samples obtained in international proficiency tests.

  5. Hedge math: Theoretical limits on minimum stockpile size across nuclear hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Jarret Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Roesler, Alexander W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    In June 2013, the Department of Defense published a congressionally mandated, unclassified update on the U.S. Nuclear Employment Strategy. Among the many updates in this document are three key ground rules for guiding the sizing of the non-deployed U.S. nuclear stockpile. Furthermore, these ground rules form an important and objective set of criteria against which potential future stockpile hedging strategies can be evaluated.

  6. Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

    2010-05-01

    To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs.

  7. 32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under this section, the following are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon. (3) Using a weapon. (b) This...

  8. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S.; Wild, Norbert C.; Nunan, Scott C.; Breuner, Dennis; Doft, Frank

    1998-12-01

    A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and nonmetallic weapons; and (2) search for metallic and nonmetallic weapons on cooperative subjects at courthouse entrances and other monitored security portals. We have demonstrated that we image weapons concealed under heavy clothing, not just detect them, at ranges up to 15 feet using the same ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) used by commercial rangefinders. The concealed weapons detector operates much as a rangefinder, but at higher peak fluxes and pulse repetition frequencies. The detector alerts the user to concealed weapons audibly and visibly by detecting ultrasound glints above a body/clothing baseline, and by compensating for changing range and attenuation. The detector locates concealed weapons within a 6-inch illuminated spot at 10 feet. The signal processor eliminates any signal from behind the target.

  9. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  10. Weapons barrel life cycle determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Pene Hristov

    2013-10-01

    most important requirements of Military Standards (muzzle velocity, caliber size and shooting accuracy. In studies of barrel wear, there are numerous theories that explain barrel wear as thermal, mechanical and chemical effects of the projectile and propellant gas on the inner tube surface. It was found that barrel wear is a result of simultaneous effects of all factors mutually linked and very complex, so that, theoretically speaking, they cannot be uniformly determined. The extent of effects of particular factors in the wear process depends on the type of weapon systems and exploitation conditions (mode of fire, intensity and mode of barrel cooling, maintenance, storage conditions, etc.. It is considered that, for small arms, the main factor of wear is the effect of projectiles on the barrel while for artillery weapon barrels it is the erosive effect of powder gases. A life-death barrel which is determined by "ballistic death," is not necessary to be discarded, ie reparation can be done by "new calibration". The procedure of barrel reparation is economically acceptable and gives the possibility of extension of working lifetime and modification of the gun barrel. METHODS OF BARREL LIFE-TIME CALCULATION The conditions for calculating the gun barrel lifetime are described. Since the barrel lifetime depends primarily on the exploitation regime, the usage procedure (shooting program in the military terminology Is prescribed for each individual weapon in particular. The lifetime empirical calculation methods discussed here comprise the methods of French and Russian scientists, i.e.Justrov, Linte, Gabo and Orlov. They are mainly based on empirical constants and elements of the barrel, bullet, projectile velocity and mode of fire. These methods are only partially reliable and cannot predict with certainty the barrel lifetime, - for example, some expressions state that lifetime increases with the increase in initial velocity and barrel caliber, which is incorrect and contrary

  11. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels.

  12. Making Weapons for the Terracotta Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Terracotta Army of the First Emperor of China is one of the most emblematic archaeological sites in the world. Many questions remain about the logistics of technology, standardisation and labour organisation behind the creation of such a colossal construction in just a few decades over 2,000 years ago. An ongoing research project co-ordinated between the UCL Institute of Archaeology and the Emperor Qin Shihang's Terracotta Army Museum is beginning to address some of these questions. This paper outlines some results of the typological, metric, microscopic, chemical and spatial analyses of the 40,000 bronze weapons recovered with the Terracotta Warriors. Thanks to a holistic approach developed specifically for this project, it is possible to reveal remarkable aspects of the organisation of the Qin workforce in production cells, of the standardisation, efficiency and quality-control procedures employed, and of the sophisticated technical knowledge of the weapon-makers.

  13. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Continued Storage of Chemical Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    1985. 4-13. Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Officials, 1985. 4-14. "Technical Manual , Seismic Design for Buildings," TM 5...provide a much protection from crush as the package. 3. The possibility of a fire longer than 10 mn has been elimi- nated by an administrativo ...Materiel Development and Readi- ness Command, "Safety Manual ," DARCOM-R-385-100, August 1981. 5-4. Coats, D. W., "Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling

  14. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  15. Proportionality and Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Given the swift technologic development, it may be expected that the availability of the first truly autonomous weapons systems is fast approaching. Once they are deployed, these weapons will use artificial intelligence to select and attack targets without further human intervention. Autonomous weap

  16. Naval Weapons Station Earle Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    surveys for their Section 110 compliance: Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger 1999...text within brackets. Berger Report 1999 Architectural Resources Survey, Naval Weapons Station Earle, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Louis Berger... architectural treatment of buildings at NWS Earle: a traditional vernacular theme with minimal decorative detailing. This so-called minimal traditional

  17. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...... on the sparse existing literature on interest groups and social media in a quantitative, structural analysis of both the range and volume of social media use examining a data set of groups active in European Union lobbying. Despite the positive expectations, we find limited evidence that social media have been...... able to reinvigorate democratic processes by changing inequalities in the landscape of political representation among interest groups. The level of resources held by the interest groups acts as the single most consistent predictor of both the range and volume of their social media use. Interest groups...

  18. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France; Repere sur les stocks strategiques petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  19. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... CONTACT: Pamela K. Durham, Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability:...

  20. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  1. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  2. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... the proposed Fiscal Year 2015 National Defense Stockpile Annual Materials Plan. The role of the Market... Act) (50 U.S.C. 98, et seq.), the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), as National... be available for public inspection and copying. Anyone submitting business confidential...

  3. Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles : Experimental results in coal storage yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test

  4. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    .... Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security... Heidenreich, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for...

  5. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .... Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security... McMenamin, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for...

  6. 75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile Disposals for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Bureau... Commerce and State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal... potential market impact of the sale of these materials. Public comments are an important element of...

  7. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL

  8. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1964-02-01

    This book is a revision of "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons" which was issued in 1957. It was prepared by the Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and was published by the U.S. Atomc Energy Commission. Although the complex nature of nuclear weapons effects does not always allow exact evaluation, the conclusions reached herein represent the combined judgment of a number of the most competent scientists working the problem. There is a need for widespread public understanding of the best information available on the effects of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this book is to present as accurately as possible, within the limits of national security, a comprehensive summary of this information.

  9. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    1957-06-01

    This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.

  10. 32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or attempting to do so is prohibited....

  11. 48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Contracts Performed Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the combatant commander...

  12. Beyond Nunn-Lugar: Curbing the Next Wave of Weapons Proliferation Threat from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Kuntsevich , former head of the Russian chemical weapons program and later adviser to Yeltsin on chemical disarmament, was caught selling chemical precursors to...tons in 1994.2 Still, Kuntsevich did not serve out his jail term. Even more disturbing are reports that Aum Shinrikio, a Japanese doomsday cult

  13. Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Enforcement, Edward M. Carapezza, Donald Spector, Eds., Proc. SPIE 2938, 110 - 119 (1997). 3. Franklin Felber, Norbert Wild, Scott Nunan , Dennis Breuner... Nunan , D. Breuner, and F. Doft, "Handheld Ultrasound Concealed-Weapons Detector," in Enforcement and Security Technologies, A. Trent DePersia, J. J

  14. Achievements and challenges for the use of killed oral cholera vaccines in the global stockpile era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Alberti, Kathryn P; Martin, Stephen; Costa, Alejandro; Perea, William; Legros, Dominique

    2016-11-04

    Cholera remains an important but neglected public health threat, affecting the health of the poorest populations and imposing substantial costs on public health systems. Cholera can be eliminated where access to clean water, sanitation, and satisfactory hygiene practices are sustained, but major improvements in infrastructure continue to be a distant goal. New developments and trends of cholera disease burden, the creation of an affordable cholera vaccine for use in developing countries, as well as recent evidence of vaccination impact has created an increased demand for oral cholera vaccine (OCV). The global OCV stockpile was established in 2013 and with support from Gavi, has assisted in achieving rapid access to vaccine in emergencies. Recent WHO prequalification of a second affordable OCV supports the stockpile goals of increased availability and distribution to affected populations. It serves as an essential step towards an integrated cholera control and prevention strategy in emergency and endemic settings.

  15. Coal face and stockpile ash analyser for the coal mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsaru, M; Dixon, R; Rojc, A; Stehle, R; Jecny, Z

    2001-09-01

    A portable nucleonic instrument was developed for the determination of coal ash on the coal face or the surface of coal stockpiles. The instrument employs the backscattered gamma-gamma technique. There are two gamma-ray sources used in this instrument: a 1.1 MBq 133Ba source as the primary source of radiation and a 37 kBq 137Cs for gain stabilization. The instrument is commercially available.

  16. Dissipation of Three Veterinary Antimicrobials in Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Stockpiled over Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-05-01

    Dissipation of veterinary antimicrobials is known to occur during aerated windrow composting of beef cattle manure. However, it is unclear if a similar dissipation occurs during stockpiling. Chlortetracycline, tylosin, and sulfamethazine are three of the most commonly used veterinary antimicrobials in beef cattle production in western Canada. Their dissipation in stockpiled manure was investigated over 140 d during winter in Alberta, Canada. Beef cattle housed in pens were administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), 44 mg of chlortetracycline + 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, 11 mg of tylosin kg feed, or feed without antimicrobials (control). Manure samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed for chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin by LC-MS-MS. Dissipation of all three antimicrobials in the manure was explained by exponential decay kinetics. Times for 50% dissipation (DT) were 1.8 ± 0.1 d for chlortetracycline alone or 6.0 ± 0.8 d when mixed with sulfamethazine, 20.8 ± 3.8 d for sulfamethazine, and 4.7 ± 1.2 d for tylosin. After 77 d, manure did not inhibit microbial activity, as indicated by temperature and mass losses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The C/N ratio in the manure decreased over the stockpiling period, indicating decomposition of manure to a more stable state. Dissipation of excreted residues with DT values 1.8 to 20.8 d showed that stockpiling can be as effective as windrow composting in mitigating the transfer of these three veterinary antimicrobials into the environment during land application of processed manure.

  17. Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.

    1998-11-01

    As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

  18. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  19. Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

    2013-04-01

    Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 μg/Nm3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

  20. Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable

  1. Why Sexually Selected Weapons Are Not Ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Miller, Christine W; Emlen, Douglas J

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration and diversification of sexually selected weapons remain poorly understood. We argue that progress in this topic has been hindered by a strong bias in sexual selection research, and a tendency for weapons to be conflated with ornaments used in mate choice. Here, we outline how male-male competition and female choice are distinct mechanisms of sexual selection, and why weapons and ornaments are fundamentally different types of traits. We call for research on the factors contributing to weapon divergence, the potential for male-male competition to drive speciation, and the specific use of weapons in the context of direct fights versus displays. Given that weapons are first and foremost fighting structures, biomechanical approaches are an especially promising direction for understanding weapon design.

  2. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  3. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    prejudicial to reliable performance of PRP duties may be considered as grounds for permanent disqualification from the PRP. g. Hypnosis . The CMA will evaluate...a dossier be made available for review whenever they believe it is necessary. (See AR 381–45.) (3) PSIs completed on Reserve component service members...duty performance. c. Hypnosis . Hypnosis will not be administered to individuals in the PRP without the knowledge of the individual’s certifying official

  4. Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Primavera Pertmaster and cost risk using ACE. Both Pertmaster and ACE are commercially available risk software programs. These new risk modeling tools...schedule risk using Primavera Pertmaster and modeled cost risk using ACE. Both Pertmaster and ACE are commercially available risk software programs. As

  5. The Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    shown in Figure 2. Electrical energy can be stored in many ways, such as a battery (actually a chemical storage ). A car battery has about a...becomes less attractive. Energy storage for electric weapons can also be done with chem- ical explosive energy , where an explosive force is converted...into electrical energy using techniques such as flux compression. Energy can be stored in the inertia of rotating machines and flywheels , but the

  6. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  7. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Volume 3: Appendices A-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    l h”J Human TC, = 20 pph”’ R a t , r a b b i t s - n e g a t i v e tcratogenicity. embryotox ic i ty . reproduct ive pcrformancc” Ratt fertility... embryotoxicity were obscrval 1 Basley et al. 1980; Basky CI al. 198 I ). ‘OChromosome rbbcrrtions were induced in human lymphocytes in vitro with...h / d ) b y m i r e (61s d p r e g n a n t ) a n d r a b b i t s (6. ltl d p r e g n a n t ) eshibitod l i t t k embryotoxicity a n d

  8. Decision making technical support study for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L.; Dobson, J.E.

    1990-08-01

    This report examines the adequacy of current command and control systems designed to make timely decisions that would enable sufficient warning and protective response to an accident at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, and at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Arkansas. Institutional procedures designed to facilitate rapid accident assessment, characterization, warning, notification, and response after the onset of an emergency and computer-assisted decision-making aids designed to provide salient information to on- and-off-post emergency responders are examined. The character of emergency decision making at APG and PBA, as well as potential needs for improvements to decision-making practices, procedures, and automated decision-support systems (ADSSs), are described and recommendations are offered to guide equipment acquisition and improve on- and off-post command and control relationships. We recommend that (1) a continued effort be made to integrate on- and off-post command control, and decision-making procedures to permit rapid decision making; (2) the pathways for alert and notification among on- and off-post officials be improved and that responsibilities and chain of command among off-post agencies be clarified; (3) greater attention be given to organizational and social context factors that affect the adequacy of response and the likelihood that decision-making systems will work as intended; and (4) faster improvements be made to on-post ADSSs being developed at APG and PBA, which hold considerable promise for depicting vast amounts of information. Phased development and procurement of computer-assisted decision-making tools should be undertaken to balance immediate needs against available resources and to ensure flexibility, equity among sites, and compatibility among on- and off-post systems. 112 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Michael David

    On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of

  10. Nuclear Weapons: The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    2nd Session, Senate Hearing 99-937, 1986, pp. 167-168. 9 Ray Kidder, Stockpile Reliability and Nuclear Test Bans: Response to J.W. Rosengren’s Defense...margin of assurance. 14 Brooks statement to Senate Armed Services Committee, Apr. 4, 2005, p. 3. 15 Letter from Norris Bradbury , J. Carson Mark, and

  11. Why Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing Makes Sense for the Plants and Laboratories of the Nuclear Weapon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, K W; Howell, L N; Lewis, D G; Neugebauer, C A; O' Brien, D W; Schilling, S A

    2001-05-15

    The purpose of this White Paper is to outline the benefits we expect to receive from Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing (MBE/M) for the design, analysis, fabrication, and assembly of nuclear weapons for upcoming Life Extension Programs (LEPs). Industry experiences with model-based approaches and the NNSA/DP investments and experiences, discussed in this paper, indicate that model-based methods can achieve reliable refurbished weapons for the stockpile with less cost and time. In this the paper, we list both general and specific benefits of MBE/M for the upcoming LEPs and the metrics for determining the success of model-based approaches. We also present some outstanding issues and challenges to deploying and achieving long-term benefit from the MBE/M. In conclusion, we argue that successful completion of the upcoming LEPs--with very aggressive schedule and funding restrictions--will depend on electronic model-based methods. We ask for a strong commitment from LEP managers throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex to support deployment and use of MBE/M systems to meet their program needs.

