WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical wastes

  1. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste. PMID:27620094

  2. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  3. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety.

  5. Chemical waste management in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in Hong Kong, the control of chemical wastes is provided for in the Waste Disposal Ordinance. The enabling regulations of the Ordinance are presently being drafted and will be enforced in the near future. Presently, because of the lack of legislative control together with a general lack of knowledge on chemical wastes (such as mineral oils and fuel oils) and the unavailability of suitable treatment facilities, the majority of the chemical wastes generated are being discharged into the sewers or drains. In order that the control regulations can function effectively, it is decided that a Chemical Waste Treatment Center (CWTC) has to be provided by Government to ensure that the proper treatment facilities are available to the industry in the first place. As the majority of the chemical waste producers in Hong Kong are small generators, it is envisaged that most of these waste generators will have to rely on the CWTC for the proper treatment of their chemical wastes. The CWTC will also provide a waste collection service to collect and transport the chemical wastes from the industrial establishments to the CWTC. The waste generators are required to provide sufficient interim storage for their waste prior to their collection

  6. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system

  8. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  9. Instructive of chemical residues waste administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instructive is established for the waste management system of chemical residues generated at the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, separation, transportation, reuse, recycling and final disposal. The laboratory waste management system is conditioned to the volume and type of waste generated. The respective procedures are listed in data sheets according to the corresponding model: avoid, reduce, recycle, treat, delete. The materials are identified as: expired products, materials or damaged products, substances that have lost some of the required characteristics, waste from the regular activities of the lab, unused products that now no longer used because they are considered inadequate. The chemicals reagents or hazardous are transformed into small amounts of derivatives safe products, or less hazardous, to allow for removal or to pick up a spill of these without problem

  10. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  11. Chemicals and Allied Products Waste Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse.

  12. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  13. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject...

  14. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  15. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... above the waste disposal unit liner and above a secondary installed liner. This design is recommended... the sides and under the bottom of the waste disposal unit liner. This type of system works best when... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.75 Chemical waste landfills. This section applies to facilities used...

  16. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  17. BASIS FOR DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL STABILITY and COMPATIBILITY OF SOLID WASTE CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY TECHNICAL BASIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid wastes must be managed to prevent inadvertent reactions, explosion and degradation of waste containers per the ''Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303). An understanding of chemical compatibility principles and a consistent approach for implementing compatibility requirements is essential for complying with the regulations. This document explains the technical basis for ensuring chemical compatibility for solid wastes that are stored on site at on-site TSD facilities and for solid waste that will go to off-site TSD facilities. The document applies directly to the following aspects of chemical compatibility: (1) Ensuring that hazardous waste is not chemically reactive or unstable such that it cannot be safely transported or stored; (2) Ensuring that lab packs (i.e., drums containing multiple inner containers of differing types of hazardous waste) are packaged such that incompatible chemicals are not placed into the same drum; (3) Selecting containers and liners that are compatible with the waste they contain. This document does not cover individual TSD requirements, or specific offsite TSD requirements. This document does not cover chemical compatibility and segregation requirements for shipping wastes on-site or off-site. This document does not cover radiological hazards associated with radioactive waste or mixed wastes. Evaluation of compatibility for comingling and treating solid waste is beyond the scope of this document. In addition, heat generation and gas generation as they apply to the Hanford waste acceptance criteria are not covered in this document

  18. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report.

  19. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL's research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste

  20. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  1. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of Danish household waste was determined by two approaches: a direct method where the chemical composition (61 substances) of 48 material fractions was determined after hand sorting of about 20 tonnes of waste collected from 2200 households; and an indirect method where...... batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... method, because of the larger quantities included and the more homogenous material to sample from. Differences between the direct and the direct methods led to corrections in the of heavy metal concentration of a few fractions. The majority of the energy content of the waste originates from organic waste...

  2. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  3. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  4. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  5. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  6. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  7. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  8. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  9. Chemical Dewatering Technique of waste Polymer Drilling Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Zhu Muo

    1997-01-01

    @@ On the basis of the compositional analysis of waste polymer drilling fluid, we adopt chemical dewatering technique and thoroughly break down the colloid system of the drilling fluid. Having changed the surface properties of the clay particles and made the waste mud flocculate, the floc lost mud making ability and the phemeonenon of the floc returning mud is completely dispelled when it is buried. The recovered water can be reused in the mud system.

  10. CORROSION AND CHEMICAL WASTE IN SAWBLADES STEEL USED IN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools. It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust (moist mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepared and placed inside of the plastic box, hermetically closed, on the samples ofsteel, which were totally immersed. The box was placed in a water bath pre-heated to 75°C, that themedium temperature of reaction is considered, that affects the sheet of the sawblade in operation. Thisgroup was operated to 80 rotations per minute (rpm. The time of reaction was of four hours. Afterthat time the corrosive agent was discarded and the samples were washed, dried and weighed. At theend, each sample was processed by a total period of forty hours. The chemical waste was evaluated by the weight difference suffered from beginning at the end of the experiment. For theresults it was observed that the Eucalyptus tradryphloia and the Eucalyptus phaeotricha the speciesthat provoked were, respectively, the largest and smaller chemical waste for the two types of steelappraised. Great variation exists in the chemical waste due to the effect of the species. The corrosionand chemical waste are especially related with the quality of the material solved in ethanol. The 1070steel were more attached than the 6170 steel.

  11. The role of chemical reaction in waste-form performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution rate of waste solids in a geologic repository is a complex function of waste form geometry, chemical raction rate, exterior flow field, and chemical environment. We present here an analysis to determine the stady-state mass transfer rate, over the entire range of flow conditions relevant to geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The equations for steady-state mass transfer with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition are solved by three different mathematical techniques which supplement each other. This theory is illustrated with laboratory leach data for borosilicate-glass and a spherical spent-fuel waste form under typical repository conditions. For borosilicate glass waste in the temperature range of 57/degree/C to 250/degree/C, dissolution rate in a repository is determined for a wide range of chemical reaction rates and for Peclet numbers from zero to well over 100, far beyond any Peclet values expected in a repository. Spent-fuel dissolution in a repository is also investigated, based on the limited leach data now available. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Waste dissolution with chemical reaction, diffusion and advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends the mass-transfer analysis to include the effect of advective transport in predicting the steady-state dissolution rate, with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition at the surface of a waste form of arbitrary shape. This new theory provides an analytic means of predicting the ground-water velocities at which dissolution rate in a geologic environment will be governed entirely to the chemical reaction rate. As an illustration, we consider the steady-state potential flow of ground water in porous rock surrounding a spherical waste solid. 3 refs., 2 figs

  13. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  14. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  15. Natural radiation, nuclear wastes and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic Countries are summarized and man made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given of the radiological consequences of energy conservation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final repositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. (author) 13 refs

  16. What to do with your chemical waste ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland Magnier/SC

    2004-01-01

    For any type and quantity of chemical waste, please contact phone number 16 0879 or 16 3315 for the collection and safe elimination. The quality and the safety of our environment is our own responsibility. Let's do it. Roland Magnier/SC-GS

  17. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  18. Chemical treatment of chelated metal finishing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Glarborg, Christen; Ross, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated two chemical approaches for treatment of commingled cadmium-cyanide (Cd-CN) and zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) wastewaters. The first approach, which involved application of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), focused on elimination of chelating substances. The second approach evaluated the use of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) to specifically target and precipitate regulated heavy metals. Results demonstrated that by maintaining a pH of 10.0 and an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value of +600 mV, NaOCl treatment was effective in eliminating all chelating substances. Cadmium, chromium, nickel, and zinc solution concentrations were reduced from 0.27, 4.44, 0.06, and 0.10 ppm to 0.16, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.06 ppm, respectively. Similarly, a 1% DMDTC solution reduced these same metal concentrations in commingled wastewater to 0.009, 1.142, 0.036, and 0.320 ppm. Increasing the DMDTC concentration to 2% improved the removal of all regulated heavy metals except zinc, the removal of which at high pH values is limited by its amphotericity. PMID:23342939

  19. Optimization of thermo-chemical hydrolysis of kitchen wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavouraki, Aikaterini Ioannis; Angelis, Evangelos Michael; Kornaros, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) in Greece consist mainly of fermentable organic material such as food scraps (∼50%) and paper residuals (∼20%). The aim of this work was to study the thermo-chemical pretreatment of the kitchen waste (KW) fraction of MSW focusing on biotechnological exploitation of pretreated wastes for biofuel production. A representative sample of municipal food residues was derived by combining weighted amounts of each individual type of residue recognized in daily samples obtained from the University of Patras' students restaurant located at the Students Residence Hall (Greece). Chemical pretreatment experiments of the representative KW sample were performed using several types of chemical solutions (i.e. H2SO4, HCl, NaOH, H2SO3) of different solute concentration (0.7%, 1.5%, 3%) at three temperatures (50, 75, 120°C) and a range of residence times (30-120min). Optimized results proved that chemical pretreatment of KW, using either 1.12% HCl for 94min or 1.17% HCl for 86min (at 100°C), increased soluble sugars concentration by 120% compared to untreated KW. The increase of soluble sugars was mainly attributed to the mono-sugars glucose and fructose. PMID:22883686

  20. Chemical durability of Savannah River Plant waste glass as a function of waste loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leachability of Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste forms was assessed for glass containing up to 50 wt % simulated waste oxides. Leach tests included standard MCC-1 static tests and pH-buffered solution experiments. An integrated approach combining leachate solution analysis with both bulk and surface analyses was used to study waste glass corrosion as a function of waste loading. Leachate solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption. Bulk and surface analyses were performed using optical microscopy, wide angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis. Scouting tests on key processing and product parameters, such as viscosity, electrical resistivity, and density were also performed. Results of this study show that the durability of SRP waste glass improves due to the presence of the waste, for waste loadings up to 50 wt % because of the formation of protective surface layers. In addition, the data indicate that the practical limit of waste loading will be determined not by chemical durability of the product, but by processing considerations

  1. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems. PMID:27168079

  2. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  3. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  4. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  5. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  6. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature

  7. Chemical states of molybdenum in radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to confirm an expectation that the chemical state of molybdenum in glass reflects the phase separation tendency of the yellow solid from the melt of borosilicate glass, simulated waste glasses were prepared, and ESCA analysis was performed using a commercially available electron spectrometer (PHI550 E) with an excitation source consisting of Mg Kα-ray. The effects of the concentration of Mo and FE2O3 and the melting atmosphere (oxidizing or reducing) in which the samples were prepared on the chemical state of Mo and the solubility of MoO3 were examined. From the observation of Mo spectra, it was shown that Mo in waste glass had several valencies, e.g., Mo(3), Mo(4), Mo(5) and Mo(6), while Mo in the yellow solid separated from the melts exhibited hexa-valent state, the peak intensity of higher valencies increased relatively with the increase of MoO3 concentration, but the chemical state of Mo did not change remarkably around the solubility limit of MoO3, the melting atmosphere influenced on the Mo state in the waste glass, the peak intensity of Mo(6) increased relatively with the increasing Fe2O3 concentration, and Mo in devitrified glass exhibited hexa-valent state. (Yoshitake, I.)

  8. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  10. Chitosan on Reducing Chemical Oxygen Demands in Laundry Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste contains several chemical substances in detergent raw materials such as phosphate, surfactants, ammonia, and total suspended solids. The existence of detergent in high concentrations and exceeds the quality standards that have been estabilished in a body of water can lead to cases of enviromental pollution in the form of increased turbidity an Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD levels. Therefore in order to maintain and to ensure the availabillity of water in terms of quality, it requires coagulation-flocculation process to laundry liquid waste before discharging into water bodies. This study aims to determine the decrease of COD levels and turbidity level in laundry liquid waste using chitosan coagulant in “X” laundry, Tembalang District, Semarang. The research is a quasi experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group research design with 6 times replication. The total samples are 60 in wich 24 tested for the levels of turbidity and 6 controls. The test results of Kruskal-Wallis with significance p-value < 0,05 indicates that dosage variation (p=0,000 gives different levels of COD and dosage variation (p=0,000 provide 755,97 mg/l and the advantage levels of turbidity before treatment was 516,20 NTU. The optimum dosage of chitosan coagulant is on the dose of 200 mg/l with the effectiveness decrease of COD levels and turbidity levels on 72,67% an 98,67% respectively.

  11. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  12. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  13. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs

  14. The Use of Chemical Modification of Polymer Waste for Obtaining Polymer Flocculants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.Sulkowski; K.Nowak; A.Sulkowska; A.Wolin; ska; S.Malanka; W.M.Baldur; D.Pentak

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Chemical modification of polymer plastic wastes to useful products can be one of the way of effective waste plastics management (chemical recycling). Chemical modification of polymers and polymer plastic wastes can yield products with suitable physical and chemical properties. In consequence they can be used as polyelectrolytes[1]. The variety of pollutants, universality of various water and sewage treatment technologies, introduction of new water quality improved technologies have caused a gr...

  15. Waste remediation using in situ magnetically assisted chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation process (MACS) combines the selective and efficient separation afforded by chemical sorption with the magnetic recovery of ferromagnetic particles. This process is being developed for treating the underground storage tanks at Hanford. These waste streams contain cesium, strontium, and transuranics (TRU) that must be removed before this waste can be disposed of as grout. The separation process uses magnetic particles coated with either (1) a selective ion exchange material or an organic extractant containing solvent (for cesium and strontium removal) or (2) solvents for selective separation of TRU elements (e.g., TRUEX process). These coatings, by their chemical nature, selectively separate the contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the tank using a magnet. Once the particles are removed, the contaminants can either be left on the loaded particles and added to the glass feed slurry or stripped into a small volume of solution so that the extracting particles can be reused. The status of chemistry and separation process is discussed in this paper

  16. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of low and medium level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of various radioactive low and medium level liquid waste are described. Application to waste from reprocessing plants, removal of the main gamma emitters, actinide separation, utility liquid wastes generated during pwr operation, and combination of ultrafiltration with chemical precipitation, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Chemical recycling of municipal waste slag by using phase separation

    OpenAIRE

    Nanba, Tokuro; Kuroda, Yutaro; Sakida, Shinichi; Benino, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    A chemical recycling method by using phase separation was applied to municipal waste slags. Glasses were prepared from incineration ash and ash-melted slag, where B(2)O(3) was added to promote phase separation. The glasses were heat-treated at temperatures higher than their glass transition temperatures, and they were soaked in hydrochloric acid, leaching CaO, Fe(2)O(3), K(2)O, and S. Transparent and colorless solids containing ca. 80 mass% of SiO(2) were successfully obtained as residues. It...

  18. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  19. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  20. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  1. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste. PMID:21901883

  2. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  3. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  4. Chemical treatment of radioactive liquid wastes from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a study about the treatment of the most important radioactive liquid wastes from medical usages, generated in medical institutions with nuclear medicine services. The radionuclides take in account are 32 P, 35 S, 125 I. The treatments developed and improved were specific chemical precipitations for each one of the radionuclides. This work involve to precipitate the radionuclide from the liquid waste, making a chemical compound insoluble in the aqueous phase, for this process the radionuclide stay in the precipitate, lifting the aqueous phase with a very low activity than the begin. The 32 P precipitated in form of Ca332 P O4 and Ca2 H 32 P O4 with a value for Decontamination Factor (DF) at the end of the treatment of 32. The 35 S was precipitated in form of Ba35 SO4 with a DF of 26. The 125 I was precipitated in Cu 125 I to obtain a DF of 24. The results of the treatments are between the limits given for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the 10 Code of Federal Regulation 20, for the safety release at the environment. (Author)

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  6. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  7. Long term chemical durability studies of vitrified waste products containing sulphate bearing high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the term durability of the vitrified waste product (VWP) is of paramount importance for ascertaining safe containment of radionuclide immobilized in the matrix, because leaching is the principle mechanism through which radionuclide can migrate to human environment. Sodium released out from the glass was taken as the index element to examine the leach rate as a function of time. Average leach rate of VWPs based on barium borosilicate glass matrix immobilizing sulphate bearing HLW is 2.32'10-6 g.cm-2, day-1 after a period of 710 days at 373 deg K using demineralised water as leachant indicating adequate leach resistance of the conditioned product. The paper presented here describes the outcome of the work carried out for studying long term chemical durability of the vitrified waste period. (author)

  8. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  9. Technology Evaluation Workshop Report for Tank Waste Chemical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Tank Waste Chemical Characterization Technology Evaluation Workshop was held August 24--26, 1993. The workshop was intended to identify and evaluate technologies appropriate for the in situ and hot cell characterization of the chemical composition of Hanford waste tank materials. The participants were asked to identify technologies that show applicability to the needs and good prospects for deployment in the hot cell or tanks. They were also asked to identify the tasks required to pursue the development of specific technologies to deployment readiness. This report describes the findings of the workshop. Three focus areas were identified for detailed discussion: (1) elemental analysis, (2) molecular analysis, and (3) gas analysis. The technologies were restricted to those which do not require sample preparation. Attachment 1 contains the final workshop agenda and a complete list of attendees. An information package (Attachment 2) was provided to all participants in advance to provide information about the Hanford tank environment, needs, current characterization practices, potential deployment approaches, and the evaluation procedure. The participants also received a summary of potential technologies (Attachment 3). The workshop opened with a plenary session, describing the background and issues in more detail. Copies of these presentations are contained in Attachments 4, 5 and 6. This session was followed by breakout sessions in each of the three focus areas. The workshop closed with a plenary session where each focus group presented its findings. This report summarizes the findings of each of the focus groups. The evaluation criteria and information about specific technologies are tabulated at the end of each section in the report. The detailed notes from each focus group are contained in Attachments 7, 8 and 9

  10. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  11. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. PMID:25882791

  12. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste

  13. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  14. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to {approximately}50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  15. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to [approximately]50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  16. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates.

  17. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area

  18. Stabilization of hazardous ash waste with newberyite-rich chemically bonded magnesium phosphate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel newberyite-rich magnesium-phosphate ceramic, intended for the stabilization of the US Department of Energy's low-level mixed-waste streams, has been developed by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and a phosphoric acid solution. The reaction slurry, formed at room temperature, sets rapidly and forms a lightweight hard ceramic with low open porosity and a high compression strength of ∼ 6,200 psi. It is a composite of stable mineral phases of newberyite, luenebergite, and residual Mg oxide. Using this matrix, the authors developed superior waste forms for a surrogate ash waste stream. The final waste form is a low-permeability structural-quality ceramic, in which hazardous contaminants are chemically fixed and physically encapsulated. The compression strength of the waste form is an order of magnitude higher than the land disposal requirement, even at high waste loading. The high compression strength is attributed to stronger bonds in the waste form that result from participation of ash waste in the setting reactions. Long-term leaching studies show that the waste form is stable in an aqueous environment. The chemically bonded phosphate ceramic approach in this study may be a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for fabricating high-performance waste forms either for stabilizing waste streams or for developing value-added construction materials from high-volume benign waste streams

  19. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  20. Treatment and disposal of steam generator and heat exchanger chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet air oxidation was effective in reducing the organic loading of Ontario Hydro's EDTA-based steam generator cleaning wastes and the organic acid formulation used for heat exchanger chemical cleaning. Destruction of the complexing agents resulted in direct precipitation of iron from the waste steam generator magnetite solvent and from the heat exchanger cleaning waste. The oxidized liquors contain lower molecular weight organic acids, ammonia and amines, suitable for secondary biological treatment. The oxidized copper waste requires further treatment to reduce dissolved copper levels prior to biological digestion. A preliminary evaluation of UV and ozone degradation of these wastes showed less promise than wet air oxidation. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  2. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for processing low level, light weight, bulky, combustible nuclear solid waste material comprising the steps of reacting said solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 deg - 300 deg C and simultaneously, subsequently, or both simultaneously and subsequently contacting said waste with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen oxides whereby carbonaceous material is oxidized to gaseous byproducts and a low volume residue. (author)

  3. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. PMID:26996261

  4. Preliminary Study on Chemical Components and Uranium Content of Calcium Fluoride Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling; SONG; Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    In the uranium conversion process,UF4 reduction is needed using calcium as reduction regent,so a great deal of calcium fluoride are generated,in which a no negligible amount of uranium(about 5%alleged)can be left in the calcium fluoride wastes by the entrainment effect.It is meaningful to extract and purify the uranium from these wastes,but chemical components of these waste is needed primarily.

  5. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. PMID:27506286

  6. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  7. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  8. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. PMID:27118737

  9. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALLY BONDED PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR MERCURY STABILIZATION OF A MIXED SYNTHETIC WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization and encapsulation technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory, called the Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics technology for Hg- and HgCl2-contaminated synthetic waste materials. Leachability ...

  10. Study on conversion of some chemical compounds of wood sawdust waste in biocomposting process

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Minh Nguyet; Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the research results of treatment solution of wood waste of Acacia and Eucalyptus in making of bioorganic fertilizers for the effective utilization of plant biomass resources and minimization of environmental pollution. The conversion cycles of the basic chemical compounds of wood waste in composting process were established by two biological products: Biomix and Compost Maker. Research results have shown that, under the action of microorganisms, all basic chemical compoun...

  11. Hanford enhanced waste glass characterization. Influence of composition on chemical durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    This report provides a review of the complete high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) data sets for the glasses recently fabricated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and characterized at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The review is from the perspective of relating the chemical durability performance to the compositions of these study glasses, since the characterization work at SRNL focused on chemical analysis and ASTM Product Consistency Test (PCT) performance.

  12. Pilot installation for the thermo-chemical characterisation of solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, C; Antonini, G; Badea, A; Apostol, T

    2007-01-01

    The increasing production and the large variety of wastes require operators of thermal treatment units to continuously adapt the installations or the functioning parameters to the different physical and chemical properties of the wastes. Usually, the treated waste is encountered in the form of heterogeneous mixtures. The classical tests such as thermogravimetry and calorimetric bomb operate component by component, separately. In addition to this, they can analyse only small quantities of waste at a time (a few grams). These common tests are necessary but insufficient in the global waste analysis in the view further thermal treatment. This paper presents an experimental installation, which was designed and built at the CNRS Science Division, Department of Industrial Methods, Compiègne University of Technology, France. It allows the determination of waste thermal and chemical properties by means of thermal treatment. Also, it is capable of continuously analysing significant quantities of waste (up to 50kg/h) as compared to the classical tests and it can work under various conditions: The installation reproduces the process conditions from incinerators or pyrolysis reactors. It also provides complete information on the kinetics of the waste thermal degradation and on the pollutant emissions. Using different mixtures of components present in the municipal solid waste and also in the reconstituted MSW samples, we defined a series of criteria for characterising waste behaviour during the stages of the main treatment process such as: feeding, devolatilisation/oxidation, advancement, solid residue evacuation, and pollutants emission. PMID:16617012

  13. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  14. Chemical and mechanical performance properties for various final waste forms -- PSPI scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Larsen, E.D.; Sears, J.W.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is obtaining data on the performance properties of the various final waste forms that may be chosen as primary treatment products for the alpha-contaminated low-level and transuranic waste at the INEL`s Transuranic Storage Area. This report collects and compares selected properties that are key indicators of mechanical and chemical durability for Portland cement concrete, concrete formed under elevated temperature and pressure, sulfur polymer cement, borosilicate glass, and various forms of alumino-silicate glass, including in situ vitrification glass and various compositions of iron-enriched basalt (IEB) and iron-enriched basalt IV (IEB4). Compressive strength and impact resistance properties were used as performance indicators in comparative evaluation of the mechanical durability of each waste form, while various leachability data were used in comparative evaluation of each waste form`s chemical durability. The vitrified waste forms were generally more durable than the non-vitrified waste forms, with the iron-enriched alumino-silicate glasses and glass/ceramics exhibiting the most favorable chemical and mechanical durabilities. It appears that the addition of zirconia and titania to IEB (forming IEB4) increases the leach resistance of the lanthanides. The large compositional ranges for IEB and IEB4 more easily accommodate the compositions of the waste stored at the INEL than does the composition of borosilicate glass. It appears, however, that the large potential variation in IEB and IEB4 compositions resulting from differing waste feed compositions can impact waste form durability. Further work is needed to determine the range of waste stream feed compositions and rates of waste form cooling that will result in acceptable and optimized IEB or IEB4 waste form performance. 43 refs.