  12. Optimization of Aimpoints for Coordinate Seeking Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    process. The program works by first taking in the number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the...MATLAB program is used as the coding tool for the development of this algorithm and the optimization process. The program works by first taking in the...number of weapons used and arranging them in a fixed uniform spacing on a circle centered on the assumed target location. Then, the weapon

  13. Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available; and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug. We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR and the resistant attack rate (RAR unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug p(A was so low (less than 1 in 10,000 that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20 that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if p(A = 0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model

  14. A different kind of weapon focus: simulated training with ballistic weapons reduces change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica K.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Attentional allocation is flexibly altered by action-related priorities. Given that tools – and specifically weapons – can affect attentional allocation, we asked whether training with a weapon or holding a weapon during search would affect change detection. In three experiments, participants searched for changes to agents, shootable objects, or environments in the popular flicker paradigm. Participants trained with a simulated weapon or watched a video from the same training perspective and ...

  15. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  16. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing.

  17. Long-term retrievability and safeguards for immobilized weapons plutonium in geologic storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium is not ultimately used as an energy source, the quantity of excess weapons plutonium (w-Pu) that would go into a US repository will be small compared to the quantity of plutonium contained in the commercial spent fuel in the repository, and the US repository(ies) will likely be only one (or two) locations out of many around the world where commercial spent fuel will be stored. Therefore excess weapons plutonium creates a small perturbation to the long-term (over 200,000 yr) global safeguard requirements for spent fuel. There are details in the differences between spent fuel and immobilized w-Pu waste forms (i.e. chemical separation methods, utility for weapons, nuclear testing requirements), but these are sufficiently small to be unlikely to play a significant role in any US political decision to rebuild weapons inventories, or to change the long-term risks of theft by subnational groups.

  18. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  19. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY..., academia, military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off... requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards Office (OLES) at NIST has...

  20. Present situation of stockpiling LPG in rock bed. LPG ganban bichiku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchi, O. (Nikko Kyoseki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    The outline, present status, etc. of stockpiling LPG in the underground are reviewed. At present, most of LPG stockpile is stored in rock salt layers and LPG of five million cubic meters is accomodated in ca. 100 tanks in America, Finland, etc. While these tanks are classified into two types--ordinary temperature and high pressure type and low temperature and ordinary pressure type, the latter covers only five tanks because it requires cooling for maintaining frozen zones although the cost of construction is low because of its low operation pressure. The former type is characterized in that liquid- and air tightness is secured by the surrounding hydraulic pressure. However, deep installment for securing internal pressure causes high cost for carrying-out. In Japan, investigations and experiments are being made with tanks of normal temperature and high pressure type in mind. The experiments include the following items: air-tightness(presence of air bubble, gushing water, etc.) around plugs, air tightness of rock bed(presence of air bubbles and gaseous leakage), change in the composition of LPG, change in LPG gas, changes of underground water and waste water, pressure behaviour in reception and delivery, operability of pumps and instruments, investigation of initial purge of nitrogen, detection of gas leakage from sealed water, and detection of corrosion and scales. 2 figs.

  1. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  2. Weapons Acquisition. Processes of Selected Foreign Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    period from 1977 to 1985: (1) 5.56mm calibre assault rifle. (2) Milan and Hot antitank weapon systems. (3) Roland ground-to-air weapon system. (4) AMX 30...and standardization edicts . Awards and penalties are laid on accordingly. (7/17, 13/20) The ministries stand apart from one another in the same way

  3. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the

  4. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  5. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  6. Weapon Control System for Airborne Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sankar Kishore

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The integrated fire' control system (IFCS plays an important role in the present-day fighter aircraft and helicopters. Wecapons, such as missiles (active/passive, rockets and guns may be present on thelfighter aircraft or helicopter .IFCS monitors the status of the weapons present on the vehicle and passes the information to pilot/co-pilot. Depending upon the health/availability of the weapons, IFCS selects/fires the weapons. An attempt has been made to bring out the details of one such IFCS. As a I stepping stone, smaller version is developed and same philosophy can be used for integrating ftlore and I more weapons. Here, emphasis has been made on design and development of weapon control unit which is the heart f IFCS, both in hardware and software. The system has been developed using a 486 DX2 processor, and an elaborate software has been developed in PL/M.

  7. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  8. Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Allen R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

    1998-12-01

    Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the

  9. Designing the Army’s Future Active Duty Weapons of Mass Destruction Response: Is the Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High-Yield Explosives Response Force (DCRF) the Right Force at the Right Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    alternative methods for implementing the force structure, reducing redundancy and waste , and building cooperative training strategies for the CBRNE forces...nuclear detonation, attacks with biological, blister , nerve, and radiological agents, an influenza pandemic, an toxic industrial chemical release, a

  10. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mark R. Hurst; Ebtisam Wilkins

    2005-01-01

    Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons i...

  11. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical Agent and Munition Disposal. Summary of the U.S. Army’s Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-21

    Per Hour LIC Liquid Incinerator LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas; Propane M M-ties MDM Multipurpose Demilitarization Machine MEA Monoethanol amine MEK...Primary amines catalyze the hydrolysis of GB. However, the decomposition products are complicated by the presence of amines and therefore primary amine

  12. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    F2 ) 1.0E-4 6.0E-6 Probability stacked pallets will fall at 0.3 to 0.5 g ( P1 ) 0.25 0.25 S>0.5 g RD2 1.0 1.0 Number of Munitions Falling At Munition...tank NIA N/A SL7 (accident frequency) (F1 * P1 * N1) " + (F2 * P2 * N2). 5-53 ,ei .,. "% . "" MUITIO~NS IG~NITIO~N AE EARTHQUAKE WAREHOUSES DAMIAGED...4-4i = I7-75 IA A uj11 wj M 2 i w bo 1o. P2 ari *fa3 IL L z - = a 2 1.- I 24 -~ 2 z 2 2 ~ o~t 0 I, I ’" a a c .3 0 5 , C., ZZ ~C -) ZZ 4 cc 4cc acca

  13. Bill related to the struggle against proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their vectors; Projet de Loi relatif a la lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et de leurs vecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This bill indicates the modifications brought to different French laws and codes (penal code, defence code, custom code) and defines provisions and penalties within the frame of struggle against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear weapons, biological weapons and toxin-based weapons, chemical weapons), and against the proliferation of their vectors. These modifications, provisions and penalties also concern double-use products. The bill also defines the modifications brought to the French penal procedure code. It finally addresses offenses related to these proliferations which can be considered as an act of terrorism

  14. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  15. Electronic eyebox for weapon sights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapiel, Stan; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Wagner, Kevin; Nobes, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    We expand the effective size of the eyebox of a magnified telescopic weapon sight by following the movements of the operator's eye to create a larger, `electronic eyebox'. The original eyebox of the telescope is dynamically relocated in space so that proper overlap between the pupil of the eye and the exit pupil of the device is maintained. Therefore, the operator will perceive the entire field of view of the instrument in a much bigger spatial region than the one defined by the original eyebox. Proof-of-the-concept results are presented with a more than 3.5X enlargement of the eyebox volume along with recommendations for the next phase of development.

  16. Taser and Conducted Energy Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Thomas G; Meriano, Tony

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that CEWs are an increasingly prevalent law enforcement tool, adopted to address a complex and challenging problem. The potential for serious injury from a single deployment of a CEW is extremely low. The debate regarding the link between these electrical weapons and sudden in-custody death is likely to continue because their use is often in complex and volatile situations. Any consideration of injuries has to be put into that context. One must also consider what injuries to a subject would result if an alternative force method was used. Furthermore, the potential benefits of CEWs, including reduction in injuries to the public and law-enforcement officers, need to be considered.

  17. Research on Japanese Invaders Using of Chemical, Bacteriological Weapons to Kill Chinese People%侵华日军使用化学、细菌武器杀害中国人民述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭华

    2015-01-01

    During the 14-year war of aggression against China, the Japanese army in China used bacteriologi-cal weapons in 20 provinces, in other words,the implementation of germ warfare can be said was always an impor-tant means of the Japanese invaders and combat styles.Although postwar the truth of Japanese Aggressors germ war-fare had come out, but the Japanese government had not admited fault up to now.Despite repeatly Chinese germ warfare victims sue the Japanese government to protest, but until August 2002, Tokyo, Japan, the court adjudica-ted "affirmed the truth that the Japanese invaders have germ warfare and killed of the Chinese people, but refused to take an apology and financial compensation for victims".Dare to reflect, to deny the crimes of their own nation, is bound to repeat mistakes, this is a law of history.Chinese descendants should remember this history in future.%日军在14年侵华战争期间曾在中国20个省区内使用过细菌武器,实施细菌战,可以说细菌战始终是侵华日军的重要作战手段和作战样式。战后虽然侵华日军实施细菌战的真象大白于天下,但日本政府至今不认错。虽经中国细菌战受害者多次向日本政府起诉、抗议,但一直到2002年8月,日本东京法院才作出“认定有侵华日军曾发动细菌战和杀害中国人民的事实,但拒绝向受害者赔礼道歉及经济赔偿”的裁决。不敢反省、否认自己罪行的民族,必然会重蹈复辙,这是一条历史的规律。中国的子孙后代都应该铭记这段历史。

  18. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandon, P.; Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    When people stockpile products, how do they decide when and how much they will consume? To answer this question, the authors develop a framework that shows how the salience and convenience of products influence postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Multiple research methods¿including scan

  19. Toward a nuclear weapons free world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-09-01

    Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

  20. [New challenges in the biological weapons convention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics.

  1. COMPARISON BETWEEN MULTICOPTER UAV AND TOTAL STATION FOR ESTIMATING STOCKPILE VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arango

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle have become an alternative for different engineering applications, especially in surveying, one of these applications is the calculation of volumes of stockpiled material, but there are questions about its accuracy and efficiency, the purpose of this article is to compare traditional surveying methods for estimating total volumes through data obtained by total stations and data obtained by a multicopter UAV. In order to answer these questions we obtain data from the same location and the results were compared. After comparing the results it was found that there was a 2,88% difference between the volume calculated with the total station data and the actual volume, and −0,67% difference between the volume calculated with the UAV data and the actual volume, concluding that the estimated volume with UAV data is more accurate.

  2. Normal Approximation to a Sum of Geometric Random Variableswith Application to Ammunition Stockpile Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Hurley

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The normal approximation for a sum of geometric random variables has been examined. Thisapproximation is relevant to the determination of direct-fire ammunition stockpile levels in adefence setting. Among the methodologies available for this assessment, one is a target-orientedmethodology. This approach calculates the number of rounds necessary to destroy a givenfraction of the enemy force and infrastructure. The difficulty is that the number of rounds requiredcannot be determined analytically. An obvious numeric approach is Monte Carlo simulation.Another is the approximation approach which has several advantages like it is easy to implement.and is accurate even in the case where the number of targets is low.

  3. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond...

  4. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  7. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  8. Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotblat, J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

  9. Dryden Flight Research Center Chemical Pharmacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bette

    1997-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Chemical Pharmacy "Crib" is a chemical sharing system which loans chemicals to users, rather than issuing them or having each individual organization or group purchasing the chemicals. This cooperative system of sharing chemicals eliminates multiple ownership of the same chemicals and also eliminates stockpiles. Chemical management duties are eliminated for each of the participating organizations. The chemical storage issues, hazards and responsibilities are eliminated. The system also ensures safe storage of chemicals and proper disposal practices. The purpose of this program is to reduce the total releases and transfers of toxic chemicals. The initial cost of the program to DFRC was $585,000. A savings of $69,000 per year has been estimated for the Center. This savings includes the reduced costs in purchasing, disposal and chemical inventory/storage responsibilities. DFRC has chemicals stored in 47 buildings and at 289 locations. When the program is fully implemented throughout the Center, there will be three chemical locations at this facility. The benefits of this program are the elimination of chemical management duties; elimination of the hazard associated with chemical storage; elimination of stockpiles; assurance of safe storage; assurance of proper disposal practices; assurance of a safer workplace; and more accurate emissions reports.

  10. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons... guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This guidance would be used by licensees and certificate holders applying to the NRC to obtain enhanced weapons under the NRC's proposed...