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  17. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Götze, Ramona;

    2016-01-01

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending...... on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper...... residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls...

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of powdered activated carbons obtained by thermo-chemical conversion of brown municipal waste

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Zarubica Aleksandra R.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Cones of the European Black pine and Horse chestnut kernel, regarded as brown municipal waste, was utilized in this work as a precursor for powdered activated carbons. Chemical activation was employed at 500°C in inert atmosphere of nitrogen. Standard physico-chemical analyses were performed to examine obtained products. FTIR method was employed to determine fuctional groups which were found to be typical for activated carbons. Acidic oxygen groups were quantitatively determined using B...

  19. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  20. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  1. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  2. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  3. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na2O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li2O and 8.1 wt% Fe2O3. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  4. Reliability of chemical microanalyses for solid waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettler, Vojtech, E-mail: ettler@natur.cuni.cz [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Johan, Zdenek [Bureau des Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), av. Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans, Cedex 2 (France); Vitkova, Martina [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Skala, Roman [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Institute of Geology of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 269, 165 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kotrly, Marek [Institute of Criminalistics Prague, P.O. Box 62/KUP, Strojnicka 27, 170 89 Prague 7 (Czech Republic); Habler, Gerlinde [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Klementova, Mariana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Key role of solid speciation of contaminants in hazardous waste materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanophases affect the accuracy of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-resolution methods (FEG-SEM, FIB-TEM) proposed for solid speciation. - Abstract: The investigation of solid speciation of metals and metalloids is required for accurate assessment of the hazardous properties of solid waste materials from high-temperature technologies (slag, bottom ash, fly ash, air-pollution-control residues). This paper deals with the problem of reliability of microanalyses using a combination of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only. These methods do not permit to detect nanophases in host-crystals and lead to erroneous interpretation of analytical results, considering the elements of nanophases as belonging to the crystal structure of the main phase. More detailed analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on foils prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to solve this analytical problem. In this study, lamellar aggregates of potassium-rich clinopyroxenes were detected in copper smelting slags by a combination of SEM and EPMA. However, FIB-TEM indicated the presence of leucite inclusions (tens to hundreds nm in size) within the clinopyroxene lamellae. Based on examples from smelting slags and other solid waste materials, recommendations for standard SEM and EPMA applications and the need for methods with higher resolution for mineralogical investigation of waste materials are discussed.

  5. Chemical characterization, leach, and adsorption studies of solidified low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field leaching experiments are beig conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical, arid, near-surface disposal site. Under PNL's Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid Program, a field test facility was constructed to monitor the leaching of commercial solidified waste. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching and adsorption characteristics of the waste forms in contact with soil. Liquid radioactive wastes solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen were obtained from commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors, and buried in a field leaching facility on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Batch leaching, soil column adsorption, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted in the laboratory, using small-scale cement waste forms and Hanford site ground water. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate the ability of laboratory leaching tests to predict leaching under actual field conditions and to determine which mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, solubility, adsorption) actually control the concentration of radionuclides in the soil surrounding the waste form. Chemical and radionuclide analyses performed on samples collected from the field and laboratory experiments indicate strong adsorption of /sup 134,137/Cs and 85Sr onto the Hanford site sediment. Small amounts of 60Co are leached from the waste forms as very mobile species. Some 60Co migrated through the soil at the same rate as water. Chemical constituents present in the reactor waste streams also found at elevated levels in the field and laboratory leachates include sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and nitrate. Plausible solid phases that could be controlling some of the chemical and radionuclide concentrations in the leachate were identified using the MINTEQ geochemical computer code

  6. Chemical characterization, leach, and adsorption studies of solidified low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.B.; Serne, R.J.; Jones, T.L.; McLaurine, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory and field leaching experiments are beig conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical, arid, near-surface disposal site. Under PNL's Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid Program, a field test facility was constructed to monitor the leaching of commercial solidified waste. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching and adsorption characteristics of the waste forms in contact with soil. Liquid radioactive wastes solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen were obtained from commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors, and buried in a field leaching facility on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Batch leaching, soil column adsorption, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted in the laboratory, using small-scale cement waste forms and Hanford site ground water. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate the ability of laboratory leaching tests to predict leaching under actual field conditions and to determine which mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, solubility, adsorption) actually control the concentration of radionuclides in the soil surrounding the waste form. Chemical and radionuclide analyses performed on samples collected from the field and laboratory experiments indicate strong adsorption of /sup 134,137/Cs and /sup 85/Sr onto the Hanford site sediment. Small amounts of /sup 60/Co are leached from the waste forms as very mobile species. Some /sup 60/Co migrated through the soil at the same rate as water. Chemical constituents present in the reactor waste streams also found at elevated levels in the field and laboratory leachates include sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and nitrate. Plausible solid phases that could be controlling some of the chemical and radionuclide concentrations in the leachate were identified using the MINTEQ geochemical computer code.

  7. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  8. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  9. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF ampersand WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF ampersand WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal

  11. Tabulation of thermodynamic data for chemical reactions involving 58 elements common to radioactive waste package systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of release and migration of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository to the biosphere is dependent on chemical interactions between groundwater, the geologic host rock, and the radioactive waste package. For the purpose of this report, the waste package includes the wasteform, canister, overpack, and repository backfill. Chemical processes of interest include sorption (ion exchange), dissolution, complexation, and precipitation. Thermochemical data for complexation and precipitation calculations for 58 elements common to the radioactive waste package are presented. Standard free energies of formation of free ions, complexes, and solids are listed. Common logarithms of equilibrium constants (log K's) for speciation and precipitation reactions are listed. Unless noted otherwise, all data are for 298.150K and one atmosphere

  12. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

  13. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  14. Chemical Characteristics of Compost and Humic Acid from Sago Waste (Metroxylon sagu)

    OpenAIRE

    Auldry C. Petrus; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Ab M.N. Muhamad; Hassan M. Nasir; Make Jiwan; Michael G. Banta

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Agriculture waste such as Sago Waste (SW) has a potential to cause pollution either on land or in water. In order to reduce this problem, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of three different treatments on the chemical characteristics of compost and humic acid from SW. Approach: The study had three treatments which were: T1: SW (80%) + chicken feed (5%) + chicken dung slurry (5%) + molasses (5%) + urea (5%), T2: SW (80%) + chicken feed (10%) + chicken dung slur...

  15. The Los Alamos controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste: Volume 3, Modifications for processing hazardous chemicals and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design and operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI). This third volume addresses categories of information that pertain to modifications to the CAI in the period between 1981 and 1986. These later system changes were motivated by programmatic objectives to use the CAI for additionally studying combustion of low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous chemicals. 19 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  17. Chemical cleaning of porous stainless steel cross-flow filter elements for nuclear waste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) currently under construction for treatment of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site will rely on cross-flow ultrafiltration to provide solids-liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. To optimize process throughput, periodic chemical cleaning of the porous stainless steel filter elements has been incorporated into the design of the plant. It is currently specified that chemical cleaning with nitric acid will occur after significant irreversible membrane fouling is observed. Irreversible fouling is defined as fouling that cannot be removed by backpulsing the filter. PNNL has investigated chemical cleaning processes as part of integrated tests with HLW simulants and with actual Hanford tank wastes. To quantify the effectiveness of chemical cleaning, the residual membrane resistance after cleaning was compared against the initial membrane resistance for each test in a series of long-term fouling tests. The impact of the small amount of residual resistance in these tests could not be separated from other parameters and the historical benchmark of >1 GPM/ft2 for clean water flux was determined to be an adequate metric for chemical cleaning. Using the results from these tests, a process optimization strategy is presented suggesting that for the simulant material under test, the value of chemical cleaning may be suspect. The period of enhanced filtration may not be enough to offset the down time required for chemical cleaning, without respect to the other associated costs.

  18. Chemical cleaning of porous stainless steel cross-flow filter elements for nuclear waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-05-10

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) currently under construction for treatment of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Hanford Site will rely on cross-flow ultrafiltration to provide solids-liquid separation as a core part of the treatment process. To optimize process throughput, periodic chemical cleaning of the porous stainless steel filter elements has been incorporated into the design of the plant. It is currently specified that chemical cleaning with nitric acid will occur after significant irreversible membrane fouling is observed. Irreversible fouling is defined as fouling that cannot be removed by backpulsing the filter. PNNL has investigated chemical cleaning processes as part of integrated tests with HLW simulants and with actual Hanford tank wastes. To quantify the effectiveness of chemical cleaning, the residual membrane resistance after cleaning was compared against the initial membrane resistance for each test in a series of long-term fouling tests. The impact of the small amount of residual resistance in these tests could not be separated from other parameters and the historical benchmark of >1 GPM/ft2 for clean water flux was determined to be an adequate metric for chemical cleaning. Using the results from these tests, a process optimization strategy is presented suggesting that for the simulant material under test, the value of chemical cleaning may be suspect. The period of enhanced filtration may not be enough to offset the down time required for chemical cleaning, without respect to the other associated costs.

  19. Radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. Impact on man and his environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the various safety measures in all fields of human activities is to prevent deleterious effects of various agents on human health. Preventive health and safety measures therefore play an important role in achieving the main goal of the World Health Organization (WHO): 'Health for all by the year 2000'. The present WHO programme on environmental health emphasizes the prevention of chemical hazards as one of the most important environmental factors affecting human health. At the same time, protection from physical factors, including radiological protection, is part of this programme. Therefore, WHO compares health detriments from both physical and chemical agents. The paper describes the hazardous waste problems of great concern in industrialized countries. For instance, the Commission of the European Communities countries produce about 2x109 tonnes of waste per year, a rate which grows by 2 to 3% annually. This poses serious problems of pollution, particularly where the toxic ingredients do not decay. Special attention will also be given to the safe handling of high-level radioactive waste from the peaceful use of nuclear technology. These wastes have to be stored in safe storage facilities, or be disposed of without causing damage to man and his environment. The international measures to contain and control these wastes are described, including the activities of WHO within the Global Environmental Monitoring System and Regional Sea programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme. Guidelines and methodologies for the management of hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes are being developed through WHO to assist national authorities in this task. The paper pays special attention to a comparative assessment of environmental and public health impacts of toxic chemical and radioactive wastes. (author)

  20. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  1. Development of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    1997-11-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been developed by acid-base reactions between magnesium oxide and an acid phosphate at room temperature for stabilizing U.S. Department of Energy's low-level mixed waste streams that include hazardous chemicals and radioactive elements. Newberyite (MgHPOsb4.3Hsb2O)-rich magnesium phosphate ceramic was formed by an acid-base reaction between phosphoric acid and magnesium oxide. The reaction slurry, formed at room-temperature, sets rapidly and forms stable mineral phases of newberyite, lunebergite, and residual MgO. Rapid setting also generates heat due to exothermic acid-base reaction. The reaction was retarded by partially neutralizing the phosphoric acid solution by adding sodium or potassium hydroxide. This reduced the rate of reaction and heat generation and led to a practical way of producing novel magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic. This ceramic was formed by reacting stoichiometric amount of monopotassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, MgO, and water, forming pure-phase of MgKPOsb4.6Hsb2O (MKP) with moderate exothermic reaction. Using this chemically bonded phosphate ceramic matrix, low-level mixed waste streams were stabilized, and superior waste forms in a monolithic structure were developed. The final waste forms showed low open porosity and permeability, and higher compression strength than the Land Disposal Requirements (LDRs). The novel MKP ceramic technology allowed us to develop operational size waste forms of 55 gal with good physical integrity. In this improved waste form, the hazardous contaminants such as RCRA heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, etc) were chemically fixed by their conversion into insoluble phosphate forms and physically encapsulated by the phosphate ceramic. In addition, chemically bonded phosphate ceramics stabilized radioactive elements such U and Pu. This was demonstrated with a detailed stabilization study on cerium used as a surrogate (chemically equivalent but nonradioactive

  2. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  3. Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling

  4. Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

    2002-01-01

    Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

  5. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  6. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. PMID:25568090

  7. Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of Hanford Waste Tank Processing: Applications of Fundamental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of computational models based upon fundamental science is one means of quantitatively transferring the results of scientific investigations to practical application by engineers in laboratory and field situations. This manuscript describes one example of such efforts, specifically the development and application of chemical equilibrium models to different waste management issues at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The development of the chemical models is described with an emphasis on the fundamental science investigations that have been undertaken in model development followed by examples of different waste management applications. The waste management issues include the leaching of waste slurries to selective remove non-hazardous components and the separation of Sr90 and transuranics from the waste supernatants. The fundamental science contributions include: molecular simulations of the energetics of different molecular clusters to assist in determining the species present in solution, advanced synchrotron research to determine the chemical form of precipitates, and laser based spectroscopic studies of solutions and solids.

  8. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  9. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H2SO4 for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC DEINKING OF PHOTOCOPIER WASTE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Pathak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of post-consumer papers in the production of new paper products is increasing all over the world in recent years. Recycling of photocopier paper is a major problem due to difficulty in removal of non-impact ink. Enzymes offer potential advantages in ecofriendly deinking of recovered paper. In this study the deinking of photocopier paper was examined using chemicals and a commercial cellulase enzyme. Parameters of deinking experiments were optimized for hydrapulping. The ink was removed by flotation and washing processes. Then these parameters were compared in terms of ink removal ability of the process, as well as optical and strength properties of the deinked paper. The application of enzymatic deinking improved ink removal efficiency by 24.6% and freeness by 21.6% with a reduction in drainage time of 11.5% in comparison to those obtained with chemical deinking. The physical properties, namely burst index and tensile index, were observed to improve by 15.3% and 2.7%, respectively and brightness and tear index decreased by 2.1% and 21.9%, respectively. Results of deinking efficiency of photocopier paper showed that the enzyme used in the present work performed better than the conventional chemicals used for deinking.

  11. [Hygienic, chemical and ecotoxicological aspects of the disinfection of biologically treated waste water by ozone and UV light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, U; Nelle, T; Oberg, C; Rudolph, K U; Zander-Hauck, S

    1996-02-01

    Biologically treated waste water from two different municipal treatment plants with mainly domestic waste water on the one hand and industrial influenced waste water on the other hand was disinfected by UV-irradiation and ozonation. Hygienic, chemical and eco-toxic effects of the disinfection step were examined. It was found that by ozonation as well as by UV-irradiation the required guide and imperative values for fecal and total coliform bacteria were fulfilled. The UV-irradiation induces no changes concerning chemical waste water quality and toxic effects. In contrast to these results ozonation can lead to alterations in chemistry and toxicity depending on the waste water composition.

  12. Modeling of physico-chemical characteristics of mortar-waste mixture of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization of mortar (as matrix), improved with bentonite clay, used for immobilization of radionuclides 137Cs is presented. A relatively simple mathematical model is given, which permits minimization of leach rate and permeability and maximization of compressive strength. An optimal solution, based on experimental data, is given. These results will be used for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center. (authors)

  13. Wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic wastes 5- chemical and thermal properties of the final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the residual solution arising from the wet oxidative degradation of solid organic cellulosic materials, as one of the component of radioactive solid wastes, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Were incorporated into ordinary Portland cement matrix. Leaching as well as thermal characterizations of the final solidified waste forms were evaluated to meet the final disposal requirements. Factors, such as the amount of the residual solution incorporated, types of leachant. Release of different radionuclides and freezing-thaw treatment, that may affect the leaching characterization. Were studied systematically from the data obtained, it was found that the final solid waste from containing 35% residual solution in tap water is higher than that in ground water or sea water. Based on the data obtained from thermal analysis, it could be concluded that incorporating the residual solution form the wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic materials has no negative effect on the hydration of cement materials and consequently on the thermal stability of the final solid waste from during the disposal process

  14. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies. PMID:23255170

  15. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McClenahan, Robert L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  16. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. RECOVERY OF CHITIN AND CHITOSAN FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, R. Marandi, Sh. Sanatei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. In this study chitin and chitosan were extracted from Penaeus semisulcatus waste collected from a shrimp processing landing center situated at Persian Gulf in south of Iran by chemical and microbial methods. Chitin and chitosan were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and the yields were 510 and 410mg/g, respectively. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from shrimp waste. Chemical extraction method included the use of NaOH solution and acetic acid. In microbial extraction, organic acids (lactic acid produced by probiotic bacteria was used to demineralize microbial deproteinized shrimp shells. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic acid bacteria especially added Fe (NO33 as extra nitrogen source for demineralization of shrimp shells than chemical method (1750 against 810mg/g. Chitin and chitosan extracted from shrimp waste by chemical and microbial methods was crystalline powder, non-harmful and odorless, white and off-white, respectively. The moisture content was calculated as 63.8%. The amount of Ca, Fe, Cu and Mn present in the shells was 168, 35.58, 38.28 and 6.72mg/L, obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The amount of calcium in the shells was 25 times higher than manganese. The results suggested Lactobacillus plantarum (PTTC 1058 is an attractive source of recovery for chitin and chitosan.

  18. A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

  19. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste: review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of chlori

  20. The use of chemical and radionuclide risk estimates in site performance evaluation of mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive waste sites contain not only radioactive material but also varying amounts of chemical waste. The use of such procedures implies some risk at any exposure level, and thus requires that an exposure level be determined that corresponds to an acceptable risk to an individual or a population. Although the uncertainties and limitations of these methods are of concern, the assumption has been generally adopted that the human dose response for all carcinogens is linear, with no threshold occurring at low levels of exposure. With the move toward decontamination programs and clean-up of various mixed waste sites throughout the US, there is interest in the possibility that risk estimates calculated individually for radionuclides and for chemicals may be combined to reflect the total risk for each site. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of combining risk estimates during risk/benefit analyses. For a variety of reasons, the state of radiation risk assessment is more advanced than that of chemical risk assessment. The reasons for this disparity are summarized in this paper. Quantitative radiation risk assessment is currently being performed, but involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment in general does not allow quantitative results bracketed by uncertainty analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that it is currently not possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for a mixed waste site, but that it may be possible to develop such a capability in the future

  1. Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: A hybrid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Hybrid methodology for E waste management. ► Efficient extraction of metals. ► Trace metal extraction is possible. - Abstract: Management of metal pollution associated with E-waste is widespread across the globe. Currently used techniques for the extraction of metals from E-waste by using either chemical or biological leaching have their own limitations. Chemical leaching is much rapid and efficient but has its own environmental consequences, even the future prospects of associated nanoremediation are also uncertain. Biological leaching on the other hand is comparatively a cost effective technique but at the same moment it is time consuming and the complete recovery of the metal, alone by biological leaching is not possible in most of the cases. The current review addresses the individual issues related to chemical and biological extraction techniques and proposes a hybrid-methodology which incorporates both, along with safer chemicals and compatible microbes for better and efficient extraction of metals from the E-waste.

  2. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt); Tawfik, M.E. [Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 deg. C {+-} 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area...). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  3. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al2O3 to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF.

  5. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART II: PERFORMANCE IN CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Montoneri; Piero Savarino; Stefano Bottigliengo; Giorgia Musso; Vittorio Boffa; Alessandra Bianco Prevot; Debora Fabbri; Edmondo Pramauro

    2008-01-01

    Novel uses of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for diversified technological applications are reported. A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2) isolated from green urban wastes was tested as a chemical auxiliary for fabric cleaning and dyeing, and as a catalyst for the photodegradation of dyes. The results illustrate the fact that biomass wastes can be an interesting source of products for the chemical market. Process and product development in this direction are likely to offer hig...

  6. Biosorption of Methylene Blue by Chemically Modified Cellulose Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yanqiao; ZHANG Yizhuan; Lü Qiufeng; CHENG Xiansu

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid modified cellulose waste (CMCW) was prepared via esterification and used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of biosorbent concentration, initial pH of MB solution, biosorption temperature, contact time, and initial MB concentration on the biosorption of MB were investigated using batch biosorption technique under static conditions. The experimental results showed that CMCW exhibited excellent biosorption characteristics for MB. The maximum biosorption capacity of MB was up to 214.5 mg/g at an adsorption temperature of 293 K. The removal rate of MB onto CMCW reached the maximum at pH>4 and the biosorption reached an equilibrium at about 50 min. The kinetic data can be described well with the pseudo-second-order model and the isotherm data was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 211.42 mg/g. The biosorption appears to be controlled by chemisorption and may be involved in surface adsorption and pore diffusion during the whole biosorption process.

  7. Physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  8. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH WASTE ACIDIFIED USING FERMENTED VEGETABLES WASTE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish waste (“ikan rucah” is part of discarded fishing product, which is composed by non-foodcategorized fish (NFC-fish. Quality of NFC-fish meal that was made by dipping in extract of fermentedvegetable’s waste has been reported better than commercial fish meal, but the effect after storingremained in question. Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time of storing onphysic-organoleptical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the acidified NFC-fish meal thatwas made by dipped in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste (FVW-exctract. The NFC-Fish wassoaked in the FVW-exctract by the ratio 1:1 (w/v for 4 hours, and then it was dripped out and dried. Thedried fish was ground passed through 20 mesh, kept into plastic bags and stored at the room temperature(23-25 °C and 70-80% RH for 0, 1, 2 and 4 months. Physic-organoleptical, chemical and biologycalcharacteristics were parameters observed. Experiment was conducted by completely randomized design(CRD. Data were analysed by the GLM of SAS. Actual number of moisture, crude protein, extractether, and proteolytic bacteria of fish meal were significantly influenced by time of storing (P<0.05.Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract effectively maintain the physical characteristics, pH, moisture,crude protein, extract ether and the number of proteolytic bacteria of fish meal up to 2 months ofstorage. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract provide better characteristics on physical, chemical andmicrobiologycal than the commercial fish meal at the same condition of storage.