  11. Research and Analytical Evaluation of the Soviet Union and Modernization of Nuclear Weapons Forces in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Ministry "expert," Major General Anatoly Kuntsevich , and other Soviet officials held a press conference in Moscow on chemical weapons in which he stated...among other thinqs, that "the United Stated model of war is to fight on another’s territory and spill others’ blood." In reply to a question, Kuntsevich

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  13. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

  14. MODERN WEAPONS AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT FOR ISSUE NO. 3-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Optimal features for concealed carry weapons. The specificity of jobs and tasks that require concealed carrying of weapons by officials require specific criteria when choosing personal weapons specialist.

  15. Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 μm imagery with standard RGB color images.

  16. On Utilization and Stockpiling of Prescription Drugs when Co-payments Increase: Heterogeneity across Types of Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Niels

    by stockpiling on their medications. This has implications for other papers in the literature that use variation in subsidy rates over time to estimate the price elasticity of demand. This is not the case for penicillin however, where price elasticities are estimated to be in the -.18 – -.35 range. Further, I...... find that the lower part of the income distribution is more price responsive....

  17. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  18. The pharmaceuticalisation of security: Molecular biomedicine, antiviral stockpiles, and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals are now critical to the security of populations. Antivirals, antibiotics, next-generation vaccines, and antitoxins are just some of the new 'medical countermeasures' that governments are stockpiling in order to defend their populations against the threat of pandemics and bioterrorism. How has security policy come to be so deeply imbricated with pharmaceutical logics and solutions? This article captures, maps, and analyses the 'pharmaceuticalisation' of security. Through an in-depth analysis of the prominent antiviral medication Tamiflu, it shows that this pharmaceutical turn in security policy is intimately bound up with the rise of a molecular vision of life promulgated by the biomedical sciences. Caught in the crosshairs of powerful commercial, political, and regulatory pressures, governments are embracing a molecular biomedicine promising to secure populations pharmaceutically in the twenty-first century. If that is true, then the established disciplinary view of health as a predominantly secondary matter of 'low' international politics is mistaken. On the contrary, the social forces of health and biomedicine are powerful enough to influence the core practices of international politics - even those of security. For a discipline long accustomed to studying macrolevel processes and systemic structures, it is in the end also our knowledge of the minute morass of molecules that shapes international relations.

  19. Level Decreasing Kinetics Model of Heavy Metal Contents in the Coal Stockpile Wastewater with Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is one of methods used to treat wastewater in the coal stockpile without using coagulants. Characteristics of wastewater observed are heavy metals (Fe and Mn and pH.  The decrease in the heavy metals content and the increase in the pH of this wastewater treatment process will then be proposed in the adsorption kinetics model. The influence of  variations in currents and processing time were observed. The time variation of the adsorption process were 60 to 120 minutes with current variations from 1.3 to 3.0 Ampere at a fixed 12 voltages. The results obtained that the Fe content could be decreased to 0.03 ppm at 90 minutes while the content of Mn was decreased to 0.01 ppm at the same time. The increase in pH (7.11 was achieved when applying 2.5 A current at 90 minutes process time. The results obtained from the electrocoagulation method was then proposed in the model of the Langmuir isotherm adsorption kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  20. Recycling of plastics from stockpiles performed by means of low-pressure injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gintowt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A viability analysis of manufacturing goods out of plastics, from stockpiles and municipal residues, has been carried out. The analysispertains goods in the form of inserts manufactured in light molds of big-sizes, by means of low-pressure injection. The cost analysis of the investment and manufacturing suggests that those goods are not price-competitive, as compared to other ones used in similar situations. Exploitation analysis proves that the goods, used outdoors are easily damaged on the surface by UV exposure, temperature differences of 24-hour cycle, as well as by water and plants. Re-recycling, and especially, the grinding of the product poses another challenge in the future. An analysis of the environmental impact of energy acquisition during the manufacturing of those goods was also carried out. The analysis also pertains the method of identifying the type of raw-material, in the process of segregation that stems from the necessity of a complex content training of staff running waste segregation posts.

  1. Task Analyses of Three Selected Weapons Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    using weapons is a joint function of the specific weapon system, the goals (missions) of the system, and the environment in which it is used. The first...Identification of fire mission profiles which state general job functions for each type of typical mission. Documentary sources such as Field Manuals...nd Arin,,, Ui, Guni i A,!i" tant uuPnrr No. I Can; n , r Grup - ( nile. .rs and Prir Diff,-ront S, tm: -inch L,,t.’r _, Fort Hood l::t Cavall, I

  2. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.

    2016-05-05

    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/AU.day in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/AU.day in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/AU.day in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  3. Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

  4. Corrosion and conservation of weapons and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore V. Jegdić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the conditions for the occurrence of corrosion processes on historically important weapons and military equipment made of steel during the period in outdoor environment. A considerable attention has been given to the characteristics of the most important corrosion products formed on the steel surface. The formation of akaganite, β-FeOOH is a sign of active corrosion under a layer of corrosion products. The conditions that cause the formation and regeneration of hydrochloric and sulphuric acid during the exposure to the elements were analyzed. The most often applied methods of diagnostics and procedures of removing active corrosion anions (desalination were described as well. The NaOH solution of certain pH values still has the most important application for the desalination process. The procedures for cleaning the surface before the application of protective coatings and the application of chemicals that transform rust into stable compounds were discussed. As protective coatings, different types of organic coatings plated on well-prepared steel surfaces were used and sometimes special types of waxes as well. This paper presents the results of the tests of corrosion products taken from the exhibits of weapons and military equipment from the Military Museum in Belgrade.

  5. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, October 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. F.; Johnson, W. E.; Reinker, P. H.; Warren, J. H.; McCullugh, R. W.; Harmon, M. K.; Gartin, W. J.; LaFollette, T. G.; Shaw, H. P.; Frank, W. S.; Grim, K. G.; Warren, J. H.

    1963-11-21

    This report, for October 1963 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  6. Chemical Processing Department monthly report, December 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-21

    This report for December 1964, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; and weapons manufacturing operation.

  7. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    43 Figure 14: Simulation Study Methodology for the Weapon System Analysis Metrics Definition and Data Collection The analysis plan calls for...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences

  8. 7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 501.12 Section 501.12... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons... arrows, darts, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except...

  9. 32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final disposition. They will...

  10. 44 CFR 15.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 15.15... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.15 Weapons and explosives. No person entering or while at Mt. Weather or the NETC will carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or items intended...

  11. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the...

  12. 36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly...

  13. 36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a... of this chapter, the following are prohibited— (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying...

  14. 31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes....

  15. 46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section 386.23 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

  16. 32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons... illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items...

  17. 36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 702.7... Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the performance of law enforcement functions, no person shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either...

  18. 31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11... FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT TRAINING CENTER (FLETC) BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while on the property, shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or...

  19. 7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 500.12 Section 500.12... OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.12 Weapons and... weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No...

  20. 7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 502.13 Section 502.13....13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially authorized...

  1. 43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons, firearms, explosives, and... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess... exceptions: (1) You must not have a weapon in your possession when at or in a Reclamation facility. (2)...

  2. 4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25.14 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while entering or in the GAO Building or on its grounds shall carry or possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a... weapons, do not apply to a law enforcement officer (LEO) aboard a flight for which screening is...

  4. 36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520... Weapons and explosives. No person while on the premises shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any...

  5. 31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives,...

  6. 50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weapons other than firearms. 27.43 Section... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears,...

  7. 7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13 Section 503.13... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on the PIADC shall carry firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons or...

  8. Demand Analysis of Informational Shipboard Gun Weapon System Interface Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hui-chuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to development demand of informational shipboard gun weapon system, design concept of shipboard gun weapon system interface is proposed. System composition is put forward and function demand of interface is analyzed from combat, training and detection aspects. General principle need to be followed in design process. A new concept is provided for development of shipboard gun weapon system interface.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position, then fire 2 rounds and reholster 2 15 yards 2 5 seconds Standing, draw weapon, move to kneeling...) Standing, draw weapon, fire 2 rounds, move to kneeling position and fire 2 rounds, reload and reholster Minimum qualifying = 70%. 4 15 yards 2 5 seconds Draw weapon and fire 2 rounds standing, come to low...

  10. The Drivers of Indias Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Sane Individual’ Would Use Nuclear Weapons Indian Defence Mini,” Financial Times, June 3, 2002. 197 Sanjeev Miglani and John Chalmers , “BJP Puts... Chalmers . “BJP Puts ‘No First Use’ Nuclear Policy in Doubt.” Reuters. April 7, 2014. http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/04/07/india- election-bjp

  11. The Politics of Weapons Standardization in NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    does raise new and useful perspectives on the problem. And, as he notes, it raises the spectre that instead of attacking the causes of NATO’s malaise...construct- ing his Utopia . 1 58 Two articles, which focus on the weapons procurement process within the United States alone, note the unnecessary

  12. Europium-155 in Debris from Nuclear Weapons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Lippert, Jørgen Emil

    1967-01-01

    The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield...

  13. Tactical Nuclear Weapons: Their Purpose and Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    still perceived the potential spread of these clashes as a threat to its security. Volatility was expected to come from ethnic, religious, cultural...nuclear weapons in this new global environment. NATO’s 1999 and 2010 strategic concepts describe a change in concern from the spillover threats of the

  14. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  15. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  16. The Spear: An Effective Weapon Since Antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Dohrenwend

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spear is perhaps man’s oldest weapon, and may even be his oldest tool. Over the hundreds of thousands of years of the weapon’s existence, it evolved from a pointed stick into an efficient hunting missile, and then became the most effective hand-held bladed weapon humans ever devised. The spear and its use is the only martial art originally devised for use against species other than our own, and more than any other weapon, the spear emphasizes the relationship between hunting and warfare. Virtually without exception, the spear is present wherever there are humans. The spear may claim to be the senior martial art, and the weapon is still in use today. Early techniques are preserved by the small number of Japanese sojutsu schools, and modern Chinese martial artists have developed elegant and impressive gymnastic routines for the spear. The javelin throw is a modern Olympic track and field event, and there are people who have resurrected the Aztec atlatl for sporting competition. Today, the spear is still used in Europe for hunting wild boar, and the continued issue of the obsolete bayonet to modern soldiers testifies to a deep, almost instinctive respect still possessed by the military for the spear.

  17. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  18. ACAM2000™: The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Nalca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aysegul Nalca, Elizabeth E ZumbrunCenter for Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, MD, USAAbstract: Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™, a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.Keywords: smallpox, vaccinia, variola, vaccine, efficacy, safety

  19. Harmonizing the Chemical Weapons Convention with the United States Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    perceptive and positive critique; * Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni of the DePaul University College of Law for his numerous insights; "* Burrus M. Carnahan...intrusiveness. See Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Ass’n, 489 U.S. 602, 109 S. Ct. 1402, 1413 (1989) (urinalysis invades privacy). See generally...of the circumstances allowing testing. See also Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Ass’n, 489 U.S. 602, 109 S. Ct. 1402 (1989); (upholding drug

  20. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  1. Suppression of power-coal dust at an open stockpile of the Neryugrinsk surface mine using artificial snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uskov, V.I.; Safonov, M.V.; Kupin, A.N.; Kruglova, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses complex dust suppression scheme at the open coal stockpile of the Neryungrinsk surface mine (winter temperature -50 C and lower) based on application of artificial snow and removal of dusty air for subsequent purification. The system consists of eight ejectors mounted at the top of the discharge structure with diffusers inclined at 60-80 degrees. Water consumption through type GEhF-200 hydroejector and type FKEh sprinkler is equal to 30-50 l/min at 10-20 MPa. Description of the equipment and mode of operation is given. States that up to 60% efficiency in dust suppression can be achieved. 5 refs.

  2. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    In today’s conflict environment, transformed by information technology and of who can communicate and how, states, non-state actors, ad hoc activist networks and individuals create effect(s) in and through social network media in support of their objectives. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia develops...... a framework for understanding how social network media shapes global politics and contemporary conflicts by examining their role as a platform for conduction intelligence collection, targeting, cyber-operations, psychological warfare and command and control activities. Through these, the weaponization...... of social media shows both the possibilities and the limitations of social network media in contemporary conflicts and makes a contribution to theorizing and studying contemporary conflicts....

  3. Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S.; Dolan, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  4. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  5. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    data. Technologies immature Technologies aproaching maturity Technologies fully maturePage 16 GAO-08-467SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs...learned and process control methods developed in the Excalibur program. The Navy anticipates that this strategy will result in mature production...risk management initiative. The RQ-4B aircraft entered a rigorous development test phase. The methodical collection of test data paces this

  6. The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Simon A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...

  7. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of contractors delivering the 10 costliest programs have performed well relative to broad-based market indices, indicating that investors expect...16-329SP Assessments of Major Weapon Programs Two programs—the B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer...expected. The B-2 Extremely High Frequency Satellite Communications and Computer Increment 1 date was revised to reflect the actual delivery of

  8. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Assessment 56 Figure 13: Examples of Knowledge Scorecards 58 Contents Page v GAO-15-342SP Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs Abbreviations...efficiencies realized through contract negotiations (13 programs), • design trades to balance affordability and capability (10 programs), • changed...at the time of our review with a scorecard and narrative summary at the bottom of the first page of each assessment. As illustrated in figure 12

  9. Imprecise Probability Methods for Weapons UQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Building on recent work in uncertainty quanti cation, we examine the use of imprecise probability methods to better characterize expert knowledge and to improve on misleading aspects of Bayesian analysis with informative prior distributions. Quantitative approaches to incorporate uncertainties in weapons certi cation are subject to rigorous external peer review, and in this regard, certain imprecise probability methods are well established in the literature and attractive. These methods are illustrated using experimental data from LANL detonator impact testing.