  9. Effect of Chemical Corrosion on the Mechanical Characteristics of Parent Rocks for Nuclear Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term immersion was adopted to explore the damage deterioration and mechanical properties of granite under different chemical solutions. Here, granite was selected as the candidate of parent rocks for nuclear waste storage. The physical and mechanical properties of variation regularity immersed in various chemical solutions were analyzed. Meanwhile, the damage variable based on the variation in porosity was used in the quantitative analysis of chemical damage deterioration degree. Experimental results show that granite has a significant weakening tendency after chemical corrosion. The fracture toughness KIC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength all demonstrate the same deteriorating trend with chemical corrosion time. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of the mechanical parameters; that is, the deterioration degree of fracture toughness KIC is the greatest followed by those of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength, which are relatively smaller. Strong acid solutions may aggravate chemical damage deterioration in granite. By contrast, strong alkaline solutions have a certain inhibiting effect on chemical damage deterioration. The chemical solutions that feature various compositions may have different effects on chemical damage degree; that is, SO42- ions have a greater effect on the chemical damage in granite than HCO3- ions.

  10. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  11. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  12. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  13. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART II: PERFORMANCE IN CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Montoneri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel uses of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for diversified technological applications are reported. A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2 isolated from green urban wastes was tested as a chemical auxiliary for fabric cleaning and dyeing, and as a catalyst for the photodegradation of dyes. The results illustrate the fact that biomass wastes can be an interesting source of products for the chemical market. Process and product development in this direction are likely to offer high economic and environmental benefits in a modern, more sustainable waste treatment strategy.

  14. Design criteria for the new waste calcining facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being built to replace the existing fluidized-bed, high-level waste calcining facility (WCF). Performance of the WCF is reviewed, equipment failures in WCF operation are examined, and pilot-plant studies on calciner improvements are given in relation to NWCF design. Design features of the NWCF are given with emphasis on process and equipment improvements. A major feature of the NWCF is the use of remote maintenance facilities for equipment with high maintenance requirements, thereby reducing personnel exposures during maintenance and reducing downtime resulting from plant decontamination. The NWCF will have a design net processing rate of 11.36 m3 of high-level waste per day, and will incorporate in-bed combustion of kerosene for heating the fluidized bed calciner. The off-gas cleaning system will be similar to that for the WCF

  15. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  16. Effects of bioleaching on the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng-Hua; Wu, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Yong; Ai, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Bioleaching processes cause dramatic changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks, and play an important role in metal recovery and dump stability. This study focused on the characteristics of waste rocks subjected to bioleaching. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of rock properties during the bioleaching process. Mechanical behaviors of the leached waste rocks, such as failure patterns, normal stress, shear strength, and cohesion were determined through mechanical tests. The results of SEM imaging show considerable differences in the surface morphology of leached rocks located at different parts of the dump. The mineralogical content of the leached rocks reflects the extent of dissolution and precipitation during bioleaching. The dump porosity and rock size change under the effect of dissolution, precipitation, and clay transportation. The particle size of the leached rocks decreased due to the loss of rock integrity and the conversion of dry precipitation into fine particles.

  17. Chemical Hydrolysis and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvany Díaz Domínguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of the macromolecules that compose the organic fraction of municipal solid waste canbe taken for chemical, physical and biological methods, having all as aim the unfolding of the complexmolecules in simplier monomer. Thereby the degradation of organic matter is enhanced and resultsmore efficient the process of biogas via anaerobic. Chemical pretreatments were employed in the workusing sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as reagents.The soluble chemicaloxygen demand (COD, the maximum methane yield and the methane rates production were used toevaluate the pretreatment actions. The degradation of the waste was able to be increased by allowinga comparative analysis to determine the best working conditions for this stage and subsequently itsimpact in the generation of biogas, methane specifically.

  18. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  19. Chemical modelling studies in support of radiological risk assessments of radioactive waste disposal 1984-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing of computer programs identified as being capable of modelling chemical processes in radioactive waste disposal systems. The functions, limitations and data requirements of the programs assembled at UWIST are discussed and the organisation of an extensive thermodynamic database compiled to support the codes described. The role of chemical models in DoE probabilistic radiological assessment (PRA) methodology, is outlined. Their potential for radiological assessment purposes has been addressed through a series of case studies on existing and potential low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Results to date suggest them to be capable of fulfilling their intended role within the constraints of model assumptions. A number of collaborative projects designed to verify, validate and improve the models have been established. (author)

  20. Chemical Process for Treatment of Tellurium and Chromium Liquid Waste from I-131 Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The I-131 radioisotope is used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The I-131 radioisotope is produced by wet distillation at Bandung Nuclear Research Center and generated about 4,875 Itr of liquid waste containing 2,532.8 ppm of tellurium and 1,451.8 ppm chromium at pH 1. Considering its negative impact to the environment caused by toxic behaviour of tellurium and chromium, it is necessary to treat chemically that's liquid waste. The research of chemical treatment of tellurium and chromium liquid waste from I-131 radioisotope production has been done. The steps of process are involved of neutralisation with NaOH, coagulation-flocculation process for step I using Ca(OH)2 coagulant for precipitation of sulphate, sulphite, oxalic, chrome Cr3+, and coagulation-flocculation process for step II using BaCI2 coagulant for precipitation of chrome Cr6+ and tellurium from the supernatant of coagulation in step I. The best result of experiment was achieved at 0.0161 ppm of chromium concentration on the supernatant from coagulation-flocculation of step I using 3.5 g Ca(OH)2 for 100 ml of liquid waste, and 0.95 ppm of tellurium concentration on the final supernatant from coagulation-flocculation by of step II using 0.7 g BaCI2 for supernatant from coagulation of step I. (author)

  1. Chemical and biological toxicity assessment of simulated Hanford site low-level waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defining the potential damage to the biosphere associated with exposure to low-level waste grouting operations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is difficult and controversial. Combined chemical and biological assessment of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. This paper will identify and predict the chemical components of the grout that will have the greatest potential of causing deleterious effects on fish and wildlife indigenous to the Hanford Site. This paper will also determine whether the current grout technology is adequate in controlling toxicant and pollutant releases for regulatory compliance

  2. Chemical compatibility study of Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat with Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent chemical compatibility review of various wrapping and absorbent/padding materials was conducted to evaluate resistance to chemicals and constituents present in liquid waste from the Hanford underground tanks. These materials will be used to wrap long-length contaminated equipment when such equipment is removed from the tanks and prepared for transportation and subsequent disposal or storage. The materials studied were Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat. The study concludes that these materials are appropriate for use in this application

  3. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus), purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shr...

  4. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste. PMID:27216729

  5. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  6. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of low- and medium-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New applications of chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of various radioactive low and medium level liquid waste have been investigated. For reducing the overall management cost and improving the long-term safety of disposal, partitioning of the reprocessing concentrate into different streams for separate conditioning, packaging and disposal has been studied through chemical precipitation of the whole activity (actinides + main gamma emitters) or the actinides only. Results achieved on testing of real sample of reprocessing concentrate (lab-scale) are presented and discussed. In order to comply with the ALARA principle, an industrial flocculator prototype has been constructed and successfully operated for the treatment of utility liquid waste arising at the Chooz PWR site. Combination of chemical precipitation with ultrafiltration seems quite promising for improving both decontamination and volume reduction factors for the treatment of various radwastes. On the basis of experimental tests performed successively on lab and technical scales, a pilot plant has been designed, constructed and commissioned for the treatment of Harwell low and medium level liquid wastes. First active runs confirm the merits of the process

  7. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates three Hazardous Waste Management Facilities with 24 associated waste management units for the treatment and storage of hazardous and mixed wastes. These wastes are generated by research programs and support operations. The storage and treatment units are presently operated under interim status in accordance with the requirements of the US Envirorunental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), a division of the California Envirorunental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). As required by the California Hazardous Waste Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), LLNL ha s applied for a Part B permit to continue operating the storage and waste treatment facilities. As part of this permitting process, LLNL is required to conduct a health risk assessment (HRA) to examine the potential health impacts to the surrounding community from continued storage and treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. analysis document presents the results of this risk assessment. An analysis of maximum credible chemical accidents is also included in Section 7.0. This HRA was prepared in accordance with procedures set forth by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA) ''Air Toxics Assessment Manual,'' CAPCOA guidelines for preparing risk assessments under the Air Toxic ''Hot Spots'' Act (AB 2588) and requirements of the US EPA. By following these procedures, this risk assessment presents a conservative analysis of a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) using many worst-case assumptions that will not apply to an actual individual. As such, the risk estimates presented should be regarded as a worst-case estimate of any actual risk that may be present

  8. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  9. Mixed waste chemical compatibility: A testing program for plastic packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the United States have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). The design requirements for both hazardous [49 CFR 173.24 (e)(1)] and radioactive [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging at sign d any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A [49 CFR 173.412 (g)] and Type B (10 CFR 71.43) packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program attempts to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. This program has been described in considerable detail in an internal SNL document, the Chemical Compatibility Test Plan ampersand Procedure Report (Nigrey 1993)

  10. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  11. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  12. Conversion of wastes into bioelectricity and chemicals by using microbial electrochemical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2012-08-10

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy and chemical production technologies. We review the key advances that will enable the use of exoelectrogenic microorganisms to generate biofuels, hydrogen gas, methane, and other valuable inorganic and organic chemicals. Moreover, we examine the key challenges for implementing these systems and compare them to similar renewable energy technologies. Although commercial development is already underway in several different applications, ranging from wastewater treatment to industrial chemical production, further research is needed regarding efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability. PMID:22879507

  13. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemicals by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, B. E.

    2012-08-09

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy and chemical production technologies. We review the key advances that will enable the use of exoelectrogenic microorganisms to generate biofuels, hydrogen gas, methane, and other valuable inorganic and organic chemicals. Moreover, we examine the key challenges for implementing these systems and compare them to similar renewable energy technologies. Although commercial development is already underway in several different applications, ranging from wastewater treatment to industrial chemical production, further research is needed regarding efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability.

  16. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  17. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  18. Technosols Made of Wastes to Improve Physico-Chemical Characteristics of a Copper Mine Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.ASENSIO; F.A.VEGA; M.L.ANDRADE; E.F.COVELO

    2013-01-01

    Mine tailing soils created from the copper extraction in Touro Mine (Northwest Spain) are very degraded both physically and chemically.Three plots in this mine tailing were amended with Technosols in different proportions in each one to know if this mixture improved the physico-chemical characteristics of the mine soil and contaminated it with heavy metals.The Technosols were made of organic wastes,including mussel residues,wood fragments,sewage sludges and paper mill ashes.An unamended area was used as a control soil.Pseudototal and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable contents of Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined in soil samples.The untreated soil had significant limitations for vegetation growth.All the Technosols improved the properties of the mine soil by increasing organic carbon and pH value,but they added Ni,Pb or Zn to the soil.It is advisable to check whether the heavy metal concentrations of the wastes are hazardous or not before adding to soils.It is also necessary to study the effect of these wastes over time and in more areas to conclude if they are actually favourable to restore degraded mine soils.

  19. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  20. Chemical speciation and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; LIU Jian-guo; YU Qian-feng; NIE Yong-feng

    2004-01-01

    Chemical speciation is a significant factor that governs the toxicity and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Sequential extraction procedure is applied to fractionate heavy metals(Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Cr) into five defined groups: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals is also investigated with the aid of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. In the fly ash sample, Pb is primarily presented in the carbonate(51%) and exchangeable(20%) fractions; Cd and Zn mainly exist as the exchangeable(83% and 49% respectively); Cu is mostly contained in the last three fractions(totally 87%); and Cr is mainly contained in the residual fraction(62%). Pb, Zn and Cd showed the high mobility in the investigation, thus might be of risk to the natural environment when municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is landfilled or reutilized.

  1. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kvasauskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its volume to 80–90%. Also, the investigation revealed that the amount of chemical elements (Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe decreased after combustion. However, the concentration of these elements in ashes is higher than that in raw manure. Article in Lithuanian

  2. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  3. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse. 

  4. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  5. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  6. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of powdered activated carbons obtained by thermo-chemical conversion of brown municipal waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cones of the European Black pine and Horse chestnut kernel, regarded as brown municipal waste, was utilized in this work as a precursor for powdered activated carbons. Chemical activation was employed at 500°C in inert atmosphere of nitrogen. Standard physico-chemical analyses were performed to examine obtained products. FTIR method was employed to determine fuctional groups which were found to be typical for activated carbons. Acidic oxygen groups were quantitatively determined using Boehm titrations. It was established that carboxylic groups on pine cone activated carbon, and phenolic groups on chestnut kernel activated carbon were dominant from all acidic oxygen groups. Since both contact pH and pHPZC were determined to be fairly acidic, it could be concluded that obtained activated carbons belong to L-type. Shape and layout of micrometer dimensioned particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Particles of different shapes and dimensions along with small cracks and wide crevices and voids were noticed. Textural analysis was used to determine specific surface area and pore distribution of obtained activated carbons. Obtained products possess highly developed surface area and wide pore distribution.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  10. Fiber optic cone penetrometer raman probe for in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, K.R.; Brown, S.B.

    1997-03-03

    A field hardened fiber optic Raman probe has been developed for cone penetrometer deployment in the Hanford underground chemical waste storage tanks. The corrosive chemical environment of the tanks, as well as Hanford specific deployment parameters, provide unique challenges for the design of an optical probe.

  11. Chemically Functionalized Arrays Comprising Micro and Nano-Electro-Mechanizal Systems for Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Sepaniak

    2008-10-08

    Innovative technology of sensory and selective chemical monitoring of hazardous wastes present in storage tanks are of continued importance to the environment. This multifaceted research program exploits the unique characteristics of micro and nano-fabricated cantilever-based, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMES) and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) in chemical sensing.

  12. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh; Chang, Ta-Peng; Chen, Chun-Tao; Yang, Tzong-Ruey; Nguyen, Tien-Dung

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S), Class F fly ash (FFA), and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA). To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B), curing regime, and FFA...

  13. Evaluation of improved chemical waste disposal and recovery methods for N reactor fuel fabrication operations: 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel identified and evaluated alternative methods for recovery, recycle, and disposal of waste acids produced during N Reactor fuel operations. This work was conducted under a program sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc.; the program goals were to reduce the volume of liquid waste by rejuvenating and recycling acid solutions and to generate a residual waste low in nitrates, fluorides, and metals. Disposal methods under consideration included nitric acid reclamation, grout encapsulation of final residual waste, nitrogen fertilizer production, biodenitrifaction, chemical or thermal destruction of NO3, and short-term impoundment of liquid NO3/SO4 wastes. Preliminary testing indicated that the most feasible and practicable of these alternatives were (1) nitric acid reclamation followed by grouting of residual waste and (2) nitrogen fertilizer production. This report summarizes the investigations, findings, and recommendations for the 1984 fiscal year

  14. Sensitivity analysis for the comparative assessment of chemical and radiological risks from the waste isolation pilot plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of sensitivity analyses performed on the models that define a method for the comparative assessment of chemical and radionuclide risks. The comparative risk assessment method was developed to compare the chemical and radionuclide health risks to workers and the general public that may be associated with the disposal of transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify those model variables that have the greatest impact on the estimation of chemical and radionuclide risks. This paper presents the resulting variables that ranked highest overall in sensitivity on twelve models used in these analyses

  15. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  16. Chemical conditions in the repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical conditions in the proposed repositories for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste at Haestholmen (IVO) and Olkiluoto (TVO) have been discussed with respect to materials introduced into the repository, their possible long-term changes and interaction with groundwater flowing into the repository. The main possible groundwater-rock interactions have been discussed, as well as the role of micro-organisms, organic acids and colloids in the estimation of the barrier integrity. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed on the basis of the natural groundwater compositions expected at the repository sites. Main emphasis is put on the chemical parameters which might influence the integrity of the different barriers in the repository as well as on the parameters which might effect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository

  17. Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.uk; Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 4195, 30080 Murcia (Spain); French, Christopher [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Piearce, Trevor G. [Biological Sciences Division, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A 6.6 ha grassland, established on a former chemical waste site adjacent to a residential area, contains arsenic (As) in surface soil at concentrations 200 times higher than UK Soil Guideline Values. The site is not recognized as statutory contaminated land, partly on the assumption that mobility of the metalloid presents a negligible threat to human health, groundwater and ecological receptors. Evidence for this is evaluated, based on studies of the effect of organic (green waste compost) and inorganic (iron oxides, lime and phosphate) amendments on As fractionation, mobility, plant uptake and earthworm communities. Arsenic mobility in soil was low but significantly related to dissolved organic matter and phosphate, with immobilization associated with iron oxides. Plant uptake was low and there was little apparent impact on earthworms. The existing vegetation cover reduces re-entrainment of dust-blown particulates and pathways of As exposure via this route. Minimizing risks to receptors requires avoidance of soil exposure, and no compost or phosphate application. - Stabilization of alkali industry waste requires careful management to minimise soil arsenic mobilization and dispersal to the wider environment.

  18. Efficiency of Chemical Treatments on Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Deinked Pulp Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shademan Pourmousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of poly aluminum chloride with cationic or anionic polymers in treatment of deinked waste water has been studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with poly aluminum chloride dosages range of 5-20 mg/l, cationic or anionic polymers dosages range of 1-3 mg/l, pH range of 7.2-8.2, rapid mixing at 100rpm for 2minute, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 10minute and settling for 20minute. The effectiveness of poly aluminum chloride with cationic or anionic polymers were measured based on reduction of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand. The combination of poly aluminum chloride with cationic or anionic polymers is found to give the increase efficiency of purification in the treatment of the deinked waste waters.it can achieve almost66.82 % of turbidity and 63.04 %ofchemical oxygen demand reduction at an optimum dosage of 15mg/l poly aluminum chloride with 3mg/l cationic polymers andpH of 8.2.Theresult suggests that the waste water purified can be used for internal process applications but for injection it to environments goals can be passed biological treatments.

  19. Treatment of ammonia in waste air using packed column coupling with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepchai, R.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a common chemical used in various industries. Emission of air contaminated with ammonia to the atmosphere without any treatment causes several effects on human health and environment.A high efficiency method for ammonia removal from waste air is then necessary. In this research, an absorption coupling with chemical reaction was investigated for ammonia removal from waste air using a packedcolumn. The packed column of 10 cm diameter and 200 cm height was packed with 1.4x1.4 cm Raschig rings. Three liquids including water, NaOCl and H2SO4 solution were used as an absorbent for the investigation.The objectives of this research were to determine a suitable absorbent and the optimum condition for ammonia removal from waste air. The packed column was operated at room temperature and atmosphericpressure. The tested conditions were as follows: the gas to liquid ratio (G:L ratio was 35-90 m3 gas/m3 liquid, the inlet concentration of ammonia was 150-500 ppm and the air flow rate was 18 m3/h. The results showedthat the ammonia removal efficiency depends on type of the absorbent and the operating condition. The efficiencies increased with decreasing of G:L ratio and with increasing absorbent concentration. They were70%, 80-92%, and 95-100% for pure water, sodium hypochlorite solution and sulphuric acid solution, respectively. The efficiency decreased with time when water was used as an absorbent while it was almostconstant when NaOCl and H2SO4 solution were applied. The ammonia removal efficiency when using H2SO4 as the absorbent was not dependent on G:L ratio and inlet ammonia concentration, in the range used in thisinvestigation. Since H2SO4 solution gave the highest removal efficiency and can reduce ammonia concentration in waste air to levels which meet the TLV-TWA standard, it is recommended as an absorbent solution forammonia removal from waste air.

  20. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  1. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. PMID:26282766

  2. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass.

  3. Physical-chemical treatment of wastes: a way to close turnover of elements in LSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenko YuA; Gribovskaya, I V; Zolotukhin, I G

    2000-05-01

    "Man-plants-physical-chemical unit" system designed for space stations or terrestrial ecohabitats to close steady-state mineral, water and gas exchange is proposed. The physical-chemical unit is to mineralize all inedible plant wastes and physiological human wastes (feces, urine, gray water) by electromagnetically activated hydrogen peroxide in an oxidation reactor. The final product is a mineralized solution containing all elements balanced for plants' requirements. The solution has been successfully used in experiments to grow wheat, beans and radish. The solution was reusable: the evaporated moisture was replenished by the phytotron condensate. Sodium salination of plants was precluded by evaporating reactor-mineralized urine to sodium saturation concentration to crystallize out NaCl which can be used as food for the crew. The remaining mineralized product was brought back for nutrition of plants. The gas composition of the reactor comprises O2, N2, CO2, NH3, H2. At the reactor's output hydrogen and oxygen were catalyzed into water, NH3 was converted in a water trap into NH4 and used for nutrition of plants. A special accessory at the reactor's output may produce hydrogen peroxide from intrasystem water and gas which makes possible to close gas loops between LSS components. PMID:11543386

  4. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  5. Chemically modified biochar produced from conocarpus waste increases NO3 removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Adel R A; Ahmad, Mahtab; El-Mahrouky, Mohamed; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul; Ok, Yong Sik; Sallam, Abdelazeem Sh; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I

    2016-04-01

    Biochar has emerged as a universal sorbent for the removal of contaminants from water and soil. However, its efficiency is lower than that of commercially available sorbents. Engineering biochar by chemical modification may improve its sorption efficiency. In this study, conocarpus green waste was chemically modified with magnesium and iron oxides and then subjected to thermal pyrolysis to produce biochar. These chemically modified biochars were tested for NO3 removal efficiency from aqueous solutions in batch sorption isothermal and kinetic experiments. The results revealed that MgO-biochar outperformed other biochars with a maximum NO3 sorption capacity of 45.36 mmol kg(-1) predicted by the Langmuir sorption model. The kinetics data were well described by the Type 1 pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemisorption as the dominating mechanism of NO3 sorption onto biochars. Greater efficiency of MgO-biochar was related to its high specific surface area (391.8 m(2) g(-1)) and formation of strong ionic complexes with NO3. At an initial pH of 2, more than 89 % NO3 removal efficiency was observed for all of the biochars. We conclude that chemical modification can alter the surface chemistry of biochar, thereby leading to enhanced sorption capacity compared with simple biochar. PMID:26100325

  6. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  7. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  8. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe3O4) and haematite (Fe2O3). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  9. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  10. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  11. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H2 and NH3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H2 and NH3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  13. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  14. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo||木村, 照夫||キムラ, テルオ

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  15. Slags and ashes from municipal waste incineration in Poland - mineralogical and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    In the next few years there will be a large change in the waste management system in Poland. Its primary aim will be reduction of the amount of landfilled waste by enhancing level of recycling, waste segregation, composting of biomass and incineration. The biggest investment during this transformation is construction of nine incinerators with assumed slags production around 200 thousand tons per year. Slag production is accompanied by fly ash generating. This ash can be a valuable raw material as fly ash from the power industry. Waste management system transformation will cause big increase in slag production in comparison to the present amount and will require taking necessary steps to ensure environmental safety. For this purpose, studies of slags and fly ashes in terms of environmental risk and potential impact on human health are significant. The object of the study are fly ashes and slags produced in the biggest municipal waste incineration power plant in Poland. Two series of samples obtained in municipal waste incineration process were studied in order to characterize mineralogical and chemical composition and to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and their possible negative environmental impact. Characteristics of these materials will be the basis for determining their value in application, for example in building industry. Mineralogical characteristic of slags was based on X-ray diffraction. Characteristic of structures and forms of occurrence of mineral phases was based on the optical microscopy and SEM imaging coupled with EDS analysis. Chemical analysis were performed using ICP-MS/ICP-AES methods. They allowed to follow variability between studied samples and gave basic information about metals. Metals in samples of slag and ashes are present as component of mineral phases and in the form of metallic inclusions in glass or minerals. Potentially hazardous concentrations for environment are observed for copper (330-4900ppm), zinc (1500-8100ppm

  16. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis

  17. Quality assurance for the transportation of hazardous (low-level radioactive, chemical/toxic, and medical) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal regulatory program governing the transportation of hazardous (low-level radioactive, chemical/toxic, and medical) wastes presently resides in many pieces of enabling legislation. With the advent of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, medical Waste Tracking Act, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and the myriad of federal, state, and local regulations, the transportation of hazardous waste has become subject to complex and confused regulatory requirements. As a result, the regulatory program is haphazard and is administered by a variety of regulatory departments, agencies, and offices. No one agency has taken the complete responsibility for a safe cradle-to-grave control. The Quality Assurance Program described in this paper provides the user with attributes necessary for consideration in the development of an effective system for the transportation of low-level radioactive, chemical/toxic, and medical wastes. The recommended program provides basic user-oriented guidelines to be implemented in developing such a system. The proposed guidelines provide a comprehensive method for management to control the handling and transportation of hazardous wastes. The systematic approach described will increase the level of public confidence in the ability of an organization to handle and safely transport hazardous wastes

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  19. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  20. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  1. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  2. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses

  3. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, David L.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses.