  10. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  11. Why are sexually selected weapons almost absent in females?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders BERGLUND

    2013-01-01

    In sex role reversed species,predominantly females evolve sexually selected traits,such as ornaments and/or weapons.Female ornaments are common and their function well documented in many species,whether sex role reversed or not.However,sexually selected female weapons seem totally absent except for small wing spurs in three jacana species,present in both males and females.This poor female weaponry is in sharp contrast to the situation in species with conventional sex roles:males commonly have evolved sexually selected weapons as well as ornaments.At the same time,females in many taxa have naturally selected weapons,used in competition over resources or in predator defence.Why are sexually selected weapons then so rare,almost absent,in females? Here I briefly review weaponry in females and the function of these weapons,conclude that the near absence of sexually selected weapons begs an explanation,and suggest that costs of sexually selected weapons may exceed costs of ornaments.Females are more constrained when evolving sexually selected traits compared to males,at least compared to those males that do not provide direct benefits,as trait costs reduce a female's fecundity.I suggest that this constraining trade-off between trait and fecundity restricts females to evolve ornaments but rarely weapons.The same may apply to paternally investing males.Whether sexually selected weapons actually are more costly than sexually selected ornaments remains to be investigated.

  12. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of radiation and biological factors; weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of electromagnetic, light, thermal, subsonic or ultrasonic radiation and which have output parameters that exceed the value set by state standards of the Russian Federation and the relevant regulations of the federal executive authority in the field of public health, as well as these weapons and items produced outside the Russian territory " How to regard this provision of the law? As the transfer of new weapons, not specific item. 25 of the Federal Law "On weapons", or items prohibited for circulation in the territory of our state? This inconsistency decreases the effectiveness of the legal regulation of arms trafficking. Unification of definitions in this area will allow applying the law correctly and reasonably, including criminal. But for this it is necessary taking into account the experience and the modern needs of the various branches of law provide a clearer definition of "weapon" and its species. The author's conclusions may be used in law enforcement. 

  13. A microstructural analysis of solder joints from the electronic assemblies of dismantled nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Joining Dept.

    1997-05-01

    MC1814 Interconnection Boxes from dismantled B57 bombs, and MC2839 firing Sets from retired W70-1 warheads were obtained from the Pantex facility. Printed circuit boards were selected from these components for microstructural analysis of their solder joints. The analysis included a qualitative examination of the solder joints and quantitative assessments of (1) the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer that formed between the solder and circuit board Cu features, and (2) the Pb-rich phase particle distribution within the solder joint microstructure. The MC2839 solder joints had very good workmanship qualities. The intermetallic compound layer stoichiometry was determined to be that of Cu6Sn5. The mean intermetallic compound layer thickness for all solder joints was 0.885 mm. The magnitude of these values did not indicate significant growth over the weapon lifetime. The size distribution of the Pb-rich phase particles for each of the joints were represented by the mean of 9.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mm{sup 2}. Assuming a spherical geometry, the mean particle diameter would be 3.54 mm. The joint-to-joint difference of intermetallic compound layer thickness and Pb-rich particle size distribution was not caused by varying thermal environments, but rather, was a result of natural variations in the joint microstructure that probably existed at the time of manufacture. The microstructural evaluation of the through-hole solder joints form the MC2839 and MC1814 components indicated that the environmental conditions to which these electronic units were exposed in the stockpile, were benign regarding solder joint aging. There was an absence of thermal fatigue damage in MC2839 circuit board, through-hole solder joints. The damage to the eyelet solder joints of the MC1814 more likely represented infant mortality failures at or very near the time of manufacture, resulting from a marginal design status of this type of solder joint design.

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  15. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium ((234)U, (238)U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of (234)U/(238)U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  16. Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive: fantasme ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2001-09-01

    This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)

  17. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  18. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  19. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998,...

  20. Small sample Bayesian analyses in assessment of weapon performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Abundant test data are required in assessment of weapon performance.When weapon test data are insufficient,Bayesian analyses in small sample circumstance should be considered and the test data should be provided by simulations.The several Bayesian approaches are discussed and some limitations are founded.An improvement is put forward after limitations of Bayesian approaches available are analyzed and t he improved approach is applied to assessment of some new weapon performance.

  1. Challenging Minimum Deterrence: Articulating the Contemporary Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    The Long Shadow: Nuclear Weapons and Security in 21st Century Asia , ed. Muthiah Alagappa (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), 135, 148...nuclear weapons to the Asia -Pacific region in response to contingencies.44 All of this is en- abled by a diverse set of weapons and delivery systems...policy today, see Keith B. Payne’s The Great American Gamble: Deterrence Theory and Practice from the Cold War to the Twenty-First Century (Fairfax

  2. DoD Nuclear Weapons Personnel Reliability Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    DOD INSTRUCTION 5210.42 DOD NUCLEAR WEAPONS PERSONNEL RELIABILITY ASSURANCE Originating Component: Office of the Under Secretary of...from the DoD Issuances Website at http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives. Reissues and renames: DoD Instruction 5210.42, “ Nuclear Weapons Personnel...direction for the management of individuals assigned to perform specified duties associated with U.S. nuclear weapons, nuclear command and control (NC2

  3. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  4. Granular analyzing of weapon SoS demand description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qingsong; Yang Kewei; Chen Yingwu; Li Mengjun

    2009-01-01

    The systematism of weapon combat is the typical characteristic of a modern battlefield. The process of combat is complex and the demand description of weapon system of systems (SOS) is difficult. Granular analyzing is an important method for solving the complex problem in the world. Granular thinking is introduced into the demand description of weapon SoS. Granular computing and granular combination based on a relation of compatibility is proposed. Based on the level of degree and degree of detail, the granular resolution of weapon SoS is defined and an example is illustrated at the end.

  5. ON THE OFFENSE: USING CYBER WEAPONS TO INFLUENCE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fendley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing recognition that cyber warfare is an important area of development for targeting and weaponeering, with far-reaching effects in national defense and economic security. The ability to conduct effective operations in cyberspace relies on a robust situational awareness of events occurring in both the physical and information domains, with an understanding of how they affect the cognitive domain of friendly, neutral, and adversary population sets. The dynamic nature of the battlefield complicates efforts to understand shifting adversary motivations and intentions. There are very few approaches, to date, that systematically evaluate the effects of the repertoire of cyber weapons on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics of the adversary. In this paper, we describe a software environment called Cognitive Cyber Weapon Selection Tool (CCWST that simulates a scenario involving cyber weaponry.This tool provides the capabilities to test weapons which may induce behavioral state changes in the adversaries. CCWST provides the required situational awareness to the Cyber Information Operations (IO planner to conduct intelligent weapon selection during weapon activation in order to induce the desired behavioral change in the perception of the adversary. Weapons designed to induce the cognitive state changes of deception, distraction, distrust and confusion were then tested empirically to evaluate the capabilities and expected cognitive state changes induced by these weapons. The results demonstrated that CCWST is a powerful environment within which to test and evaluate the impact of cyber weapons on influencing cognitive behavioral states during information processing.

  6. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  7. Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons.

  8. Environmental Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott

    2016-06-01

    Environmental sensing of nuclear activities has the potential to detect nuclear weapon programs at early stages, deter nuclear proliferation, and help verify nuclear accords. However, no robust system of detection has been deployed to date. This can be variously attributed to high costs, technical limitations in detector technology, simple countermeasures, and uncertainty about the magnitude or behavior of potential signals. In this article, current capabilities and promising opportunities are reviewed. Systematic research in a variety of areas could improve prospects for detecting covert nuclear programs, although the potential for countermeasures suggests long-term verification of nuclear agreements will need to rely on methods other than environmental sensing.

  9. Millimeter Wave Radar Applications to Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    ocity, and azimuth and elevation arRles ; assignment of target to L weapon for engagement; and assessment of the damage by the indication of cessa- tion...paper. 29 D.E. Gray, American institute of Physics Handbook ," McGraw-Hill, New S~York, 1957. --. . - - . .A • -•• =_ . . . . •,,- - - The complex...B-13) is the target-to-clutter power ratio. I. 41I 7 Handbook of Mathematical Functions, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards

  10. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  11. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    2012) Steyr 15.2 mm 35 g 1450 m/s 39.6 lb 11.4 Burns (2012) Type 97 (Japanese) 20 mm 162 g 790 m/s 130 lb 28.7 Burns (2012) 12HB00 ( Remington ...shotgun 0.727 in 807 gr (12 × 00) 1225 ft/s 7.0 lb 4.37 Remington (2011) Remington Express 12B0 shotgun 0.727 in 580 gr (12 × 0) 1275 ft/s...7.0 lb 3.28 Remington 5 Table 3. Recoil-related characteristics of selected shoulder-fired weapons cited in table 1. Nomenclature

  12. Postulated accident scenarios in weapons disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of three postulated accident scenarios for weapons disassembly is provided in the paper. The first deals with a tetrahedral configuration of four generic pits; the second, an infinite planar array of generic pits with varying interstitial water density; and the third, a spherical shell with internal mass suspension in water varying the size and mass of the shell. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code MCNP4A. Preliminary calculations pointed to a need for higher resolution of small pit separation regimes and snapshots of hydrodynamic processes of water/plutonium mixtures.

  13. [Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Heidi; Kinnunen, Paula M; Nikkari, Simo

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is a flaccid paralysis in which consciousness and nociception are preserved. Natural botulism typically results from ingestion of inadequately heated or unheated vacuum-packed foods. In addition, botulinum toxin is one of the most feared biological weapons. In the diagnosis and treatment of botulism early suspicion is essential. Several coinciding or local clusters without a typical connecting source, or an uncommon type of toxin may indicate an intentionally caused epidemic.

  14. The Regulation of the Possession of Weapons at Gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter du Toit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dangerous Weapons Act 15 of 2013 provides for certain prohibitions and restrictions in respect of the possession of a dangerous weapon and it repeals the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 as well as the different Dangerous Weapons Acts in operation in the erstwhile TBVC States. The Act also amends the Regulation of Gatherings Act 205 of 1993 to prohibit the possession of any dangerous weapon at a gathering or demonstration. The Dangerous Weapons Act provides for a uniform system of law governing the use of dangerous weapons for the whole of South Africa and it furthermore no longer places the onus on the individual charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon to show that he or she did not have any intention of using the firearm for an unlawful purpose. The Act also defines the meaning of a dangerous weapon. According to our court’s interpretation of the Dangerous Weapons Act 71 of 1968 a dangerous weapon was regarded as an object used or intended to be used as a weapon even if it had not been designed for use as a weapon. The Act, however, requires the object to be capable of causing death or inflicting serious bodily harm if it were used for an unlawful purpose. The possession of a dangerous weapon, in circumstances which may raise a reasonable suspicion that the person intends to use it for an unlawful purpose, attracts criminal liability. The Act also provides a useful set of guidelines to assist courts to determine if a person charged with the offence of the possession of a dangerous weapon had indeed intended to use the weapon for an unlawful purpose. It seems, however, that the Act prohibits the possession of a dangerous weapon at gatherings, even if the person carrying the weapon does not intend to use it for an unlawful purpose. The state will, however, have to prove that the accused had the necessary control over the object and the intention to exercise such control, as well as that the object is capable of

  15. Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D

    2008-10-01

    The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

  16. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  17. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that a new health technology, automated dose-dispensing (ADD), would result in benefits for medication users, including increased compliance, enhanced medication understanding, and improved safety. However, it was legislators and health professionals who pinpointed......' handling and consumption of medication in terms of compliance behavior, and how does the assumption of user benefits made by health professionals and legislators measure up to users' experiences with ADD? METHODS: The results built on a secondary analysis of 9 qualitative interviews with a varied selection...... the more frequent type of behavior. After switching to ADD, most users experienced no change in understanding of their medications. ADD did not lead to automatic removal of old medications in users' homes; in fact for some users, ADD led to even larger medication stockpiles. Overall, reports from patients...

  18. 25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in...

  19. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  20. 14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against carriage of weapons... Flight Operations § 135.119 Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on board an aircraft being operated by a certificate holder, carry on or about that person a deadly or dangerous...

  1. 32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section..., Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition...

  2. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly...

  3. Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

    2011-01-01

    As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marta Feldmesser, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of...Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0085 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  5. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-07-21

    This report, for June 1961 from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations; facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and safety and security.

  6. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for September 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-10-21

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for September 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  7. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  8. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  9. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  10. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  11. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  12. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  13. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation of privately owned weapons and... owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time,...

  14. 32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives or other devices defined...

  15. 32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552..., Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other devices defined in this subpart, that are...

  16. Annual Report to The President and The Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (2nd). II. Toward a National Strategy for Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1960s, when Egypt used chemical weapons during its involvement in the Yemeni civil war. At that time, Israel’s parliament, the Knesset, passed a law...gives a review of open source intelligence ( OSINT ). This includes local, national and international media reports and trends and milestones that have a...Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism Early Warning Group (TEW) OSINT Indications & Warning

  17. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory JOWOG 31 Weapons Engineering Education & Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domzalski, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-03

    The objectives of this report are to recruit talented staff, invest in new and early/mid career staff, retain trained and talented staff and future leaders, and shorten the ~5-10 year time line to realize new Weaponeers.

  19. Hamburgian weapon delivery technology: a quantitative comparative approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2010-01-01

    The pioneer human re-colonisation of Southern Scandinavia after the Last Ice Age began some time around 12,700 calendar years BC and is associated with the Hamburgian techno-complex. These groups were reindeer hunters whose hunting weapons were tipped with the eponymous shouldered points (pointes á...... cran). Numerous studies have addressed the question of whether these points tipped arrows fired from bows, darts launched with the help of spear-throwers, or some other projectile delivery weapon. This paper approaches the question of Hamburgian weapon delivery technology from a quantitative...... comparative angle. Lithic metric data as well as information on presumed Hamburgian projectile shafts are used to demonstrate that the bow-and-arrow was the most likely weapon delivery method. This is reflected in the shape similarity with both later prehistoric arrow-points and shafts of the Ahrensburgian...

  20. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  1. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  2. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  3. Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    on Fissile Materials http://www.fissilematerials.org/ipfm/ site_down/gfmr07.pdf; SIPRI Yearbook 2007. The International Panel on Fissile Materials...State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband told the Charlie Rose Show December 15, 2008, that Islamabad’s nuclear weapons “are under...Weapons in Pakistan,” Pakistan Security Research Unit Brief Number 22, University of Bradford, November 18, 2007. Available at http://spaces.brad.ac.uk

  4. Application of a Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Weapon Target Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    targets by simply optimizing the total ‘ cost ’ of all assignments (in the WTA case the cost relates to the threat minimisation benefit). LAPs can...an inbound missile or as a weapons system about to launch a missile. Such an approach requires a high degree of situational awareness [14], whereas... costs . 3.1 Static Weapon Target Assignment using Exhaustive Enumeration As previously mentioned, since there is no exact solution to determining the

  5. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    performance, reliability , etc. may require additional weapons and spare barrels. d. Whenever a certain minimum number of weapons is specified in...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Small Arms Systems Division (TEDT-AT-FP-S) US Army Aberdeen Test Center 400 Colleran Road Aberdeen...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), AD No.: This TOP supersedes

  6. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  7. The Design of Drainage System for External Floating Roof Tank in International Stockpile Project%浅谈国际储备库浮顶排水系统的设计选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭可昕

    2012-01-01

    Large external floating roof storage tank is widely used in petroleum,chemical,civil construction,transportation,metallurgy,national defense and other important fields.Central drainage system is the main accessory for external floating roof tank,its analysis and comparison of structure and type are important for the tank design.The paper summarized the design of central drainage system for external floating roof tank in international stockpile project.%大型外浮顶储罐广泛应用于石油、化工、市政建设、交通、冶金、国防等领域。中央排水系统是外浮顶罐的主要附件,其结构类型的分析和比较是储罐设计中的重要问题。文章综述了在国内一国际储备库项目中,外浮顶罐中央排水系统的设计选用。

  8. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  9. The tale of the shrinking weapon: seasonal changes in nutrition affect weapon size and sexual dimorphism, but not contemporary evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C W; McDonald, G C; Moore, A J

    2016-11-01

    Sexually selected traits are often highly variable in size within populations due to their close link with the physical condition of individuals. Nutrition has a large impact on physical condition, and thus, any seasonal changes in nutritional quality are predicted to alter the average size of sexually selected traits as well as the degree of sexual dimorphism in populations. However, although traits affected by mate choice are well studied, we have a surprising lack of knowledge of how natural variation in nutrition affects the expression of sexually selected weapons and sexual dimorphism. Further, few studies explicitly test for differences in the heritability and mean-scaled evolvability of sexually selected traits across conditions. We studied Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae), an insect where males use their hind legs as weapons and the femurs are enlarged, to understand the extent to which weapon expression, sexual dimorphism and evolvability change across the actual range of nutrition available in the wild. We found that insects raised on a poor diet (cactus without fruit) are nearly monomorphic, whereas those raised on a high-quality diet (cactus with ripe fruit) are distinctly sexually dimorphic via the expression of large hind leg weapons in males. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence of a potential for evolutionary change for any trait measured. Thus, although we show weapons are highly condition dependent, and changes in weapon expression and dimorphism could alter evolutionary dynamics, our populations are unlikely to experience further evolutionary changes under current conditions.

  10. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  11. Chemical Demilitarization-Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (Chem Demil-ACWA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    percent complete. Construction continues on the Munition Demilitarization Building (MDB), the Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) Processing...and shearing lines, two (2) neutralization system sampling stations, and three (3) Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) systems with aluminum

  12. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  13. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues. Russian Federation: Foreign Intelligence Service Report. A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    properties of fuel, neutron beam and also the skilled personnel and material resources experiments, the improvement of nuclear reactor needed for the...positive development. 600,000 tonnes. There are plants for the manufacture of reactor fuel. In the Area of Chemical and Biological Weapons Nuclear activity...spokesman delivered the following statement in early 1993: "The 3. The 5 megawatt research nuclear reactor in Yongbyon. DPRK has never had any chemical

  14. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve a...

  15. Chemical analysis of uranium-niobium alloys by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy at the sigma complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papin, Pallas A.

    2012-06-01

    Uranium-niobium alloys play an important role in the nation's nuclear stockpile. It is possible to chemically quantify this alloy at a micron scale by using a technique know as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. This report documents how this technique was used and how it is possible to reproduce measurements of this type. Discussion regarding the accuracy and precision of the measurements, the development of standards, and the comparison of different ways to model the matrices are all presented.

  16. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also pre...

  17. Challenges in the application of modular open system architecture to weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Jonathan; Rose, Leo; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The overarching objective for Flexible Weapons is to replace current inventory weapons that will not fully utilize the increased capabilities of 6th generation platforms, with a single weapons kit made up of flexible, open architecture components. Flexible Weapon will develop a common architecture to enable modular subsystems to achieve flexible weapons capability while allowing technology refresh at the pace of technology discovery in an affordable and sustainable design. The various combinations of weapons to address multiple missions must be 100% compatible with 6th generation delivery platforms (fighters, bombers, RPAs) and backwards compatible with 4th and 5th generation platforms.

  18. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  19. Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Glen I

    2012-08-01

    Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW.

  20. FEATURES ADMINISTRATIVE VIOLATIONS IN THE WEAPONS CIRCULATION SPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyatsa A. KODZOKOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any offense in the area of arms trafficking is the increased danger. On the one hand, the guilty person through weapons reinforces the illegality or even facilitates the commission of their illegal actions, on the other hand, these activities cause significant harm to individuals and society. Offences related to illicit trafficking in arms (activity without the necessary licenses and permits, for the most part involve criminal responsibility (Article 222 -..225 of the Criminal Code, etc., but some violations in this area is not covered by criminlaw. In these cases, the violators shall apply administrative sanctions (for example, when sending weapons, the illicit manufacture of pneumatic weapons, etc.. Specificity of weapons is that it is endowed with certain peculiar features of quality, depending on which branch of law regulates its turnover. Currently, the legal regime of weapons is regulated by several branches of law (civil, administrative, military, criminal, etc., Each of which considers it based on the specifics of its subject and method, and has its own legal framework, regulating the circulation of arms.

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  3. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  4. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  5. Earthquake Prevention and Disaster Reduction in the Nuclear Test Site and Nuclear Weapon Stockpiling Store%核试验场与核武器储库的防震减灾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秋文; 陈长林; 陈英方

    2004-01-01

    1998年6月美国能源部和国防部高级计划局联合美国紧急事务管理局,共同执行了一项美国核设施地震安全诊断计划,对全美32个重点基地、试验场、核潜艇停靠地、核武器储存地进行地震安全检查,包括评定地点的地震活动与地震危险,设施抗震工程易损性以及预测地震发生期间设施的保护措施。检查结果表明,发生过地震的地点有破损的迹象,一些地点有发生中等强度地震的

  6. Identification of the murder weapon by intricate patterned injury measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugibe, F T; Costello, J T

    1986-04-01

    Critical studies of an intricate blunt force injury pattern in a brutal homicide led to the identification of the murder weapon. A 50-year-old male was bludgeoned to death in his apartment during a robbery allegedly engineered by his daughter. Careful measurements and overlay construction of the wounds relative to the magazine catch, lanyard ring, magazine chamber, and butt of a 32-caliber Eistegui Hermanos fibar (España) automatic pistol led to the conclusion that either the alleged weapon or one identical to it caused the fatal injuries.

  7. Autonomous Weapon Systems and Risk Management in Hybrid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Katrine

    In recent years, the development of autonomous weapon systems and so-called ‘killer robots’, has caused a number of serious legal and ethical concerns in the international community, including questions of compliance with International Humanitarian Law and the Laws of Armed Conflict. On the other...... hand, governments and military services hope to develop game-changing technologies, that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’. In this paper, I wish to show how different and competing regimes of justification shape the technopolitical controversy and risk management of autonomous weapon systems...

  8. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 Avionics Modernization Program (C-130 AMP)The Air Force’s C-130 AMP standardizes the cockpit configurations and avionics for...GAO-06-391 Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-130 AMPC -130 AMP Program Technology Maturity All of the C-130 AMP’s six...Selected Major Weapon Programs Common Name: C-5 AMPC -5 Avionics Modernization Program (C-5 AMP)The Air Force’s C-5 AMP is the first of two major upgrades

  9. Historical Cost Growth of Completed Weapon System Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Management Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE. The project’s technical monitor is Jay Jordan, Technical Director of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency. Other...CGFs for development costs range from a low of 1.16 for the nine ship weapon systems reviewed in Asher and Mag- gelet (1984) to a high of 2.26 for six...to procurement) for each weapon system 2.26 (n = 6) 1.43 (n = 6) Not reported Asher and Maggelet (1984) Last SAR for program or December 1983 As of

  10. The cause and effect of exclusionary zoning within a jurisdiction, and, The stockpile of petroleum needed to contain OPEC's price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Marc H.

    In Part I, I model a jurisdiction where residents differ by income, and housing confers benefits on neighbors. By majority vote, residents choose minima on consumption of housing that differ by neighborhood, and they separate into neighborhoods by income. In practice, such laws take the form of minimum lot sizes, bans on multi-family units, building codes, and other restrictions. This policy maximizes a benefit-cost welfare criterion. Alternative policies include no minima and a uniform minimum citywide, based on libertarian and utilitarian welfare criteria, respectively. I compare the policies in terms of efficiency, implementability, and distributional consequences, and give numerical examples based on U.S. data. Willingness to pay for the benefit-cost optimum is convex in income. This helps to explain why neighborhood stratification by income has outpaced stratification of income itself in U.S metropolitan areas since 1970. In the examples, gains to a rich household are in the thousands and losses to the poor in the hundreds of dollars annually. In Part II, I estimate the stockpile of petroleum sufficient to contain a price shock perpetrated by the OPEC. I estimate world demand for petroleum such that the long run price elasticity exceeds that in the short run, and supply from non-OPEC producers with a similar kind of lagged response. Given this structure for elasticities, OPEC profits from sudden increases in price. I simulate interaction among consumers, non-OPEC producers, OPEC, and an International Energy Agency (IEA) that punishes OPEC by releasing oil onto the market. I endow the IEA with increasingly large stockpiles until they suffice to limit price shocks to specified levels. Every 5 reduction in the shock raises present-valued world GDP by about 650 billion. The IEA now has 1.4 billion barrels of petroleum, including 700 million in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A 3 billion barrel stockpile would suffice to reduce a 35 price shock to 20, raising

  11. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-20

    ameliorate or prevent symptoms is a primary concern in treating chemical casualties. This factor is essential to defusing the impact of a chemical...Research Aflatoxins O — + + O Weapon Clostridium botulinum toxins + + O — O Weapon Saxitoxin — + + O O Research Tetrodotoxin — + O — O Unknown...a very toxic compound found in castor beans. During the production of castor oil , bean mash with a 5 percent ricin content is produced. Recipes for

  12. A HOST PHASE FOR THE DISPOSAL OF WEAPONS PLUTONIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WERNER LUTZE; K. B. HELEAN; W. L. GONG - UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO RODNEY C. EWING - UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

    1999-01-01

    Research was conducted into the possible use of zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) as a host phase for storage or disposal of excess weapons plutonium. Zircon is one of the most chemically durable minerals. Its structure can accommodate a variety of elements, including plutonium and uranium. Natural zircon contains uranium and thorium together in different quantities, usually in the range of less than one weight percent up to several weight percent. Zircon occurs in nature as a crystalline or a partially to fully metamict mineral, depending on age and actinide element concentration, i.e., on radiation damage. These zircon samples have been studied extensively and the results are documented in the literature in terms of radiation damage to the crystal structure and related property changes, e.g., density, hardness, loss of uranium and lead, etc. Thus, a unique suite of natural analogues are available to describe the effect of decay of {sup 239}Pu on zircon's structure and how zircon's physical and chemical properties will be affected over very long periods of time. Actually, the oldest zircon samples known are over 3 billion years old. This period covers the time for decay of {sup 239}Pu (half-life 24,300 yr.) and most of its daughter {sup 235}U (half-life 700 million yr.). Because of its chemical durability, even under extreme geological conditions, zircon is the most widely used mineral for geochronological dating (7,000 publications). It is the oldest dated mineral on earth and in the universe. Zircon has already been doped with about 10 weight percent of plutonium. Pure PuSiO{sub 4} has also been synthesized and has the same crystal structure as zircon. However, use of zircon as a storage medium or waste form for plutonium requires further materials characterization. Experiments can either be conducted in laboratories where plutonium can be handled or plutonium can be simulated by other elements, and experiments can be done under less restricted conditions. The

  13. Experimental Study of Structure Shock Vibration in Soil Caused by Explosion of Conventional Weapons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jinji; XIE Qingliang; ZHAO Dayong

    2006-01-01

    When hitting underground structures directly or exploding in rock-soil media near underground structures,the conventional weapons with large charge weight will make underground structures be subjected to strong shock vibration and cause personal casualty and damage of precision electronic equipments.The shock vibration has become one of the cardinal killing means of weapons.However,the existing methods of predicting structure shock vibration are limited evidently.In this paper the coupling coefficient of acceleration in clayey soil is obtained firstly.Subsequently based on repeated experiments of chemical explosion,after dimension analysis and by using method of multivariate stepwise regression,the calculation formulae of shock vibration acceleration for the underground structure are obtained finally.The formulae consider top and side explosion respectively,taking into account the effects of penetration depth,charge weight,distance to explosion center,rock-soil media,size of structure and buried depth.They are easy to use with high practicability and degree of confidence,and can provide credible evidence for prediction of shock vibration and vibration isolating design of underground structure.

  14. 27 CFR 478.133 - Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.133 Section 478.133 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Records § 478.133 Records of transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons. The evidence specified in § 478.40(c), relating to transactions in semiautomatic assault weapons, shall be retained in...