  4. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 1000C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced

  5. Diester Derivatives from Chemically Modiifed Waste Cooking Oil as Substitute for Petroleum Based Lubricating Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Shuo; Chen Ligong; Xu Lan; Li Liang; Yang Xin; Zhu Liye

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a new way for waste cooking oil (WCO) resource utilization, several diester derivatives were obtained from WCO through a three-step chemical modifications, viz.:transesterification, epoxidation and oxirane ring opening with carboxylic acids. The effects of the chain length of side chain groups on the viscosity, acid value, low temper-ature lfuidity, thermo-oxidative stability, tribological properties and surface tension of diester derivatives were investigated. The results showed that increasing the chain length of side chain groups had a positive inlfuence on the viscosity, viscosity index, acid value, pour point, friction coefifcient and wear scar diameter along with a negative inlfuence on the oxidation onset temperature, volatile loss, insoluble deposit, maximum non-seizure load and surface tension. These diester derivatives exhibited improved physicochemical and tribological properties that make themselves promising environmentally friendly biolubricant basestocks.

  6. A comparative chemical-structural study of fossil humic acids and those extracted from urban wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Polo, A. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, Murcia (Spain))

    1992-05-01

    Chemical-structural features of commercial humic acids (HAs) from leonardite or lignite were studied and the data obtained were compared with those of humic acids extracted from composted urban wastes. The greatest differences showed by the elemental analysis between the three HAs were in N and H contents, both of which diminished with the oxidation degree of the starting materials. FTIR spectra did not show differences between HAs from evolved materials such as leonardite or lignite. However, differences were found between these HAs and those extracted from composts of urban wastes, which showed a greater aliphatic character and a more pronounced peak in the absorption band attributed to secondary amides and in that of carbohydrates. The {sup 13}C-NMR spectra were similar for both HAs from leonardite regardless of their oxidation degree. The percentage of aromaticity of these HAs was 45%. The spectra of compost HAs showed a low aromaticity degree for these HAs as a consequence of the pronounced peak appearing at 73 ppm corresponding to carbon of carbohydrates and/or polyalcohols and aminoacids. Py-GC revealed a high content of benzene and toluene in all the commercial HAs. The values of these fragments as well as those of the ratios between pyrolitic fragments, used as humification index for soils, were the highest in the HA extracted from the more oxidized leonardite. 17 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Final Safety Analysis Document for Building 693 Chemical Waste Storage Building at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Document (SAD) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 693, Chemical Waste Storage Building (desipated as Building 693 Container Storage Unit in the Laboratory's RCRA Part B permit application), provides the necessary information and analyses to conclude that Building 693 can be operated at low risk without unduly endangering the safety of the building operating personnel or adversely affecting the public or the environment. This Building 693 SAD consists of eight sections and supporting appendices. Section 1 presents a summary of the facility designs and operations and Section 2 summarizes the safety analysis method and results. Section 3 describes the site, the facility desip, operations and management structure. Sections 4 and 5 present the safety analysis and operational safety requirements (OSRs). Section 6 reviews Hazardous Waste Management's (HWM) Quality Assurance (QA) program. Section 7 lists the references and background material used in the preparation of this report Section 8 lists acronyms, abbreviations and symbols. Appendices contain supporting analyses, definitions, and descriptions that are referenced in the body of this report

  8. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Zujovic, Zoran; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. PMID:26808404

  9. Number concentration and chemical composition of ultrafine and nanoparticles from WTE (waste to energy) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Ozgen, Senem; Consonni, Stefano

    2012-03-15

    Stack field testing at four municipal waste-to-energy (WTE) plants was conducted to investigate total number concentrations and size distributions in a size range extended towards the evaluation of ultrafine (UFP) and nanoparticle (NP) fractions with diameters smaller than 100nm and 50nm, respectively. Measurements were performed with a specifically designed sampling line, equipped with a dilution system and a particle counting device for measuring both primary particles in raw flue gases at stack conditions and the contributions of condensable origin, arising from their cooling and dilution immediately following stack release into the atmosphere. Average concentration levels detected ranged between 5×10(3)-6×10(5)cm(-3): for all sampling conditions, ultrafine fractions largely prevailed in number size distributions, with average diameters constantly located in the nanoparticle size range. Stack concentrations appeared to be influenced by the design and process configuration of flue gas cleaning systems, with most significant effects related to the presence of wet scrubbing units and the baghouse operating temperature of dry removal processes. Chemical speciation (i.e., trace metals, anions and cations, carbonaceous compounds) of size-resolved particulate fractions was performed on one of the plants. NP and UFP composition was essentially in accordance with the most important fuel and combustion process characteristics: in particular, the presence of chlorides and metal species was consistent with the respective waste feed content and their expected behavior during combustion and flue gas cleaning processes. PMID:22326138

  10. CFD analysis of municipal solid waste combustion using detailed chemical kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Alex; Castaldi, Marco J

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) in waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities are receiving renewed attention to reduce their output further. While NO x emissions are currently 60% below allowed limits, further reductions will decrease the air pollution control (APC) system burden and reduce consumption of NH3. This work combines the incorporation of the GRI 3.0 mechanism as a detailed chemical kinetic model (DCKM) into a custom three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model fully to understand the NO x chemistry in the above-bed burnout zones. Specifically, thermal, prompt and fuel NO formation mechanisms were evaluated for the system and a parametric study was utilized to determine the effect of varying fuel nitrogen conversion intermediates between HCN, NH3 and NO directly. Simulation results indicate that the fuel nitrogen mechanism accounts for 92% of the total NO produced in the system with thermal and prompt mechanisms accounting for the remaining 8%. Results also show a 5% variation in final NO concentration between HCN and NH3 inlet conditions, demonstrating that the fuel nitrogen intermediate assumed is not significant. Furthermore, the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO was 0.33, revealing that the majority of fuel nitrogen forms N2. PMID:25005043

  11. Chemical Characteristics of Compost and Humic Acid from Sago Waste (Metroxylon sagu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry C. Petrus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture waste such as Sago Waste (SW has a potential to cause pollution either on land or in water. In order to reduce this problem, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of three different treatments on the chemical characteristics of compost and humic acid from SW. Approach: The study had three treatments which were: T1: SW (80% + chicken feed (5% + chicken dung slurry (5% + molasses (5% + urea (5%, T2: SW (80% + chicken feed (10% + chicken dung slurry (5% + molasses (5% and T3: SW (80% + chicken feed (10% + chicken dung slurry (5% + urea (5%. Composting was done for 60 days in a white polystyrene box with a size of 61.5×49×33.5 cm. The composts were analyzed for pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, ash, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, phosphorus and HA using standard procedures. Results: All treatments did not reach thermophilic phase. Compost of T2 had high quality (pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, organic matter, ash, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, phosphorus and HA compared to T1 and T3. The yield of HA of T2 was also significantly higher compared to those of T1 and T3. The compost characteristics of T1 and T3 were similar. The chemical characteristics of HA the 3 treatments were within the standard range reported by other researchers. Conclusion: T2 is more efficient in producing mature and good quality compost in 60 days compared to T1 and T3.

  12. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  13. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  14. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation

  15. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  16. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. PMID:26347181

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-01-31

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2016-01-01

    recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...... differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable...... fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations...

  19. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  20. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  1. Biocomposites from waste derived biochars: Mechanical, thermal, chemical, and morphological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2016-03-01

    To identify a route for organic wastes utilisation, biochar made from various feedstocks (landfill pine saw dust, sewage sludge, and poultry litter) and at diverse pyrolysis conditions, were collected. These biochars were used to fabricate wood and polypropylene biocomposites with a loading level of 24 mass%. The composites were tested for their mechanical, chemical, thermal, morphological, and fire properties. The poultry litter biochar biocomposite, with highest ash content, was found to have high values of tensile/flexural strength, tensile/flexural modulus, and impact strength, compared to other composites. In general, addition of all the biochars enhanced the tensile/flexural moduli of the composites. The crystal structure of polypropylene in the composite was intact after the incorporation of all the biochars. The final chemical and crystal structure of the composite were an additive function of the individual components. The biochar particles along with wood acted as nucleating agents for the recrystallization of polypropylene in composite. Each component in the composites was found to decompose individually under thermal regime. The electron microscopy revealed the infiltration of polypropylene into the biochar pores and a general good dispersion in most composites. The poultry litter composite was found to have lower heat release rate under combustion regime. PMID:26724232

  2. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed. PMID:25163531

  3. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  4. Chemical durability and structural analysis of PbO–B2O3 glasses and testing for simulated radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Secondary electron SEM images of lead borate glass including 80 mol% PbO before (top) and after chemical durability tests (bottom) - Abstract: Lead borate based glass formulations with high chemical durability and lower melting temperatures compared to the currently used glasses were developed as candidates for the vitrification of radioactive waste. Properties including chemical durability, glass transformation temperature, and melting temperature were analyzed. The chemical durability of PbO–B2O3 glasses with PbO contents ranging from 30 to 80 mol% was determined. An average dissolution rate of 0.2 g m−2 day−1 was obtained for the composition 80PbO⋅20B2O3. These glasses were studied under simulation conditions and showed good potential as a vitrification matrix for radioactive waste management. Clear vitrified waste products containing up to 30 mol% SrO and 25 mol% Cs2O could be obtained. Leaching rates are about hundred times higher in low PbO glasses compared to high PbO glasses. These results are encouraging since they open up new horizons in the development of low melting temperature lead borate glass for waste immobilization applications

  5. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-04-21

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated.

  6. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  7. Research and development work on radioactive waste management and storage of chemical-toxic wastes - first half of 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report covers the state and results of the projects undertaken in the area of waste management. In particular, results in the area of decommissioning and retreat of nuclear installations are documented. Furthermore, measures designed to increase environmental compatibility are taken into account. Experimental results regarding the concept, planning, construction, operation, decommissioning and post-operational phase of a repository or underground disposal of hazardous wastes are also described. Lists of formalized interim reports and research institutions involved are attached. (DG)

  8. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Davud Kadimaliev,; Vladimir Telyatnik,; Victor Revin,; Alexander Parshin,; Surhay Allahverdi,; Gokhan Gunduz; Elena Kezina,; Nejla Asık

    2012-01-01

    During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferi...

  10. The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I2 solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I2 leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I2, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass

  11. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  12. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  13. Chemicals, metals, and pesticide pits waste unit low induction number electromagnetic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromagnetic survey was conducted at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticide Waste Unit to identify any buried metallic objects that may be present in the materials used to fill and cover the pits after removal of pit debris. The survey was conducted with a Geonics EM-31 Terrain Conductivity Meter along north - south oriented traverses with 5-ft station intervals to produce a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern. Both conductivity and in-phase components were measured at each station for vertical dipole orientation with the common axis of the dipoles in the north - south and east - west orientations. The conductivity data clearly show elevated conductivities (2.1 to 7.0 mS/m) associated with the material over the pits, as compared with the surrounding area that is characterized by lower conductivities (1 to 2 mS/m). This is probably the result of the higher clay content of the fill material relative to the surrounding area, which has a higher sand to clay ratio and the presence of a plastic cover beneath the fill that has probably trapped water. Many metal objects are present in the survey area including manhole covers, monitoring well heads, metal, signs, drain culverts, abandoned wells, and BP waste unit marker balls. AU of these exhibit associated conductivity and in-phase anomalies of various magnitude. In addition to these anomalies that can be definitely associated with surface sources, conductivity and in-phase anomalies are also present with no obvious surface source. These anomalies are probably indicative of subsurface buried metallic objects. A high concentration of these objects appears to be present in the southwest corner of the survey area

  14. Chemical and mineralogical modifications of simplified radioactive waste calcine during heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A.; Schuller, S.; Toplis, M. J.; Podor, R.; Ravaux, J.; Clavier, N.; Brau, H. P.; Charpentier, T.; Angeli, F.; Leterrier, N.

    2014-05-01

    chemical reactions between the calcined waste and the glass precursor.

  15. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DST’s is given at the end of this report.

  16. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  18. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  19. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  20. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri; João Tavares Filho

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid) disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promisi...

  1. Biosorption of Cu (II onto chemically modified waste mycelium of Aspergillus awamori: Equilibrium, kinetics and modeling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZDRAVKA VELKOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption potential of chemically modified waste mycelium of industrial xylanase-producing strain Aspergillus awamori for Cu (II removal from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The influence of pH, contact time and initial Cu (II concentration on the removal efficiency was evaluated. Maximum biosorption capacity was reached by sodium hydroxide treated waste fungal mycelium at pH 5.0. The Langmuir adsorption equation matched very well the adsorption equilibrium data in the studied conditions. The process kinetic followed the pseudo-firs order model.

  2. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  3. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.;

    1992-01-01

    is accepted by the limits, nuclear waste seems to have a much higher potential risk than waste from fossil fuel. The possibility that such risk estimates may be used as arguments for safe storage of the different types of waste is discussed. In order to obtain the actual risk from the potential risk...

  4. Chemical variability of zeolites at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compositions of clinoptilolites and their host tuffs have been examined by electron microprobe and x-ray fluorescence, respectively, to determine their variability at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their sorptive properties, these zeolites could provide important geologic barriers to radionuclide migration. Variations in clinoptilolite composition can strongly affect the mineral's thermal and ion-exchange properties, thus influencing its behavior in the repository environment. Clinoptilolites and heulandites closest to the proposed repository have calcium-rich compositions (60 to 90 mol. % Ca) and silica-to-aluminum ratios that concentrate between 4.0 and 4.6. In contrast, clinoptilolites and their host tuffs deeper in the volcanic sequence have highly variable compositions that vary vertically and laterally. Deeper-occurring clinoptilolites in the eastern part of Yucca Mountain are characterized by calcic-potassic compositions and tend to become more calcium-rich with depth. Clinoptilolites at equivalent stratigraphic levels on the western side of Yucca Mountain have sodic-potassic compositions and tend to become more sodium-rich with depth. Despite their differences in exchangeable cation compositions these two deeper-occurring compositional suites have similar silica-to-aluminum ratios, concentrating between 4.4 and 5.0. The chemical variability of clinoptilolites and their host tuffs at Yucca Mountain suggest that their physical and chemical properties will also vary. Compositionally-dependent clinoptilolite properties important for repository performance assessment include expansion/contraction behavior, hydration/dehydration behavior, and ion-exchange properties

  5. Evaluation of Chemically Activated Zeolite for Immobilizing the UraniumWaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental investigation on the chemically activated local mineralmaterial of zeolite using H2SO4 with its various concentration of 0, 5, 10and 15 % and heating them by a furnace at the temperature of 100 - 400 oCfor evaluating their effectiveness on the immobilization of uranium wastewith the concentration of 100 ppm. Experimentally, this investigation is thefirst step of local mineral material usage as an alternative material for thetreatment of liquid waste containing radioactive element especially uranium.This investigation was performed by passing uranium solution feed with theconcentration of 100 ppm , pH=4 through the glass column containing activatedzeolite with the grain size of -100/+200, -80/+100 and -60/+80 mesh. Theexperimental resulted by maintaining the feed flow rate of 2.5 ml/min., pH=4obtaining the process condition in which uranium fraction contained in thezeolite column is given by DFU = 70.Therefore, it could be concluded thatthe most effective activation was obtained with H2SO4 as an activationmaterial of the concentration = 5 %, for the zeolite grain size of -100/+200mesh and the saturating time gained for the zeolite grain size of -100/+200mesh = 3030 minutes. (author)

  6. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  7. Formaldehyde: a chemical of concern in the vicinity of MBT plants of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Figueras, María J; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2014-08-01

    The mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a number of advantages in comparison to other MSW management possibilities. However, adverse health effects related to this practice are not well known yet, as a varied typology of microbiological and chemical agents may be generated and released. In 2010, we initiated an environmental monitoring program to control air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and microbiological pollutants near an MBT plant in Montcada i Reixac (Catalonia, Spain). In order to assess any temporal and seasonal trends, four 6-monthly campaigns were performed. Important fluctuations were observed in the levels of different biological indicators (total and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi grown at 25 °C and 37 °C, and more specifically, Aspergillus fumigatus). Although overall bioaerosols concentrations were rather low, a certain increase in the mean values of bacteria and fungi was observed in summer. In contrast, higher concentrations of VOCs were found in winter, with the only exception of formaldehyde. Interestingly, although this compound was not detected in one of the sampling campaigns, current airborne levels of formaldehyde were higher than those previously reported in urban areas across Europe. Furthermore, the non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Quotient), particularly in winter, as well as the cancer risks associated with the inhalation of VOCs, exceeded the threshold values (1 and 10(-5), respectively), reaffirming the need of continuing with the monitoring program, with special emphasis on formaldehyde, a carcinogenic/mutagenic substance. PMID:24906065

  8. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen concrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediate level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium. (authors)

  9. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous phases using chemically modified waste Lyocell fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, John Kwame; Wei, Wei; Kim, Sok; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-12-15

    In this study, an outstanding performance of chemically modified waste Lyocell for heavy metals treatment is reported. The sorbent, which was prepared by a simple and concise method, was able to bind heavy metals such as Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II), with very high efficiencies. The binding mechanisms were studied through adsorption and standard characterization tests such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Adsorption kinetics was very fast and attained equilibrium within 5 min in all metals studied. The maximum single metal uptakes were 531.29±0.28 mg/g, 505.64±0.21 mg/g, and 123.08±0.26 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively. In ternary metal systems, Cu(II) selectivity was observed and the underlying factors were discussed. The sorbent by its nature, could be very effective in treating large volumes of wastewater with the contact of very little amount.

  10. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  11. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Ng, Jack; Harris, Hugh H.; Noller, Barry

    2010-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  12. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. First Update. (3rd edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Update is for Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, SW-846, Third Edition. Attached to the report is a list of methods included in the proposed update indicating whether the method is a new method, a partially revised method, or a totally revised method. Do not discard or replace any of the current pages in the SW-846 manual until the proposed update I package is promulgated. Until promulgation of the update package, the methods in the update package are not officially part of the SW-846 manual and thus do not carry the status of EPA-approved methods. In addition to the proposed Update, six finalized methods are included for immediate inclusion into the Third Edition of SW-846. Four methods, originally proposed October 1, 1984, will be finalized in a soon to be released rulemaking. They are, however, being submitted to subscribers for the first time in the update. These methods are 7211, 7381, 7461, and 7951. Two other methods were finalized in the 2nd Edition of SW-846. They were inadvertantly omitted from the 3rd Edition and are not being proposed as new. These methods are 7081 and 7761

  13. Integrated chemical/biological treatment of paint stripper mixed waste: Metals toxicity and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE complex has generated vast quantities of complex heterogeneous mixed wastes. Paint stripper waste (PSW) is a complex waste that arose from decontamination and decommissioning activities. It contains paint stripper, cheesecloth, cellulose-based paints with Pb and Cr, and suspect Pu. Los Alamos National Laboratory has 150--200 barrels of PSW and other national laboratories such as Rocky Flats Plant have many more barrels of heterogeneous waste. Few technologies exist that can treat this complex waste. Our approach to solving this problem is the integration of two established technologies: biodegradation and metals chelation

  14. Comparison of physio-chemical characterization of Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste and Ipomea Carnia Stem waste by H3Po4 treatment for the dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha, K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste and Ipomea Carnia stem waste has been activated using phosphoric acid and shows excellent improvement in their surface characteristic. Adsorption properties along with surface functional groups in surface morphology play a significant role. Micropores, mesopores and macropores are seen in the activated carbon. The resulting samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption measurements at 77 K to obtain surface area and pore size distributions.SEM analysis has been carried out to determine its pore structure and the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy techniques was used for the investigation of surface functional groups. Physico-Chemical characteristics such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, matter soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, conductivity, porosity, pHzpc, decolourising power and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of the carbon as absorbent. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste and Ipomea Carnia stem waste showed a good result by H3PO4 impregnation process followed by activation at 800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere.

  15. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  16. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  17. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  18. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  19. Delisting efforts for mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous waste at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there are four hazardous wastes at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are candidates for the delisting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations. These candidates are the sludges from K-1407-B and C ponds, Central Neutralization Facility sludges, mixed sludges from Y-12 and the ash generated by the RCRA/Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. All of these hazardous wastes contain radioactive constituents as well as hazardous constituents. The delisting will be based upon the nonradioactive constituents. Whether the delisting petition is granted or not, the wastes will be handled according to the Department of Energy guidelines for radioactive wastes. The presentation discusses the methodologies for delisting these wastes and the rationale behind the processes

  20. [Distribution and activity of microorganisms in the deep repository for liquid radioactive waste at the Siberian Chemical Combine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazina, T N; Luk'ianova, E A; Zakharova, E V; Ivoĭlov, V S; Poltaraus, A B; Kalmykov, S N; Beliaev, S S; Zubkov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions, composition of microbial communities, and the rates of anaerobic processes in the deep sandy horizons used as a repository for liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Tomsk oblast), were studied. Formation waters from the observation wells drilled into the production horizons of the radioactive waste disposal site were found to be inhabited by microorganisms of different physiological groups, including aerobic organotrophs, anaerobic fermentative, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The density of microbial population, as determined by cultural methods, was low and usually did not exceed 10(4) cells/ml. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of production horizons. The contemporary processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were assayed; the rates of these terminal processes of organic matter destruction were found to be low. The denitrifying bacteria from the underground repository were capable of reducing the nitrates contained in the wastes, provided sources of energy and biogenic elements were available. Biosorption of radionuclides by the biomass of aerobic bacteria isolated from groundwater was demonstrated. The results obtained give us insight into the functional structure of the microbial community inhabiting the waters of repository production horizons. This study indicates that the numbers and activity of microbial cells are low both inside and outside the zone of radioactive waste dispersion, in spite of the long period of waste discharge.