  15. 27 CFR 478.153 - Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices manufactured or imported for the purposes of testing... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.153 Semiautomatic assault weapons and large capacity... weapon, and § 478.40a with respect to large capacity ammunition feeding devices, shall not apply to...

  16. 33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The water of Anaheim Bay Harbor between the east and west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal...

  17. 36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The... other weapons is prohibited unless: (1) In the possession of a Federal, state or local law...

  18. 76 FR 23515 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event... material and would add new event notification requirements on the theft or loss of enhanced weapons... ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (76 FR 6087) , the draft Regulatory Guide DG-5020, ``Applying for...

  19. 27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. 478.40 Section 478.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons. (a) Prohibition. No person shall manufacture, transfer, or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of paragraph (a)...

  20. 76 FR 6199 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... February 3, 2011 Part II Nuclear Regulatory Commission 10 CFR Part 73 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background...-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications AGENCY: Nuclear... revisions in these implementing regulations that address the voluntary application for enhanced weapons...

  1. 49 CFR 1540.111 - Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries... § 1540.111 Carriage of weapons, explosives, and incendiaries by individuals. (a) On an individual's... individual may not have a weapon, explosive, or incendiary, on or about the individual's person or...

  2. 78 FR 2214 - Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks, and Security Event Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 RIN 3150-AI49 Enhanced Weapons, Firearms Background Checks... proposing to further revise its regulations that address the voluntary application for enhanced weapons... for preemption or enhanced weapon authority. Section 161A also mandates that all security...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440 Section 102-74.440 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law prohibits the possession of firearms or other...

  4. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  5. Metal Detector Searches: An Effective Means To Help Keep Weapons Out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Disagrees with Ferraraccio's views and argues that: (1) students do bring illegal weapons to school; (2) metal detectors do detect weapons and help schools to disarm students; (3) disarming students reduces the threat of violence; and (4) courts have repeatedly approved the constitutionality of weapon-related suspicionless student searches…

  6. Biological Weapons -- Still a Relevant Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    sunlight can weaken the effects and persistency of the chemical agents. 9 Winds can also send the agent in the wrong direction or even back onto the...and those in the area fell unconscious and were crushed to death. Then they were blown up in the air and hurled back to the ground. The roaring...include fever, coughing, headache, muscle or joint pain , sore throat, chills, fatigue, and running nose. These are not only symptoms from a potential

  7. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  8. Mitigation and propagation of sound generated by heavy weapons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Much environmental research is performed on predicting the noise impact of heavy weapons or explosives, as the shock waves can propagate over large distances. In the densely populated area of the Netherlands this is of particular interest for the Ministry of Defense. In one research program the miti

  9. Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola M. Ostojić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned air transport mules from IsraelSensor monitoring of land areaSatellite telescope Moiraorbital weapons "cosmic dome"Automat for frogmen from TulaHeckler & Koch HK XM25, smart grenade launcher

  10. An overview of the future of non-lethal weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J B

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, vast changes have occurred in the geopolitical landscape and the nature of the types of conflicts in which technologically developed countries have been involved. While the threat of conventional war remains, forces have been more frequently deployed in situations that require great restraint. Adversaries are often likely to be elusive and commingled with noncombatants. There has been some shift in public opinion away from tolerance of collateral casualties. Therefore there is a need to be able to apply force while limiting casualties. Non-lethal weapons provide part of the solution. Among the changes that will influence the future have been studies by the US and NATO concerning the use of non-lethal weapons, coincidental with increased funding for their development and testing. New concepts and policies have recently been formalized. Surprisingly, the most strident objections to the implementation of non-lethal weapons have come from organizations that are ostensibly designed to protect non-combatants. These arguments are specious and, while technically and academically challenging, actually serve to foster an environment that will result in the deaths of many more innocent civilians. They misconstrue technology with human intent. The reasons for use of force will not abate. Alternatives to bombs, missiles, tanks and artillery must therefore be found. Non-lethal weapons are not a panacea but do offer the best hope of minimizing casualties while allowing nations or alliances the means to use force in protection of national or regional interests.

  11. Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

    2014-01-01

    This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

  12. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  13. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  14. The Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Weapon Problem And Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglio, James R.

    1984-08-01

    An amendment to the 1984 Defense Authorization Act prevents testing against objects in space of an American F-15 launched anti-satellite weapon until the President certifies that the testing is necessary to prevent harm to the national security, and that he is willing to negotiate an ASAT treaty with the Soviet Union. This extraordinary action by the Congress was taken because many members of Congress feared that the weapon was being developed without due consideration for its impact on arms control, that temporary technical superiority was being given greater importance than the long-term security of the nation. This increased Congressional scrutiny could have an impact on future weapons development programs. "Now a crucial moment is really coming: Either the interested parties will sit down at the negotiating table without delay to begin drawing up a treaty prohibiting the placement in space of weapons of any kind, or the arms race will spill over into space." YURI ANDROPOV, April 28, 1983, in response to petition from American Scientists.

  15. Supply Chain Resilience: Assessing USAF Weapon System Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard ........................................................... 87 Bibliography...bolt that, in March 2000, struck a Philips semiconductor plant in Albuquerque, New Mexico , created a 10-minute blaze that contaminated millions of...strategic planning of weapon systems as they mature and progress through the life cycle. 87 Appendix E: Supply Chain Resilience Storyboard 88

  16. Are Weapons Searches in the Job Descriptions of Instructional Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author poses the question "Are weapons searches in the job descriptions of instructional leaders?" which brings to attention changing duties of school principals that were not faced by previous generations. The article reports observations made during time spent with a current high school principal.

  17. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  18. Power Systems and Energy Storage Modeling for Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    electron laser kW Kilo-watt LCS Littoral Combat Ship LAWS Laser Weapon System MLD Maritime Laser Demonstration MW Mega -watt NiMH Nickel metal...and various littoral combat ships. Also, an accurate, working model of the capacitor energy bank is being developed and the flywheel model is being

  19. Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

  20. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his se...

  1. Smart Weapons - Can We Fold the Nuclear Umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-17

    However, as a weapon of mass destruction, they present unique doctrina ! problems. Doctrine must address not only their military utility, but their...p. 3. 3. Ibid., p. 4. 4. United States Army TRADOC Regulation 525-58 (Final Draft), Airland Operations, Fort Monroe , VA, 1991, p. 3. 5. Buckley

  2. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  3. Science Based Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    available on NOVA. Further, the NIF is designed with 192 bea&Adpts (48 indepen- 37 The National Ignition Facility - 192 Beam Amplifier columns Main amplifier...science (- 5-500 MeV) and directed to the neutron target. The epithermal neutrons are still tightly bunched in time (some tens of u sec), so that the...is useful as a test-bed to address: "* beam intercept and other orbit dynamics issues for an APT "* more precise measurements of neutron yield and

  4. Grey Correlation Analysis on Main Factors Influencing the Shape of Blasted Stockpile Based on Weibull Model%基于Weibull模型的爆堆形态主要影响因素的灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮; 毕文广; 李红江; 师相; 李柄成

    2011-01-01

    露天矿爆破中爆堆形态的影响因素众多,为找出影响爆堆形态的主控因素,引入灰色关联理论,由于爆堆形态无法用数字参量表达,因此很难直接利用灰色关联理论对其进行计算,通过引入Weibull模型对实测爆堆形态曲线进行拟合计算,完成了爆堆形态参数的量化过程,并对黑岱沟露天煤矿的49组实例进行了灰色关联度计算,得到了各因素对爆堆形态影响的关联序列,并对其进行了分析。该研究对于露天矿爆堆形态的设计优化具有一定的指导意义。%There are many factors influencing the shape of blasted stockpile in the open -pit. In order to find the main influence factors, the grey correlation theory is introduced. However, it is difficult to calculate the shape of blasted stockpile directly using grey correlation theory due to it is unable to express the shape with digital parameters. In this paper, by leading into Weibull model, the fitting calculation of the actual shape curve of blasted stockpile was accomplished, which made quantification of parameters of blasted stockpile. The 49 examples from Heidaigou open -pit were calculated with grey correlation theory, correlativity sequence of influencing factors of the blasted stockpile shape was obtained, and the results were analyzed. The research has definited significance for optimizing the shape design of blasted stockpile in openpit.

  5. Completion of Akita Petroleum Storing Base and commencement of stockpiling; Akita sekiyu bichiku kichi no zenmen kansei to oil in ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    A report was made on the characteristics and the commencement of stockpiling of the Akita Petroleum Storing Base (Ojika City, Akita Prefecture; storing capacity 4,500,000kl) which was completed in June, 1995 with its overall operation started in July in the same year. This base is the only example that employed an underground tank system in the national storing bases in Japan. The following are described in the report. The crude oil tank, a reinforced concrete construction with 97m in diameter and 48m in underground depth, was built in a mudstone ground; as an underground tank system, it was required to have only one half of the tank diameter for the distance between tanks, and was a storing facility with a better area efficiency than an aboveground system; the oil stockpiling was commenced for 890,000kl in 1989, 2,010,000kl from 1992 through 1993 and 580,000kl in 1994, and a capability for a smooth release in emergency was confirmed; no abnormality was observed in the existing dispensing tank (aboveground type) at the time of the earthquake (seismic intensity: 5) in May, 1983; and so on. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  7. 美国生物防御对策研究与国家战略储备药物分析%U.S. bioterrorism countermeasures and strategic national stockpile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇玮祎; 余云舟; 孙志伟; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    To address the increasingly severe bio-terrorism threats, the United States government issued a series of regulations and research plans. In this article, we discussed American national biological defense strategies and their derivative plans based on the core of Project BioShield, including Department of Health and Human Service ( DHHS)/Biomedical Advanced R&D Authority(BARDA) biological terrorist response plan and budget plan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pathogens based top priority chemical, biological, rediological and nuclear (CBRN) threat countermeasures scheme and other important pathogenic organisms defense plans. Atter that, we also discussed the trend of research and development of the Strategical National Stockpile.%美国政府为应对日趋严峻的生物恐怖威胁,出台了一系列针对生化袭击的法规和研究计划.本文研究了以生物盾牌计划为核心的美国国家生物防御应对策略及其衍生计划,包括卫生与公众服务部( DHHS)/生物医学高级研究发展局(BARDA)生物恐怖应对计划及预算方案、以疾控中心(CDC)病原体清单为基础的顶级核化生威胁对策方案及其他重要病原体生物防御治疗研究计划等.分析了目前以上述研究为依托纳入国家战略储备体系的药物及研发趋势.

  8. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  9. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  10. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  11. Weapon Possession Among College Students: A Study From a Midwestern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunseok; Kang, Ji Hyon; Dierenfeldt, Rick; Lindsteadt, Greg

    2015-10-01

    Weapon possession on college campuses causes great concern, but there remains a lack of research examining the determinants of this phenomenon. Previous studies addressing weapon possession have primarily focused on either K-12 or the general adult population. Unlike previous studies, this study examined the weapon possession among college students using data collected from a mid-sized university in Missouri, and 451 students participated. Weapon possession and other theoretical factors were measured through the self-administered survey. Logistical regression analysis revealed that weapon socialization was the most significant factor in predicting student weapon carrying. Also, gender and age were significant factors in explaining campus-based weapon possession. This research has a limitation with generalizability because the data were collected from only a single university with convenient sampling. Future studies need to cover a wider range of college students from a variety of different universities with random sampling.

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  13. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): A Weapon Missing From the U.S. Department of Defense’s Vector Control Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Military Surgeons of the U.S. All rights reserved. MILITARY MEDICINE, 178, 3:243, 2013 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( DDT ): A Weapon Missing From the U.S...man owe as great a debt as to DDT .” That same committee concluded that in less than two decades of use, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( DDT ) had...prevented 500 million deaths from malaria.1 So, what has been the history of DDT use by the U.S. military? How did a chemical with such an amazing ability

  14. 75 FR 27854 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4048, Projected Sales of Major Weapons in Support of... Major Weapons in Support of Section 25(a)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act. OMB Control Number: 1405... projected sales of major weapons and weapons-related defense equipment (if $7M or more) and...

  15. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  16. Compilation of existing chemical agent guidelines table as of September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1998-08-01

    Public Law 99-145 requires the US Department of the Army to dispose of the lethal chemical agents and munitions stockpile stored at eight Army installations throughout the continental US and Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was greater than the threat from transportation and demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warfare agent munitions. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the US Army jointly coordinate and direct the CSEPP. The Compilation of Existing Chemical Agent Guidelines Table was developed under the direction of FEMA and the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). The purpose of this Table is to identify established chemical warfare agent guidelines, standards, and interim standards as of September 1997, and place them in an explanatory context for ready use by the CSEPP community. This Table summarizes and organizes information from numerous agencies and review bodies responsible for recommending exposure guidelines [e.g., The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Committee on Toxicology (COT), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), FEMA, Army and other federal agencies]. This Table provides references for the interested reader, but does not provide data and assumptions on which exposure guidelines were based, or comment on the rationale or appropriateness of the given values. To do so is beyond the scope of work for this task.

  17. [Contact neck gunshot wound without weapon--suicide or homicide?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, W; Ambach, E; Henn, R

    1992-01-01

    To support police in reenacting criminal acts is one of the most important functions of forensic investigation. This case report deals with the discovery of the corpse of a 42-year old man at the bank of the river Inn. First of all the man was supposed to be drowned, but the autopsy showed a gunshot wound of the neck and a shot-through of the brain-stem. Intensive search for the weapon by the police and by divers was unsuccessful and therefore suspicion of homicide arose. The reconstruction of the act at the site of discovery of the corpse led to the discovery of the weapon and the case became clear to be a suicide.

  18. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  19. Individual Combatant’s Weapons Firing Algorithm Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    supporting the USMC Virtual Technolgies Environment Program. This scenario is typical building clearing scenario that was designed by USMC SME. It may be...d. Wall Breaching. Wall breaching is a common combat task in built-up areas for which light recoilless ons can be used. Breachin mobil access to...to create loopholes for weapons positions or to allow hand grenades to be thrown into defended structures. Breaching holes for unit mobility should

  20. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  1. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  2. Advanced Naval Surface fire support weapon employment against mobile targets

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hung B.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Key threat trends have identified shortfalls in Naval Surface Fire Support (NSFS), a mission area that is undergoing rapid evolution. The Navy's ability to effectively provide sea-based fire support to ground forces is profoundly challenged by mobile and reduced dwell time targets. Furthermore, longer range enemy weapon systems, which must be destroyed at greater ranges prior to their engagement of friendly forces, will make NSFS timel...

  3. Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    64 OPTIMIZING SUSTAINMENT OF ARMY SYSTEMS 6 Chapter 1 - Optimizing the Sustainment of U.S. Army Weapon Systems In a paradigm shift from...past 13 years. The result has been the erosion of perishable maintenance skills. The Army must develop the most effective plan to sustain these...communities to study and effectively manage Army sustainment . One effort is the development of Maintenance Steering Groups (MSG) to perform extensive

  4. An overview of weapons technologies used to improve US healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Kovarik, T.L.

    1995-05-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories the Biomedical Engineering Program uses existing weapons-related technology in medical applications in order to reduce health care costs, improve diagnoses, and promote efficient health care delivery. This paper describes several projects which use Sandia technologies to solve biomedical problems. Specific technical capabilities that are important to this program include sensor data interpretation, robotics, lasers and optics, microelectronics, image processing and materials.

  5. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    1400 Wavelength (nm) 106 Reference line Cataract Erythema Photokeratitis Corneal burns Retinal burns Thermal skin burns 315280 30000 28 Figure 4... pigmentation of the skin (dark skin absorbs more). 5 Advantages and disadvantages of laser weapons One of the greatest advantages of the laser beam...phased array antennas, one HPMW could defend a ship against a concerted attack of many missiles, at least against those approaching from a fixed

  6. The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December 2008, the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism, released a report, World At Risk. The Report points to the fact that, not only is the use of a weapon of mass destruction in a terrorist attack before the end of 2013, more likely than not, but also to the fact that terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use biological weapons than nuclear. This paper examines the recommendations of the report in the context of the historic and geopolitical changes, in particular globalization. The authors highlight the "dual-use" dilemma, as described in the report, as the paradoxical use of technology developed for the benefit of mankind being used for sinister purposes. The mitigation of such a threat lies in broad stakeholder involvement and cooperation, including non-state actors, governments and the bio-tech industry itself. The importance of vigilance measures within the life science community is emphasized and, the authors propose, could include a web-based didactic course in bioterrorism and weapons of mass destruction identification. The site could outline safety protocols, have detailed disaster management tutorials, and could be specifically tailored for different subsets of industry and health professionals. The paper concludes with an endorsement of a multi-pronged approach including strong international guidelines and intelligence cooperation and preparatory measures such as the wide-spread use of detection systems as well as diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism detection at the local level.

  7. The sacred weapon: bow and arrow combat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the development of the bow and arrow, and its important role in the history of Iran. The bow always played an important role not only on the battlefield, but also in hunting. It was also considered as a sacred weapon and additionally a royal symbol. Bow and arrow were considered as a superior weapon in comparison with other types of weapons because one could fight with them at a safer distance as one offered by swords, maces and axes. The first part of the article presents a short history of the bow in Iran. Based on historical Persian manuscripts, the next part explains the structure of the composite bow and the materials used for making it. The third part describes some types of bows based on the material, place of production, the usage, and bow type based on the length of the bow and the arrows. The following part talks about different types of arrows based on morphology of arrowheads, the type of plume/feather, the material of the shaft, the material of the arrowhead, the length of arrows, the target of arrows, the place of production of arrowheads and terms for describing its different features of an arrowhead. Then, the article talks about different types of thumb rings, bowstrings, quivers and bow cases and arrow guides for shooting short arrows. The next part discusses different principles of archery as explained in Persian manuscripts. Finally the article describes different archery targets.

  8. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  9. Concepts on the fields and weapons of the competition model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Celso Contador

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the Fields and Weapons of the Competition Model has been publicized as a theoretical framework for many studies and, as such, it has appeared in a fragmented manner. Due to the level of consolidation the model has achieved, now is the time to present it integrally, so as to expose it to the appreciation of the scientific community dedicated to Corporate Strategy. Belonging to the Competitiveness theory and having scientific validity, the model is both qualitative and quantitative, and therefore presents some advantages over Porter’s model, as well as over the RBV and the Balanced Scorecard models. A simple idea has originated it: according to the customer’s interest, separating the so-called competitive advantages, so as to sort out those that interest him/her from those that do not. The first group consists of the fields of the competition; the latter corresponds to the weapons of the competition. The fields of the competition relate to the business´ competitive strategy, and the weapons of the competition related to the operational competitive strategies. This is the first of a series of three articles.

  10. Analysis of the design concept of 'Nora' family artillery weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas L. Paligorić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the NORA family started as far as back to 1976 at the Military Technical Institute of the Yugoslav's People's Army. The programme covered development of several types of the main artillery weapon: the 152 mm NORA-A towed gun-howitzer, the 152 mm NORA-B self-propelled gun-howitzer and the 152 mm gun-howitzer with APU. Under the same programme, the conversion of the Russian 130 mm towed gun M46 into the 155 mm M46/84 gun (for export needs and the 152 mm M46/86 gun respectively (for the needs of the YPA was completed. Only the 152 mm M84 (NORA-A towed howitzer was introduced in service, while the development of the NORA-B and NORA-C weapons was carried on until 1992. After it had been suspended for many years, the development of the NORAB weapon was continued in 2003, followed by serial production of the 155 mm NORA-B52 self-propelled system for the export needs.

  11. Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasjit Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature.Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped.The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is only meant to further the narrow self-interest of the nuclear weapon states and their allies.The World Court’s far-reaching 1996 advisory opinion concluded that almost any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons would violate international humanitarian law and law applicable in armed conflict, undermining most claims of nuclear weapon states regarding the legitimacy of possession, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The next logical step would be an initiative for a nuclear convention banning the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons in Asia and the adjoining oceans. But as long as the dominant elites in society and the nation-state believe in the utility of nuclear weapons for national security or as the currency of power, abolition of nuclear weapons will remain a mirage.

  12. CURRENT ISSUES IN THE RESEARCH OF COLD STEEL ARMS AND THROWING WEAPONS AND THEIR TRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meretukov G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article point out that the research of cold steel arms and their traces has been considered in detail in the studies of different criminologists. Unfortunately, many scientists, examining cold steel arms as the item of expertise, mainly paid attention to the knives, swords, daggers, etc., but few researchers considered crossbows as cold steel weapon. In accordance with part. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of Russia for illegal manufacture, alteration or repair of throwing weapons, as well as the illegal sale of throwing weapons (Art. 4, Art. 222 of the Criminal Code, criminal liability is stipulated. Thus, the authors agree with the opinions expressed in the literature according to which attention should be paid to the fuzzy wording of p. 4 Art. 222 of the Criminal Code and p. 4 Art. 223 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: "Cold steel weapons, including throwing weapons". Throwing weapons are not included in the number of cold steel arms; it is an independent type of weapon that is different from the cold steel by its technical characteristics. The common feature of cold steel arms and throwing weapons is striking of a target due to the muscle power of a man. The main difference is that there is no projectile with directional movement in cold steel arms and striking occurs due to the direct contact with the object. The definitions of these types of weapons are contained in the Federal Act "About Weapons"

  13. Girls and weapons: an international study of the perpetration of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Patricia G; Butters, Jennifer E; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; Korf, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe delinquent girls' weapons preferences where and how often they carried weapons and to identify the most important factors that explained four different weapon-related violent outcomes. A large, high-risk sample of female adolescents consisting of 510 girls aged 14-17 in four cities were interviewed using the same questionnaire and methods. Tabular and logistic regression analyses were applied. Knives emerged as the most frequently reported weapon in all cities. Rates of both lifetime victimization and perpetration of violence with weapons were high in all sites. Starting to carry a weapon as a result of violence was reported by 40% of the girls in Toronto, 28% in Philadelphia, 25% in Amsterdam, and 16% in Montreal. The major predictors of weapon perpetrated violent behaviours included ethnic origin, early onset of delinquent activities, participation in delinquent acts in the past 12 months, gang fighting and carrying a weapon as a result of violence. Site, age and heavy alcohol consumption had a minor impact, and drug use, drug selling, and neighborhood features, none. Despite numerous differences in weapons' prevalence across cities, the logistic regression found that site was only significant in use of an object (Toronto) and not significant in threatening or hurting someone with either a knife or a gun or actually hurting others with a weapon. These findings suggest commonality in serious female violence that extends beyond borders and cultures.

  14. Transport of Residual Nitrogen and Carbon through Intact Soil Cores Amended with Stockpiled Feedlot Manure with Wood-Chip or Straw Bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J J; Beasley, B W; Drury, C F; Hao, X; Larney, F J

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact of using wood chips instead of straw bedding with feedlot manure on transport and leaching potential from feedlot manure is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if transport of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and nonpurgeable organic C (NPOC) to subsurface soil was lower for soils amended with feedlot manure if combined with wood chips compared with straw. A secondary objective was to compare transport of N and NPOC with organic amendments versus inorganic fertilizer. Stockpiled feedlot manure (SM) with wood chip (SM-WD) or barley straw (SM-ST) bedding at 39 Mg (dry wt.) ha, and inorganic fertilizer (IN) at 100 kg N ha, was applied annually for 13 yr to a clay loam soil in a replicated field experiment in southern Alberta, Canada. Intact soil cores were taken in fall 2011 (0-30 cm depth) from the three treatments, and the residual N and NPOC were eluted from the soil cores. Total N, total organic N, and NPOC were determined on filtered (1.0 μm) effluent samples that are primarily dissolved fraction but may contain some small particulate N and C. Peak concentrations, flow-weighted mean concentrations, and mass loss of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and NPOC were significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower by 35 to 86% for SM-WD compared with SM-ST. Mean recoveries were also significantly lower for SM-WD than SM-ST by 0.07 to 8% (absolute difference). The transport behavior was similar for SM-WD and IN treatment, but solute transport was greater for SM-ST than for IN. Application of stockpiled feedlot manure with wood chips instead of straw bedding may be a beneficial management practice to reduce transport and leaching potential of N fractions and NPOC.

  15. M549A1 Projectile Delay Assembly Predictive Engineering Analysis in Support of the Ammunition Stockpile Reliability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    study on the propellant degradation kinetics (Bixon, 2001) resulted in reaction kinetic (Fogler, 2000, Levenspiel , 1972) models. The models were...34, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. 3. Octave Levenspiel , 1972, "Chemical Reaction Engineering", New York, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Nelson, Wayne, (1982), Applied...nitrodiphenylamine 2-2’ DNDPA 2-2’ dinitrodiphenylamine 2-4’ DNDPA 2-4’ dinitrodiphenylamine REFERENCES 1. Octave Levenspiel , 1972, "Chemical Reaction

  16. China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Geoffrey

    2008-04-01

    Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly

  17. Fieldable Fourier Transform Spectrometer: System Construction, Background Variability Measurements, and Chemical Attack Warning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Batishko, Charles R.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Schultz, John F.

    2002-10-01

    The infrared sensors task at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development will include detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology relevant to these primary missions is also likely to be useful for battlefield chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemical weapons destruction facilities or industrial chemical plants, and law enforcement applications. PNNL will seek to serve organizations with direct interest in these missions through collaborative research and development efforts approved by NA-22. During FY02, PNNL began assembling a remote IR detection capability that would allow field experiments to be conducted. The capability consists of a commercially available FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) emission spectrometer and a frequency-modulation differential-absorption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) system being developed at PNNL. To provide environmental protection for these systems, a large, well insulated, temperature controlled trailer was specified and procured. While the FTIR system was field-ready, the FM-DIAL system required many modifications to prepare for field deployment. This document provides an overview of the FTIR system, summarizes the modifications made to the FM-DIAL system, and describes the salient features of the remote systems trailer.

  18. Detecting buried metallic weapons in a controlled setting using a conductivity meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Charles A; Schultz, John J; Murdock, Ronald A; Smith, Stephen A

    2011-05-20

    Forensic personnel may face a daunting task when searching for buried weapons at crime scenes or potential disposal sites. In particular, it is common to search for a small firearm that was discarded or buried by a perpetrator. When performing forensic searches, it is recommended to first use non-invasive methods such as geophysical instruments to minimize damage to evidence and to the crime scene. Geophysical tools are used to pinpoint small areas of interest across a scene for invasive testing, rather than digging large areas throughout the site. Prior to this project, there was no published research that tested the utility of the conductivity meter to search for metallic weapons such as firearms and blunt and sharp edged weapons. A sample comprised of 32 metallic weapons including firearms, blunt and sharp edged weapons, and scrap metals was buried in a controlled setting to test the applicability of a conductivity meter for forensic searches. Weapons were tested at multiple depths and after data collection was performed for one depth, the weapons were reburied 5 cm deeper until they were no longer detected. Variables such as weapon size, burial depth, transect interval spacing (25 and 50 cm), and metallic composition were tested. All of the controlled variables influenced maximum depth of detection. For example, size was a factor as larger weapons were detected at deeper depths compared to smaller weapons. Metal composition affected maximum depth of detection as the conductivity meter detected items comprised of ferrous metals at deeper depths than non-ferrous metals. Searches for large buried items may incorporate a transect interval spacing of 50 cm but small weapons may be undetected between transects and therefore a transect interval spacing of 25 cm is recommended. Overall, the conductivity meter is a geophysical tool to consider when searching for larger-sized metallic weapons or to use in conjunction with an all-metal detector, particularly when

  19. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  20. Security after the revolutions of 1989 and 1991: The future with nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Political scientists typically view weapons within the realm of effects, not within the realm of cause. That is, weapons are a consequence of the great causal factors in international relations. Insecurity is the most important of these factors; it follows from the uneven distribution of power among states, the security dilemma, and the ever-present possibility that violence will be used to settle disagreements because there is no higher authority above states capable of enforcing rules. According to this logic weapons cause neither war nor peace. They are simply tools that states use to gain a share of the scarcest commodity - security - by fighting other states or by threatening to do so if necessary. Nuclear weapons are a product of great industrial capabilities, knowledge, and other resources. The United States and the Soviet Union had the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons because they were superpowers, not the other way around. On this logic, nuclear weapons reflect and reinforce a distribution of power that would exist in their absence. As the distribution of power among states changes, the status of nuclear weapons in the world will also change in a way that reflects the more fundamental causes that continue to drive state-state relationships in an anarchic world. In this chapter the author treat nuclears weapons within the realm of great causes. Arguing that nuclear weapons were a fundamental cause in bringing the Cold War, and with it the last vestiges of bipolarity, to an end. International life in the 1990s will not be the same as it was between 1945 and 1989. Will it be more like the multipolar world of the 1800s, with nuclear weapons simply grafted on the way other new weapons innovations have been in the past? That is not expected because nuclear weapons have altered the fundamental causal forces that drove previous international systems from peace to war and back again. 21 refs.