  1. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill: Innovative strategies towards characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque for disposal of hazardous chemicals from the years 1962 to 1985. During routine sampling in the spring of 1990, low levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in groundwater samples from a water table aquifer approximately 146 meters below ground surface. Therefore, a RCRA Site Investigation (RSI) has been initiated and remediation of organic contaminants will be performed at the CWL prior to closure of this landfill. The RSI is focused on optimal characterization of the volatile organic contamination (VOC) and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination at this site. This will be possible through application of innovative strategies for characterization and promising new technologies which are discussed in this paper. The first part of this paper provides a discussion of conceptual models of VOC and DNAPL transport at the CWL and an overview of our investigative strategy. Each stage of the RSI has been developed to gather information which will reduce the uncertainty in the design of each subsequent phase of the investigation. Three stages are described; a source characterization stage, unsaturated zone characterization stage, and a saturated zone characterization stage. An important focus of the unsaturated zone characterization phase is to provide all data necessary to make decisions concerning the necessity of additional saturated zone characterization. The second part of this paper presents a brief discussion of some innovative approaches to characterization and remediation that are being applied at the CWL. Through the. SNL Environmental Restoration Program's desire to find new and improved methods for site characterization and remediation, several innovative technologies have been identified. These technologies include: the surface towed arrays developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in locating buried ordinance, core drilling using sonic

  3. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. → Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. → Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. → Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. → Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 μm), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 107 part. cm-3

  4. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG). Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 Degree C at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG), Elemental Analyzer (E.A) and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV) largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis) spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 Degree C (53 and 37wt percentage bio-oil from wheat and barley SG). Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460 Degree C, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals. (author)

  5. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; K Panduranga Rao; T S Sampath Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

  6. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  7. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  8. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  9. Testing Of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Of SRS Actual Waste Tank 5F And Tank 12H Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  10. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  11. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  12. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  13. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  14. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  15. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  16. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  17. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... the scouts twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the...

  18. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by...... the scouts twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the...

  19. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE II REPORT, SEPT.1998-JULY 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.YAGER,K.A.BLANKENHORN,D.(KEYSPAN R AND D INITIATIVE)

    1999-08-01

    Based upon the previous Phase I research program aimed at looking for ways of recycling the KeySpan-generated wastes, such as waste water treatment sludge (WWTS) and bottom ash (BA), into the potentially useful cementitious materials called chemically bonded cement (CBC) materials, the emphasis of this Phase II program done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, in a period of September 1998 through July 1999, was directed towards the two major subjects: One was to assess the technical feasibility of WWTS-based CBC material for use as Pb-exchange adsorbent (PEA) which remediates Pb-contaminated soils in the field; and the other was related to the establishment of the optimum-packaging storage system of dry BA-based CBC components that make it a promising matrix material for the steam-cured concrete products containing sand and coarse aggregate. To achieve the goal of the first subject, a small-scale field demonstration test was carried out. Using the PEA material consisting of 30 wt% WWTS, 13 wt% Type I cement and 57 wt% water, the PES slurry was prepared using a rotary shear concrete mixer, and then poured on the Pb-contaminated soil. The PEA-to-soil ratio by weight was a factor of 2.0. The placed PEA slurry was blended with soil using hand mixing tools such as claws and shovels. The wettability of soils with the PEA was very good, thereby facilitating the soil-PEA mix procedures. A very promising result was obtained from this field test; in fact, the mount of Pb leached out from the 25-day-aged PEA-treated soil specimen was only 0.74 mg/l, meeting the requirement for EPA safe regulation of < 5 mg/l. In contrast, a large amount (26.4 mg/l) of Pb was detected from the untreated soil of the same age. Thus, this finding demonstrated that the WWTS-based CBC has a potential for use as PEA material. Regarding the second subject, the dry-packed storage system consisting of 68.7 wt% BA, 13.0 wt% calcium aluminate cement (CAC), 13.0 wt% Type I portland cement and 5.3 wt

  20. Chemical fractionation of the waste fuels - A comparison of methods; Kemisk fraktionering av avfallsbraenslen - En jaemfoerelse av metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Claesson, Frida

    2009-07-01

    Striving to improve the waste handling in an energy and environmental manner has led to an increased flow of waste fractions interesting for energy recovery by combustion, both for heat and power production. The increased flow of various waste fractions with varying chemical compositions results in new demands on the combustion plants. This because operational problems, such as bed sintering, corrosion and deposit formation resulting in expensive shut downs can be caused by relatively small changes in the fuel stream. It is primarily alkali metals in combination with chlorine that cause problems like fouling and corrosion. To avoid these problems, tools for characterization of these fuels to predict combustion processes are needed. Two such tools are the Aabo- and the CEN/TS 15105 methods which both are chemical characterization methods based on leaching. The Aabo-method is a more advanced method and also more time consuming compared to the CEN/TS 15105-method. These methods aim to dissolve and identify the compounds that are reactive during combustion and therefore able to cause combustion problems. Both these methods are developed for the characterization of biofuels but only the Aabo-method has been evaluated for waste fuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two methods by characterization of six waste fuels with different composition. In addition also four more homogeneous fuels: coal, straw, wood pellets and municipal sewage sludge. The analyses showed that the Aabo-method gave a more clear picture of the reactive elements in the waste fuel in comparison to the CEN/TS 15105-method. An advantage with the Aabo-method is also that the solid rest obtained after the leaching is analysed giving an element balance of the sample without having to make assumptions. The comparison of the methods showed that the CEN/TS 15105-method does not dissolve large parts of the available calcium in the waste fuel resulting in a large underestimation of the reactive

  1. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  2. Chemical and Charge Imbalance Induced by Radionuclide Decay: Effects on Waste Form Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jaffe, John E.; Jiang, Weilin; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-04-01

    This is a milestone document covering the activities to validate theoretical calculations with experimental data for the effect of the decay of 90Sr to 90Zr on materials properties. This was done for a surragate waste form strontium titanate.

  3. Chemical treatment of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste using Ferri Chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric Chloride 6H2O was used for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Cesium-137. Various concentration of ferric chloride 6H2O have been added into the waste at different pH and speed of stirrer. The treatment was based on the coagulans-flocculation and coprecipitation mechanisms. The best result of this experiment was achieved by adding 300 ppm of Ferric chloride 6 H2O into liquid waste on following condition the rate Stirrer was 250 rpm. At this condition, it was found that the separation efficiency and the decontamination factor were 83.32 % and 5.99. The activity of decreasing of aqueous radioactive Cesium-137 waste was 2.10 x 10-4 Ci/l to 3.50 x 10-5 Ci/l

  4. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  5. Using different catalysts in the chemical recycling of waste from flexible polyurethane foams

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. dos Santos; Carlos L. P. Carone; Jeane Dullius; Rosane Ligabue; Sandra Einloft

    2013-01-01

    Due to their versatility, polyurethane (PU) foams have many different applications, such as sponges, filling materials in furniture, automotive seats and clothes, among others. It is also one of the main refrigerator components serving as a heat insulating material. As PUs find different application niches, they must be largely produced and, consequently, lots of waste are generated. In this work we intend to contribute to the recycle of this waste. The recovery of polyol from flexible polyur...

  6. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    OpenAIRE

    Rasa Kvasauskienė; Pranas Baltrėnas

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its vo...

  7. Radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: A challenge for the future: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author focuses attention on serious and widespread problems of environmental pollution, and points out that there are worthwhile problems to work on which are both important and professionally rewarding. A major opportunity exists to reduce the amounts of the wastes or to eliminate them at their sources by changing manufacturing methods or by developing new processes or products. However, there will always be wastes of some sort, and they must be dealt with

  8. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF THE YEAST WASTE FROM BEER MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE ADHESIVE COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davud Kadimaliev,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the production of beer large amounts of yeast waste are generated. This paper considers the possible making of environmentally friendly adhesive compositions from such wastes. Chemical treatment of yeast wastes increases their adhesive characteristics. Chemical cross-linking with glutaric aldehyde and biological cross-linking by enzyme transglutaminase improves the moisture resistance of the adhesive compositions. In terms of their physical and mechanical parameters they are not inferior to glues of natural origin and can be used for bonding paper, cardboard, and wood. The bonding strength of paper was 421.8 N / m, and that of wood was 27.8 MPa.

  10. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE MATERIALS FROM HARD COAL BURNING IN VIEW OF THEIR AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Czech

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of electric power in Poland bases on burning brown and hard coal. Currently over 90 % of electricity originates from this source. Generating electric power, like many other human activities, inevitably involves production of wastes. Considering the previous trends of these waste materials utilisation, one should analyse also potential use of biogenic components which they contain as fertilizers. The main objective of conducted investigations was an assessment of potential application of selected waste materials, i.e. fly ashes from production, fly ashes from the landfill site and slag sand from “KRAKÓW S.A.” heat and power plant for agricultural and environmental purposes. The assessment was made on the basis of analyses of the following physical and chemical properties of studied materials: pH, granulometric composition determined by Bouyoucose-Casagrande method in Prószyński’s modification, total alkalinity, total nitrogen content assessed by means of Kjeldahl’s method, organic carbon by Tiurin’s method, total contents of trace elements and the content of available forms of trace elements soluble in 1 mol · dm-3 HCl solution. On the basis of conducted laboratory analyses it should be stated that the amounts of heavy metals determined in the studied materials did not exceed the content allowable for waste materials designed for soil liming. The analysed materials reveal physical and chemical properties which do not exclude their potential application for soil liming. In this respect, fly ash from production seems the best. However, it contains about twice lower amounts of CaO in comparison with other calcium fertilizers available on the market.

  12. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  13. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Waste Abies alba Mill. Wood

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Rodríguez, Olga; Urien, Andrea; Lobato Ortega, Belén; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the physico-chemical characteristics of the products derived from the thermolysis (thermolytic distillation) of waste silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood at different temperatures (400℃- 600℃) in a pilot scale plant. Depending on the thermolysis temperature, the procedure yielded 45 - 53 wt% pyroligneous acid with a high water content (80 - 86 wt%) and pH ≈ 3.6. The process also produced a carbonaceous solid or biochar (23 - 26 wt%), its properties strongly dependent on...

  14. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods

  15. Harvest and utilization of chemical energy in wastes by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-05-21

    Organic wastes are now increasingly viewed as a resource of energy that can be harvested by suitable biotechnologies. One promising technology is microbial fuel cells (MFC), which can generate electricity from the degradation of organic pollutants. While the environmental benefits of MFC in waste treatment have been recognized, their potential as an energy producer is not fully understood. Although progresses in material and engineering have greatly improved the power output from MFC, how to efficiently utilize the MFC's energy in real-world scenario remains a challenge. In this review, fundamental understandings on the energy-generating capacity of MFC from real waste treatment are provided and the challenges and opportunities are discussed. The limiting factors restricting the energy output and impairing the long-term reliability of MFC are also analyzed. Several energy storage and in situ utilization strategies for the management of MFC's energy are proposed, and future research needs for real-world application of this approach are explored.

  16. Chemical reprocessing of NPP fuels and high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main stages of closed fuel cycle for NPP wast fuel reprocessing accepted in the USSR are given. Main operation of cycle, that is, fuel shipment is realized by means of rail-road transport in special containers. Container total mass is 90-120 t at 2.9-3.8 t fuel loading. Effective process of TBP extraction realized in continuous multistage extrctors represents basis for U and Pu separation technique. Process provides for purification of uranium and plutonium from fission products by 107-108 times. Glass and mineral type materials which analogs proved to be reliable at prolouged storage in geological formations are selected for high-radioactive waste disposal. Investigation into seach of formations with favorable hydrogeological conditions for solid waste disposal is conducted

  17. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the defense waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  18. Análise sistemática de reagentes e resíduos sem identificação Systematic analysis of unidentified chemicals and wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Afonso

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a detailed routine applied to the identification of unknown chemicals and wastes. 786 specimens were analyzed during 20 months. Unknown materials fell into three basic classes: (i commercial chemicals without labels or illegible ones; (ii laboratory synthesis products; (iii used solvents (including mixtures. Uranium and thorium were recovered form their wastes. Unknown chemicals were mainly inorganic compounds, many of which had never been opened. Alkaline salts were dominant, but also precious metal compounds were identified. Laboratory synthesis products were organic compounds. The final destination depended on the nature of the chemical. Most organic compounds were sent to incineration; inorganic salts were distributed among several public organizations, including secondary and technical schools. The work described in this paper greatly reduced the amount of wastes that had to be sent to disposal.

  19. The physico-chemical treatment of laundry waste water; Tratamiento fisicoquimica de aguas residuales de lavanderias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Jato, I. G.; Larranaga, I.

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the washing of clot her is treated with aluminium sulphate + acrylamide to achieve coagulation/flocculation. The analytical data obtained in a jar-test using the FTU as the control parameter demonstrate the efficacy of the process, as reductions in the FTU approaching 100% and elimination rates of 80% in detergents and 85% in the COD were achieved. These results show that coagulation and flocculation are sufficient to treat laundry waste water, even though it contains a high pollutant load, since both organic and inorganic pollutants can be significantly reduced by such operations. (Author) 17 refs.

  20. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  1. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  2. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair) and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks) were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a g...

  3. Influence of thermal pretreatment on physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and the efficiency of anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Li, Yangyang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-09-15

    The effects of thermal pretreatment at moderate temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) and high temperatures (120, 140 and 160 °C) over heating durations of 10-120 min on the physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and on anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results show that thermal pretreatment significantly enhances the solubilisation of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand, crude proteins, crude fats and volatile fatty acids) and their biodegradability during subsequent anaerobic digestion. High temperature and long heating duration are beneficial for the release and reduction of organic compounds, and the efficiency of subsequent anaerobic digestion is improved markedly under these conditions. Moreover, both the methane production rate and methane yield were observed to increase significantly at moderate treatment temperatures when the anaerobic digestion time was longer than 50 h. PMID:27240205

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  7. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  8. Bentonite alteration due to thermal-hydro-chemical processes during the early thermal period in a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Senger, R.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    After closure of an underground nuclear waste repository, the decay of radionuclides will raise temperature in the repository, and the bentonite buffer will resaturate by water inflow from the surrounding host rock. The perturbations from these thermal and hydrological processes are expected to dissipate within hundreds to a few thousand years. Here, we investigate coupled thermal-hydro-chemical processes and their effects on the short-term performance of a potential nuclear waste repository located in a clay formation. Using a simplified geometric configuration and abstracted hydraulic parameters of the clayey formation, we examine geochemical processes, coupled with thermo-hydrologic phenomena, and potential changes in porosity near the waste container during the early thermal period. The developed models were used for evaluating the mineral alterations and potential changes in porosity of the buffer, which can affect the repository performance. The results indicate that mineral alteration and associated changes in porosity induced by early thermal and hydrological processes are relatively small and are expected to not significantly affect flow and transport properties. Chlorite precipitation was obtained in all simulation cases. A maximum of one percent volume fraction of chlorite could be formed, whose process may reduce swelling and sorption capacity of bentonite clay, affecting the performance of the repository. llitisation process was not obtained from the present simulations.

  9. Pilot scale study of a chemical treatment process for decontamination of aqueous radioactive waste of pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical treatment process for the low level liquid radioactive waste generated at PINSTECH was previously optimized on lab-scale making use of coprecipitation of hydrous oxides of iron in basic medium. Ferrous sulfate was used as coagulant. Batch wise application of this procedure on pilot scale has been tested on a 1200 L batch volume of typical PINSTECH liquid waste. Different parameters and unit operations have been evaluated. The required data for the construction of a small size treatment plant envisioned can be used for demonstration/teaching purpose as well as for the decontamination of the waste effluents of the Institute. The lab-scale process parameters were verified valid on pilot scale. It was observed that reagent doses can further be economized with out any deterioration of the Decontamination Factors (DF) achieved or of any other aspect of the process. This simple, cost- effective, DF-efficient and time-smart batch wise process could be coupled with an assortment of other treatment operations thus affording universal application. Observations recorded during this study are presented. (author)

  10. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  11. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  12. A contribution to the physical and chemical model of long-lived radioactive wastes by clayey materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes confinement which come from the irradiated fuels reprocessing. These wastes are generally coated in a deep geological structure confinement matrix. The radiation protection of a such storage requires that the coating matrix, the technological barriers which separate the storage and the geological medium and the reception rock does not let the radioactive wastes pass. The materials used in this work for the confinement studies are clayey minerals and the retention mechanisms studies are realized on cesium 135, neptunium 237, americium 241 and uranium 233. The first part of this thesis concerns the clayey minerals retention properties towards ions in aqueous solutions. More particularly the relations between these properties and the chemical structure of these solids are investigated. In the second part are presented the experimental works which have allowed to specify the intrinsic characteristics of the studied minerals. Indeed the knowledge of these parameters is essential to quantitatively explain the results of the radionuclides retention. The adsorption mechanisms are described in a third part. (O.L.). 112 refs., 59 figs., 51 tabs

  13. Modeling of physico-chemical characteristics of concrete for filling trenches in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, Ilija [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Arbutina, Dalibor [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Public Company ' Nuclear Facilities of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-01

    An optimization of concrete used for immobilization of radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, is presented. A relatively simple mathematical model is given, which permits minimization of leach rate and permeability and maximization of compressive strength. An optimal solution, based on experimental data, is given. These results will be used for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

  14. Directed Evolution Strategies for Enantiocomplementary Haloalkane Dehalogenases : From Chemical Waste to Enantiopure Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Jan G. E.; Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Janssen, Dick B.

    2012-01-01

    We used directed evolution to obtain enantiocomplementary haloalkane dehalogenase variants that convert the toxic waste compound 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) into highly enantioenriched (R)- or (S)-2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, which can easily be converted into optically active epichlorohydrinsattractiv

  15. Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22μmole/min and 0.06μmole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH4Cl, FeCl3, KCl, NaNO3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO4 and HgCl2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

  16. Estimated Hanford liquid waste chemical inventory as of March 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The dilute liquid wastes at Hanford comprise a volume of 4.4 million gallons. The liquid contains 51.8 x 10/sup 6/ gram moles (8.8 x 10/sup 6/ pounds) of sodium salts and 3.2 megacuries of /sup 137/Cs. 10 tables.

  17. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  20. Chemical modeling of nuclear waste repositories in the salt repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt deposits contain small amounts of water as brine in fluid inclusions in halite and in hydrous minerals, e.g., clays, kieserite (MgSO4 . H2O) and carnallite (KMgCl3 . 6H2O). For the candidate salt deposits, the total amounts of water as volume % brine are: Palo Duro Basin, Texas, approximately 1.8; Paradox Basin, Utah, approximately 5.0 for the carnallite-marker zone, and less than approximately 0.5 below this zone; Gulf Coast salt domes, less than 0.15. For the Palo Duro and Paradox salt, the brines are Mg-rich (approximately 20,000 mg/L to approximately 100,000 mg/L) and sometimes Ca-rich (up to about 20,000 mg/L) NaCl brines. Brine migration calculations have been made using calculations of the time-variant thermal gradient around the waste packages and conservatively high brine volumes in the salt (5.0 volume % for the Texas and Utah sites and 0.5 volume % for the Gulf Coast) as input data. The maximum amounts of brine that eventually migrate to each waste package are about 1.0m3 (for 5.0 volume % brine) and 0.2m3 (for 0.5 volume % brine). With current conceptual designs for waste package overpacks (10 to 15 cm thick low-carbon steel), the waste package is not breached by uniform corrosion within 10,000 years. In brines this material thus far shows only uniform corrosion. For the expected conditions, where the brine is provided solely by brine migration, the brine is consumed by reaction with the iron of the overpack nearly as fast as it migrates to the waste package. Therefore, for the expected conditions, data about corrosion rates, radiolysis, etc., are not important. However, it is essential that accurate volumes of in-migrating brine can be calculated

  1. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed. PMID:23467183

  2. Automation of the chemical treatment plant of radioactive wastes at the RACSO Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RACSO Nuclear Center has a chemical treatment plant which has been designed and built for the low and medium activity radioactive residual treatment. Considering the Radiological Security standards and the optimization principle in order to reduce the doses of the operator personnel, the chemical treatment plant automation development was carried out

  3. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  4. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). PMID:20100651

  5. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 103 ± 3.7 x 102 part. cm-3 and 31.1 ± 9.0 μg m-3 were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m-3.

  6. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  7. Using different catalysts in the chemical recycling of waste from flexible polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their versatility, polyurethane (PU foams have many different applications, such as sponges, filling materials in furniture, automotive seats and clothes, among others. It is also one of the main refrigerator components serving as a heat insulating material. As PUs find different application niches, they must be largely produced and, consequently, lots of waste are generated. In this work we intend to contribute to the recycle of this waste. The recovery of polyol from flexible polyurethane foams was carried out using the glycolysis process and testing different catalysts. Grounded polyurethane and a solvent, diethyleneglycol (DEG, were kept at 200 ºC and under nitrogen atmosphere during three hours in the presence of a catalyst. All catalysts tested promoted the polyol mixture formation, with Zinc acetate producing the best depolymerization rate. The catalysts efficiency for the depolymerization reaction follows the order: DBTDL< BTO< HBTO< DEA ≈ Ba(Ac2< MEA ≈ KAc< Zn(Ac2.

  8. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  9. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Slag Waste Coming From IGCC Thermal Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Anselmo; Aineto, Mónica; Iglesias, Isabel; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2001-01-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investig...

  10. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Tabasso; Silvia Berto; Roberta Rosato; Janeth Alicia Tafur Marinos; Marco Ginepro; Vincenzo Zelano; Pier Giuseppe Daniele; Enzo Montoneri

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the b...

  11. Physical and chemical aspects of obtaining of sericin from silk waste to size cotton yarn

    OpenAIRE

    Yaminova Zarrina Akramovna

    2015-01-01

    In connection with the transition of the silk industry companies on the market relation, increase in production and processing of products made of natural silk will increase by rational using of raw materials and development of a cocoon-waste processing technologies cocoons. The quality of raw materials and the presence of up to 30% of the natural adhesive as sericin, we carried out research on development of an effective way of obtaining of solution for consideration and dressing powder.

  12. Chemical Profiling of Jatropha Tissues under Different Torrefaction Conditions: Application to Biomass Waste Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Taiji Watanabe; Amiu Shino; Kinya Akashi; Jun Kikuchi

    2014-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our rese...