  1. Examination of Economic Feasibility of Nuclear Weapons in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Yim, Man Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This observation implies that the popular view on nuclear weapons amongst Korean public is in part due to lack of knowledge about overall implications of possessing nuclear weapons. In this regard, pros and cons of nuclear weapons development need to be better characterized and understood by the public to support nuclear nonproliferation culture development. Noting lack of literature on characterizing the economics of nuclear weapons development, this study aims at performing economic feasibility analysis of nuclear weapons development in the ROK. For this purpose, an approach called Index technique based on the US experiences was applied to Korean historical data along with cost-benefit analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis. In this study, the scenario of nuclear weapons development against North Korean nuclear threat was compared with conventional weapons-based defense strategy. The comparison was based on cost benefit analysis and qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis. Results indicate that nuclear weapons development is not a desirable option. However, as this work was a rather simplistic academic exercise, further work is needed to support the outcome of the study. Outcome of these investigations would be useful for communication with the public regarding the need for nuclear weapons for national defense and to develop nuclear nonproliferation culture in the ROK.

  2. The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-07-30

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence.

  3. Analysis method on shoot precision of weapon in small-sample case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Jun; Song Baowei; Liang Qingwei

    2007-01-01

    Because of limits of cost, in general, the test data of weapons are shortness. It is always an important topic that to gain scientific results of weapon performance analyses in small-sample case. Based on the analysis of distribution function characteristics and grey mathematics, a weighting grey method in small-sample case is presented. According to the analysis of test data of a weapon, it is proved that the method is a good method to deal with data in the small-sample case and has a high value in the analysis of weapon performance.

  4. The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco, seeks to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) that will extend from the US-Mexican border to Antarctica`s territorial boundaries, including large areas of open ocean. Under the treaty, signatory states pledge not to test, use, produce, manufacture or acquire nuclear weapons; to use nuclear materials and facilities {open_quotes}exclusively for peaceful purposes;{close_quotes} and not to permit the stationing or development of nuclear weapons on their territories.

  5. Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

    Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

  6. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  7. Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon%Variable-mass Thermodynamics Calculation Model for Gas-operated Automatic Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建彬; 吕小强

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that the energy and mass exchange phenomena exist between barrel and gas-operated device of the automatic weapon, for describing its interior ballistics and dynamic characteristics of the gas-operated device accurately, a new variable-mass thermodynamics model is built. It is used to calculate the automatic mechanism velocity of a certain automatic weapon, the calculation results coincide with the experimental results better, and thus the model is validated. The influences of structure parameters on gas-operated device' s dynamic characteristics are discussed. It shows that the model is valuable for design and accurate performance prediction of gas-operated automatic weapon.

  8. Tank Weapon System Management. A Program for Maximum Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-19

    flow is minimal and positive. Authorizations: Current Proposed 76D10 9100 (8571) 8850 (81%) 76D20 1400 (15%) 1650 (19,) RECOMMENDATION: Etab &~h Mte...weapon system. RECOIMENtrATION: Etab &6h a Ppon4ive, ,ositve technicat c nnee to puvidc gqudaince and to kece u Jeedbacia on’ tank .6upp’PX irazteuL...System. An integrated group of procedures, methods, policies and may include the computer(s) and its software which is used to obtain, process and analyze

  9. Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

  10. Transfer alignment of shipborne inertial-guided weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Changyue; Deng Zhenglong

    2009-01-01

    The transfer alignment problem of the shipborne weapon inertial navigation system (INS) is addressed. Specifically, two transfer alignment algorithms subjected to the ship motions induced by the waves are discussed. To consider the limited maneuver level performed by the ship, a new filter algorithm for transfer alignment methods using velocity and angular rate matching is first derived. And then an improved method using integrated velocity and integrated angular rate matching is introduced to reduce the effect of the ship body flexure. The simulation results show the feasibility and validity of the proposed transfer alignment algorithms.

  11. Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. C, B, R, or N: The Influence of Related Industry on Terrorists’ Choice in Unconventional Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Alexandra Tishler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores which factors, given that a terrorist has crossed the threshold over conventional weapons and into using unconventional ones such as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN, will determine the likelihood that he/she chooses to use C, B, R, or N weapons. Relying primarily on data from the incident-based Monterey WMD Database, it employs multinomial logit regression with C, B, R, or N as a categorical dependent variable: a first within the relevant econometric literature. Fundamentally, the study tests the widely-held—although empirically unsubstantiated—technological deterministic assumption that the more readily CBRN technology, materials, and knowledge are accessible to terrorists, the more likely terrorists will be to use unconventional weapons of the corresponding kind: a relationship hypothesized to be stronger for serious attack perpetrators than for hoaxers. Next, the study tests the notion of a continuum of proliferation potential, hypothesizing that as states’ regulatory capacity increases, biological terrorism will be most likely and nuclear terrorism will be least likely. Finally, the study assesses variables that have previously been proven as significant determinants of CBRN over conventional terrorism, to provide the groundwork for future evaluation of the extent to which terrorists may be induced to pursue C, B, R, or N over conventional weapons. Cette étude explore les facteurs, en supposant qu'un terroriste ait franchi le seuil des armes traditionnelles en utilisant des armes non traditionnelles comme les armes chimiques, biologiques, radiologiques et nucléaires (CBRN, qui détermineront la possibilité qu'il/elle choisisse d'utiliser les armes C, B, R ou N. En s'appuyant sur des données primaires de la base de données Monterey WMD, elle se sert d'une régression logit multinomial avec C, B, R ou N comme une variante dépendante catégorique : il s'agit d'une première pour la

  13. Chemical Processing Department monthly report for June 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-07-22

    This report, from the Chemical Processing Department at HAPO for June 1963, discusses the following: Production operation; Purex and Redox operation; Finished products operation; maintenance; Financial operations, facilities engineering; research; and employee relations; weapons manufacturing operation; and power and crafts operation.

  14. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  15. Annual summary engineering at LLNL 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimolitsas, S

    1998-07-01

    Established in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of the world's premier applied-science national security laboratories. The primary mission of the Laboratory is to assure through the design, development, and stewardship of nuclear weapons, that the nation's stockpile remains safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. National security is a principal integrating theme at LLNL--with stockpile stewardship, nonproliferation and arms control, and Department of Defense projects its major elements. The Stockpile Stewardship Program, the primary Laboratory program, is a science-based versus testing-based approach to maintaining stockpile safety and reliability. The idea is to replace weapons development and nuclear testing with weapons life extension and intensive computational and experimental research to provide the fundamental understanding necessary to ensure nuclear weapons safety, performance, and maintenance. Stockpile stewardship is enhanced and complimented by a second pillar of national security at the Laboratory: countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction. In the broad areas comprising nonproliferation, arms control, and international assessments, the growth of new technologies has been exponential at LLNL. Our ability to produce advanced microsensors--from scientific concept to working field model--is just one of the many contributions LLNL has made to the nation in counter proliferation against nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In addition, LLNL's unique competencies developed in support of its national security mission have become an important resource for U.S. industry and government. Programs include advanced defense technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and the basic sciences. Central to the Laboratory's success is its diverse, highly talented, and skilled workforce and its $4 billion capital invested in plant and research facilities

  16. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  17. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  18. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  19. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, H

    2011-03-03

    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  20. The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin

    2006-05-01

    The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

  1. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  2. Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations.

  3. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  4. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  5. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  6. 36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto...

  7. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    precision is not required, an inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) could be used to deliver a HEMP weapon over 7,000 miles away.72 Finally, if the...STATEMENT. Use agency-mandated availability statements to indicate the public availability or distribution limitations of the report. If additional...9 HEMP Weapons ...................................................................................................................... 10 NNEMP

  8. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Khan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear We

  9. Preparing for Response to a Nuclear Weapon of Mass Destruction, Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    57 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...58 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...Command, (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 2005), PM 2- 5. 59 Ibid, PM 2-9. 60 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX

  10. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2010-01-01

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in th

  11. 77 FR 55195 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Weapons Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Weapons Systems Training Facility Boardman, OR AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice... and proposed DoN and Oregon National Guard training and testing activities at Naval Weapons...

  12. Trends in weapon-related injuries from violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark 1991-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luef, Stefan Møller; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Faergemann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the development in incidence rates and the severity of weapon-related physical interpersonal violence in Odense Municipality, Denmark from 1991 to 2009. METHODS: All victims of physical interpersonal violence with weapon-related injuries treated...... at the Emergency Department in the 1991-2009 period at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and/or subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in the 1991-2009 period at the University of Southern Denmark were included. Incidence rates were estimated following stratification by gender...... rate was 4.8 per 1,000 victims in males and 29.1 per 1,000 victims in females. More than half (57%) of the homicides were caused by lesions due to sharp weapons. CONCLUSION: Weapon-related injuries are rare in the Odense Municipality. The incidence rate of weapon-related violence did not increase...

  13. Environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, M.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Ledbetter-Ferrill, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the approach used in the preparation of a Handbook for the Corps of Engineers, Huntsville Division, on the environmental chemistry of chemical warfare agents. The agents GB and HD will be used to illustrate the type of information in the report. Those readers interested in the full report should contact Mr. Arkie Fanning, Huntsville Corps of Engineers at (505) 955-5256. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) has identified approximately 7,200 formerly used defense sites (FUDS) in the United States, some of which are suspected to be contaminated with chemical warfare agents (CWA). The ACE has responsibility for environmental clean-up of FUDS, including site characterization, evaluation and remediation of the site. Thirty-four FUDS and 48 active DOD installations that may contain CWA were identified in an Interim Survey and Analysis Report by the USACMDA Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Material (NSCM). The chemical agents listed include sulfur mustard (H), lewisite (L), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), VX, hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK), phosgene (CG), BZ, and CS.

  14. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1125 - Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small Arms Range, Ventura County, California...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1125 Pacific Ocean Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, Small... enforced by personnel attached to the Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, California, and by such...

  16. 20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may disqualify certain claimants from receiving benefits under... Special Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers § 30.615 What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...

  17. Crude oil underground stockpiling projects being completed. ; First underground rock-bed tank in Japan. Kansei majikana chika sekiyu bichiku project. ; Nippon de saisho no chika ganban tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokimasa, H. (Japan Natinal Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Makita, T. (Japan Underground Oil Storage Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-15

    Three crude oil underground stockpiling projects in Japan were outlined. The cavity was dug in base rock below underground water level to store crude oil in it as dug. The water sealing system by natural or artificial underground water pressure was adopted to prevent from water leakage, and the most stable egg figure was also adopted for the cavity cross section. In the Kuji area, Iwate-Pref., the water sealing tunnel and boring were constructed over the cavity before main digging to keep an underground water level and decrease a rock permeability because of more permeable base rock including a large amount of cracks. In the Kikuma area, Ehime-Pref., since there are an oil refinery and many residents near the Cavity, various environmental measures were necessary in digging. In the Kusikino area, Kagoshima-Pref., since a new fault was found during digging, the cross section figure was modified, and grouting was also adopted because of a large amount of spring water. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. How to Make Historical Surveys of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    2003-05-01

    In 1998 SKI initiated a project in order to make a historical survey of the Swedish nuclear weapons research during the period 1945-2000. The survey is now fulfilled and contains of three reports. IAEA became interested in the project and accepted it in 2000 as a support program to increase transparency and to support the implementation of the Additional Protocol in Sweden. In the eyes of IAEA, the most important aim is to create knowledge and refine tools to enhance the means to strengthen the Safeguard System within the Additional Protocol. Other countries have now showed interest to follow the Swedish example and to make their own reviews of the nuclear energy and nuclear weapons research of their pasts. A co-operation between Sweden, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia has now been initiated in order to make such historical reviews. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate is the initiator and financial supporter of the project. The cooperation project has three comprehensive goals: a. to create transparency in the nuclear energy field of the past. The intention is that the results of the conducted studies could be attached to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol in order to enhance transparency b. to account for the nuclear material traffic of the past and; c. to develop the competence in nuclear energy matters in general, and in particular, to extend the knowledge regarding each participating State's nuclear experience in the past. The first purpose of this paper is to describe the project and its aims. The second purpose is to present a general model of how a historical review of a State's nuclear related activities and nuclear weapons research can be designed. The model has been created in order to serve as a guide for other countries strengthening of their safeguards systems in the framework of the Additional Protocol. The third purpose is to present the pedagogy that has been used as a teaching method in order to train

  19. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  20. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.