  13. Microstructural and Chemical Behaviour of Irradiated Graphite Waste under Repository Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Bereket Abrha

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to evaluate the leaching properties of radionuclides from irradiated graphite waste has been developed by combining ANSI 16.1 (USA) and NEN 7345 (Netherlands) standardised diffusion leaching techniques. The ANSI 16.1 standard has been followed to the acquire the leachates and to determine the leach rate/ diffusion coefficient and NEN 7345 standard technique has been used to determine the diffusion mechanism of radionuclides. The investigation employs simulated Drigg groundwater as...

  14. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Arnaiz Arnaiz, Noelia; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Carratalá, Adoración

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; t...

  15. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaofeng; LI Xiancui; LI Hong; GUO Shuju; ZHU Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries,and it contains many bioactive substances,such as antioxidant,antimicrobial,and anticancer materials.To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource,extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods.Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL.Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract:2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12t,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5t-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside.All of these compounds are known in A.japonicus,and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  16. Harvest and utilization of chemical energy in wastes by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-05-21

    Organic wastes are now increasingly viewed as a resource of energy that can be harvested by suitable biotechnologies. One promising technology is microbial fuel cells (MFC), which can generate electricity from the degradation of organic pollutants. While the environmental benefits of MFC in waste treatment have been recognized, their potential as an energy producer is not fully understood. Although progresses in material and engineering have greatly improved the power output from MFC, how to efficiently utilize the MFC's energy in real-world scenario remains a challenge. In this review, fundamental understandings on the energy-generating capacity of MFC from real waste treatment are provided and the challenges and opportunities are discussed. The limiting factors restricting the energy output and impairing the long-term reliability of MFC are also analyzed. Several energy storage and in situ utilization strategies for the management of MFC's energy are proposed, and future research needs for real-world application of this approach are explored. PMID:26936021

  17. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a given particle size were packed into glass column.Then, textile wastewater that had its physicochemical parameters previously determined was eluted into each glass column and a contact time of 60 and 120 mins was allowed before analysis. Results showed 48.15–99.98 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 34.67–99.93 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 52.83–97.95 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ and 34.59–94.87 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+. Carbonization, small particle, size and longer contact time enhanced the sorption capabilities of the sorbents. These show that protein and cellulosic wastes can be used to detoxify wastewater.

  18. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofeng; Li, Xiancui; Li, Hong; Guo, Shuju; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2013-07-01

    Apos tichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries, and it contains many bioactive substances, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer materials. To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource, extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods. Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL. Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract: 2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12α,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. All of these compounds are known in A. japonicus, and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  19. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  20. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  1. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  2. Physico-chemical pretreatment and fungal biotreatment for park wastes and cattle dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sameh S.; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    With the rising demand for renewable energy and environmental protection, anaerobic digestion of biogas technology has attracted considerable attention within the scientific community. The effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on cellulose degradation followed by fungal treatment by Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma viride to treat cellulosic biomass for enhancing its digestibility was investigated. The tested substrate was digested with and without physical, chemical, and biological trea...

  3. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  4. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  5. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  6. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  7. Exploring the Reuse Potential of Chemical Sludge from Textile Wastewater Treatment Plants in India-A Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to explore the reuse potential of the chemical sludge (considered as hazardous waste as per Indian Government Hazardous Waste Management Rules generated from combined effluent treatment in textile clusters. These textile clusters mainly cover the cotton dyeing and printing operations. Approach: Therefore, treatability studies of chemical sludge were conducted using solidification/stabilization treatment to examine the possibility of its reuse in construction materials. The sludge was characterised for its physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Standard blocks of dimensions 70.6×70.6×70.6 mm were prepared, in which chemical sludge was used as a partial replacement of cement by mixing 30-70 % of sludge in cement. After the experimental curing, the blocks were evaluated for physical engineering properties such as hardening time, block density, unconfined compressive strength. The chemical properties were determined in terms of concentrations of heavy metals in the TCLP leachate. Results: The hardening time ranged between 30-45 h. The compressive strength in the sludge cement blocks ranged from 2.63-22.54 N mm-2 after 14 days of water curing and 6.48-24.89 N mmm-2 after 28 days of water curing for 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 % sludge replacement in cement. The block density varied between 1361. 3408-1813.8992 Kg m-3 after 14 days and 1386.3953-1842.3446 Kg m-3 after 28 days of water curing. The concentrations of heavy metals were negligible in the TCLP leachate and thus below USEPA regulatory limits. Conclusion/Recommendations: As far as structural applications is concerned, it is fulfilling the criteria of some of the classes (C to K as per the BIS standards of the bricks upto a strength of 25 N mm2. The use of sludge can definitely be explored for other structural and non-structural applications depending upon strength requirement. Other applications of textile sludge in the construction materials

  8. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  9. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  10. Study of the physico-chemical behavior of transuranian elements in radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranian chemistry is being studied in the geochemical context of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The transuranians considered are plutonium, neptunium and americium. The first part, devoted to the chemistry of these elements in aqueous solutions, consists of a critical compilation of literature data with a view to resulting in producing the Eh-pH diagrams of transuranians in a complexing environment. The study of the retention by constituents of artificial clay barriers (bentonite and attapulgite) is the subject of the second part. The third part concerns the development of a measurement technique for transuranian elements at trace levels by the thermal lensing method

  11. Study of the pyrolisis of municipal solid waste for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Velghe, Inge; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; Schreurs, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of municipal solid waste (MSW) are carried out in a semi-batch reactor under inert nitrogen atmosphere. Slow pyrolysis – characterized by long residence time (2 hours), heating rate of 4°C/min with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 550°C. Fast pyrolysis - characterized by short residence time (few minutes), high heating rate with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 450, 480, 510 and 550°C and different input transfer rates (12 or 24g mat...

  12. Efficiency of Chemical Treatments on Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Deinked Pulp Waste Water

    OpenAIRE

    Shademan Pourmousa; Somayeh Soltani Paraftabi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of poly aluminum chloride with cationic or anionic polymers in treatment of deinked waste water has been studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with poly aluminum chloride dosages range of 5-20 mg/l, cationic or anionic polymers dosages range of 1-3 mg/l, pH range of 7.2-8.2, rapid mixing at 100rpm for 2minute, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 10minute and settling for 20minute. The effectiveness of poly aluminum chloride with cationic or anionic polymers were ...

  13. Heavy metal levels in analytical laboratories waste: a study for the implementation of a programme for the control and disposal of waste from microbiology and chemical analysis laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei, George

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Qualidade em Análises, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Univ. do Algarve, 2012 Analytical Laboratories daily routine analyses leads to the generation of solid and liquid waste. Quality assurance and quality control procedures are employed in most of these laboratories to ensure that accurate results are obtained and the waste generated out of these analyses are properly stored for collection by waste treatment companies. The cost associated with waste t...

  14. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  15. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  16. Use of wastes in high-temperature processes of the chemical industry; Verwertung von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Domschke, T.; Steinebrunner, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The examples presented in this paper from diverse application areas of the chemical industry serve as an illustration of the many different ways in which wastes can be used for high-temperature processes in this branch. A review of the environmentally friendly concepts implemented at BASF AG in Ludwigshafen in the course of the past five years gives an idea of the immense potential opened up by a consistent application of the four-stage model for the prevention, reduction, and utilisation of wastes. In this period it was possible to reduce waste arisings by 34%, down from a potential 2 million tons, physically recycle 51%, and convert 11.5% to energy. This left a comparatively small fraction of 3.5%, or 70,000 tons, to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. Furthermore, the amount of pollutants produced per tonne of products sold fell from 40.6 kg in 1987 to 6.7 kg in 1997. [Deutsch] Die Beispiele aus den unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereichen der chemischen Industrie koennen als Auswahl der vielfaeltigen Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der Chemie betrachtet werden. Das immense Potential, das sich durch konsequente Anwendung des 4-Stufen-Modells zur Vermeidung, Verminderung und Verwertung von Abfaellen eroeffnet, zeigt sich in einer Fuenfjahresbilanz der umgesetzten Umweltschutzbetrachtungen in der BASF AG in Ludwigshafen. So konnten in diesem Zeitraum von potentiellen 2 Mio t Abfall/a ca. 34% vermieden und vermindert, 51% stofflich und 11,5% energetisch verwertet werden, so dass nur noch ein geringer Anteil von 3,5%, entsprechend ca. 70000 t/a, umweltgerecht entsorgt werden musste. Dies fuehrte auch zu einer drastischen Reduktion der auf der Tonne Verkaufsprodukt bezogenen Menge an umweltbelastenden Stoffen von 40,6 kg im Jahre 1987 auf 6,7 kg im Jahre 1997. (orig.)

  17. Dynamics of pruning waste and spent horse litter co-composting as determined by chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Marta; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana; Hontoria, Chiquinquirá; Almorox, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Co-composting of pruning waste and horse manure was monitored by different parameters. A windrow composting pile, having the dimensions 2.5m (height) x 30m (length) was established. The maturation of pruning waste and horse manure compost was accompanied by a decline in NH(4)(+)-N concentration, water soluble C and an increase in NO(3)(-)-N content. Organic matter (OM) content during composting followed a first-order kinetic equation. This result was in agreement with the microbiological activity measured by the CO(2) respiration during the process. The correlation at a high level of probability found between the OM loss and CO(2) evolution showed that both parameters could be used to indicate the degree of OM degradation that is the maturity and stability phases of the compost studied. Humification parameters data from the organic matter fractionation did not show a clear tendency during the composting time, suggesting that these parameters are not suitable for evaluating the dynamics of the process.

  18. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycling of either model polymers or waste products based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) is examined using the dissolution/reprecipitation method, as well as pyrolysis. In the first technique, different solvents/non-solvents were examined at different weight percent amounts and temperatures using as raw material both model polymers and commercial products (packaging film, bags, pipes, food-retail outlets). The recovery of polymer in every case was greater than 90%. FT-IR spectra and tensile mechanical properties of the samples before and after recycling were measured. Furthermore, catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor with an FCC catalyst using again model polymers and waste products as raw materials. Analysis of the derived gases and oils showed that pyrolysis gave a mainly aliphatic composition consisting of a series of hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), with a great potential to be recycled back into the petrochemical industry as a feedstock for the production of new plastics or refined fuels

  19. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia, Murcia (Spain))

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils.

  20. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED SOLUBILITY CONTROLS ON RADIONUCLIDES IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Millings, M.

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  1. Bench-Scale Evaluation Of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Technology To Stabilize Mercury Waste Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization of mercury (Hg) and mercuric chloride-containing surrogate test materials by the chemically bonded phosphate ceramics technology. This study was performed as part of a U.S. EPA program to evaluate treatment and d...

  2. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  3. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  4. Zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel and waste form: Synthesis, characterization and chemical performance in an advanced fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Kiel Steven

    There is a significant buildup in plutonium stockpiles throughout the world, because of spent nuclear fuel and the dismantling of weapons. The radiotoxicity of this material and proliferation risk has led to a desire for destroying excess plutonium. To do this effectively, it must be fissioned in a reactor as part of a uranium free fuel to eliminate the generation of more plutonium. This requires an inert matrix to volumetrically dilute the fissile plutonium. Zirconia-magnesia dual phase ceramic has been demonstrated to be a favorable material for this task. It is neutron transparent, zirconia is chemically robust, magnesia has good thermal conductivity and the ceramic has been calculated to conform to current economic and safety standards. This dissertation contributes to the knowledge of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel to establish behavior of the material containing a fissile component. First, the zirconia-magnesia inert matrix is synthesized in a dual phase ceramic containing a fissile component and a burnable poison. The chemical constitution of the ceramic is then determined. Next, the material performance is assessed under conditions relevant to an advanced fuel cycle. Reactor conditions were assessed with high temperature, high pressure water. Various acid solutions were used in an effort to dissolve the material for reprocessing. The ceramic was also tested as a waste form under environmental conditions, should it go directly to a repository as a spent fuel. The applicability of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel and waste form was tested and found to be a promising material for such applications.

  5. Harvester ant bioassay for assessing hazardous chemical waste sites. [Pogonomyrmex owhyeei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; Carlile, D.W.; Rogers, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    A technique was developed for using harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owhyeei, in terrestrial bioassays. Procedures were developed for maintaining stock populations, handling ants, and exposing ants to toxic materials. Relative toxicities were determined by exposing ants to 10 different materials. These materials included three insecticides, Endrin, Aldrin, and Dieldrin; one herbicide, 2,4-D; three complex industrial waste residuals, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil; and three heavy metals, copper zinc, and cadium. Ants were exposed in petri dishes containing soil amended with a particular toxicant. Under these test conditions, ants showed no sensitivity to the metals or 2,4-D. Ants were sensitive to the insecticides and oils in repeated tests, and relative toxicity remained consistent throughout. Aldrin was the most toxic material followed by Dieldrin, Endrin, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Removal of radioactive contaminants from aqueous laboratory wastes by chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the studies reported. The presence of suspended matter (i.e., clay) in the spiked tapwater solution improved the plutonium removals; however, the addition of clinoptilolite to the plant raw feed did not provide any noticeable improvement for plutonium removal. The addition of powdered clinoptilolite to the regular treatment in the plant significantly improved the removal of 137Cs, but had little effect on plutonium or 90Sr removal. Magnesium sulfate-lime-TSP (trisodium phosphate) treatment in the plant performed adequately, but not as well as the regular ferric sulfate-lime-TSP treatment. However, magnesium appears to be an adequate alternate during occasions of non-typical influents. A large portion of the plutonium is associated with the suspended solids matter in the waste. Autoradiographs indicate that the plutonium is generally evenly distributed, with some occasional hot spots

  7. Chemical studies on the treatment of hazardous liquid wastes by Two-phase transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate fertilizers produced from phosphate industries are one of the main sources of cadmium and other heavy metals in agricultural soils. Wastewater produced from phosphate industries and released in the water streams is highly acidic and contaminated with heavy metals which have severe environmental impacts. Phosphoric acid produced from phosphate ores by wet process contains small amounts of uranium together with some heavy metals. The presence of heavy metals represent a nuclear poison for using uranium as nuclear fuel. Therefore, the extraction of these elements from phosphoric acid produced by this process is necessary for the recovery of high purity uranium. The extraction of these elements from phosphate medium is of major importance where phosphate solution is a common species in radioactive waste solutions. The main trends to remove these elements are to use precipitation, ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction. 9 tabs., 64 figs., 113 refs

  8. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutzeck, Michael

    2005-06-01

    During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way.

  9. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  10. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way

  11. Waste dumps rehabilitation measures based on physico-chemical analyses in Zăghid mining area (Sălaj County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko M. Varga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with an abandoned coal mine from Zăghid area, North-WesternTransylvanian Basin (Sălaj County. The mining activity was stopped in 2005, without any attempt ofecological rehabilitation of the mined area and especially of the waste dumps left behind. The proposedrehabilitation models are based on some physical-chemical analyses of soil and waste samples (e.g. pH,EC, Salinity, humidity, porosity, density, plasticity, organic substances, mineralogical composition, heavymetals. Erosion map has been drawn based on the determined mineralogical composition (accordingSTAS 1913/5-85 – using Galton curve of tailings and the soil type. The values obtained for moisture andplasticity have been used to determine the ideal general inclination angle of the landfill systems in thestudied perimeter. Through chemical analysis, heavy metals like Ni and Cu have been identified, as themain pollution factors for surface and underground water. Therefore, the concentration of heavy metalsin the waters from Zăghid area is high in the water bodies, which are formed on waste dumps, but alsoin the mine water. This analysis is useful in establishing the actual state of the waste dumps and theircontent and the negative effects, which exercise on the environment in order to select the rehabilitationmodel for the waste dumps from Zăghid mining area. The main measures consist in: waste dumpsleveling, soil remediation, perennial plants culture and acid mine water decontamination.

  12. DOSE MEASURMENT IN ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OF WATER AND WASTE WATER BY CHEMICAL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Vaezi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical methods ( actinometry depend on the measurement of the extent to which a chemical reaction occurs under the influence of UV light. Two chemical actinometers have been used in this research. In one method, the mixtures of potassium peroxidisuiphate butanol solutions were irradiated for various time intervals, and pH-changes were determined. A linear relationship was observed between these changes and UV-dose applied. In another method, the acidic solutions of ammonium molybdate and ethyl alcohol were irradiated and the intensity of blue color developed was determined by titration with potassium permanganate solutions. The volumes of titrant used were then plotted versus the UV-doses. This showed a linear relationship which could be used for dosimeiry. Both of these actometers proved to be reliable. The first is the method of choice with a view to have much accuracy and the second method is preferred because of its feasibility and having advantages of no need to any equipment and non-accessible raw materials.

  13. Chemical transformation of CO2 during its capture by waste biomass derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Kan, Yue; Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is a porous carbonaceous material with high alkalinity and rich minerals, making it possible for CO2 capture. In this study, biochars derived from pig manure, sewage sludge, and wheat straw were evaluated for their CO2 sorption behavior. All three biochars showed high sorption abilities for CO2, with the maximum capacities reaching 18.2-34.4 mg g(-1) at 25 °C. Elevating sorption temperature and moisture content promoted the transition of CO2 uptake from physical to chemical process. Mineral components such as Mg, Ca, Fe, K, etc. in biochar induced the chemical sorption of CO2 via the mineralogical reactions which occupied 17.7%-50.9% of the total sorption. FeOOH in sewage sludge biochar was transformed by sorbed CO2 into Fe(OH)2CO3, while the sorbed CO2 in pig manure biochar was precipitated as K2Ca(CO3)2 and CaMg(CO3)2, which resulted in a dominant increase of insoluble inorganic carbon in both biochars. For wheat straw biochar, sorbed CO2 induced CaCO3 transformed into soluble Ca(HCO3)2, which led to a dominant increase of soluble inorganic carbons. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that biochar as a unique carbonaceous material could distinctly be a promising sorbent for CO2 capture in which chemical sorption induced by mineralogical reactions played an important role. PMID:26995449

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Enhancement of waste activated sludge dewaterability using calcium peroxide pre-oxidation and chemical re-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Dongsheng; Ma, Teng; Bai, Runying; Yu, Dezhong

    2016-10-15

    The effects of combined calcium peroxide (CaO2) oxidation with chemical re-flocculation on dewatering performance and physicochemical properties of waste activated sludge was investigated in this study. The evolutions of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) distribution, composition and morphological properties were analyzed to unravel the sludge conditioning mechanism. It was found that sludge filtration performance was enhanced by calcium peroxide oxidation with the optimal dosage of 20 mg/gTSS. However, this enhancement was not observed at lower dosages due to the absence of oxidation and the performance deteriorated at higher dosages because of the release of excess EPS, mainly as protein-like substances. The variation in soluble EPS (SEPS) component can be fitted well with pseudo-zero-order kinetic model under CaO2 treatment. At the same time, extractable EPS content (SEPS and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS)) were dramatically increased, indicating sludge flocs were effectively broken and their structure became looser after CaO2 addition. The sludge floc structure was reconstructed and sludge dewaterability was significantly enhanced using chemical re-flocculation (polyaluminium chloride (PACl), ferric iron (FeCl3) and polyacrylamide (PAM)). The inorganic coagulants performed better in improving sludge filtration dewatering performance and reducing cake moisture content than organic polymer, since they could act as skeleton builders and decrease the sludge compressibility. PMID:27450355

  16. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  17. Waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. 1978-June 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from Federally funded research cover many aspects of waste processing and pollution in the chemical and petrochemical industries. The bibliography includes emissions, economics, control processes, pollution effects, and abatement strategies. (This updated bibliography contains 280 citations, 89 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  18. Chemical durability and structural analysis of PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses and testing for simulated radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Cem [Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Bengisu, Murat [Izmir University of Economics, Department of Industrial Design, Sakarya Cad., No. 156, 35330 Balcova, Izmir (Turkey); Erenturk, Sema Akyil, E-mail: erenturk@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Secondary electron SEM images of lead borate glass including 80 mol% PbO before (top) and after chemical durability tests (bottom) - Abstract: Lead borate based glass formulations with high chemical durability and lower melting temperatures compared to the currently used glasses were developed as candidates for the vitrification of radioactive waste. Properties including chemical durability, glass transformation temperature, and melting temperature were analyzed. The chemical durability of PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses with PbO contents ranging from 30 to 80 mol% was determined. An average dissolution rate of 0.2 g m{sup −2} day{sup −1} was obtained for the composition 80PbO⋅20B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These glasses were studied under simulation conditions and showed good potential as a vitrification matrix for radioactive waste management. Clear vitrified waste products containing up to 30 mol% SrO and 25 mol% Cs{sub 2}O could be obtained. Leaching rates are about hundred times higher in low PbO glasses compared to high PbO glasses. These results are encouraging since they open up new horizons in the development of low melting temperature lead borate glass for waste immobilization applications.

  19. Waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry%浅析精细化工行业废水污染及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟民

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了精细化工废水的污染和控制问题,并提出了具体的解决策略.%This article presents the issues of waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry to provide some solutions for reference.

  20. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste; Influencia da composicao quimica dos residuos da construcao civil a pasta de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  1. Chemical recycling of inorganic wastes by using phase separation of glass

    OpenAIRE

    Nanba, Tokuro; Mikami, Shuhei; Imaoka, Takuya; Sakida, Shinichi; Miura, Yoshinari

    2008-01-01

    A chemical recycling process using phase separation of glass was applied to a granulated blast furnace slag with high CaO content. Glasses were prepared by adding B(2)O(3) to the slag in order to promote phase separation, and the glasses were heat-treated above glass transition temperature. In the subsequent acid-treatment, however, gelation due to the elution of SiO(2) phase containing CaO occurred, not obtaining high SiO(2) solids. Then, pretreatment was introduced to reduce CaO content in ...

  2. Chemical constituents and technological functional properties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. waste flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse. Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.

  3. Thermal treatment of electronic waste in a fluidised bed and chemical digestion of solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Amelia; Żukowski, Witold; Żelazny, Sylwester

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of e-waste thermal treatment in a fluidised bed reactor and solid products digestion under acidic conditions. During the processes, measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, phenol, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen fluoride and phosgene were carried out. Several digestion tests of the solid residue in sulphuric acid (VI) at 25 °C-65 °C, for 55 min-24 h were conducted. In each case, the dilution method was used, i.e. preliminary digestion in concentrated sulphuric acid (VI) (95%) for 40 min, and then dilution to expected concentrations (30%-50%). Most preferred results were obtained using sulphuric acid (VI) with a target concentration of 40% at 65 °C, where the leaching degrees were 76.56% for copper, 71.67% for iron, 91.89% for zinc and 97.40% for tin. The time necessary to effectively carry out the digestion process was 220 min.

  4. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (<0.1 ppmv). Leachate pond showed a low concentration of H2S (in order of ppbv). Regarding NH3, composting sites and landfill leaks are notable source points of emissions (composting sites varied around 30-600 ppmv; biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  6. Microwave-assisted chemical oxidation of biological waste sludge: simultaneous micropollutant degradation and sludge solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin Oncu, Nalan; Akmehmet Balcioglu, Isil

    2013-10-01

    Microwave-assisted hydrogen peroxide (MW/H2O2) treatment and microwave-assisted persulfate (MW/S2O8(2-)) treatment of biological waste sludge were compared in terms of simultaneous antibiotic degradation and sludge solubilization. A 2(3) full factorial design was utilized to evaluate the influences of temperature, oxidant dose, and holding time on the efficiency of these processes. Although both MW/H2O2 and MW/S2O8(2-) yielded ≥97% antibiotic degradation with 1.2g H2O2 and 0.87 g S2O8(2-) per gram total solids, respectively, at 160 °C in 15 min, MW/S2O8(2-) was found to be more promising for efficient sludge treatment at a lower temperature and a lower oxidant dosage, as it allows more effective activation of persulfate to produce the SO4(-) radical. Relative to MW/H2O2, MW/S2O8(2-) gives 48% more overall metal solubilization, twofold higher improvement in dewaterability, and the oxidation of solubilized ammonia to nitrate in a shorter treatment period. PMID:23928124

  7. Thermal treatment of electronic waste in a fluidised bed and chemical digestion of solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Amelia; Żukowski, Witold; Żelazny, Sylwester

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of e-waste thermal treatment in a fluidised bed reactor and solid products digestion under acidic conditions. During the processes, measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, phenol, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen fluoride and phosgene were carried out. Several digestion tests of the solid residue in sulphuric acid (VI) at 25 °C-65 °C, for 55 min-24 h were conducted. In each case, the dilution method was used, i.e. preliminary digestion in concentrated sulphuric acid (VI) (95%) for 40 min, and then dilution to expected concentrations (30%-50%). Most preferred results were obtained using sulphuric acid (VI) with a target concentration of 40% at 65 °C, where the leaching degrees were 76.56% for copper, 71.67% for iron, 91.89% for zinc and 97.40% for tin. The time necessary to effectively carry out the digestion process was 220 min. PMID:27245176

  8. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources. PMID:25106121

  9. Thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in waste insulating oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using a batch reactor and two different (vertical and horizontal) types of continuous reactor. A simple batch reactor was first designed and constructed to examine applicability of thermal-chemical destruction of PCBs. It was evidenced from the batch test results that the destruction of PCBs in the insulating oil (40% PCBs, w/w) was accomplished via abiotic dechlorination and mineralization of PCBs with quicklime at 600 deg C under nitrogen environment. PCB destruction efficiencies were obtained about 99.95%. The reaction was exothermic resulting release of heat by which the reactor temperature suddenly increased up to 750 deg C at the incipient 30 min of the experiment. Two major end products, CaCl2 and carbon, were identified. For a practical purpose, two continuous reactors were developed and tested. The observed continuous test results indicate that over 99.99% of PCB destruction efficiencies were achieved when excess quicklime (>3Ca:1Cl2 as a molar basis) was used. Specifically, the horizontal continuous reactor was suitable in view of ease of solid transfer, which is essential for complete destruction of PCBs and for full-scale applications

  10. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  11. The development of composite adsorbent for organic waste decomposion treatment and chemical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gun, Shul Yong; Jung, Kyeong Taek; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Wook; Kim, Hyun Jong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jong [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    Up to now inorganic adsorbents has been known to effective for treatment of radioactive waste containing metal ions due to their high selectivity toward the specific ions(Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ag{sup +} ...). The draw back of this adsorption system is in the operation difficulties such as separation of fine solids (adsorbents) and pressure drop ({delta}p) problem. To come over these problems, preparation of composite adsorbents has been attempted. In our study, PAN-inorganic ion exchanger(Ni{sub 2}Fe(Cn){sub 6}, K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}) composite beads were prepared in the range of 0.5 {approx} 3.5mm in size. The selectivity for Ag{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +} and Co{sup 2+} ions in binary and tertiary systems in composite beads was Sr{sup 2+}>Ag{sup +}, Ag{sup +}>Co{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}>Sr{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}>Co{sup 2+}>Ag{sup +} respectively. As an selective Cs{sup +} adsorbent, 1,3-Dipropyloxycalix(4)arene crown ether (CCE1) and 1,3-Dipropyl-oxycalix(4)arene dibenzo crown ethers(CCE2) were also successfully synthesized in the fixed 1,3-alternate conformation with good yields by the reaction of corresponding 1,3-Dipropyloxy-calix(4)arenes 3 with pentaethylene glycol ditosylate and dibenzodimesylate 7, respectively in acetonitrile in the presence of cesium carbonate as a base. Solvent extraction of cesium picrates and cesium nitrate from aqueous solutions into chloroform were investigated. (author). 37 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Watanabe

    Full Text Available Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G. Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  13. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Taiji; Shino, Amiu; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf) were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C), and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S) degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G). Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  14. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Taiji; Shino, Amiu; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf) were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C), and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S) degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G). Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer. PMID:25191879

  15. 废弃聚酯化学回收再生利用的方法%Research on Chemical Recycling of Waste PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亦武

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了废弃聚酯(PET)化学回收利用方法的发展现状,重点介绍了糖解、醇解、水解等化学回收方法及其优缺点,以及目前商业化的化学回收法--复合降解法工艺,对利用市场需求来推动化学法回收PET的商业化发展进行了展望.%The development and present situation of chemical recycling method of waste PET was introduced briefly. The focus was on the ways of glycolysis, methanolysis and hydrolysis as well as their advantage and disadvantage. The commercial chemical recycling method-composite process of glycolysis and hydrolysis was described to push the industrial development of chemical recycling of waste PET.

  16. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  17. The Chemical And Radiation Resistance Of Polyphenylene Sulfide As Encountered In The Nuclear Waste Cleaning Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  18. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  19. A study of chemical and microbiological characteristics of olive mill waste water in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste water samples from different traditional mills were analyzed for their microbiota and the physicochemical characteristic. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPG, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci staphylococci, Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus, yeasts and molds and the lipolytic microorganisms. The physicochemical analysis grouped the determination of pH, salinity, density, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, total dry matter, non volatile dry matter, suspended solids, organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, organic nitrogen, fat, polyphenols, polyphosphates, sodium and potassium and the BOD and COD. Results showed that the physicochemical factors were higher than the reported values in other countries. The microbial load was low and mainly made of yeasts and molds as well as the lactic acid bacteria. A net difference between the traditional mill samples and the industrial samples was observed for both analyses.

    Se ha realizado un estudio bacteriológico y físico químico de alpechín de diferentes almazaras tradicionales. Se han investigado los siguientes parámetros físico químicos: pH, salinidad, densidad, conductividad, alcalinidad, acidez, materia seca total, materia seca volátil, materia en suspensión, carbono orgánico, nitrógeno amoniacal, nitrógeno orgánico, grasa, polifenoles, fosfatos, sodio, potasio, BOD y COD. Las determinaciones microbiológicas efectuadas son: recuento de aerobios mesofilos, conliformes totales y fecales, enterococos, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Clostridium y Bacillus, levaduras, mohos y microorganismos lipolíticos. Los valores de los parámetros físico químicos son superiores comparados con los obtenidos por otros autores en otros países. La carga microbiana es débil y está representada principalmente por

  20. Physico-chemical changes in dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil amended with organic wastes: an in-situ investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djae, Tanalou; Bravin, Matthieu; Garnier, Cédric; Mayen, Jean-Fabien; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural context, prerequisite condition to forecast trace metal phytodisponibility is to evaluate trace metal speciation in the rhizosphere solution, especially in soil amended with organic wastes. The most advanced trace metal speciation models (e.g. WHAM, NICA-DONNAN) take into account dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity toward trace metals. Generally, the scientific community uses, a fixed percentage of DOM reactivity, usually of 40 % to 80 %, to predict trace metal speciation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DOM towards trace metals is much larger than expected. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms supporting the variability in DOM reactivity by assessing the physico-chemical changes of DOM in the bulk-soil and rhizosphere in context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. DOM concentration, total acidity and DOM fluorescence were measured. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations in the physico-chemical parameters of DOM. DOM concentration tended to increase in bulk-soil with increasing organic waste application rate. DOM concentrations measured in rhizosphere are significantly greater than those in the bulk-soil especially when organic wastes were applied to soil. Preliminary results allow us to observe a decrease in the density of carboxylic-like (pKa

  1. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Separation of Pb and Zn from Fe and Cu in ash-melting of municipal solid waste. ► Molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in fly ash affected the metal-separation efficiency. ► The low molar ratio and a non-oxidative atmosphere were better for the separation. - Abstract: In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu

  2. Evaluation of possible physical-chemical processes that might lead to separations of actinides in ORNL waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concern that there might be some physical-chemical process which would lead to a separation of the poisoning actinides (232Th, 238U) from the fissionable ones (239Pu, 235U) in waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has led to a paper study of potential separations processes involving these elements. At the relatively high pH values (>8), the actinides are normally present as precipitated hydroxides. Mechanisms that might then selectively dissolve and reprecipitate the actinides through thermal processes or additions of reagents were addressed. Although redox reactions, pH changes, and complexation reactions were all considered, only the last type was regarded as having any significant probability. Furthermore, only carbonate accumulation, through continual unmonitored air sparging of the tank contents, could credibly account for gross transport and separation of the actinide components. From the large amount of equilibrium data in the literature, concentration differences in Th, U, and Pu due to carbonate complexation as a function of pH have been presented to demonstrate this phenomenon. While the carbonate effect does represent a potential separations process, control of long-term air sparging and solution pH, accompanied by routine determinations of soluble carbonate concentration, should ensure that this separations process does not occur

  3. Research on the transformation of nitrate due to its chemical interaction with metals in TRU waste disposal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some TRU wastes contain nitrate ions as salt. The nitrate ions might transform into NO2- and NH3, etc. in the disposal site environment because of reducing agent such as metals, possibly changing disposal site environment or affecting nuclide migration parameters. Therefore, we investigated of chemical interaction between NO3- and metals in a low oxygen environment that corresponds to the disposal site environment. (1) The reaction rate constant between carbon steel and NO3- in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water was obtained through electrochemical tests. (2) The long-term data on the products (NH3,H2, etc.) of reaction between metals (carbon steel, stainless steel, zircaloy) and NO3- was obtained through immersion tests in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water. According to the long-term data of [NO3-], [NO2-] and [NH3], it was considered that reducing reaction of nitrate was consecutive reaction (NO3- → NO2- → NH3). (3) The decomposition and transition behavior of No3- around disposal facilities evaluated, using the geochemical code (PHREEQM-2D), which have considered geochemical reaction based on experimental results. (author)

  4. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  5. Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic planning to ensure safe future performance. This paper reports on some methods developed and successfully applied to obtain requisite information and to assist waste management planning at the corporate level in a nationwide system of laboratories and industries. Waste generation and TSD capabilities at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) sites were studied. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  6. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  7. Treatment and Disposal of Status and Analysis for Chemical Waste%废弃化学品处理处置现状与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓创周; 丁灵; 李洁; 夏俊玲; 安晓英; 赵美敬

    2015-01-01

    我国工业经济的迅速发展,带来了工业三废量的急剧增长,不加处理随意排放,将对周边大气、水体、土壤及生态系统带来了严重破坏,造成有回收利用价值的废弃化学品资源的浪费。加强废弃化学品处理处置标准化工作,进行资源化科技创新,深入实施节能减排、资源综合再利用,促进循环经济、绿色产业、低碳技术发展,符合我国的产业政策发展规划的总体要求。%Along with the rapid development of industry in our country, three industrial wastes are increasing quickly. If these untreated substances are discharged arbitrarily it will cause serious environmental pollution and waste of resources for chemical waste. It was conformed that the overall requirement of the industrial policy of development was planed in our country, such as strengthening the standardization work of treatment and disposaling for chemical waste, proceeding technological innovation, implementation energy - saving and utilization of resources, promoting the development of the circular economy, green industries and low-carbon technologies.

  8. Review of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of organic material likely to be present in intermediate level and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review has been made of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of the solid organic materials likely to be present in intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Possible interactions between the three routes for degradation are also discussed. Attention is focussed on the generation of water-soluble degradation products which may form complexes with radioelements. The effects of complexation on radioelement solubility and sorption are considered. Recommendations are made for areas of further research. (author)

  9. The Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Generated From The Fuel Reprocessing Plant Using Chemical Coagulation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of nuclear spent fuel produced 8 lot of radioactive liquid waste still bearing uranium and transuranium. The assessment of the radioactive liquid waste treatment with FeCI3 as coagulant has been done. Decontamination factor and separation efficiency can be calculated from known activities of initial and post-treatment wastes. It can be concluded that some factors i.e. pH of treatment process, quantity of coagulant, mixing rate, and mixing time have influenced the treatment product

  10. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  11. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  12. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K2O: 56 SiO2 was prepared from reagent grade K2CO3 and SiO2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 108 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  13. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  14. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals. PMID:23417361

  15. Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later PAs to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel–chromium–tungsten–molybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter). - Highlights: • Progression of container modeling from an assumption of complete failure before 1993 to a stochastic description after 1995 is described. • Introduction of thermal-hydrologic model to examine interaction between the engineered and natural barrier, and container degradation is described. • The introduction of a water chemistry module to evaluate the possibility of localized corrosion of the container is described. • The addition of seismic damage models to evaluate container damage from drift degradation and container movement is described

  16. FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF ZEOLITE-CONTAINING WASTE FORMS PRODUCED FROM METAKAOLINITE AND CALCINED SODIUM BEARING WASTE (HLW AND/OR LLW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not new, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made precursors. The process under st...

  17. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  18. Digital modeling of radioactive and chemical waste transport in the aquifer underlying the Snake River Plain at the National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    Industrial and low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) in Idaho have been disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer since 1952. Monitoring studies have indicated that tritium and chloride have dispersed over a 15-square mile (39-square kilometer) area of the aquifer in low but detectable concentrations and have only migrated as far as 5 miles (8 kilometers) downgradient from discharge points. The movement of cationic waste solutes, particularly 90Sr and 137Cs, has been significantly retarded due to sorption phenomena, principally ion exchange. 137Cs has shown no detectable migration in the aquifer and 90Sr has migrated only about 1.5 miles (2 kilometers) from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) discharge well, and is detectable over an area of only 1.5 square miles ( 4 square kilometers) of the aquifer. Digital modeling techniques have been applied successfully to the analysis of the complex waste-transport system by utilizing numerical solution of the coupled equations of groundwater motion and mass transport. The model includes the effects of convective transport, flow divergence, two-dimensional hydraulic dispersion, radioactive decay, and reversible linear sorption. The hydraulic phase of the model uses the iterative, alternating direction, implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the groundwater flow equations, while the waste-transport phase uses a modified method of characteristics to solve the solute transport equations simulated by the model. The modeling results indicate that hydraulic dispersion (especially transverse) is a much more significant influence than previously suggested by earlier studies. The model has been used to estimate future waste migration patterns for varied assumed hydrological and waste conditions up through the year 2000. The hydraulic effects of recharge from the Big Lost River have an important (but not predominant) influence on the simulated future migration patterns. For the

  19. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  20. FY 2000 Report on the results of development of technology to establish economic chemical recycling system for waste polyester resin; 2000 nendo hai polyester jushi no keizaitekina chemical recycle system kakuritsu no gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 efforts for establishing a chemical recycling system for waste PET bottles, including construction of 100t/y demonstration plant, development of economic decomposition and re-synthesis process, and demonstration of a low-cost recovery and recycling system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities. The program for development of an economic treatment process for waste polyester resin achieves reduction in decomposition and re-synthesis time. The program for re-synthesized resin quality produces buttons of the recycled resin and evaluates their properties, to demonstrate that they satisfy the quality standards. The program for demonstration of the recovery system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities recovers 4t/month of waste PET bottles by 9 municipalities, and estimates/evaluates final economic efficiency of the total recycling system, including plant operating cost and recycled resin selling cost. The program for development of applicable areas for the recycled resin produces various products on a trial basis with the cooperation of chemical makers, and opens the exhibitions. (NEDO)

  1. Chemical Equilibrium of Aluminate in Hanford Tank Waste Originating from Tanks 241-AN-105 and 241-AP-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, Gary A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The purposes of the study described in this document follow; Determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of gibbsite in contact with two real tank waste supernatant liquids through both dissolution of gibbsite (bottom-up approach) and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids (top-down approach); determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of a mixture of gibbsite and real tank waste saltcake in contact with real tank waste supernatant liquid through both dissolution of gibbsite and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids; and characterize the solids present after equilibrium and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids.

  2. Gas Fermentation – A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low Carbon Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FungMin eLiew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues or industrial off gasses (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants. Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  3. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields. PMID:27242719

  4. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  5. Founding Green Chemical Labs to Reduce Waste Liquid Pollution%高校绿色化学实验室模式初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯英爽; 程梓航; 周伟婷; 尹业兴; 牛艳; 吕松

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the influence of these pollutants to the environment cannot be overlooked, especially when the waste are discharged without treatment in the universities and colleges. What' s more, because of the unscientific design of the la- boratory and the lack of awareness of teachers and students and the treatment of the waste are not effective, all these make environmental pollution of laboratory become a big problem. Therefore, focusing on the waste liquid of the chemical laborato- ry, the paper is going to explore a mode to create a Green Chemistry Laboratory which waste liquid are treated perfectly.%目前各高校化学类实验室产生的废液、废气和废渣未经处理直接排放现象比较普遍。由于实验室设计不合理,师生环保意识淡薄和对废弃物处置不到位,使实验室废弃物对环境的污染越来越严重。该文以实验室废液的处理为研究重点,探寻改善实验室废液处理的方法,创建绿色化学实验室模式。

  6. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  7. Zirconolite-rich titanate ceramics for immobilisation of actinides - Waste form/HIP can interactions and chemical durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Stewart, M. W. A.; Li, H.; Carter, M. L.; Vance, E. R.; Moricca, S.

    2009-12-01

    Zirconolite-based titanate ceramics containing U plus Th or Pu have been prepared. The final consolidation to produce a dense monolithic waste form was carried out using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of the calcined materials within a stainless steel can. The ceramics were characterised and tested for their overall feasibility to immobilise impure Pu or separated actinide-rich radioactive wastes. As designed, tetravalent U and Pu are mainly incorporated in a durable zirconolite phase, together with Gd or Hf added as neutron absorbers. The interaction of the waste form with the HIP can was also examined. No changes in the U valences or the U/Pu-bearing phase distributions were observed at the waste form-HIP can interface.

  8. Experimental Determination of the Speciation, Partitioning, and Release of Perrhenate as a Chemical Surrogate for Pertechnetate from a Sodalite-Bearing Multiphase Ceramic Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Lukens, Wayne W [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fitts, Jeffrey P [Princeton University; Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Jantzen, C M [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2013-01-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  9. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  10. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  11. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m3/year and alpha-activity from 106 to 108 Bq/dm3 - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m3/year and alpha-activity from 103 to 104 Bq/dm3. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m3/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m3/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating facility. Solid concentrate produced is sent for long

  12. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  13. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  14. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-09-27

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition.

  15. Industrial waste pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  16. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  17. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  18. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multiphase ceramic waste form is composed of primarily of nepheline, nosean, and sodalite. • Rhenium is in the 7+ oxidation state and has partitioned to a mixed Re-bearing sodalite phase. • Mechanism of corrosion for the multiphase matrix is similar to other silicate minerals. • A mixed-anion sodalite phases controls Re release in the multiphase waste forms. - Abstract: A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 °C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination

  19. Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development of a regional model for

  20. Thermal and thermo-chemical pre-treatment of four waste residues and the effect on acetic acid production and methane synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P J; Gapes, D J

    2012-09-01

    In this study four diverse solid waste substrates (coal, Kraft pulp solids, chicken feathers and chicken processing waste) were thermally pre-treated (70, 140 and 200 °C), under an inert (nitrogen) or oxidative (oxygen) atmosphere, and then anaerobically digested. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry during the thermal and thermo-chemical reactions was successfully used to establish oxygen and carbon dioxide gas fluxes and product formation (acetic acid). There was significant solids hydrolysis pre-treatment at 200 °C under an oxidative atmosphere, as indicated by a decrease in the volatile suspended solids and an increase in dissolved organic carbon. Greater concentrations of volatile fatty acids were produced under oxidative conditions at higher temperatures. The methane yield more than tripled for feathers after pre-treatment at 140 °C (under both atmospheres), but decreased after oxidative pre-treatment at 200 °C, due to the destruction of available carbon by the thermo-chemical reaction. Methane yield more than doubled for the Kraft pulp solids with the 200 °C pre-treatment under oxidative conditions. This study illustrated the power of wet oxidation for solids destruction and its potential to improve methane yields generated during anaerobic digestion. PMID:22609530

  1. Le traitement des déchets polymères : la valorisation énergétique ou chimique Treatment of Polymer Wastes: Chemical Or Energy Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une protection accrue de l'environnement requiert la mise en place de nouvelles techniques fiables et économiques de traitement des déchets polymères. Parmi les diverses méthodes envisagées pour la réutilisation ou l'élimination des polymères usagés, les recyclages énergétiques et chimiques peuvent apporter des solutions satisfaisantes et complémentaires au recyclage de la matière. Cet article fait le point sur l'état d'avancement des techniques de valorisation énergétique et chimique des rejets de polymères et il propose une analyse critique des traitements actuels. Increased environmental protection requires the installation of new treatment techniques for polymer wastes. Competitive industrial facilities are not available from the economic standpoint for recycling spent plastic and rubber wastes in the form of materials, especially when mixtures are involved. It is only by using other treatment method for the chemical or energy upgrading of polymers, as a supplement to the recycling of materials, that it should be possible to make a significant reduction in the amount of spent polymers currently being scrapped. The energy upgrading of wastes by incineration with energy recovery or by pyrolysis with the formation of fuels in an interesting approach for a great many countries. When no reuse is possible, the energy content of the material is upgraded before the subsequent scrapping of an ultimate residue that is reduced to its incompressible minimum after having been inerted. There are currently several technical solutions for incineration furnaces and the treatment of the fumes produced, which meet the more and more severe requirements concerning environmental protection. Incineration systems with energy recovery can recover about 8000 thermies per ton of unsorted plastics. They already have an important position, albeit a varying one, from one European country to another (Table 6. They should develop considerably further in

  2. High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

  3. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern......Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  4. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  5. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  6. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-06-27

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

  7. Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Activated Carbon Prepared from Locally Available Waste of Bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dula, Tamirat; Siraj, Khalid; Kitte, Shimeles Addisu

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) waste by KOH activation heating in an electrical furnace at 1073 K for 3 hrs. Batch adsorption experiments were also carried out as a function of pH, contact time, initial concentration of the adsorbate, adsorbent dosage, and temperature of the solution. Kinetic studies of the data showed that the adsorption follows the pseudo-second-order k...

  8. Effects of bioleaching on the chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties of natural and waste-derived alkaline materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Yi Wai; Santos, Rafael; Monballiu, Annick; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Martens, Johan; Mattos, Maria Laura T.; Van Gerven, Tom; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching is a potential route for the valorisation of low value natural and waste alkaline materials. It may serve as a pre-treatment stage to mineral carbonation and sorbent synthesis processes by increasing the surface area and altering the mineralogy of the solid material and by generating an alkaline rich (Ca and Mg) aqueous stream. It may also aid the extraction of high value metals from these materials (e.g. Ni), transforming them into valuable ore reserves. The bioleaching potential...

  9. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  10. The partitioning of high-activity waste (HAW) raffinates. Experimental studies on the chemical feasibility of some partitioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three HAW partitioning processes have been selected and experimentally developed at the Ispra Establishment of the JRC within the framework of the Radioactive Waste Management Programme. The purpose of these processes is to remove almost quantitatively the actinides from high-activity wastes (HAW partitioning) in order to reduce the potential long-term hazard of vitrified waste. The three processes are based on the actinide precipitation as oxalates (OXAL process) as well as on the liquid-liquid extraction of actinides (HDEHP and TBP processes) from as-generated or concentrated HAW raffinates. While the OXAL and the HDEHP processes involve the ''direct partitioning'' of HAW raffinates, i.e. immmediately or a short time after being generated, the TBP process deals with a ''delayed partitioning'' since an adequate interim storage of the concentrated HAW is needed to balance the activity increase due to the HAW concentration. The various steps of each process flow-sheet were tested on a laboratory scale with simulated (synthetic) and fully active HAW solutions. Batch and batch-countercurrent experiments were carried out under specific conditions foreseen for each partitioning process. The most significant results obtained from these experiments are summarized for each individual process flow-sheet. Results of the HAW acidity reduction (denitration) experiments are discussed with particular reference to the minimization of actinide precipitation during this process. (author)

  11. The effect of shredding and particle size in physical and chemical processing of printed circuit boards waste

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paula C.; Taborda, F. Charters; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2011-01-01

    Circuit boards present in most electric and electronic devices are very important components, which should be removed during sorting and dismantling operations in order to allow further adequate treatment for recovering valuable metals such as copper, nickel, zinc, lead, tin and rare elements. This recovery can be made by physical and chemical processes being size reduction by shredding the first step. In this paper, the effect of particle size in physical and chemical processing of printed c...

  12. Comprehensive Treatment of Waste Water,Waste Oil and Waste Gas in Chemical Fertilizer Enterprises%化肥企业废水、废油和废气的综合治理技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东法

    2011-01-01

    介绍了针对合成氨、尿素装置进行的造气污水治理、节水减排改造、废油回收改造和废气回收再利用综合治理;对改造效果进行了综合评价,结果表明,改造后排放废水水质保持在COD≤60 mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,废油回收100 t/a,吨尿素氨耗降低到586 kg/t。%Author has introduced the comprehensively hornessing concerning the gasification pollution water hornessing and reformation of water conservation and discharge reduction,reformation of waste oil recovery and reuse of waste gas recovery,all these reformations have been implemented in allusion to the ammonia synthesis and urea plant,result indicates that after reformation the water quality of waste water discharged is maintained within: COD≤60mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,waste oil recovery 100 t/a,ammonia consume per tone of urea is reduced to 586 kg.

  13. Chemical Recycling of Waste Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)%废旧聚酯(PET)的化学循环利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 吕毅军; 徐元源; 相宏伟

    2001-01-01

    Waste poly(ethylene terephalate)(PET) can be recyclized by chemical depolymerization.This paper reviews the state of the art of chemical recycling of PET polyester and introduces several methods for chemical recycling such as hydrolysis, methanolysis, glycolysis and so on. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of each method on technical process are also compared.%废旧PET聚酯可通过化学解聚来实现其循环利用。本文总结了废旧PET聚酯化学循环利用领域的研究现状,介绍了目前国内外开发的主要化学解聚工艺方法,包括水解法、甲醇解聚法、乙二醇解聚法等,同时对各种工艺过程的优缺点进行了综合比较。

  14. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition. PMID:20080413

  15. The effects of the mechanical-chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-01

    A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH)2 and led to the generation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste. PMID:23375995

  16. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  17. Synthesis of 2-Nitro-p-Cresol by Chemical Waste Nitric Acid Wuhu Ronghui Chemical Co.Ltd.%废硝酸制取邻硝基对甲酚的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 张玉琴; 牛康康; 孟帅帅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, waste nitric acid from chemical works was directly used to nitrate p-cresol to prepare 2-Nitro-p-Cre-sol which is a cost-effective pharmaceutical intermediate.To get the optimum treatment process of waste nitric acid, UV was suc-cessfully used to detect the absorb change of the free nitrate in the solution.The result shows that, in the treatment condition of oil/water volume ratio (5/34), ambient temperature (30℃) and the rotate speed (600 r/min), nitric acid and p-cresol molar ratio (1/0.8),the concentration of nitric acid in the waste water decreased to 82 % , meanwhile, the yield of 2-Nitro-p-Cresol could reach to 79.5% compared to p-cresol.%将化工厂废硝酸直接硝化对甲苯酚制取高性价比的医药中间体邻硝基对甲酚,通过跟踪水相中游离硝酸根的紫外吸收变化,考察了油水体积比、温度、转速及硝酸与对甲酚的摩尔浓度比等因素对反应的影响,结果表明:当油水体积比为5:34、温度30℃、转速600 r/min、n硝酸:n 对甲酚为1:0.8时,废水中硝酸含量下降82%,邻硝基对甲酚收率达79.5%。

  18. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW.

  19. Chemical aspects of incinerating highly chlorinated and actinide α contaminated organic waste: application to the Iris process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of the waste produced by nuclear activities is combustible, and thus suitable for incineration to produce gases, ash and fines. A typical composition representative of actual organic waste mixtures was defined for the purpose of investigating possible heat treatment processes; the composition is identified according to components Table 1 and elements Table II. The high polyvinyl chloride (PVC) content is responsible for the high chlorine potential in the process equipment. The quantity and quality of the resulting solid residue depends entirely on the inorganic load of the organic waste, whose behavior is entirely conditioned by the process conditions. For example, pure polyethylene is totally converted to gases (water and carbon dioxide), while the composition shown in Table II produces a range of oxides and chlorides. The high chlorine content results in partial chlorination of the inorganic compounds, but can also lead to interactions with the process equipment. The temperature dependent variation of the chlorination equilibrium constants of various metals clearly shows that all the elements of technological alloys may be subject to active corrosion by hydrochloric acid. However, the corresponding oxides-notably alumina-are much less sensitive to corrosion; aluminum-based alloys are therefore preferred for incinerator construction and to limit corrosion by hydrochloric acid. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies led to the development of the IRIS three-step process. Gas emissions occurring during processing of solid materials are completely oxidized in the after-burning step at 1100 deg C, and are then ducted to a HERA filtration system capable of retaining all the actinide α radionuclides. Although corrosion-related problems are attenuated in the two-step process chlorine can combine with the inorganic waste material to form chlorides with potentially damaging effects on the system; this is the case for zinc chloride and for volatile chlorides in

  20. Analysis of the validity of analytical models used for assessment of forty-five waste site areas: Subsurface flow and chemical transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Fjeld, R.A.; Merrell, G.B.; Duffield, G.M.; Andrews, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Closure actions at 45 waste sites were analyzed using an analytical model. A quality assurance program, which consisted of (1) comparison to analytical solutions with different boundary conditions, (2) comparison of model results to measured concentrations, (3) comparison with layered numerical solutions, and (4) evaluation and sensitivity analysis of input data, suggests that this type of analysis is a reasonable screening tool. Boundary conditions and controlling processes, such as chemical speciation, must be properly identified when defining input parameters; also, transient models that account for unsaturated zone processes predict higher peak concentrations than steady-state models such as the EPA VHS model. Assessment of complex systems that have multiple flow paths, or studies of remedial actions (such as ground water withdrawal and treatment) may require numerical modeling to meet the required objectives. However, the quality assurance analysis for the subject waste sites indicates that analytical approximations are sufficiently accurate to make relative environmental assessments (e.g., prioritizing sites or assessing various closure actions).

  1. Chemical and ecotoxicological analyses of sediments and elutriates of contaminated rivers due to e-waste recycling activities using a diverse battery of bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Leung, A.O.W.; Wu, S.C.; Yang, M.S. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-07-15

    A multi-trophic, multi-exposure phase assessment approach was applied to characterize the toxicity of sediments collected from two rivers in Guiyu, China, an e-waste recycling centre. Elutriate toxicity tests (bacterium Vibrio fischeri and microalga Selenastrum capricornutum) and whole sediment toxicity test (crustacean Heterocypris incongruens) showed that most sediments exhibited acute toxicity, due to elevated heavy metals and PAHs levels, and low pH caused by uncontrolled acid discharge. The survival rates of crustaceans were negatively (p < 0.05) correlated with total PAHs in sediments (411-1755 mg kg{sup -1}); EC50s of V. fischeri on the elutriates were significantly correlated with elutriate pH (p < 0.01). Significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the induction of hepatic metallothionein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb) in sediments were also observed, when fish were fed with diets containing sediment. The results showed that uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities may bring adverse effects to local aquatic ecosystem. - Toxicity tests using different trophic organisms provided important information, supplementing chemical analyses.

  2. Production of synthetic liquid fuel from run-of-mine oil shales, brown coals and waste of petrochemical and chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern and perspective technologies have been developed for processing run-of-mine oil shales into liquid products foreseen for producing motor fuels and chemical feedstock. Baltic run-of-mine oil shales, high-sulfur oil shales of the Volga basin, brown coals of Kansk-Atchinsk basin, as well as heavy crude oils and oil-bearing sands, solid waste of petrochemical and chemical industry may be processed. The proposed high-efficiency technology enables to produce high yields of naphtha (gasoline fraction) and diesel fuel fraction, feedstock for catalytic and hydro cracking processes, electrode coke, different adhesive materials, refractories, anodic mass, phenols, individual hydrocarbons, Ni- and V- concentrates. The process proposed is carried out using oil shales. Their organic matter has unique hydrogen donor properties which enable them to activate the thermal conversion of brown coals, high-boiling waste of petrochemical industry etc. This complex technology is based on the thermochemical conversion process of oil shales in the hydro carbonic solvent at 333-440 deg C, under the pressure of 3-5 MPa, and volumetric rate 3-6 h-1. A paste-forming substance boiling between 200-340 deg C is used as the medium. The process runs with a deficiency (up to 30 %) of regenerated paste-forming substance and therefore respective measures have been worked out to intensify the process. It enabled to close the process with respect to regenerated paste-forming substance and to design new routes for thermochemical processing of oil shales. These procedures have the following essential advantages: 1.There is no need for previous separation of asphaltenes and metals (Ni, V) from heavy petrochemical feedstock as they precipitate on the mineral part of oil shales and are discharged together with liquid products of the process. 2. Thermal cracking is carried out without molecular hydrogen and thermal hydro cracking without catalysts. 3. Raw material is considerably desulfurized.(author)

  3. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ► Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ► Increasing heavy metal stability. ► Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH)2 and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste

  4. Physic-Chemical treatment and demineralization by EDR to reutilize the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant; Tratamiento fisico-quimico y desmineralizacion por electrodialisis reversible para reutilizar el efluente de una EDAR urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Corral, M.; Pino, M.P. del; Gil Lodos, M.; Rodriguez Garcia, M.

    1998-12-01

    Etudes held at the research and development center DEREA placed at Gran Canaria, Canary islands, have proved the viability of regenerating urban waste waters treating the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP del surest) with a physic-chemical treatment followed by a demineralization by electrodialysis reversal. The physic-chemical system was composed of the following units: 1 coagulation tank, 3 floculators, 1 lamellar decanter, 1 pH neutralization system, 1 chlorination system, 1 multi bed filter with chemicals reservoir, dosifiers for lime, FeCl{sub 3} polielectrolytes, sulfuric acid, and NaOCl. The physic-chemical system treated daily about 250-300 cubic meters of the effluents of the EDAR del surest, without chlorination effluent, and worked with a 90% recovery (got 90 m``3 for each 100 feeded). (Author)

  5. Acidity control of plasma-chemical oxidation: applications to dye removal, urban waste abatement and microbial inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric discharges burning in humid air at atmospheric pressure over aqueous solutions induce acid effects in the liquid phase resulting from the formation of nitric acid and peroxynitrous acid as transient precursor. These acid effects affect the degradation mechanisms of organic wastes and the relevant kinetic rates; therefore they thus must be controlled (e.g. using buffers). Nitrogen reactive species such as peroxynitrous acid or its salt are directly concerned with both acid effects as precursor to nitric acid, and strong oxidizing properties E0(ONO2H/NO2) = 2.02 V/SHE. Illustrating examples are given in the case of an organic dye (Alizarin S) removal and the gliding discharge treatment of urban wastewaters. Additional arguments are presented to explain the biocidal effect of humid air discharges.

  6. Propriedades químicas de um Argissolo tratado sucessivamente com composto de lixo urbano Chemical properties of an Ultisol successively treated with municipal waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Diehl Krob

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações em algumas propriedades químicas do solo sob adição sucessiva de composto de lixo urbano, conduziu-se um experimento a campo, em um solo Argissolo Vermelho de textura média na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco doses de composto (0, 20, 40, 80 e 160t ha-1, de um tratamento com adubo mineral e uma testemunha (Calagem e NPK, com aplicações sucessivas por um período de quatro anos. A adição de composto no solo aumentou o pH, CTC, C orgânico, N total, P e Na extraíveis, bem como da relação de adsorção de sódio (RAS, Ca e Mg trocáveis e o teor de K extraível após a terceira aplicação. O Al trocável teve os seus teores diminuídos após aplicações sucessivas de composto. Os resultados permitiram concluir que aplicação de até 80t ha-1 por ano de composto de lixo urbano pode ser considerada como adequada para melhorar e, ou, manter as propriedades químicas do solo.In order to assess the changes in some chemical properties of soil under the successive addition of urban waste compost, it was conducted a field experiment in an Ultisol soil at Agronomic Experimental Station of UFRGS. The treatments consisted of five successive applications of different doses of municipal solid waste compost (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160t ha-1 for a period of four years and a comparative treatment with mineral fertilizer and a control (without compost and fertilization. The addition of the compost increased soil pH, CEC, organic C, total N, extractable P and Na and the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, calcium, and magnesium and extractable K after the third application. The exchangeable Al had their levels reduced by successive applications of compost. The results showed that application of up to 80t ha-1 yr-1 of urban waste compost can be the dose recommended to improve and maintain the chemical properties of soil.

  7. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  8. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  9. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  10. Efficiency of horizontal roughing filter in removing nitrate, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand from effluent of waste stabilization pond

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mostafa Khezri; Gharib Majidi; Hossein Jafari Mansoorian; Mohsen Ansari; Farideh Atabi; Taha Tohidi Mogaddam; Nahid Rashtchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effective size of the end grain of horizontal roughing filters (HRFs) is larger than 2 mm. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of HRFs in removing nitrate, phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from effluent of a wastewater stabilization pond. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2013. The pilot project was transferred to the Karaj wastewater treatment plant (stabilization pond), and the installation, equipping, and start-up of the system began usi...

  11. Effects of heat treatment and formulation on the phase composition and chemical durability of the EBR-ll ceramic waste form.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. E.; Dietz, N. L.; Janney, D. E.

    2006-01-31

    High-level radioactive waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II will be immobilized in a ceramic waste form (CWF). Tests are being conducted to evaluate the suitability of the CWF for disposal in the planned federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In this report, the results of laboratory tests and analyses conducted to address product consistency and thermal stability issues called out in waste acceptance requirements are presented. The tests measure the impacts of (1) variations in the amounts of salt and binder glass used to make the CWF and (2) heat treatments on the phase composition and chemical durability of the waste form. A series of CWF materials was made to span the ranges of salt and glass contents that could be used during processing: between 5.0 and 15 mass% salt loaded into the zeolite (the nominal salt loading is 10.7%, and the process control range is 10.6 to 11.2 mass%), and between 20 and 30 mass% binder glass mixed with the salt-loaded zeolite (the nominal glass content is 25% and the process control range is 20 to 30 mass%). In another series of tests, samples of two CWF products made with the nominal salt and glass contents were reheated to measure the impact on the phase composition and durability: long-term heat treatments were conducted at 400 and 500 C for durations of 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year; short-term heat treatments were conducted at 600, 700, 800, and 850 C for durations of 4, 28, 52, and 100 hours. All of the CWF products that were made with different amounts of salt, zeolite, and glass and all of the heat-treated CWF samples were analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction to measure changes in phase compositions and subjected to 7-day product consistency tests to measure changes in the chemical durability. The salt loading had the greatest impact on phase composition and durability. A

  12. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  13. Methods and instruments for the ecological assessment of the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry; Methoden und Instrumente zur oekologischen Bewertung der Abfall-Loesungsmittelbehandlung in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capello, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which looked at the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry and its ecological impact. The development of a method based on the life-cycle-analysis (LCA) approach is described. The LCA methodology is to provide support for decision-making in the area of solvent waste disposal in the chemical industry. Various methods of disposal, such as distillation or incineration are looked at. The results of calculations using a software tool called 'ecosolvent' are presented and discussed. The 15 most important solvents and their quantities as used in the 6 facilities examined, are listed. The functioning of the ecosolvent software is discussed and illustrated in a flow-diagram. Along with detailed results, a few qualitative rules of thumb are quoted for the treatment of solvent wastes.

  14. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  15. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He+ ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained 238U and 232Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3+ ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe3+ concentration of these glasses by a statistically insignificant factor (0.987 261 0.050) and not to

  16. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He{sup +} ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3{sup +} ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe{sup 3+} concentration of these glasses by a

  17. Prediction of long-term chemical evolution of a low-pH cement designed for underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pH cements, also referred as low-alkalinity cements, are binders with a pore solution pH ≤ 11. They can be designed by replacing significant amounts of Portland cement (OPC) (>40%) by silica fume, which can be associated in some cases to low-CaO fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag to decrease the heat output during hydration by dilution of OPC and improve the mechanical strength of the final material. With the prospect of using these materials in a geological repository, it is of main importance to estimate their long-term properties and the influence of external and internal factors (chemical composition of the binder, storage temperature) on their characteristics. For this purpose, a three-way original approach was adopted. First, the hydration of low-pH cements was accelerated by milling cement slurries with zirconia beads. Secondly, the low-pH cement pastes were mimicked from mixtures of appropriate highly reactive oxides (lime, silica, calcium aluminate and calcium sulphate) in diluted suspensions. Thirdly, thermodynamic modelling was carried out to predict the mineral assemblage and composition of the solution at equilibrium, starting from the composition of the initial low-pH cement studied. Comparing the different results showed that this three-way approach is suitable to understand and predict the long-term chemical evolution of the cements since the final states obtained in all cases were equivalent. This method was then used to investigate the influence of temperature in the range 20-80 C on the chemical evolution of a low-pH cement. (authors)

  18. Comparison of the mopping ability of chemically modified and unmodified biological wastes on crude oil and its lower fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Ezenwa, Emmanuel Tagbo

    2008-11-01

    Activated and unactivated powders of goat hair and coir (coconut husk) separated into two particle sizes were used to mop up spills of crude oil, diesel, kerosene and petrol. It was observed that the materials (sorbents) mopped up appreciable volumes of the hydrocarbon liquids (sorbates) within 90 min of contact. Activation, particle size of sorbents and molecular weight (chain length) of sorbates (hydrocarbon) are major determining factors. Carbonization and particle size enhanced the mopping ability as follows--carbonized 325 microm > uncarbonized 325 microm > carbonized 625 microm > uncarbonized 625 microm, thus activated sorbents with large surface area (small particle size) mopped more hydrocarbons than unactivated of the same particle size. The sorbates were mopped in the order--crude oil > diesel > kerosene > petrol. It was further observed that goat hair (keratin protein) with oleophilic and aquaphobic properties adsorbed more of all the hydrocarbons than coir at all sizes and treatment. Large quantities of the mopped oils were recovered by mere pressing while the waste sorbents with 0.5-2.0% leachable residual oil could be utilized as alternative to fire wood.

  19. Design of Incineration Treatment Engineering of Thiamine Waste Liquid From Chemical Plants%化工厂硫胺废液焚烧处理工程方案设计探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天杰

    2014-01-01

    近年来随着经济的发展,许多的化工厂不断地拔地而起,化工厂废气、废物的处理问题迫在眉睫。近些年雾霾在我国多个城市已经出现,雾霾的形成原因就是空气受到化工污染、汽车尾气污染等原因形成的。化工厂排放的硫胺废液内含多种对环境、人体有害的化学物质,选用恰当的废液处理方式不仅关系到化工企业自身的经济利益,还关系到人与生态环境的和谐发展。本文论述了焚烧处理硫胺废液的意义和流程,以期能够为相关的实践提供些许理论参考。%With economic development in recent years, many chemical plants constantly spring up, treatment problem of chemical waste gas and waste is more and more imminent. In recent years haze has appeared in a number of cities in our country, the cause of haze is subjected to chemical pollution and vehicle exhaust pollution. Thiamine waste from chemical plats contains a variety of chemical substances which are harmful to human and the environment, so appropriate selection of waste treatment method not only can concern their own economic interests, but also can concern the harmonious development of human being with nature. In this article, the significance and processes of thiamine waste incineration treatment were discussed in order to provide some theoretical reference for relevant practice.

  20. Chemical durability of vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel under simulated repository conditions of a Boom Clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian programme is considering both the closed and open fuel cycle options. In the closed cycle, HLW glasses from the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant and from the French R7T7 plants are studied. R and D is focused on the interaction with the Boom Clay disposal host and potential near field environments. In surface laboratory testing we developed new set-ups to investigate various coupled processes: (1) combined glass leaching/Si diffusion in clay, (2) diffusion/sorption/precipitation of Si in clay, (3) effect of the presaturation of clay with Si, and (4) the mobile concentrations of e.g. Np, Tc, Se in clay slurries after leaching from glass. In the CORALUS in situ test, we installed four tubes in the underground laboratory (SCK-CEN site), and retrieved two of them after an interaction time of ∼1 year (90 deg. C) and ∼3 years (30 deg C). The R and D on the geological disposal of spent fuel in Boom Clay is focused on two major issues: (1) study the effect of α-activity on the dissolution of α-doped UO2 (simulating spent fuel ages between 150 and 90000 years), and (2) study the influence of Boom Clay and potential backfill materials (apatite, cement, sand) on the α-doped UO2 dissolution rate. Different experimental set-ups have been elaborated. Flowthrough tests in clay water and static tests in clay slurries were carried out in reducing conditions. We report the main results obtained on both HLW glass and doped UO2. Both HLW glass and UO2 show a similar evolution of the dissolution behaviour with time in the clay containing media. After an initial relatively fast dissolution characterized by sorption onto the clay, a much lower dissolution rate is observed. For both waste forms this results in expected lifetimes during geological disposal of 105 years or more. (author)